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Seismic Design of Industrial

Structures
Craig Brinck, SE

Published by ASCE
General seismic design guidelines
Tables for finding fundamental
period of complex structures
Recommendations on when to use
dynamic analysis
Available for purchase from ASCEs
website

References

Document Highlight

Published in AIST newsletter May 07


The authors are experts in the
industry
Excellent reference for industrial
structures in general
Detailed recommendations for crane
supporting structures
Free download from AIST at:
http://news.aist.org/newsletter/07_
may_282_298.pdf

References

Document Highlight

Published in MSC October 13


Good aid for selecting appropriate
bracing systems
Available for free on AISCs
website

References

Document Highlight

Accounts for system ductility


Allows elastic analysis methods
to be used to design inelastic
systems
Reduces seismic design forces
R 3: Limited ductility system
is essentially elastic
R > 3: System is inelastic
special detailing is required to
ensure ductility

Elastic

Inelastic

Ductility

Response Modification Factor, R

It is recognized that when the designer has the option to design a building
to meet the AISC Specification with R=3, such a design will generally be more
cost effective than the same structure designed in accordance with the AISC
Seismic Provisions using a higher value of R. The extra fabrication, erection
and inspection costs needed to achieve the high ductility commensurate
with the higher R more than offset the additional steel tonnage required by
the R=3 system.
-AISC Seismic Design Manual, 2nd Edition

If the Seismic Provisions are required because of building type or usage,


system choice, or because of owner preference, all parties should be aware
of the cost involved. The requirements of the Seismic Provisions have been
known to increase the structural steel cost by 30 to 40%.
- AISC Design Guide 29: Vertical Bracing Connections Analysis and Design

Ductility

The Cost of Ductility

Ductility

Response Modification Factor, R

AISC Design Guide 29: Vertical Bracing Connections


AISC Design Guide 29: Vertical Bracing Connections

Inelastic Steel Systems


Field welding of connections
Lateral bracing at points of expected
inelasticity
Corrosion protection for tube braces
Special inspection requirements
Loads based on member capacities
Overkill for LFRSs with small tributary
areas

Systems
Low Ductility
Ductility

Provisions in AISC 341 that can be difficult to apply:

Building:
Any structure whose intended use includes shelter of human occupants.
Nonbuilding Structure:
A structure, other than a building, constructed of a type included in Chapter 15
and within the limits of Section 15.1.1.
Nonbuilding Structure Similar to a Building:
A nonbuilding structure that is designed and constructed in a manner similar to
buildings, will respond to strong ground motion in a fashion similar to buildings,
and has a basic lateral and vertical seismic force-resisting system conforming to one
of the types indicated in Tables 12.2-1 or 15.4-1.

Nonbuilding Structures

Terminology (per ASCE 7-10)

Important Elastic Steel Systems

R=3
Restricted to Seismic Design
Categories A-C
No height limits

Ordinary Concentrically
Braced Frames

Ordinary Moment Frames

Nonbuilding Structures
(Chapter 15)

Nonbuilding Structures
(Chapter 15)

R = 1.5

R=1

Permitted in all Seismic


Design Categories

Permitted in all Seismic


Design Categories

No height limits

No height limits

Systems
Nonbuilding
Low DuctilityStructures

Systems not Specifically


Detailed for Seismic
Resistance, Excluding
Cantilever Column Systems
Buildings (Chapter 12)

Dead load
20% of snow load above 30 psf (unless modified by the Utah
Snow Load Study)
Normal operating weight of permanent equipment
Upset condition weight is unlikely during an earthquake
Collateral load from piping, cable tray, chutework, etc.
Weight of empty crane, parked in worst case position

Base Shear Calculations

Seismic Weight, W

UBC 97 provided seismic accelerations for countries outside the U.S.


UBC accelerations were based on a 475 year event
For international projects, 475 year quakes are often still used
IBC accelerations are based on a 2500 year event
USGS website now provides international values compatible with IBC
Conversions from UBC accelerations to IBC can be roughly made
SDS 2.5Ca
SD1 Cv

Sometimes international clients will give you PGA. PGA is not Ss

Base Shear Calculations

Seismic Accelerations (International Projects)

Base Shear Calculations

Seismic Accelerations
(International Projects)

Seismic Coefficient, Cs
For :
=

For :

For > :
=

Nonbuilding Structures
Similar to Buildings (Ch. 15)
=

For :

For > :

Nonbuilding Structures Not


Similar to Buildings (Ch. 15)
=

For > :

0.044 0.01

0.044 0.01

0.044 0.03

For 1 0.6:

For 1 0.6:

For 1 0.6:

0.51

0.81

For < 0.06 (Rigid)


= 0.3

Tanks & Vessels

0.81

For < 0.06 (Rigid)


= 0.3

Systems
Calculations
Ductility
Base
Low Shear

Buildings (Ch. 12)

Fundamental Period - Buildings


=

(Equation 12.8-7)

= 0.1

(Equation 12.8-8)

0.0019

100
=

=1

Section 15.4.4:
Equations 12.8-7, 12.8-8, 12.8-9,
and 12.8-10 shall not be used for
determining the period of a
nonbuilding structure.

(Equation 12.8-9)
2

1 + 0.83

(Equation 12.8-10)

Base Shear Calculations

Approximate Equations for Buildings:

Modal/Eigenvalue Analysis
Rayleigh Procedure:
= 2

=1

=1

Roarks Formulas for Stress & Strain

Roarkes Formulas for Stress


& Strain (Simple Structures)
Guidelines for Seismic
Evaluation and Design of
Petrochemical Facilities
The Conservative Approach:
1
= 0 = 0.2

ASCE Guidelines for Petrochemical FacilitiesASCE


(2011)
7-10

Base Shear Calculations

Fundamental Period Nonbuilding Structures

Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other


Structures (Case 1)
Nonbuilding Portion:
Base Shear Calculations

Seismic Forces per Chapter 13


R value taken from Chapter 15
ap value taken from Chapter 13
(see tables w/ footnotes)
Anchorage per Chapter 13

Support Structure:
Design per Chapter 12 or Chapter
15 (whichever applies)
Include nonbuilding structure in
seismic weight, W

ASCE Guidelines for Petrochemical Facilities (2011)

Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other


Structures (Case 2)
Nonbuilding Portion:
Seismic Forces per Chapter 13
R value taken from Chapter 15
ap value taken as 1.0
Anchorage per Chapter 13

Base Shear Calculations

Support Structure:
Design per Chapter 12 or Chapter
15 (whichever applies)
Include nonbuilding structure in
seismic weight, W
Use R for the support structure
ASCE Guidelines for Petrochemical Facilities (2011)

Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other


Structures (Case 3)
Base Shear Calculations

Both portions must be modeled


together
Use the lowest R value between
the nonbuilding structure and
the supporting structure
Design both portions for the
forces from the combined model

ASCE Guidelines for Petrochemical Facilities (2011)

Structural Irregularities

Structural Irregularities

Structural Irregularities

Torsional Irregularity

2015 NEHRP Provisions

Structural Irregularities

Soft Story Irregularity

2015 NEHRP Provisions

Structural Irregularities

Mass Irregularity

2015 NEHRP Provisions

Structural Irregularities

Geometric Irregularity

2015 NEHRP Provisions

Provisions of ASCE 7, Ch. 12 are equally applicable to Ch. 15, and may not
be stringent enough
Mass irregularities
Structures with heavy equipment on a flexible structure
Coupled systems
Torsional irregularities
Soft stories
Offset LFRS with one bay < 70% stiffness of adjacent bay
Stacks & chimneys
Irregular vertical vessels

Structural Irregularities

When is Dynamic Analysis Required?

Structural Irregularities

A Word of Caution

Structural Irregularities

A Word of Caution

Orthogonal Effects
Weak stories in SDC C or higher
Columns/walls of intersecting lateral systems, in SDC D or higher, with axial
force 20% of axial strength.

Lateral systems frequently share a column in 2 directions


Dynamic Analysis w/ Orthogonal Effects
Software may give you the option of using SRSS to combine orthogonal effects
rather than the 100%/30% rule.
SRSS of orthogonal effects will cause all results to be positive (again).
Check (+) and (-) SRSS combinations.

Structural Irregularities

100%/30% rule applies to:

Quality

What materials are available? Are they ductile?


Charpy V-Notch toughness of weld metal.
How will items be inspected/tested?
Explicitly call out important details on the drawings clearly.
Poor welding is common in developing countries.
Review the shop drawings thoroughly.

Special Inspections

Is the site remote? Are certified special inspectors available nearby?


Will the local jurisdiction enforce special inspections?
Keep it simple - avoid using components that require special inspection.
Bolted connections preferred over welded connections.

Quality

Foreign Work

Quality

The structure always loses


Plants make frequent upgrades
and modifications. Braces often
get in the way of new
equipment.
If you build it, they will hit it with
a loader.
Redundancy is even more
important for industrial
structures.

Redundancy

Structure Lifecycle

Redundancy

Redundancy

Members are frequently damaged by trucks or loaders


Braces are often removed by plant personnel to make room for new
equipment and walkways
Redundant load paths are more important than ever for industrial
structures
r = 1.0 is permitted for nonbuilding structures not similar to
buildings

Redundancy

Redundancy, r

Bar Grating
PBR Panel & Standing
Seam Roofs
Checkered Plate
(If Detailed Correctly)

Diaphragms

Diaphragms
(or Lack Thereof)

Diaphragms

Horizontal Bracing Details

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Diaphragms

Horizontal Bracing Details

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Diaphragms

Horizontal Bracing Details

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Dowswell, Brice & Blain (2010)

Cranes

Crane-Supporting Steel Structures

Cranes

Types of Crane Columns

Web-Plated Columns can be used


too, although they are less common

Schmidt (2001)

Unique Properties of Crane Buildings


The mass per unit volume is relatively low due to light framing systems and crane
clearances.
Heavy cranes create a mass irregularity, especially if the building frame is light.
Crane buildings are usually large sway frames and tend to be very flexible
compared to commercial/institutional structures of similar height.
The upper limit on the fundamental period is probably not applicable here.
The crane bridge itself could potentially act as a tie spanning between the
columns.

Members

Members are typically sized for stiffness to control drift. Designing for inelastic
yielding of such members becomes difficult.
Slender members are commonly used in an effort to control drift. Using
seismically compact members would affect the buildings cost much more than it
would for a typical commercial/institutional building.

Cranes

Mass & stiffness properties

Unique Properties of Crane Buildings


High floor-to-roof heights and long roof spans.
Height restrictions for OMFs and OCBFs are overly restrictive for crane
structures considering how flexible they typically are.

Framing systems
Tributary areas to the lateral load system are usually very small (typically
one bay width).
Crane buildings often require truss moment frames due to the long roof
spans.
The stiffness of stepped, laced and battened columns changes abruptly at
the crane elevation.

Cranes

Building geometry

Condition

Cab/Radio Operated Cranes

Pendant Operated Cranes

10-year Wind Load


or
Crane Forces

Frame Drift < H/240 (AISC DG7)


Drift @ T/Rail < H/400 < 2 (AIST)

Frame Drift < H/100 (AISC DG7)


Drift @ T/Rail < H/400 < 2 (AIST)

Gravity Loads*

Rail Gauge Within +1 and -1/2

Rail Gauge Within +1 and -1/2

Seismic Load

0.025hx = H/40 (ASCE 7)

0.025hx = H/40 (ASCE 7)

*Reduction in Gravity Loads May be Permitted See AIST Technical Report #13 and AISC Design Guide 7

Cranes

Drift Limits

Selecting a Seismic System


Special Truss Moment Frames
(STMF, R = 7)
Cranes

Limited to span lengths of 65 t


Depth limited to 6 ft
Special detailing requirements

MacCrimmon & Kennedy (1997)

Behavior is similar to a joist-girder


moment frame per SJI Technical Digest
11
Strong beam/weak column behavior
expected
Ordinary Moment Frame System
Max moment that can be delivered by
the system = 1.1RyMp(column)
System is limited to 1 story. Multiple
bays are permitted
SJI recommends designing chord
splices and truss connections to
column per Section 7 of the AISC
Seismic Provisions for SDC D, E, or F, or
R>3

Cranes

Selecting a Seismic System

MacCrimmon & Kennedy (1997)

Traditional K Factors
Fix the base
Cranes

Stabilizes the columns


(K = 2.0 vs K = 1.2)
Cuts the moment in the columns
down significantly
Reduces sway significantly
Anchor chairs are generally
recommended
Watch foundation overturning

AISC 360-10 Commentary

K-Factors for Frame Members

AISC 360-10 Commentary

Stepped Column K Factors


Anderson-Woodward Equations
Fixed-pinned under crane loads
Fixed-slider under wind & seismic
Cranes

Use the Direct Analysis Method


K=1.0 for all members
Stability issues are easy to spot

Anderson & Woodward (1972)

History of the AISC Interaction Equations

1961:

P-d Effects Incorporated by Moment Magnification


P-D Effects Still Ignored

Rewritten in Terms of Strength,


2005: But Where Did the Second-Order
Effects Go?

What happens when we mix traditional linear analysis methods with new interaction equations?

Cranes

1936: Simple Interaction Check

Practical Measures
Design this connection for the plastic moment of the upper column segment in high
seismic areas.
It may be wise to design column lacing/battens & roof trusses for overstrength (if
using R=3).

Provide a stretch length in the anchor bolts by using anchor chairs.


Dont go cheap on the connections.
Provide redundant load paths (e.g. the roof bracing connecting adjacent
bays).
If energy dissipation is needed soil-structure interaction could be
considered.

Cranes

Even when using an OMF, the location of the column step becomes an
obvious place for potential plastic hinging to occur.

Cranes

Bracing System Layout vs. Thermal Expansion

Mueller (1965)

Mueller (1965)

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement - Tension

ACI 318-08

ACI 318-08

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement - Tension

PCA Notes on ACI 318-11

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement - Shear

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement - Shear

Pedestal Reinforcement

Pedestal Reinforcement - Shear

Tanks

Tanks

Tanks

Tank Seismic Loads

Tank Seismic Loads


Impulsive & Convective Weight
1

0.9

0.8

ACI 350 Rect


(I)
ACI 350 Rect
(C)
ACI 350 Circ (I)

0.6

0.5

ACI 350 Circ


(C)
API 650 Circ (I)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

D/HL or L/HL

5.00

6.00

7.00

Tanks

0.7

Wi/WL & Wc/WL

Sum using SRSS CQC may be


required for closely spaced
impulsive & convective
periods
As L/HL approaches zero, the
load becomes fully impulsive,
and acts at the liquid
midheight
Sum of impulsive &
convective usually dont add
to exactly 100%

Tanks

Tank Seismic Loads

Self-Anchored vs. Mechanically


Anchored
Anchor chairs with 8do stretch length
required for SDCs C, D, E & F (see ASCE
7-10 15.7.5)
Do not include the weight of the liquid
as ballast.
References on circular bolt patterns:
Tubular Steel Structures Theory &
Design by M.S. TroitskyCircular bolt
Pressure Vessel Engineering Handbook

Tank Anchorage

Tank Anchorage (TanchorageTM)

Cold Weather

Cold Weather

Cold Weather

Cold Weather

http://practicalmaintenance.net/?p=968
http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/9801/felkins9801.html

ASTM A633 Grades A, C, D, & E


Fy ranges from 42 ksi to 60 ksi depending on grade/thickness
Suited for -50 F [-45 C]
Sections built from plates
S355NL outside the U.S.
Limiting stress to some fraction of Fy not recommended for seismic
design

Cold Weather

Cold Weather

Corrosion

Corrosion

Corrosion

Atmospheric Corrosion Rates

Albrecht, Hall (2003)

Albrecht, Hall (2003)

Corrosion

Atmospheric Corrosion Rates

Albrecht, Hall (2003)

Albrecht, Hall (2003)

Mitigating Corrosion (Steel Structures)


Corrosion Allowance

Painting

Paint will need to be reapplied throughout the life of the structure


Double angles are hard to paint between intermediate spacers should be bolted
Cannot paint inside pipes and tubes cap and seal weld them
Slip-critical connections do not use bare steel faying surfaces

Galvanizing

Field welding requires cold galvanizing afterward a process that creates toxic fumes
Galvanized Bolts

A490 bolts cannot be galvanized


Call for galvanized bolts in General Notes - bolts & nuts are an assembly from a single manufacture

Corrosion

Surfaces do not corrode uniformly


The atmospheric corrosion rates presented do not include any factor of safety
Commonly used for tanks and pressure vessels (depending on the content)

Mitigating Corrosion (Steel Structures)


Weathering Steels
Copper content inhibits oxidation
A242 (Cor-Ten A)
A588 (Cor-Ten B)
Not for abrasive environments

Corrosion

Albrecht, Hall (2003)

Higher compressive strength (fc)


Protective coatings
Corrosion inhibitors
Extra clear cover
Epoxy coating
FRP reinforcing bars
Smaller bars at closer spacing to limit cracking
Limit z to 95 or 115 as you would for an environmental engineering
structure:
= 3

Corrosion

Mitigating Corrosion (Concrete Structures)

Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of Petrochemical Facilities (2nd


Edition). (2011). Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Industrial Building Design Seismic Issues, AIST
ASCE 7-10: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. (2010).
Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Building Structures (2015
Edition). (2015). Washington, D.C.: Building Seismic Safety Council.
Technical Digest 11: Design of Lateral Load Resisting Frames Using Steel Joists
and Joist Girders. (2007). Florence, SC: Steel Joist Institute.
Rolfes, John A., & MacCrimmon, Robert A. (2007). Industrial Building Design
Seismic Issues. Iron & Steel Technology, May 2007. pp. 282-298.
Walter, Robert J. (2013). Bracing for Nonbuilding Structures Similar to Buildings.
Modern Steel Construction, October 2013.
Dowswell, Bo, & Brice, Allen, & Blain, Brian. (2010). Horizontal Bracing. Modern
Steel Construction, July 2010.

References

References

MacCrimmon, Robert A., & Kennedy, D.J. Laurie. (1997). Load and
Resistance Factor Design and Analysis of Stepped Crane Columns in
Industrial Buildings. AISC Engineering Journal, First Quarter 1997.
Schmidt, Jon A. (2001). Design of Mill Building Columns Using Notional
Loads. AISC Engineering Journal, Second Quarter 2001.
Mueller, John E. (1965). Lessons from Crane Runways. AISC Engineering
Journal, January 1965.
Albrecht, Pedro, & Hall Jr., Terry T. (2003). Atmospheric Corrosion
Resistance of Structural Steels. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,
February 2003.
ACI 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 31811). (2011). Farmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute.
PCA Notes on ACI 318-11. (2012). Skokie, IL: Portland Cement Association.

References

References