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0 to 15 Decimal Range Indicator Using 3 LED

Intervals & 4-Bit Binary Logic


John Larry M. Corpuz

Ralph V. Rafael

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Philippines


Diliman, Quezon City, 1101, Metro Manila Philippines
WRIM is characterized by having more winding turns
in its slip ring motor. This causes WRIMs to have

Abstract
Wound Rotor Induction Motor is investigated by

higher induced voltage while having a lower current

performing start-up measurements for instantaneous,


and steady state currents. For speed control, the set-

with respect to a squirrel-cage motor. WRIMs rotor

up is geared to perform two control methods, namely,

windings are insulated and brought out via slip rings

rotor resistance control, and input voltage control.

and brushes. The purpose of this is to allow the

Direction control is also investigated by reversing the

resistor to be placed in series while starting-up,

two phase of the terminals. Mechanical loading is

therefore there is no power applied to the slip rings.

investigated by taking measurements on both loaded

This set-up prevents large current to surge in the

and

with

motor compared to the squirrel cage induction motor

increments for the loaded condition of low, medium,

which draws 500%-1000% load current during its

and high loading. Finally, other operating modes are

start-up. Typical applications of WRIM include Ball

investigated for the motor through removal of phases

and Sag Mills, Cranes, Hoists, Pumps, Fans and

on either the rotor or the stator side.

Blowers, Chippers, Conveyors, and Banbury Mixers.

unloaded

conditions

of

the

motor

In this experiment, the fundamentals of Wound Rotor


I. INTRODUCTION
AC Motors are a type of electrical machinery that
converts electrical power to mechanical power
through oscillating voltage source. One category of
such are the induction motors and Wound Rotor
Induction Motor (WRIM) is one of the widely-used
type in this category. Specifically, the wound-rotor
type has its rotor winding connected through slip
rings with external resistances which allows it to be
controlled in speed.

Induction Motor are explored which include start-up


practices, speed and direction controls, mechanical
load

observations,

and

safety

practices.

The

experiment is implemented in the Power Systems


Simulation Laboratory of the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineering under the supervision of
Professor Alberto De Villa.
II. THEORY
For 3-phase systems, a rotating magnetic field is
generated in three phases by the source. When the
stator of a 3-phase motor is connected to a 3-phase

power source, currents flow in the three stator


windings and

revolving magnetic

field

is

established similar to the fields shown in Figure 1.

through slip rings so that resistance, and, therefore,


the current through the windings, can be controlled.
The rotating stator field induces an alternating
Figure 1. Induction Motor and Magnetic Field [1]

voltage in each winding of the rotor.


If the rotor is rotated externally in the same direction

These three exciting currents supply the reactive

as the rotating stator field, the rate at which the

power to establish the rotating magnetic field. This is

magnetic flux cuts the rotor windings will decrease;

also the source of the power loss consumed by the

the induced voltage and its frequency will drop.

copper and iron conductors in the motor.

When the rotor revolves at the same speed and in the

The speed of the rotating magnetic field is entirely

same direction as the rotating stator field, the induced

determined by the frequency of the three-phase

voltage, and its frequency, will drop to zero because

power source, and is known as the synchronous speed

the motor is now at its synchronous speed.

given by the equation below.

If the rotor is driven at synchronous speed, but in the


opposite direction to the rotating stator field, the

Ns=

120 f
P

induced voltage and its frequency will be twice the


value.
III.

The wound rotor consists of a rotor core with three

METHODOLOGY

windings in place of the conducting bars of the


squirrel cage rotor, and a stator for the field

The conditions for the binary conversion of the

alignment.

decimal numbers from 0 to 15 are listed below in the


table together with the corresponding LED color that
would indicate the range (i.e. 0-5, 6-10, 11-15) of the
Figure 2. WRIM Components [2]

Currents are induced in the windings. The advantage


of using windings compared to the squirrel-cage
induction motor is that the wires can be brought out

decimal equivalent of the binary ABCD

Re
d

Gre
en

Yell
ow

11

10

Red LED Boolean Expression: A(BC)


0

Green

AB
CD

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

Green LED Boolean Expression: ABC +AB(CD)


Yellow

AB
CD

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

Red

AB
CD
00

01

00

01

11

10

First, a wye-connected resistor bank (MV1100 3p


10

Power Resistor) is connected in series with the rotor


winding of the WRIM (MV1007 Slip-ring Induction
Motor). It is noted that the maximum resistance per

Yellow LED Boolean Expression: A(B+CD)


A. Equipment

phase is 100 ohms.


After which, the stator windings of the WRIM are

Table 1. Equipment List with Ratings

connected in wye. The stator windings are then,


connected to the balanced three-phase supply
(MV1300 Power Supply) set at the rated voltage of

Equipment

Rating

MV1007 Slipring Induction


Motor

1.1kW; 1680 rpm


at 60 Hz

Serial no.

the machine.
The stator start-up parameters such as the starting

232181

line current, steady-state line current, and motor


speed must be observed from the setup. These are
tabulated in Table 2.

MV1028 DC
Machine

2kW; 1700rpm

MV1300 Power
Supply

3x0-230V, 10A;
3x231/133V, 18A

232148

The next procedures are intended to experiment on


the speed control of WRIM.

231985

The rotor resistance (MV1100 3p Power Resistor) of


the motor is varied by turning the steering wheel of

MV1100 3p
Power Resistor

3.3kW

231995

the resistor bank (CCW: Lower Resistance, Higher


Current; CW: Higher Resistance, Lower Current) and
measuring the resistance using the multimeters

MV1105 1p
Power Resistor

2.2kW; 230V

ohmmeter per trial. The results are in Table 3.


The input voltage is then varied by adjusting the

MV1926 Analog
Voltmeter

voltage percentage knob of the power supply


1kV

(MV1300 Power Supply). The results are in Table 4.


The next procedure is intended to look upon the

MV1922 Analog
Ammeter

10A

MV1054 Torque
Meter

25Nm Max; 3000


rpm

direction control of WRIM. It was done by


interchanging any two-phase terminal of the motor.
The direction of the new configuration was noted.
The motor is then returned back to its original
windings.
The effects of mechanical loading are also studied by

B. Procedure

coupling the WRIM to the shunt DC generator


(MV1028 DC Machine) that is connected to a single-

phase power resistor (MV1105 1p Power Resistor),

Starting Line Current

0.65 A

Steady-State Line Current

0.65 A

corresponding resistance equivalent on the 3p resistor

Motor Speed

1117 RPM

knob. There are: unloaded (0), low load (2), medium

Is the speed close to the


rated speed?

Not Close
(66% of 1680 RPM)

noting that the current in the 1p power resistor must


not exceed 7 Amperes. The simulation of mechanical
loading is done by doing partitions of loading with

load (4), and high load (6). The results obtained are
tabulated in Table 5.
The last part of the experiment taps into the other
operating modes of WRIM. These are done through
phase disconnections on either the rotor or the stator.
The first one is done on the rotor circuit. While the
WRIM is still running, the line current and speed is
recorded.

Then,

one

phase

of

the

rotor

is

disconnected, the same parameters are recorded.


After which, all three phases are disconnected, the
same parameters are recorded. The WRIM is reverted

For the speed control, it can be seen that at no load


condition, as the series rotor resistance decreases, the
speed increases. The line current of the WRIM on the
other hand remains the same for decreasing series
rotor resistance.
On the other hand, decreasing the input voltage for
speed control also decreases the speed of the motor.
The line current of the motor also decreases with
decreasing voltage.

back to its original wiring configuration. The results


are in Table 6.
The second one is done on the stator circuit. While
the WRIM is still running, the line current and speed
is recorded. Then, one phase of the stator is

Table 3. Varying the Series Rotor Resistance

disconnected, the same parameters are recorded.

Speed Control of WRIM

After which, all three phases are disconnected, the


same parameters are recorded. The WRIM is reverted

Series Rotor
Resistance
(Ohms)

Line Current
(Amps)

Speed
(RPM)

61

0.65

1233

58

0.65

1248

The results for the experiment are shown in Tables 2

60

0.65

1241

to 7. For the start-up parameter of the stator in Table

55

0.65

1267

back to its original wiring configuration. The results


are in Table 7.
IV.

ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION

2, it can be seen that the motor speed is not close to


the rated speed. This is because the windings of the
motor are in wye.
Table 2. Stator Parameters

Speed vs. Input Voltage

Speed vs. SR Resistance

1300

1280
1260

f(x) = - 5.45x + 1566.21


R = 0.99

Speed [RPM] 1240


1220

1100
Speed [RPM]

f(x) = 7.75x - 338


R = 0.99

900
700
140 150 160 170 180 190 200

1200
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Input Voltage [V]

Series Motor Resistance [Ohms]

Figure 3. Speed vs. SR Resistance

Line Current vs. SR Resistance

Figure 5. Speed vs. Input Voltage

Line Current vs. Input Voltage


0.65

0.7

0.6
f(x) = 0x + 0.17
R = 0.98

Current [A] 0.55


0.5

Line Current [A] 0.65

0.45
140

0.6
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

150 160 170

200

Input Voltage [V]

Series Motor Resistance [Ohms]

Figure 4. Line Current vs. SR Resistance

180 190

Figure 6. Line Current vs. Input Voltage

The effects of the mechanical loading can be seen


from the data in Table 5 and Figures 7 and 8. It is
evident that as the mechanical load increases, the
speed of the motor decreases. More so, as the
mechanical load increases, the line current also
Table 4. Varying the Input Voltage

decreases. This is due to the fact that the speed is


inversely proportional to the motors current.

Input Voltage
(V)

Line Current
(Amps)

Speed
(RPM)

200

0.6

1197

180

0.55

1072

160

0.5

140

0.475

Table 5. Effects of Mechanical Loading


Load
(Knob Number)

Line Current
(Amps)

Speed
(RPM)

917

Unloaded (0)

1.5

1689

732

Low Load (2)

1620

Med Load (4)

1526

High Load (6)

3.9

drop in the speed at a phase disconnection. From

1434

1066 rpm, an abrupt decrease to around 617 rpm was


experienced by the machine as one rotor phase was
disconnected. Ultimately, upon the disconnection of

Speed vs. Resistance

all rotor phases, the speed considerably diminished to

1800

Speed [RPM]

1400
1200

around 70 rpm.

f(x) = - 42.95x + 1696.1


R = 1

1600

Table 6. Rotor Disconnections


0

Resistance [Per Knob Division]

Rotor

A: All Rotor
Phases are
connected

B: One Rotor
Phase
disconnected

C: All Rotor
Phases
disconnected

Line
Current
(Amps)

0.7

0.7

0.7

Speed
(RPM)

1066

617

70

Figure 7. Speed vs. Resistance

Line Current vs. Resistance


6
4
Line Current [A]

f(x) = 0.41x + 1.37


R = 0.98

2
0

Resistance [Per Knob Division]

On the other hand, the removal of the stator phase


suddenly stalled the whole motor, even until all the
stator phases are disconnected. This is due to the fact

Figure 8. Line Current vs. Resistance

that the magnetic field of the stator is already


unstable and imbalanced, which suddenly removes

For the other operating modes, it can be seen that at

the capability of the rotor to rotate due to its heavy

any rotor phase disconnected, the line current

mass moment of inertia.

remains the same. It is because, the measurement of


the line current is directed to the circuit current which
must remain the same for the whole motor. For the
speed, disconnecting a phase results intro a reduction
of the speed. This is due to the imbalanced sinusoidal

The disconnection of one phase of the stator circuit


had effect on the line current; it became 0. The speed
on the other hand, from 1104, dropped to 0. This
means that the machine only needs a single-phase
disconnection of the stator circuit for it to stall.

wave with expected three waves with 120 degrees


Table 7. Stator Disconnections

separation, but removing one phase leaves a dent at


every 120 degree part of the removed phase.
The rotor disconnection, whether one or all of its
phases, had no observable effect on the line current as
it remained to be at 0.7 A. There was, however, a

Stator

A: All Stator
Phases are
connected

B: One Stator
Phase
disconnected

C: All Stator
Phases
disconnected

Line
Current
(Amps)

0.7

Assuming that the rotor resistance is constant and


independent of rotor current frequency, an expression

Speed
(RPM)

1104

for starting torque in terms of full load torque is


obtainable from equation 2:

V.

DISCUSSIONS

Ts
xI s
=
sf
Tf
If

( )
( 3)

1. There are three known starting methods for


WRIM, which are Stator-Resistor Starting Method,
Auto-transformer Starting Method, and Star-Delta
Starting Method.

Ts
Is 2
=
sf x2
Tf
If
(4 )

()

For Stator-Resistor Starting Method, a resistor is


added for each phase in series. The resistor serves as
a control element for the voltage of the phases. Due
to this, only a fraction of the supply voltage is applied
in starting; this value is less than one. The low
voltage consequently reduces the starting torque.
The equation of the starting torque can be obtained in
terms of the voltage fraction: x. From this equation, it
could be shown that as the motor speeds up, the
resistor is cut-off from the circuit. The resistors are
then short circuited when the motor achieves its

starting of the motor, the phase voltage is xV 1 and the


phase current is xIs. These values are substituted in
equation 1.
The Auto-transformer Method on the other hand is
the placement of an auto-transformer in between the
three-phase power supply and the induction motor.
The auto-transformer acts as a step-down transformer
which decreases the supply voltage V1 per phase to
xV1. The current is also decreased from I s to xIs. The

operating speed.

auto-transformer is disconnected when the motor

Torque Induction of the Motor:

T=

Equations 3 and 4 are obtained by noting that at the

1
2r
I
Ws
s
(1)

reaches the operating speed; afterwards, the full line


voltage is used. The equation for the torque using this
method is derived similarly from above, following
equations 1 to 4.
Lastly, the Star-Delta Starting Method is used for

Ratio of the Starting Torque to Full Load Torque:


2

Ts
Is
=
sf ( i )
Tf
If

( )

(2)

motors designed to operate in delta connection


windings. First, the stator phases are connected to the
star through triple pole double throw switch (TPDT).

2. There are two ways to control the speed of the


motor, classified according to the part of the motor
being adjusted. The speed can be controlled through
the stator or the rotor side. The speed control on the
stator side are as follows: V/f Control or Frequency
Control, Changing the number of stator poles,
controlling the supply voltage, adding rheostat in the
stator circuit. The speed control on the rotor side are
as follows: Adding external resistance on the rotor
side,

Cascade

Control

Method,

injecting slip

frequency emf intro the rotor side of the wound


motor.

The V/f Control of Frequency Control is the change


Figure 9. Star-Delta Configuration
In the diagram, the first position is marked as 1. After
the steady state speed is achieved, the switch is
turned to position 2.

of speed by tweaking the frequency following the


stator speed equation:

120 f
P
(8 )

Ns=

The torque for this set-up is derived from equations 1


and 2. For delta connection, the phase current is
given by:

Vl
I SS=
3 Z
(5)
I sd = 3 I SSI fd =I SS
(6)

The induction of the motor is given by:

V =4.44 K T f
( 9)
Increasing the frequency will increase the speed of
the stator while decreasing the frequency will
decrease the speed of the stator. Likewise, increasing
the voltage will increase the frequency, thus

Thus, the equation for torque is:

increasing the stator speed, and vice-versa. However,


it must be noted that proper V/f proportion must be

T s 1 I sd
=
s f
T f 3 I fd
(7 )

( )

maintained to avoid saturation of the magnetic flux


which will harm the motor.
The control of supply voltage is based upon the
equation:

s E 22 R 2

f 2 ( )=F 2 sin

R 22 + ( s X 2 )
( 10 )

P2
2

Modulating (multiplying) gives:


In low slip region, the term (sX) 2 extremely small
compared to R2. Therefore, the term can be neglected.

P1
P
F 2 sin 2
2
2 esultant mmf
( 12 )

Fr ( )=F1 sin

Similarly, the rotor resistance R2 is constant, so the


equation is:

wave is:
2

T s E2 T s V
( 11 )

cos
Fr ( )=F1 F2

Therefore, decreasing the supply voltage will also

( P1 P 2 )
2

cos

( P 1+ P2 )
2

( 13 )

cause the torque to decrease, and vice-versa.


Another method is to change the number of stator

Therefore, the poles as seen from the cosine

poles. This can be done by either using the Multiple

numerator is:

Stator Winding Method or the Pole Amplitude


Modulation Method (PAM).

P11=P1 P2P12 =P1+ P 2


( 14 )

The Multiple Stator Winding Method, usable only for


squirrel cage, uses two separate windings for the
stator. These two windings are isolated to each other
and are wound on two different pole numbers. The
switching arrangement supplies to only one winding
which makes the speed control possible. However,

It can be seen that through imposition of differing


waves, poles can be controlled, thus control of the
speed can be achieved.

this prevents smooth control and costs more, thus less

Lastly for the stator, adding a rheostat in the stator

efficient.

circuit can also be done to control the speed. Similar

The Pole Amplitude Modulation Method on the other


hand modulates the original sinusoidal mmf wave
with another sinusoidal wave of different pole
number. To find the number of resultant poles, the
equation can be derived by using two differing wave
functions:

f 1 ( )=F 1 sin

to V/f control, adding a rheostat can drop down the


voltage. Given that the torque is proportional to the
square of voltage, dropping of voltage reduces the
torque. It must be noted however that the load must
receive the same rated torque, therefore to achieve
this, the slip must increase this will cause the motor
to run at reduced speed.

P1
2

The second category of speed control for WRIM is


through the control of rotor side. This can be done in
three ways which are adding an external resistance on

rotor, cascade control method, and injecting slip

main motor. The equation of the speed of the

frequency emf into the rotor side.

cascaded system is:

The first one is the addition of external resistance on


the rotor side. This is done by adding the resistances.
Returning to the torque equation for motor:
2

s E2 R 2
2
2
R2 +( s X 2 )

120 F
P1P2
( 16 )

N=

P1 : Pole of Main MotorP2 : Pole of Auxiliary Motor


The speed of the motor is now dependent on the

In low slip region, the term (sX) 2 extremely small

poles of the two motors.

compared to R2. Therefore, the term can be neglected.


Similarly, the E2 is constant, so the equation is:

The last method is injection of slip frequency emf


into the rotor side. This is done by injecting emf to

s
T
R2
( 15 )

the rotor which can either aid or oppose the induced


emf of the rotor. It it opposes, the resistance increase,
thus speed decrease, and vice-versa.

If the rotor resistance is increased, R 2 torque

3. For the speed control, it can be seen that at no load

decreases, but to supply the same torque to the load,

condition, as the series rotor resistance decreases, the

it must remain constant. To achieve this, the slip must

speed increases. The line current of the WRIM on the

increase which will result into decreased rotor speed.

other hand remains the same for decreasing series

Therefore, the more resistance, the lesser the speed.

rotor resistance. These are all seen in the data from

The advantage of this method is it becomes easier to

Table 3 and Figures 3 and 4.

control the speed by just adding resistances. The

4. Decreasing the input voltage for speed control also

disadvantages of this is that it cannot achieve higher

decreases the speed of the motor. The line current of

speed than the set normal; additional resistance is

the motor also decreases with decreasing voltage.

needed for higher speed; higher resistance causes


more heat energy loss; and it is only usable for

5. The WRIM presents mechanical loading to an

WRIM.

electrically loaded shunt DC Generator due to the


fact that it is wired to external resistances in the form

The Cascade Control Method on the other hand

of power resistors. As long as the speed does not

utilizes two, three-phase induction motor. This is

reach maximum capacity, as in the case of the

done by connecting them to a common shaft as a

experiment, there is a significant amount of

cascade system. The important motor is called the

resistance contributed by the WRIM. This resistance

main motor, while the supporting motor is called the

can be adjusted as in the varying of the load.

auxiliary motor. The main motor is supplied with the

Subsequently, it follows that as the resistance

original three-phase supply. The auxiliary motor is

increases, the speed decreases.

derived at a slip frequency from the slip ring of the

6. The effects of the mechanical loading can be seen

stator phases are disconnected. This is due to the fact

from the data in Table 5 and Figures 7 and 8. It is

that the magnetic field of the stator is already

evident that as the mechanical load increases, the

unstable and imbalanced, which suddenly removes

speed of the motor decreases. More so, as the

the capability of the rotor to rotate due to its heavy

mechanical load increases, the line current also

mass moment of inertia.

decreases. This is due to the fact that the speed is


inversely proportional to the motors current.

The disconnection of one phase of the stator circuit


had effect on the line current; it became 0. The speed

7. By inverting the two supply terminals, the

on the other hand, from 1104, dropped to 0. This

direction of the current flow reverses as well. Basing

means that the machine only needs a single-phase

from Flemings left hand rule, if the current flow

disconnection of the stator circuit for it to stall.

goes to the opposite direction, then the force


experienced will be reversed as well. This is the
reason why the direction of rotation of the WRIM is
reversed upon interchanging the polarity of the
terminals.
8. The rotor disconnection, whether one or all of its
phases, had no observable effect on the line current as
it remained to be at 0.7 A. There was, however, a
drop in the speed at a phase disconnection. From
1066 rpm, an abrupt decrease to around 617 rpm was

10. As all phases of the rotor circuit is disconnected,


the motor still runs but with significantly reduced
speed, but same line current.
11. As all phases of the stator circuit is disconnected,
the motor stalls absolutely with approximately zero
speed.
12. SCIM and WRIM in terms of construction:
Table 8. Construction of SCIM and WRIM

experienced by the machine as one rotor phase was


disconnected. Ultimately, upon the disconnection of
all rotor phases, the speed considerably diminished to
around 70 rpm.

Comparison

Squirrel Cage

Wound Rotor

Simplest and most


rugged construction

Rotor construction is
not simple

Difference

For the other operating modes, it can be seen that at


any rotor phase disconnected, the line current
remains the same. It is because, the measurement of
the line current is directed to the circuit current which
must remain the same for the whole motor. For the
speed, disconnecting a phase results intro a reduction
of the speed. This is due to the imbalanced sinusoidal
wave with expected three waves with 120 degrees
separation, but removing one phase leaves a dent at
every 120 degree part of the removed phase.
9. On the other hand, the removal of the stator phase
suddenly stalled the whole motor, even until all the

The windings on
the rotor of a
squirrel cage motor
is
comprised of
aluminum (or
sometimes copper)
bars embedded in
the steel
laminations of the
rotor

The rotor of a slipring motor is wound


with wire coils.

Table 9. Operation of SCIM and WRIM

The ends of the


rotor
bars are shorted
together by rings at
each end of the
rotor

The ends of the


windings are
connected to
revolving joint so
that resistors or other
circuitry can be
inserted in series
with the rotor coils
through carbon
brushes that slide on
the slip-rings

Comparison

Squirrel Cage

Starting current is 5 to 7 times the full


load.

Low starting torque. It is 1.5 time full loa


torque.
Difference

There is no external
electrical
connection to the
rotor

Electrical connection
with the
rotating coils.

No moving contacts
in the rotor.

Carbon brushes, slip


rings etc are provided
in the rotor circuit.

Higher efficiency

Speed control by rotor resistance is


impossible

Runs at a speed
Rotor bars are
permanently short
circuited and hence
it is not possible to
connect external
resistance in the
circuit in series with
the rotor
conductors.

It is possible to insert
additional resistance
in the rotor circuit.
Therefore it is
possible to increase
the torque ( the
additional series
resistance is used for
starting purposes)

Simplest and most


rugged construction

Rotor construction is
not simple

Cylindrical laminated core


Construction of stator for both types is the
same (consists of stator frame, core and
winding)
Similarity
Bearings are installed to support rotating shft

Similarity

Se

14. High voltage on a motor tends to push the


magnetic portion of the motor into saturation. This
causes the motor to draw excessive current in an
effort to magnetize the iron beyond the point where
magnetizing is practical.
Motors will tolerate a certain change in voltage above
the design voltage. However, extremes above the
design voltage will cause the amperage to go up with

Distance between rotor and stator usually


varies from .4 to 4 mm. The distance is
called air gap

a corresponding increase in heating and a shortening


of motor life. More so, efficiency drops with either
high or low voltage, and Power factor drops with

13. SCIM and WRIM in terms of operation:

Both are th

higher voltage

[3]

"Construction

of

Three

Phase

Induction

Motor." Electrical Engineering and Technology. N.p.,


n.d.

REFERENCES
[1]

L.

(2013).

Rotating

Magnetic

Field

&

Synchronous Speed. Retrieved November 11, 2016,


from

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XF-

11MQGQ0

Web.

11

Nov.

2016.

[4] "Induction Motor | Working Principle | Types of


Induction
Technology.

Motor." Electrical
N.p.,

n.d.

Web.

Engineering
11

and

Nov. 2016.

[2] Three-Phase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor.

[5] May 1, 2000 Ed Cowern, P.E. | Electrical

(n.d.).

Construction and Maintenance. "The Highs and Lows

Retrieved

November

11,

2016,

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