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DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATERS DESIGN AND FABRICATION

DECEMBER 1989

PAGE 1 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Scope
References
Proposals
Design
4.1
General
4.2
Radiant Section
4.3
Convection Section
4.4
Tubes
4.5
Headers and Terminal Fittings
4.6
Piping
4.7
Tube Supports
4.8
Setting
4.9
Structure and Appurtenances
4.10 Burners

4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Dampers
Sootblowers and Related Requirements
Setting Doors and Ports
Breechings and Ducts
Stacks
Instrument and Utility
Connections
Air Preheater System
5.1
Air Preheater
5.2
Fans and Motors
5.3
Ducting
Fabrication, Erection, Inspection, and
Testing
Painting
Drawings and Data
Guarantee

1. SCOPE
This Guide covers the basic requirements for the proposal, design, and fabrication of direct fired process
heaters used in hydrocarbon and steam services. Applicable sections of this Guide shall also apply to
proprietary hydrogen steam reformer and pyrolysis heaters.
2. REFERENCES
The following publications form a part of this Guide. Unless otherwise specified herein, use the latest
edition.
Mobil Engineering Guides
EGE 00-B-3
EGE 00-B-5
EGE 00-B-20
EGE 00-B-21
EGE 00-C-4
EGE 11-D-1
EGE 11-B-20
EGE 11-B-50
EGE 15-B-13
EGE 15-B-21
EGE 16-B-1
EGE 16-B-22
EGE 16-B-30

Structures and Equipment External Loading Design Basis


Equipment Sound Levels
Pressure Casting Inspection
Pressure-Containing Equipment Welding and Weld Inspection
Equipment Purchases General Engineering Requirements
Direct Fired Process Heater Data Sheet (a and b)
Steam Boilers Critical Service Design and Fabrication
Stacks Design and Construction
Special-Purpose Couplings for General Refinery Services
Special-Purpose Centrifugal Fans for Refinery Services
Piping General Design
Piping Process Equipment
Piping Selection and Application of Piping Components and Materials (With Classification
Sheets and Appendix)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


EGE 11-B-1 1989
EGE 16-B-40
EGE 31-B-1
EGE 32-B-15
EGE 33-B-19
EGE 34-B-15
EGE 35-B-10
EGS 629

PAGE 2 OF 31

DECEMBER 1989

Piping Fabrication, Erection, Inspection, and Testing


Steel Structures Design and Fabrication
Instrumentation Heater Controls
Electrical Induction Motors
Fireproofing General Requirements
Painting Manufacturing Facilities
Fire Protection and Loss Prevention Refineries and Petrochemical Plants

AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) Specification


S326

Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings

API (American Petroleum Institute) Publications


RP 530
RP 532
RP 533
Std 560

Recommended Practice for Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries


Measurement of the Thermal Efficiency of Fired Process Heaters
Air Preheat Systems for Fired Process Heaters
Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services

ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards


Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 1, Power Boilers
B16.5
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
AWS (American Welding Society) Code
D1.1

Structural Welding Code, Steel

3. PROPOSALS
3.1

The vendor shall comply with the general purchase requirements of EGE 00-C-4.

3.2

The following information shall be submitted with the vendors proposal:


(a)

Detailed description of any exceptions to the project specifications or to this Guide.

(b)

Completed data sheet, EGE 11-D-1 (a or b), for each heater.

(c)

Preliminary drawings showing:


(1)

Dimensions of each radiant section of the firebox.

(2) Location and arrangement of tubes, intermediate tube supports, sootblowers, burners,
inspection fittings, crossovers, and inspection ports.
(3) Location and size of all platforms supplied by the vendor for operation and maintenance,
including ladders and stair access.
(4)

Overall layout for air preheaters.

(d) For vaporizing services, tube station profile curves covering temperature, pressure, vaporization,
and velocity for each coil.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

(e) Description of the extent of shop and field fabrication including weight and dimensions of
modules proposed.
(f)
For hydrogen steam reformer and pyrolysis heaters, process, flue gas, and tube metal
temperature profiles along the full length of the radiant tubes. Stress rupture data, Larson-Miller
parameter equation, and tube thickness calculation shall also be provided.
(g) Maximum allowable loads and movements that can be imposed on the heater terminals by
external piping.
(h) Description of the burner, fan, and motor noise attenuation devices and a completed sound level
data sheet incorporating the information required by EGE 00-B-5 and outlined in Appendix B of that
Guide.
(I)

Description of the procedure for tube replacement of any unique tube arrangement.

(j)
Complete information on all special equipment, such as burners, fans, blowers, drivers, air
preheaters, and sootblowers.
(k) The expected and guaranteed NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates concentration
in the flue gas. NOx shall be expressed in ppm by volume and kg/MW (lb/MM Btu/h) and total NOx
emissions in kg/h (lb/h).
(l)

Expected flame pattern for the burners.

3.3 When the heater has been designed by Mobil, the vendor shall check the design and guarantee the
thermal and hydraulic performance of the heater.
4. DESIGN
4.1

General

4.1.1
Heaters shall conform to the requirements of API Std. 560 and this Guide, except as modified and
supplemented by the project specifications and EGE 11-D-1. In case of conflict between this Guide and API
Std. 560, this Guide shall take precedence. The project specifications shall include all local and
federal/national mandatory statutory rules and regulations that apply, such as safety, emissions, sound
levels, etc. Any such requirements that are in addition to, or more stringent than, Mobil requirements shall
take precedence.
4.1.2
It is preferred that a heater contain a single process service. A combination heater handling
multiple services is acceptable with Mobil approval, provided the overall heater design permits individual
control of each service without affecting the other process services. When one process coil is split between
radiant and convection sections, a minimum of 50 percent of that coil duty shall be in the radiant section.
4.1.3
The number of tube passes shall be minimized. The heater design shall permit safe operation at
the design rate and at reduced flowrates down to 60 percent of design rate. The cost of instrumentation,
piping, and coil pressure drop shall be considered in the overall economics of multipass designs.
4.1.4
Multipass heaters shall be designed for hydraulic and thermal symmetry of all passes. Mixed
phase flow shall not be split within the heater. To achieve uniform heat distribution to each pass, jump
fittings shall be provided for coking service with a fouling factor $0.00053 m@C/W (0.003 h@ft @F/Btu).

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

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DECEMBER 1989

4.1.5
For natural draft combustion, efficiencies shall be based on 20 percent excess air when gas is the
primary fuel and 25 percent excess air when oil is the primary fuel. For forced draft combustion, efficiencies
shall be based on 15 percent excess air for fuel gas and 20 percent excess air for fuel oil.
4.1.6
Calculated and guaranteed efficiencies shall be based on the lower heating value of the given
primary fuel, and shall include a minimum radiation loss of 1.5 percent of the total heat liberation. When
heaters are designed with an air preheat system, a minimum radiation loss of 2.5 percent of the total heat
liberation shall be included. Excess air shall be determined at the exit from the heater.
4.1.7
All heaters, except those in reformer charge and reheat services, shall be designed for thermal
expansion at 760C (1400F) tube metal temperature.
4.1.8
Permanent steam/air decoking facilities shall be installed for coking service with a fouling factor
$0.00053 m @C/W (0.003 h@ft @F/Btu).
4.1.9
Heaters, including accessories such as air preheaters, fans, and motors, shall be designed to meet
the sound level requirements of EGE 00-B-5.
4.1.10 The selection of material, if not otherwise indicated herein or specified in the project specifications,
shall satisfy the temperature limitations listed in Table 1.
4.1.11
4.2

All heaters shall be designed for maximum shop assembly in order to minimize field work.

Radiant Section

4.2.1
The H/D ratio of vertical cylindrical heaters or H/W ratio of cabin or box heaters shall not exceed
2.75, where H is the height of the radiant wall tube bank or the straight tube length of vertical tubes, D is the
tube circle diameter, and W is the greatest horizontal distance between the centerlines of single-fired tubes
or the distance between the burner centerlines of either side of double-fired tubes, all measured in the same
units. For coking services with a fouling factor $0.00053 m @C/W (0.003 h@ft @F/Btu), a maximum H/D or
H/W ratio of 2.0 shall be used.
4.2.2
The maximum allowable average radiant heat flux density and the minimum fouling factor shall be
as listed in Table 2.
4.2.3
For vertical cylindrical heaters, the average radiant heat flux density shall be limited to 3200 W/m
(1000 But/h@ft) less than specified for horizontal tubes in the same service.
TABLE 1
MATERIAL TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS
Maximum Metal Temperature
Material*
Carbon steel
11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo
21/4 Cr-1 Mo
5 Cr-1/2 Mo
7 Cr-1/2 Mo
9 Cr-1 Mo
18 Cr-8 Ni
25 Cr-20 Ni

425
595
635
650
675
705
815
1040

800
1100
1175
1200
1250
1300
1500
1900

*Materials for temperatures above 1040C (1900F) shall be submitted for Mobil for approval.

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DECEMBER 1989

EGE 11-B-1 1989

PAGE 5 OF 31

TABLE 2
ALLOWABLE AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT FLUX DENSITY AND FOULING FACTOR
Heat Flux Density*
Service

W/m

Btu/hCft

Fouling Factor
2

m CC/W

hCft CF/Btu

Atmospheric tower charge

37,860

12,000

0.00053

0.003

Vacuum tower charge (fuel)

31,550

10,000

0.00070

0.004

Vacuum tower charge (lube)

28,395

9,000

0.00070

0.004

Coker unit charge

28,395

9,000

0.00088

0.005

Visbreaker unit charge

22,085

7,000

0.00088

0.005

PtR charges and reheat

37,860

12,000

0.00026

0.0015

Pretreater charge

31,550

10,000

0.00035

0.002

Hydrocracker charge

37,860

12,000

0.00035

0.002

Hydrotreater charge

31,550

10,000

0.00044

0.0025

CHD charge

37,860

12,000

0.00035

0.002

Reboilers

37,860

12,000

0.00026

0.0015

Hot oil belt for Mobiltherm

37,860

12,000

0.00035

0.002

Furfural raffinate mix

22,085

7,000

0.00044

0.0025

Furfural extract mix

22,085

7,000

0.00044

0.0025

Asphalt mix

18,930

6,000

0.00044

0.0025

*The radiant heat flux density pertains to a single-row horizontal cabin or vertical tube box type with a nominal two-tube
diameter spacing, fired from one side only. When larger tube spacing is used, the allowable average flux density may
be increased and the vendor shall submit the proposed average flux density in his proposal for Mobil approval.
Convection section shield tubes shall not be considered as radiant surface in determining the average radiant heat flux
density.

To minimize heater cost and process coil pressure drop, a double-fired design may be used.

The allowable average


radiant heat flux density for the double-fired design may be 50 percent higher than for a single-fired design for the same
tube spacing.

4.2.4
Volumetric heat release shall not exceed 155,000 W/m (15,000 Btu/h@ft ) for oil fired heaters and
186,000 W/m (18,000 But/h@ft ) for gas fired heaters. The calculated volume shall be based on the
distance between tube centerlines in the radiant section and the heat input based on the normal heat
release.
4.2.5
All floor fired heaters shall be provided with 305 mm (12 in.) high, first quality firebrick walls running
the entire length of the heater floor between the burners and the radiant tubes to prevent flame bending due
to uneven flue gas recirculation. The clearance between these walls and the outside surface of the burner
floor tiles shall be 150 mm (6 in.).
4.3

Convection Section

4.3.1
Convection sections shall be a cross-flow type with at least two rows of bare tubes acting as a
shield. Radiant section suspended roof tubes shall not be counted as shield rows.
4.3.2
When the shield and radiant tubes are in the same service, the shield tubes shall be of the same
material and thickness as the radiant tubes.

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DECEMBER 1989

4.3.3
The maximum bare-tube heat flux density (outside diameter basis) on any extended surface
convection tube row in hydrocarbon service shall not exceed 1.8 times the allowable average radiant flux
density for single-fired tubes.
4.3.4
Corbels shall be provided in the convection section to prevent flue gas bypassing. Corbels shall
not be used at the bottom shield row.
4.3.5
The design, including tube supports, shall incorporate space for future installation of two rows of
tubes. When the convection section has one service only, the future tubes shall be equal in size and type
to that of the top convection row. When the convection section has a combination of process and
nonprocess coils, the future tubes shall be equal in size and type to the top row of process tubes unless
otherwise specified by Mobil. End tubesheet sleeves for future tubes shall be provided and shall be blanked
off with an easily removable plate.
4.3.6
A minimum clearance of 610 mm (24 in.) shall be provided between the outside diameter of the
top future row of tubes and the convection breeching.
4.3.7
Extended surface tubes may be used only in convection sections above the shield tubes. The type
of extended surface shall be governed by the following conditions:
(a) Gas firing only or turbine exhaust gas. Finned tubes are acceptable. Fin thickness shall be
1.3 mm (0.05 in.), minimum, and fin density shall not exceed 200 fins/m (5 fins/in.). Maximum height
of fins shall be 25 mm (1 in.).
(b) Combination gas/oil firing, with gas or clean light oil used as the primary fuel (oil used for startup
only). Finned tubes are acceptable. Fin thickness shall be 2.5 mm (0.10 in.), minimum, and fin density
shall not exceed 120 fins/m (3 fins/in.). Maximum height of fins shall be 19 mm (3/4 in.).
(c) Combination gas/oil or oil only firing, with residual oil as the primary fuel. Only cylindrical studs
of 12.7 mm ( in.) diameter, minimum, are acceptable. Maximum height of studs shall be 25 mm (1
in.).
4.3.8
The fins of finned tubes shall be attached to the tubes by continuous welding. Stud attachment
shall provide full surface contact between the tube and the stud.
4.3.9
Fin material for extended surface convection tubes in reboiler, boiler feedwater (BFW), and steam
generation service may be carbon steel for a maximum calculated fin tip temperature of 427C (800F). For
all other services fin material shall be 11-13Cr as a minimum. For higher tip metal temperatures, fin material
shall be limited to 11-13Cr, Type 304, and Type 310 stainless steel for a maximum calculated tip
temperature of 595C (1100F), 705C (1300F), and 815C (1500F), respectively. Stud material may be
carbon steel for a maximum calculated tip temperature of 510C (950F).
4.3.10 On adjacent tubes, minimum horizontal and diagonal clearance between fin or stud tips shall be
38 mm (1 1/2 in.). Minimum spacing between tips and convection section sidewall shall be 25 mm (1 in.).
Maximum spacing between wall of corbels and the closest tube centerline shall be half of the horizontal tube
centerline-to-centerline spacing.
4.4

Tubes

4.4.1
For process service, the tubewall thickness shall be determined in accordance with API RP 530.
For rupture design, tube calculations shall be based on a design tube life of 100,000 hours and minimum

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

rupture strength. Tubes in steam service shall be designed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section I.
4.4.2
The maximum tube metal temperature shall be determined in accordance with API RP 530, taking
into consideration the tube circumferential and longitudinal variation in heat density, its relative location in
the firebox, and the specified fouling resistance. A circumferential maldistribution factor of 1.8, minimum,
shall be used for single-row radiant tubes (fired from one side) with a nominal two-tube diameter spacing.
An additional multiplying longitudinal maldistribution factor of 1.1 shall be used for each 3 m (10 ft) of radiant
section over 6 m (20 ft) high.
4.4.3
The design tube metal temperature shall be equal to the calculated maximum tube metal
temperature plus 28C (50F).
4.4.4
The elastic and rupture design pressures shall be as defined in API RP 530, except that these
pressures shall be increased by 10 percent or by 175 kPa (25 psi), whichever is greater.
4.4.5
Carbon steel and low-alloy tubes (up to and including 2Cr-1Mo) shall be designed with a
minimum internal corrosion allowance of 2.5 mm (0.10 in.). The minimum corrosion allowance for
higher-alloy tubes shall be as given in the project specifications.
4.4.6
All tubes and pipes shall be seamless. If tubes cannot be furnished in a single continuous length,
one intermediate circumferential weld is permissible. If an intermediate circumferential weld is required,
electric resistance flash welding is not permitted. The tubes shall be purchased to minimum or average wall
thickness in accordance with ASTM tolerances to provide the required minimum wall thickness. Pipe sizes
are preferred.
4.4.7
Maximum radiant effective tube length for horizontal heaters shall not exceed 13.7 m (45 ft) when
the heaters are fired from both ends or 24 m (80 ft) when fired from bottom or side. Maximum straight
radiant tube length for box heaters with vertical tubes shall not exceed 9 m (30 ft). For vertical cylindrical
heaters, straight radiant tube length shall not exceed 15 m (50 ft).
4.4.8
Radiant tubes shall be installed with centerline not less than 1 nominal diameters from heater
walls. The clearance between the bottom horizontal wall tube outside surface and floor refractory surface
shall be a minimum of 305 mm (12 in.).
4.4.9
When header boxes are used, tubes shall project at least 150 mm (6 in.) outside end tubesheets
into header boxes to permit cutting and rewelding for tube replacement.
4.4.10 When fabricated of cast material, pyrolysis heater and hydrogen steam reformer radiant tubes shall
have the complete inner surface, including all intermediate girth welds, machined or honed to the maximum
surface roughness Ra of 3.2 m (125 in.).
4.4.11 Tube and pipe materials in process service shall conform to the ASTM specifications shown in
Table 3. When heater tubes are purchased to ASTM pipe specifications, the hardness shall also conform
to the hardness limitation indicated in ASTM tube specification of the same material.
4.5

Headers and Terminal Fittings

4.5.1

Center-to-center header dimensions shall be a minimum of two times the nominal pipe size.

4.5.2

Headers and terminal fittings shall be attached to tubes by welding.

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DECEMBER 1989

4.5.3
Terminal connections shall be provided with ASME B16.5 standard pipe flanges. Piping outside
the heaters shall be arranged to permit flanged heater terminal connections to be used as the inside
diameter (ID) inspection openings.
4.5.4

Headers for all heaters shall be located as follows:


(a)

Convection section return bends in header boxes at both ends to prevent flue gas bypassing.

(b) Radiant section return bends for coking services, with a fouling factor $0.00053m@C/W
(0.003 h@ft@ F/Btu) in header boxes at both ends for easier tube replacement.
Radiant section return bends for noncoking services may be located in the firebox. Such return bends may
be included as part of the heating surface.
4.5.5
When tube ID inspection openings are specified on heater data sheets, either plug type headers
or flanged connections may be used. The deadleg type of inspection opening is not permitted. Plug type
headers, if specified, shall be of solid body design and shall be located in header boxes. Corresponding
numbers shall be stamped on each plug and header so that the same plug may be replaced in the same
header.
4.5.6
Header and fitting ratings shall be based on the elastic design pressure and design fluid
temperature specified on EGE 11-D-1 or in the project specifications. All fittings shall be seamless.
4.5.7
Header material shall have a corrosion resistance and corrosion allowance equal to or greater than
the tube material. Plugs in alloy headers shall be of the same alloy as the headers. Headers and terminal
fitting shall conform to the ASTM specifications shown in Table 4.
4.5.8

Additional requirements for hydrogen steam reformers:


(a) Flexible inlet and outlet pigtails shall be used. Pigtails shall be individually insulated with 1425C
(2600F), 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft) density, ceramic fiber blanket. The cladding (sheathing) material shall
be subject to Mobil approval. Low-melting-point metals, such as aluminum, shall not be used for
cladding.
(b) Outlet pigtails shall be of Incoloy 800 material. Inlet pigtails shall be of 2Cr-1Mo material. Both
inlet and outlet pigtails shall be designed to permit individual radiant tubes to be taken out of service
by pinching off pigtails while the heater remains onstream. Therefore, a section of each inlet pigtail
shall be made from Incoloy 800 to accommodate pinching. The pinching locations shall be clearly
marked on the drawing and in the field for each identification.
(c) The inlet pigtail/top flange assembly and spring support design shall permit catalyst loading and
unloading without disconnecting any support hangers or removal of any other ancillary equipment.
(d) The transfer line between the radiant section outlet manifold and the process gas waste heat
boiler shall be internally refractory lined. The vendor shall submit the proposed refractory type and
anchor system to Mobil for approval.
(e)

4.6

Burner piping, including all valves and fittings, shall be provided by the heater vendor.

Piping

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4.6.1
All external crossovers, manifolds, and piping shall be designed in accordance with EGE 16-B-1.
Fabrication and inspection shall be in accordance with EGE 16-B-40.
4.6.2
Crossovers between radiant and convection section tubes shall be flanged except that, for
hydrogen service, they shall be welded. All flanges shall be of the welding-neck type. All crossovers shall
be external to the firebox.
TABLE 3
ASTM SPECIFICATIONS FOR TUBES AND PIPES (SEAMLESS)
Material

Pipe Specifications

Tube Specifications

Carbon steel

A53, A106, Gr A or B

A161

11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo

A335, Gr P11

A200, A213, Gr T11

21/4 Cr-1 Mo

A335, Gr P22

A200, A213, Gr T22

3 Cr-1 Mo

A335, Gr P21

A200, Gr T21

5 Cr-1/2 Mo

A335, Gr P5

A200, A213, Gr T5

5 Cr-1/2 Mo-Si

A335, Gr P5b

A213, Gr T5b

7 Cr-1/2 Mo

A335, Gr P7

A200, A213, Gr T7

9 Cr-1 Mo

A335, Gr P9

A200, A213, Gr T9

18 Cr-8 Ni

A312, A376, TP304H

A213, A271, TP304H

16 Cr-12 Ni-2 Mo

A312, A376, TP316H

A213, A271, TP316H

18 Cr-10 Ni-Ti

A312, A376, TP321H

A213, A271, TP321H

18 Cr-10 Ni-Cb

A312, A376, TP347H

A213, A271, TP347H

Alloy 800H

B407

B407

25 Cr-20 Ni

A608, Gr HK40

TABLE 4
ASTM SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEADERS AND TERMINAL FITTINGS
Material

Forgings

Wrought

Castings

Carbon steel

A105, A181
CL 60 or 70

A234, Gr WPB

A216, Gr WCB

11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo

A182, Gr F11

A234, Gr WP11

A217, Gr WC6

21/4 Cr-1 Mo

A182, Gr F22

A234, Gr WP22

A217, Gr WC9

5 Cr-1/2 Mo

A182, Gr F5

A234, Gr WP5

A217, Gr C5

7 Cr-1/2 Mo

A182, Gr F7

A234, Gr WP7

9 Cr-1 Mo

A182, Gr F9

A234, Gr WP9

A217, Gr C12

18 Cr-8 Ni (304)

A182, F304

A403, WP304

A351, Gr CF8

18 Cr-8 Ni (304H)

A182, F304H

A403, WP304H

A351, Gr CF8

16 Cr-12 Ni-2 Mo (316)

A182, F316

A403, WP316

A351, Gr CF8M

16 Cr-12 Ni-2 Mo (316H)

A182, F316H

A403, WP316H

18 Cr-10 Ni-Ti (321)

A182, F321

A403, WP321

A351, Gr CF8C

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18 Cr-10 Ni-Ti (321H)

A182, F321H

A403, WP321H

18 Cr-10 Ni-Cb (347)

A182, F347

A403, WP347

18 Cr-10 Ni-Cb (347H)

A182, F347H

A403, WP347H

25 Cr-20 Ni

A182, F310

A403, WP310

DECEMBER 1989

A351, Gr CF8C

A351, CK20
A608, Gr HK40

4.6.3 Crossovers shall be of the same material as the tubes with which they connect. When they connect
two coils of different materials, either material may be used. All connections, such as steaming out,
blowdown, and pressure gage, shall be of the same material or of a more corrosion resistant material than
that to which they are attached.
4.6.4 The vendor shall provide distribution and collection manifolds where specified in the project
specifications. When manifolds are provided, they shall be designed to give uniform flow distribution to all
passes. Manifold supports shall also be provided by the vendor. Manifolds in hydrogen service shall be of
the extruded opening type.
4.6.5

All manifolds shall have provision for venting and drainage.

4.6.6 All crossovers, manifolds, and external piping shall be arranged so that they do not interfere with
removal of tubes.
4.6.7 Heater terminals shall be designed to accept the moments and forces imposed by the thermal
expansion of the transfer line. As a minimum, heater terminals shall be designed to accept twice the
moments and forces listed in Table 7 of API Std 560, unless otherwise specified.
4.6.8 Flexible metal hoses shall be used for oil burners to permit each removal of burner guns for
cleaning. Flexible metal hoses can also be used for gas burners for easy maintenance subject to Mobil
approval.
4.6.9 Burner piping, including all valves and fittings, shall be steel and shall be provided by other than the
heater vendor. For details see EGE 16-B-22.
4.7

Tube Supports

4.7.1
Minimum corrosion allowance for all exposed surfaces of each tube support and guide contacting
flue gases shall be 2.5 mm (0.10 in.) For austenitic materials and 5.0 mm (0.20 in.) For ferritic alloy
materials.
4.7.2
The maximum unsupported horizontal tube span shall not exceed 35 times tube outside diameter
(OD) or 6 m (20 ft), whichever is less. Vertical tubes shall be properly supported and guided to provide for
expansion. When vertical tube straight length is 9 m (30 ft) or longer, an intermediate guide shall be
provided approximately at the midpoint of the tubes. Vertical tubes shall be supported at the top and guided
at the bottom. As a minimum, the bottom guide shall be NPS 2 (NPS = nominal pipe size, inches) pipe,
Schedule 80, and Type 310 stainless steel material.
4.7.3
The minimum design temperature for the radiant section supports shall be the radiant section exit
flue gas temperature plus 110C (200F) or 980C (1800F), whichever is greater. The design temperature
for convection supports shall be equal to the maximum flue gas temperature in contact with the support at
design operation plus 55C (100F).

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

4.7.4
Tube supports shall be designed to permit tube thermal expansion, avoid mechanical damage to
the extended surface, and permit easy removal and insertion of the tubes. Where extended surface tubes
are used, a bearing surface with a minimum width of 50 mm (2 in.) shall be provided. This bearing surface
shall extend at least 30 degrees on each side of the vertical centerline. Holes in tube supports shall be
approximately 13 mm ( in.) greater than the extended surface tube OD.
4.7.5
End tubesheets for radiant and convection tubes with external headers shall be designed as
follows:
(a) Tubesheets shall be carbon steel of 13 mm ( in.) minimum thickness and shall be designed
for the entire tube and header load in case of failure of all intermediate supports.
(b) Tubesheets shall be insulated on the flue gas side with a premixed castable refractory [a
minimum of 100 mm (4 in.) For convection sections and 125 mm (5 in.) For radiant sections], held in
place by Type 304 stainless steel anchors fastened to the tubesheet. The refractory shall have a
minimum 1100C (2000F) rating.
(c) Type 304 stainless steel sleeves with ID approximately 13 mm ( in.) greater than the tube OD
(including extended surface, if any) shall be welded to the tubesheet at each tube hole to prevent the
refractory from being damaged by the tubes.
4.7.6
Intermediate radiant tube supports and guides shall be designed to permit replacement of the
supports and guides without tube removal and with minimum refractory replacement. Intermediate tube
supports for horizontal radiant tubes shall be the hook type. A maximum of two tubes shall be carried on
one support.
4.7.7
Intermediate convection tube supports shall be sectioned, and a maximum of five horizontal rows
of tubes shall be supported on each section.
4.7.8
Intermediate tube supports shall be designed for dead load, plus reactions from uneven expansion
of the tubes. Frictional loads caused by tubes sliding on supports shall be based on a friction coefficient of
0.30 minimum. Each support shall be designed to carry the load corresponding to 1.5 times the unsupported
tube spans.
4.7.9
The design stress for all intermediate tube supports shall be 50 percent of the stress for a rate of
one percent creep in 10,000 hours at the design temperature. The shear and bearing stress shall be 80
percent and 160 percent, respectively, of this allowable stress.
4.7.10 All parts of radiant and convection intermediate tube supports for design temperatures from 425C
to 1040C (800F to 1900 F) shall be cast 25Cr-20Ni alloy steel, ASTM A297, Grade HK. For design
temperatures below 425C (800F), carbon steel is acceptable.
4.7.11 When the fuel contains more than 100 ppm total vanadium and sodium and the tube support
design temperature exceeds 650C (1200F), it is preferred that all tubes be supported externally. When
tubes are supported internally, the supports shall be covered with 50 mm (2 in.) of dense castable refractory,
with a minimum density of 2080 kg/m (130 lb/ft ). The castable refractory shall be supported by Type 310
stainless steel anchors.
4.8

Setting

4.8.1
The design temperature of the outside casing surface, including breechings and hot flue gas and
air ducts, shall not exceed 77C (170 F) at an ambient still air temperature of 27C (80F).

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4.8.2
The refractory used shall be suitable for a service temperature at least 280C (500F) above its
hot-surface design temperature.
4.8.3
The refractory of walls, arches, and floors shall be designed to allow for proper expansion of all
parts under design conditions. All types of construction shall be designed to hold setting layers tightly
together with no voids. Expansion joints in insulation and refractory shall be staggered to ensure tightness.
4.8.4
Burner tiles shall be in accordance with the burner manufacturer's recommendations. Burner tiles
shall be prefired at a minimum of 260C (500F) and contain a minimum of 60 percent alumina (A1203).
Burner tiles shall be reinforced with Type 310SS fibers (4 percent by weight, minimum). Burner primary air
tiles of double-block design for oil and combination burners shall have a minimum of 85 percent alumina
content. The minimum service temperature rating of all burner tiles shall be 1540C (2800F).
4.8.5
The floor shall be of dual-layer castable construction. The hot face shall be 75 mm (3 in.) of dense
castable with a minimum service temperature of 1540C (2800F) and a minimum density of 2010 kg/m
(125 lb/ft). The bottom layer shall consist of 250 mm (10 in.). Lumnite-Haydite-Vermiculite castable
refractory (1:2:4 mix of dry, loose volume) or other approved insulation.
4.8.6
Radiant section, self-supporting divider walls shall have a height equal to or greater than 80
percent of the radiant section height but shall not exceed 7 m (24 ft). The walls shall be at least first quality
firebrick. The base width shall be a minimum of 8 percent of wall height. The height-to-width ratio of each
section of step wall shall not exceed 5 to 1.
4.8.7

Castable construction shall be as follows:


(a) Where possible, castable material shall be applied by gunning. Low lime content (maximum
15 percent by weight), bagged premixed castable shall be used. The minimum service temperature
shall be 1093C (2000 F).
(b) For dual-layer castable construction, the hot face layer shall be a minimum of 75 mm (3 in.) thick.
The anchoring system shall provide support for each layer.
(c) Insulation anchor height shall not be less than 70 percent of the castable thickness. The anchor
penetration shall not exceed 13 mm ( in.) from the hot face.
(d) The anchor spacing shall be a maximum of twice the lining thickness but shall not exceed 305
mm (12 in.) on a square pattern for walls and 230 mm (9 in.) on a square pattern for arches. The
anchor orientation shall be varied to avoid shear planes.
(e) Anchor material shall be Type 304 stainless steel for walls and Type 309 stainless steels for
arches.
(f)
All inside surfaces of steel casing, including anchor-to-casing welds, shall be protected with a
minimum of 300 m (12 mil) dry film thickness (DTF) of coal tar epoxy.

4.8.8

Ceramic fiber modules construction shall be as follows:


(a)

Ceramic fiber modules or blankets shall not be used in convection sections.

(b) The radiant section walls and arch shall be insulated with ceramic fiber modules as shown in
Table 5.

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(c) The modules shall be installed in soldier courses with compressed batten strips between
courses.
(d) Each 305 mm x 305 mm (12 in. x 12 in.) module shall consist of fourteen 25 mm (1 in.) thick
layers of folded ceramic fiber blankets. Each 305 mm x 610 mm (12 in. x 24 in.) module shall consist
of twenty-eight 25 mm (1 in.) thick layers of folded ceramic fiber blankets. Ceramic fiber blankets shall
be of needled type and of 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft) density. When installed, these modules shall be under
compression.

(e) The batten strips shall be made from a minimum of two 25 mm (1 in.) thick layers of 128 kg/m

(8 lb/ft ) density blanket, and shall have shiplap joints between adjacent lengths. When installed
between modules, the batten strips shall be compressed to half their nominal thickness.
TABLE 5
CERAMIC FIBER MODULES FOR RADIANT SECTION INSULATION

Module Dimensions
Type of Service

Min.
Thick.

Max.
Width

Max.
Length

Blanket Rating
Min. Temperature
Rating
C

305 mm x 305 mm x 305 mm


(12 in. x 12 in. x 12 in.)

1430

2600

Walls unprotected by tubes

200 mm x 305 mm x 610 mm


(8 in. X 12 in. x 24 in.)

1260

2300

Walls protected by tubes

150 mm x 305 mm x 610 mm


(6 in. x 12 in. x 24 in.)

1260

2300

Hydrogen steam reformer and


pyrolysis (ethylene) heater
Other heaters

(f)
A positive anchor system shall be used to hold the modules to the steel casing. Anchors shall
be prepositioned on the casing before the modules are installed. The anchor system, including the
method of attachment to the heater casing, shall be subject to Mobil approval.
(g)

Anchors shall be type 304 stainless steel or higher alloy.

(h) The method used to attach the anchors to the casing must be tested prior to the start of
fabrication, and periodically during the course of fabrication to assure that a sound attachment is being
obtained. The testing procedure shall be submitted to Mobil for approval.
(I)
After installation of the module has been completed, the entire surface shall be tamped with a
wood block to assure the lining is free of any voids.
(j)
All inside surfaces of the steel casing, including anchor-to-casing welds, shall be protected with
a minimum of 3 mm (1/8 in.) wet film of Bitumastic barrier coating.
(k) When the fuel contains more than one percent by weight sulfur in fuel oil or 50 ppm by
volume hydrogen sulfide in fuel gas, ceramic fiber modules shall be backed by one layer of 25 mm
(1 in.) thick, 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft) ceramic fiber blanket covered by a stainless steel vapor barrier.
The thickness of module may then be reduced by 25 mm (1 in.). The temperature between

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module and blanket layer shall be at least 28C (50F) above the acid dew point at design
conditions. If 25 mm (1 in.) thick blanket is not sufficient, then vendor shall increase this
thickness and submit an alternate detailed design to Mobil for approval. The foil shall be impaled
over the studs, and edges shall be overlapped approximately 200 mm to 300 mm (8 in. to 12 in.).
The stud punctures in the foil shall be sealed with ceramic fiber cement.
4.8.9

Ceramic fiber blanket construction shall be as follows:

The vendor may offer ceramic fiber blanket insulation as an alternate (if economical) instead of modules,
and shall describe in detail the proposed construction in his proposal for Mobil approval. The wall
construction shall be in accordance with the following:
(a)

Ceramic blankets shall be of the needled fiber type.

(b) For all radiant walls unprotected by tubes and for all arches, use the following as a minimum:
20 mm (8 in.) of 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft) density with 1260 C (2300F) rating. Hot face shall consist of two
layers, each 25 mm (1 in.) thick.
(c) For all radiant walls protected by tubes, use the following as a minimum: 150 mm (6 in.) of 128
kg/m (8 lb/ft) density with 1200 C (2300F) rating. Hot face shall consist of two layers, each 25 mm
(1 in.) thick.
(d) A layer of stainless steel foil shall be installed as a vapor barrier between ceramic fiber layers
where temperature is at least 28C (50 F) above the acid dew point at design conditions and below
the allowable metal temperature of the foil.
The foil shall be impaled over the studs, and edges shall be overlapped approximately 200 mm to 300
mm (8 in. to 12 in.). The stud punctures in the foil shall be sealed with ceramic fiber cement.
(e)

Anchor spacing shall be as follows:


Vertical Walls
Maximum Spacing

Arch

mm

in.

mm

in.

Transverse to blanket length

230

150

Along blanket length

305

12

230

In addition, for the hot face layer of both vertical walls and arch, no more than 75 mm (3 in.) of blanket
shall be outside a line of anchors when the blanket is installed and no more than 70 mm (2 3/4 in.) after
blanket butt joints have been compressed.
(f)
Anchors shall have either metal washers covered by a ceramic fiber blanket [25 mm (1 in.) thick,
of 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft) density with 1260C (2300F) rating] or ceramic cuplocks filled with mastic.
(g)

Anchor material shall be Type 310 stainless steel (25Cr-20Ni).

(h) Ceramic fiber blankets are to be installed with butt joints for the backing layers and compressed
joints for the hot face layer. All joints in successive layers shall be staggered to avoid a direct heat
path to the casing.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

(I)
All inside surfaces of the steel casing, including anchor-to-casing welds, shall be protected with
a minimum of 3 mm (1/8 in.) Wet film of Bitumastic barrier coating.
4.8.10 Handling practices for all refractory materials such as castable, brick, ceramic fiber, and the like
shall be in accordance with manufacturers health and safety guidelines.
4.9

Structure and Appurtenances

4.9.1
Structural steel frame, platforms, and ladders shall be designed in accordance with EGE 00-B-3
and EGE 31-B-1. Structural steel shapes shall conform to ASTM A36. Structural steel plates shall conform
to ASTM A283 Grade C, A285 Grade C, or A36.
4.9.2
Heater casing shall be reinforced against warpage and deflection. Casing plate thickness shall
be 4.5 mm (3/16 in.), minimum. Floorplate thickness shall be 6 mm ( in.), minimum.
4.9.3
The entire heater casing, including joints between shop fabricated sections, shall be continuously
seal welded to prevent air and water infiltration.
4.9.4
All arches shall be covered with steel casing and shall be designed to permit runoff of rainwater.
All structural steel members shall be designed to be self-draining. Joints between steel beam and heater
casing, which may accumulate water, shall be continuously seal welded.
4.9.5
Vertical clearance below heater floor members shall be 460 mm (18 in.) For wall fired heaters.
Vertical clearance below burner bottom plate shall be 2 m (7 ft) for floor fired heaters. The height and
location of burner piping, as well as burner air plenums, shall be selected to provide the maximum number
of unobstructed emergency exit routes from beneath the heater, while at the same time permitting burner
maintenance and air register adjustment from grade level without the use of temporary platforming.
4.9.6
If heater foundations are not provided by the heater vendor, the vendor shall furnish design
loadings, location of anchor bolts, size of columns, and other data for complete foundation design.
4.9.7
The design of main structural columns shall allow for fireproofing. Fireproofing shall be designed
in accordance with EGE 34-B-15.
4.9.8
Temporary end plates attached to shop fabricated modules (such as may be used to retain
castable refractories during the shipment of a module) shall be removed before field installation of the
modules. Under no circumstances shall uninsulated carbon steel plate be exposed to the flue gas.
4.9.9

Platforms shall be provided by the heater vendor as follows:


(a)

For Box and Cabin Heaters:


(1)

At hearth level on each end.

(2)

At second level observation doors on each end.

(3) At hearth level on the side where the burner controls are located for bottom fired heaters, and
at connecting platforms between end and burner control platforms.
(4) At both ends of the convection section. A connecting walkway along one sidewall also is
required.
(5)

At damper and sootblower locations.

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(6) At all access doors, observation ports, doors and instrument connections, and valves.
Intermediate stepoff platforms are acceptable.
(7) At auxiliary equipment, such as fans, drivers, oilers, and air preheaters for operation and
maintenance.
(b)

For Vertical Cylindrical Heaters:


(1)

At hearth level. A full circular platform is required.

(2) At roof level. A full peripheral platform providing access to both ends of the convection
section is required.
(3)

At damper and sootblower locations.

(4) At all observation doors and ports, instrument connections, and valves. Intermediate stepoff
platforms are acceptable.
(5) At auxiliary equipment, such as fans, drivers, oilers, and air preheaters for operation and
maintenance.
4.9.10
(a)

Platforms, stairways, and ladders shall be in accordance with the following:


All permanent platforms shall have a minimum width of one meter (3 ft).

(b) Sufficient clearance shall be provided between burner control platform and heater casing for fuel
piping installation.
(c) Maintenance platforms, including those for sootblowers, wall burners, and decoking connections,
and at header box locations, shall have a minimum width of 1.2 m (4 ft).
(d) Stairways and connecting walkways shall have a minimum width of 760 mm (2 ft). Stairways
shall have a minimum tread width of 240 mm (9 in.), and a maximum riser of 200 mm (8 in.). The
slope of the stairway shall not exceed a 9 (vertical) to 12 (horizontal) ratio. The stairway landing (in
direction of stairway) shall have a minimum width of one meter (3 ft).
(e)

Headroom over platforms, walkways, and stairways shall be 2 m (7 ft), minimum.

(f)
All burner control platforms shall have two exits, with a stairway at one end and a ladder at the
other end. All other heater platforms shall have a minimum of two escape ladders. These ladders
shall extend from the top platform to grade, with access to all intermediate platforms, and shall be
located at opposite ends of the platforms.
(g) Solid flooring (diamond plate or equal) shall only be furnished on hearth level platforms for
heaters with hydrocarbon flow in liquid or two phase. All other platforms shall be 25 mm by 4.8 mm
(1 in. by 3/16 in.) open grating. Platform structural supporting members shall be located so as not to
interfere with pulling tubes. Handrails shall be provided on all platforms, walkways, and stairways.
(h) An intermediate landing shall be provided when the vertical rise exceeds 7.5 m (25 ft) for ladders
and 4.6 m (15 ft) for stairways.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

(I)
Ladders shall be caged from a point 2.3 m (7 ft) above grade. A safety gate shall be provided
for all ladders serving platforms or landings.
4.9.11

Header boxes shall be in accordance with the following:

(a) Header box plates shall be 4.5 mm (3/16 in.) thick. When plug type headers are used, header box
plates shall be insulated with 50 mm (2 in.) of Lumnite-Haydite-Vermiculite castable refractory or other
approved insulation, held in place by nongalvanized carbon steel chain link fencing or wire mesh
anchored to the steel. When welded return bends are used, header box plates shall be insulated with
50 mm (2 in.) of 128 kg/m (8 lb/ft ) density ceramic fiber blanket with 1100C (2000F) rating.
(b) A minimum clearance of 75 mm (3 in.) shall be allowed between the header box face plate
refractory and the header in the hot position.
(c) Header boxes or doors shall be bolted and gasketed to prevent air and water infiltration. A
separate panel shall be provided for any future rows.
4.10 Burners
4.10.1 Lo-Nox burners shall be provided. Burners shall be designed for natural draft and capable of
burning all fuels specified in the project specifications. When air preheaters are provided, forced draft
burners shall be used. Burners shall be designed for 70 percent of heat absorbed duty when the air
preheaters are out of service unless otherwise specified. Burner designs shall have been commercially
proven in comparable service. Special burner designs shall be subject to Mobil approval.
4.10.2 Burners shall be sized for a maximum heat release equal to 125 percent of the required normal
liberation at design excess air. Minimum burner turndown ratio shall be 3 to 1. A minimum of three burners
shall be supplied for each heater to provide operating flexibility. When only three burners are supplied, each
burner shall be capable of 50 percent of the total design heat release. The vendor shall provide fuel
pressure vs heat release and draft (air pressure) vs heat release curves. The burner manufacturer shall also
provide minimum gas pressure regulation and trip points.
4.10.3 Burner design and installation shall ensure against flame impingement on tubes, tube supports,
and refractory when burners are operating at their maximum heat release.
4.10.4 Burners, gas rings, air diffusers, or tips and oil guns shall be removable for maintenance while a
heater is in operation. When multiple tips are used, individual tips shall be removable for cleaning without
the removal of gas rings or other tips.
4.10.5 When forced draft combustion is used, burners with individual windboxes shall be used. Dampers
used in lieu of air register shall be multiple louver, opposed blade type and shall be seal tight.
4.10.6 An individual gas pilot shall be provided for each burner for easy lightoff because burners are
provided with a plenum for noise and/or air preheater application. The pilot gas valve shall be a ball valve
with an operating lever so arranged as to indicate open or closed position at a glance. This valve shall be
located at the burner to allow the operator to view the pilot flame during lightoff. Pilot and fuel gas lightoff
safety controls shall conform to EGS 629.
4.10.7 Floor fired heaters shall have manually operated individual burner fuel valves located so that
lightoff and fuel adjustments can be made with a full view of the burner from the hearth level platforms
without entering the area beneath the heater.

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4.10.8 The burner bottom plate shall have one 90 mm (3 in.) diameter ignition port and one 90 mm
(3 in.) diameter observation port. For a bottom mounted oil fired burner, the observation port shall have
a pipe sleeve extending 50 mm (2 in.) into the burner.
4.10.9 When volatile fuels such as naphtha or gasolines are burned, a safety interlock shall be provided
on each burner. The interlock design must, in sequence, shut the fuel off, purge the oil gun, and shut the
purge medium off before the gun can be removed.
4.10.10 Special waste gas burners or additional waste gas tips installed in regular burners may be used
for disposal of a waste gas stream in a heater. For good heater control, the heat liberation of the waste gas
stream shall be limited to 10 percent of the total heat liberation. In a regular burner, the waste gas heat shall
not exceed 20 percent of total heat release of that burner. The waste gas burners shall be located so as
to maintain uniform heat distribution in the firebox and to avoid flame impingement on tubes and supports.
4.10.11 When block insulation, fiberglass, or mineral wool is used as an internal lining for burner noise
plenums, it shall be suitably anchored by studs and have exposed face protected from shredding by
galvanized steel wire mesh or expanded metal.
4.10.12

For oil fired heaters, burner plenums shall be designed to permit drainage of any oil accumulation.

4.10.13

Minimum clearances required for natural draft burners are as follows:

(a) For vertical gas fired box and cylindrical heaters, the minimum clearances shown in Table 6 shall
be provided.
(b) For end wall fired box and horizontal cylindrical heaters with gas burner sizes up to 1.17 MW (4
MM Btu/h) maximum liberation, the minimum distance from burner centerline to hot face of radiant
tubes shall be 1.2 m (4 ft). Add 150 mm (6 in.) For each additional 0.59 MW (2 MM Btu/h) heat
release for larger burners.
(c) The spacing of burners shall provide for uniform heat distribution to all radiant tubes. Final
burner arrangement shall be submitted to Mobil for approval.
(d) For oil firing (unless oil is used only for startup), the clearances given in Items (a) and (b) shall
be increased by 305 mm (12 in.).
(e)

Burner clearances for forced draft and high intensity burners shall be subject to Mobil approval.

4.10.14 As a minimum, all gas burner tips, air diffusers, and oil gun tips shall be made of austenitic
stainless steel material.
4.10.15 The joint between the burner baseplate and the casing of plenum to which it is bolted must be
gasketed to prevent air leakage.
4.10.16

All burner and pilot tips shall be wrapped to keep them clean during shipment.

4.11 Dampers
4.11.1 Single-blade dampers shall be limited to stacks and ducts having a maximum internal
cross-sectional area of 1.2 m (13 ft). Multiblade dampers shall have a minimum of one blade for every 1.2
m (13 ft) of internal cross-sectional area in the stack or duct. Each blade shall have approximately equal
surface area.

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4.11.2 Adequate clearance shall be provided between damper blades and inside surfaces of stacks and
ducts for damper thermal expansion. However, this clearance shall also be designed to minimize flue gas
or air bypassing. When dampers are used to isolate flue gas or air flow in air preheater systems, positive
shutoff design shall be used. Damper design shall be approved by Mobil.
4.11.3
Dampers shall be provided at air plenum inlets for overall excess air adjustment. Multiple louver
type dampers shall be used in air ducts for air control. The air intake damper, which is used as air register
control, shall also be the multiple louver type. All multiple louver type dampers in flue gas or combustion
air service shall be of the opposed action type.
4.11.4
All flue gas and combustion air damper shaft bearings shall be the self-aligning, heavy-duty
externally mounted pillow-block type with sealed permanent lubrication.
4.11.5
Stack dampers shall be operable from grade, and a position indicator shall be supplied at grade
and at the damper location. The damper shaft shall be marked externally to show the position of the
damper. Dampers shall be designed so that they will not close in the event of cable or linkage failure.
Provision shall also be made to permit the dampers to be locked in any set position.
TABLE 6
MINIMUM CLEARANCES FOR VERTICAL GAS FIRED BOX AND CYLINDRICAL HEATERS
Burner Size
Maximum Liberation

From Floor to Hot Face


of Roof Tubes or Refractory

From Burner Centerline


to Hot Face of Wall Tubes

MW

MM Btu/h

ft

ft

0.59

1.83

0.91

3.0

1.17

3.05

10

1.07

3.5

1.76

4.27

14

1.22

4.0

2.34

6.10

20

1.37

4.5

2.93

10

7.32

24

1.52

5.0

3.51

12

8.53

28

1.68

5.5

4.11.6 Pneumatically operated stack dampers shall be provided for heaters with 5.9 MW (20 MM Btu/h)
or higher heat duty or for heaters with a common stack regardless of heater size. For all other heaters
provision shall be made for future installation of the pneumatic operator when not provided initially.
4.11.7 Pneumatic operators shall be located at damper platforms near the dampers. Pneumatic operator
control mechanisms shall be located at grade level near the damper indicators for ease of operation.
Pneumatic operator emergency actuating mechanisms shall be installed in a fire safe location at the purge
steam panel or purge valves, at least 15 m (50 ft) from any heater.
4.11.8
The design for pneumatic operators shall permit manual cable-and-winch operation from grade
without the need to disconnect the linkage at the stack. The pneumatic operators shall be designed to hold
the damper at the last set position on loss of air. In no case shall pneumatic operators close on loss of air
or failure of linkage.
4.11.9
When common stacks are used, guillotine type dampers or other approved means shall be
provided to isolate individual heaters. These dampers shall be accessible for maintenance from a
permanent platform.

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4.11.10 Stack damper shafts shall be Type 304 stainless steel or higher alloy and shall be a minimum of
Schedule 80 pipe with both ends open. Damper blades shall be 5Cr-Mo or higher alloy.
When flue gas temperature exceeds 650C (1200F), damper blades shall be Type 304 stainless steel or
higher alloy.
4.11.11
All damper cables shall be Type 304 stainless steel wire rope of 3 mm (1/8 in.) minimum diameter,
with galvanized hardware (such as thimbles, turnbuckles, and clamps).
4.11.12
A positive tight shutoff damper for forced draft hot air combustion shall be provided in each
individual burner duct to permit the safe removal of burner tips while the heater is in operation.
4.12 Sootblowers and Related Requirements
4.12.1
Heaters with convection sections shall be furnished with cleaning lanes for convection tube
cleaning.
4.12.2
When a heater is designed for residual fuel oil firing, horizontal automatically retractable
sootblowers with selected sequential operation shall be provided. For mechanical details of sootblowers
and for sootblower controls refer to EGE 11-B-20. The sootblowers shall have electric motor drivers. The
control panel shall be located at grade level for easy operation. Individual pushbutton control also shall be
furnished at each sootblower.
4.12.3
When sootblowers are not installed, 100 mm (4 in.) diameter couplings with caps shall be
provided in the cleaning lanes.
4.12.4
Maximum radial coverage of a sootblower or manual cleaning shall be 1.1 m (3 ft) or four rows,
whichever is less, for both bare and extended surface tubes.
4.12.5
Sootblowers shall be positioned midway between adjacent tube supports. No credit shall be taken
for cleaning beyond the tube supports.
4.12.6
To prevent tube erosion, the minimum clearance between sootblower pipe OD and OD of bare
tube or tip of extended surface shall be 150 mm (6 in.).
4.12.7
Individual sootblowers shall be designed to pass a minimum of 1.26 kg/s (10,000 lb/h) of steam
with a minimum steam pressure of 1035 kPa gage (150 psig) at the inlet flange. High-pressure steam above
4100 kPa gage (600 psig) shall not be used.
4.12.8

Sootblowers shall have a maximum of two nozzles each.

4.12.9
When a heater is designed for sootblowing, the entire height of the convection section sidewalls
shall be provided with erosion protection. This shall consist of 75 mm (3 in.) dense castable refractory as
a hot face layer, with a minimum density of 2010 kg/m (125 lb/ft).
4.12.10 Sootblower lance material shall be 1 chrome-molybdenum material or higher alloy. Sootblower
entrance ports through the refractory wall shall be protected with 3 mm (1/8 in.) Type 304 stainless steel
sleeves.
4.12.11 Sootblower shall have lubrication points accessible from a platform or, if capable of being
greased, have stainless steel tubing installed to a platform. All remote greasing stations will require purge
fittings.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DECEMBER 1989

4.13

PAGE 21 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

Setting Doors and Ports

4.13.1 Observation doors shall be constructed of insulated cast iron, with metal frame on casing, and shall
be provided with a cool handle. The observation door shall be hinged on the bottom with a locking device
at the top.
4.13.2 A minimum of two access doors shall be furnished for each radiant chamber of a box or cabin
heater. At least one door shall have an opening approximately 610 mm x 1070 mm (24 in. x 42 in.). All
doors shall be accessible from platforms or grade.
4.13.3 Two explosion doors, approximately 380 mm x 460 mm (15 in. x 18 in.), shall be furnished to
relieve each combustion chamber of a multicell heater with a common convection section having tubes
oriented parallel to the radiant tubes. The explosion doors shall be located so as to direct gases away from
operating platforms, occupied areas, and critical equipment.
4.13.4 One access door, 460 mm x 460 mm (18 in. x 18 in.) minimum size, shall be provided in the floor
of vertical cylindrical heaters. One tube removal door, 460 mm x 610 mm (18 in. x 24 in.), shall be provided
in the arch of vertical tube heaters for radiant tube replacement.
4.13.5 One access door, 460 mm x 300 mm (18 in. x 24 in.), shall be provided in each bay between tube
supports of each sootblower lane in the convection section.
4.13.6 Observation doors, approximately 125 mm x 230 mm (5 in. x 9 in.), shall be provided to view all
radiant tubes, radiant tube supports, the bottom row of shield tubes, and all burner flames for proper
operation and lightoff. The observation doors shall be usable from operating platforms or grade.
4.13.7 When roof or shield tubes, or both, cannot be seen from wall observation doors, a sufficient
number of ports shall be provided on the floor to view these tubes.
4.13.8 At least one access door, 610 mm x 610 mm (24 in. x 24 in.), shall be provided in the stack or
breeching for access to damper and convection sections.
4.13.9 Sufficient inspections doors, approximately 150 mm x 610 mm (6 in. x 24 in.), shall be provided
in the convection sidewall to permit visual inspection of representative samples of all tubes and supports.
4.13.10 All openings in the heater casing, such as access door, explosion doors, and terminal
connections, shall be designed to prevent air and water infiltration.
4.13.11

All access and inspection doors shall be gasketed and bolted.

4.14 Breechings and Ducts


4.14.1 Breechings and ducts shall be a minimum of 4.5 mm (3/16 in.) thick carbon steel plate, adequately
stiffened, and with provision for thermal expansion. Carbon steel plates for breechings and ducts shall
conform to ASTM A36.
4.14.2 Breechings shall be sloped upward a minimum of 15 degrees from the ends toward the stack or
flue gas takeoff.
4.14.3 As a minimum, breeching shall be internally insulated with 50 mm (2 in.) of acidproof, premixed
castable refractory, held in place by chain link fencing or wire mesh anchored to the steel. For flue gas
temperatures up to 425 C (800F), nongalvanized carbon steel reinforcement for the refractory is
acceptable; above 425C (800F), Type 304 stainless steel is required. All inside surfaces of steel casing

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

PAGE 22 OF 31

DECEMBER 1989

shall be protected with a minimum of 300 m (12 mil) dry film thickness (DFT) of coal tar epoxy such as
Valspar 64-J-5 or equivalent.
4.15 Stacks
4.15.1

Stacks shall be designed in accordance with EGE 11-B-50.

4.15.2 One stack or one flue gas takeoff shall be provided for each 9 m (30 ft) of exposed convection
section length.
4.15.3 The design shall provide a negative pressure not less than 2.5 mm (0.10 in.) of water at any point
in the heater under all operating conditions, including a 30 percent overload with design excess air at 25C
(80 F) atmospheric still air.
4.15.4 Minimum stack height shall be 3 m (10 ft) above the highest operating platform within a 30 m
(100 ft) radius of the stack for personnel protection, or as indicated in the project specifications to meet air
pollution control requirements.
4.16 Instrument and Utility Connections
4.16.1

Heater controls and instrumentation shall be in accordance with EGE 32-B-15.

4.16.2 All connections through the refractory walls shall be provided with Type 304 stainless steel sleeves
flush with the inside surface of the refractory. Connections shall self-drain into the heater.
4.16.3

Draft gage connections shall be furnished and located as follows:

(a)

At opposite ends of each radiant chamber at burner level.

(b)

At the arch of each cell of the radiant section in multicell heaters.

(c) At the convection section entrance. One connection shall be provided for each 9 m (30 ft) of
convection section length.
(d)

In the stack above and below the damper.

(e)

In the inlet and outlet ducts connected with forced and induced draft fans.

(f)

In the inlet and outlet flue gas and combustion air ducts of the air preheater.

(g) In the burner windbox or plenum combustion air inlet, downstream of any combustion air control
damper.
Draft gage connections shall be NPS 1, Class 3000, threaded steel couplings. Draft lines shall be Type
304 stainless steel pipe and tubing, minimum NPS . When common draft gage are used, draft lines shall
be piped to grade level. There shall be no interconnections between individual draft lines.
4.16.4 Flanged, NPS 1 thermowell connections shall be provided for each service at the coil outlet and
crossovers between radiant and convection sections of each parallel pass. If steam injection is used,
thermowells shall be located upstream of each steam injection point. Where plug type headers are provided,
thermowells shall be located in the plugs of the headers.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DECEMBER 1989

4.16.5
(a)

PAGE 23 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

Flue gas and combustion air thermowell connections shall be furnished and located as follows:
At the arch of each cell of the radiant section in multicell heater.

(b) At the convection section entrance 610 mm (24 in.) below the bottom shield tubes. One
connection shall be provided for each 9 m (30 ft) of convection section length.
(c)

Between the convection section coils for each service.

(d)

In each stack or flue gas takeoff below the damper.

(e)

In the inlet and outlet air and flue gas ducts of the air preheater.

Thermowell connections shall be NPS 1, Class 3000, threaded steel couplings.


4.16.6 Flanged (ASME B16.5, Class 150) flue gas sampling tube connections shall be furnished and
located as follows:
(a)

One NPS 4 connection at the arch of each cell of the radiant section in multicell heaters.

(b) One NPS 4 connection and one NPS 2 connection shall be provided for each 9 m (30 ft) of
convection section length at the convection section entrance.
(c) Two NPS 4 connections, 180 degrees apart, in each stack above the damper for smoke density
measurement.
(d) One NPS 4 connection and one NPS 2 connection in each stack or flue gas takeoff below the
damper.
A sampling tube shall be extended 460 mm (18 in.) into the firebox or stack. It shall be a removable probe
of NPS , 25Cr-20Ni, Type 310 stainless steel pipe or equivalent.
4.16.7 At least two NPS 2, Class 3000, threaded steel coupling purge steam connections shall be
provided near the floor at opposite sides of each radiant chamber. The connections shall be sufficient to
provide a total of 0.009 kg/s (2 lb/h) of steam per cubic meter (cubic foot) of firebox volume.
These connections shall be located and oriented such that the steam will not impinge on any tubes or
refractories.
4.16.8

Capped NPS 4 drains shall be provided in the floors of heaters.

4.16.9 One NPS 1, Class 3000, threaded steel coupling purging steam connection and one NPS 2,
Class 3000, threaded steel coupling drain shall be provided for each header box. These connections shall
be permanently connected to a steam supply when plug heaters are used.
4.16.10 Two NPS 2, Class 3000, threaded steel coupling purge steam connections shall be provided at
opposite ends of each common burner plenum in an air preheater system and for all oil fired, natural draft
plenum designs.
4.16.11 Two tube skin thermocouples per pass shall be provided for heaters in coking service with a
fouling factor $0.0007 m@C/W (0.004 h@ft@F/Btu). Type of thermocouple and proposed locations shall be
submitted for Mobil approval.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

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DECEMBER 1989

5. AIR PREHEATER SYSTEM


5.1

Air Preheater

5.1.1
Air preheater selection and design shall conform to the requirements of API RP 533 and this Guide.
In case of conflict between this Guide and API RP 533, this Guide shall take precedence.
5.1.2
Combustion air preheaters shall be the recuperative type or other type approved by Mobil such as
regenerative type, plate type, heat pipe, indirect closed loop heat transfer medium type, external heat source
type, and steam/boiler feedwater type. Selected air preheater type shall be subject to Mobil approval.
Figure 1 shows a typical recuperative air preheater system for process heaters.
5.1.3
Maximum flue gas temperature at design heat absorbed duty entering an air preheater shall be
430C (805F).
5.1.4
When air preheaters are provided, the heaters shall be designed to operate at 70 percent of heat
absorbed duty when the air preheaters are out of service.

FIGURE 1
TYPICAL AIR PREHEATER SYSTEM
FOR PROCESS HEATER

5.1.5

The air preheater shall be prefabricated to minimize field assembly.

5.1.6

When a recuperating type air preheater is provided, the design shall meet the following conditions:

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DECEMBER 1989

(a)

PAGE 25 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

The recuperative type of an air preheater shall be Deka type or approved equal.

(b) Details of the proposed type of preheater shall be submitted in the vendors quotation. This shall
include information such as number of air passes, type of tubes (cast iron tubes with integral fins on
both sides, cast iron tubes with fins on outside only, glass tubes), cleaning facilities, testing
procedures, etc.
(c) The flue gas temperature leaving the air preheater during design case operation shall be as low
as possible to achieve maximum efficiency. However, the flue gas dew point (including turndown
conditions) must be considered when establishing this temperature. The vendor shall state in his
proposal minimum allowable and minimum calculated tube metal temperatures for the specified fuels
and average winter ambient air temperature.
(d) The air preheater shall have provision for water washing (unless it is mounted directly above the
heater convection section). These provisions shall include as a minimum the following:
(1)

Fixed spray pipes and nozzles for the cold end section.

(2)

An access door above the top of air preheater.

(3)

Platforms and ladders to provide access to water wash connections and access doors.

(4) A blinded NPS 4 drain connection in the bottom of the flue gas transition duct below the air
preheater. Sufficient clearance shall be provided beneath this connection to permit the attachment
of temporary drain piping.
(5) The vendor shall quote water quantities and water temperature (if hot water is used for
onstream cleaning of the glass tube section).
(e) When an air preheater with glass tubes is used, the design and layout shall be subject to Mobil
approval.
(f)

Asbestos is not permitted in gaskets.

(g) All cast tube assemblies shall be pressure tested for leakage prior to assembly of modules. The
vendor shall submit the test report for Mobil approval.
5.1.7
All pipe and pipe fittings associated with air preheaters shall be of steel construction in accordance
with EGE 16-B-30 and EGE 16-B-40.
5.1.8
The vendor shall furnish the following air preheater performance data for heater design conditions
and any other operating condition indicated in EGE 11-D-1:
Air preheater duty

MW (MM Btu/h)

Air flowrate in

kg/s (lb/h)

Air flowrate out

kg/s (lb/h)

Flue gas flowrate in

kg/s (lb/h)

Flue gas flowrate out

kg/s (lb/h)

Air temperature in

C (F)

Air temperature out

C (F)

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

5.2

PAGE 26 OF 31

Flue gas temperature in

C (F)

Flue gas temperature out

C (F)

Air side pressure drop

mm H2O (in. H2O)

Flue gas pressure drop

mm H2O (in. H2O)

DECEMBER 1989

Fans and Motors

5.2.1
Fans and drivers for use with fired heaters shall be designed and built in accordance with
EGE 15-B-21.
5.2.2
Fans shall have electric variable speed motor drivers unless otherwise specified in the project
specifications.
5.2.3

Electrical auxiliary equipment shall be suitable for installation in a Class 1, Division 2 area.

5.2.4

Induction electric motors shall comply with EGE 33-B-9.

5.2.5
Variable inlet guide vanes shall be provided for forced draft fans. Inlet box damper or multiple
louver (opposed blade) shall be provided for induced draft fans unless otherwise specified in project
specifications.
5.2.6
Fan arrangement shall be AMCA Standard 2404 [Standards Handbook, Publication No. 99, Air
Movement and Control Association, Arlington Heights, IL (1986)], Arrangement 3, with the fan wheel located
between bearings, the bearings mounted on independently supported pedestals, and the bearings protected
from the air or gas stream by means of inlet boxes. Other arrangements are acceptable only with specific
Mobil approval.
5.2.7
Performance curves shall have a continuously rising pressure characteristic from the rated point,
as specified, to 60 percent or less of the rated flow.
5.2.8
Fan wheels shall have nonoverloading characteristics and shall be of the highest possible
efficiency. Hollow airfoil construction may be offered only for forced draft applications. Solid blades with
airfoil shape shall be used for induced draft fan applications. The fan wheel shall be of welded construction
unless other designs are specifically approved by Mobil.
5.2.9

The rated speed of the fan shall not exceed 1800 rpm.

5.2.10

A shop test of fan is required as pre EGE 15-B-21.

5.2.11

Couplings and guards shall conform to EGE 15-B-13 unless otherwise specified.

5.2.12

Test block (rated point) conditions for selection of a forced draft fan shall be as follows:

(a)

Air Flowrate: Qa = 1.2 x W a

Where:
Qa = test block air flowrate, kg/s (lb/h)
W a = air flowrate at design heat absorbed duty conditions, kg/s (lb/h)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DECEMBER 1989

(b)

PAGE 27 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

Static Pressure: Pa = 1.44 x P1

Where:
Pa = test block static pressure differential across the fan inlet and outlet flanges, mm H2 O (in.
H2O)
P1 = total air resistance from fan to heater, including ducts, dampers, air preheater, and burners
at design conditions, mm H2O (in. H2O)
(c)

Temperature: Ta = maximum ambient air temperature plus 10C (20F)

5.2.13 Motor drivers for forced draft fans shall be sized for undampered fan performance at minimum
ambient temperature and test block conditions.
5.2.14
(a)

Test block (rated point) conditions for selection of an induced draft fan shall be as follows:

Flute Gas Rate: Qg = 1.2 x W f

Where:
Qg = test block flue gas flowrate, kg/s (lb/h)
W f = flue gas flowrate at design heat absorbed duty conditions, dg/s (lb/h)
(b)

Static Pressure: Pg = 1.44 x P2

Where:
Pg = test block static pressure differential across the fan inlet and outlet flanges, mm H2 O (in.
H2O)
P2 = total pressure loss from heater to fan, including heater, ducts, dampers, and air preheater
at design conditions, mm H2O (in. H2O)
(c)
5.2.15
(a)

Temperature:

Tg = flue gas temperature leaving air preheater at design conditions plus


55C (100F)

Motor drivers for induced draft fans shall be adequate for the following loads:
For 125 percent of normal operating loads at normal operating temperatures.

(b) For cold startup (specified minimum ambient temperature) to normal operating temperature
undampered.
(c)
5.2.16
grade.

For 125 percent test block condition at test block temperature.


Mechanical devices shall be provided for hand control of forced and induced draft fan dampers at

5.2.17 Induced draft fan shaft shrouds (for extended seal mounts) shall be used to prevent dew point
corrosion. Shaft shrouds shall be attached to the fan housing, surround the fan shaft, and be externally
insulated.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

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DECEMBER 1989

5.2.18 Forced draft fans shall be isolated from furnace ducting by a fabric expansion joint. Induced draft
fans shall be isolated from inlet/discharge ducting by an expansion joint.
5.3

Ducting

5.3.1
Elevation of the duct inlet to the forced draft fan shall be a minimum of 7.5 m (25 ft) above grade
level. To prevent potentially damaging foreign materials from entering the fan, the duct inlet shall be covered
with a screen of 38 mm (1 in.) mesh and a rain shield.
5.3.2
Based on the design capacity, the maximum velocity in flue gas ducts and air ducts shall not
exceed 14 m/s (45 ft/s) and 9 m/s (30 ft/s), respectively. The maximum velocity in individual hot air feed
ducts to individual burners shall not exceed 7.5 m/s (25 ft/s). The design of combustion air ducts shall
provide uniform flow distribution to all burners. Combustion air duct arrangement shall be submitted for
Mobil approval.
5.3.3
Provision shall be made for expansion between the air preheater and connecting ductwork.
Location and design of all expansion joints shall be submitted to Mobil for approval.
5.3.4

Adequate drainage facilities shall be provided in horizontal ducts on both sides of the air preheater.

5.3.5
For heaters designed with natural draft operation as backup, several emergency rapid opening
doors should be provided in hot air ducts to achieve uniform flow distribution of cold air to all burners in the
event of fan failure. The maximum velocity of cold air through emergency doors should not exceed 3 m/s
(10 ft/s) at 70 percent of heater design capacity. The doors may be bottom, side, or end mounted. The
doors should be of the gravity opening type and should be designed to open on instrument air failure. A
fence should be provided around these doors, and the location should be marked as a restricted area.
5.3.6
Ducts may be insulated internally or externally. As a minimum, ducts for hot flue gas and hot air
shall be internally insulated with 75 mm (3 in.) of low lime content (maximum 15 percent by weight) premixed
castable. A minimum of two inches of acidproof, premixed castable shall be used in cold flue gas ducts.
All inside surfaces of steel casing shall be protected with a minimum of 300 m (12 mil) DFT of coal tar
epoxy. The vendor shall specify in the proposal the type and thickness of insulation to be used at each duct
location.
5.3.7
At least one access door, 610 mm x 610 mm (24 in. x 24 in.), shall be provided on each flue gas
duct to and from the air preheater.
5.3.8
Blanking flanges shall be provided in the ducts to permit isolation of the air preheater, fans, and
heater for maintenance.
5.3.9
To minimize corrosion in the air preheater by condensation on the flue gas side under cold weather
conditions and at low flowrates, an external cold air bypass duct with positive shutoff damper shall be
provided. The cross-sectional area of the cold air bypass shall be sized for a maximum velocity of 15 m/s
(50 ft/s) with 100 percent of design air flowrate. Hot air recycling, an internal integrated cold air bypass, or
a steam coil at the air inlet may be used in lieu of cold air bypass when approved by Mobil.
6. FABRICATION, ERECTION, INSPECTION, AND TESTING
6.1 The heater, all auxiliary equipment, ladders, stairs, and platforms shall be shop assembled to the
maximum extent possible consistent with available shipping, receiving, and handling facilities. Individual
sections shall be properly marked, braced, and supported to prevent damage during shipment and to permit
field assembly without modification.

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DECEMBER 1989

PAGE 29 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

6.2 All blocking and bracing used for shipping purposes shall be clearly identified for field removal. No
metal bracing members shall remain inside the refractory after erection.
6.3 Prior to the installation of refractory, all steel internal surfaces shall be mechanically cleaned or
commercially sandblasted to remove all dirt, grease, weld splatter, paint, loose scale, or other foreign
materials. When an inside casing protective coating is required, the cleaning shall be done immediately prior
to the coating application.
6.4 All insulation materials shall be prepared and installed in accordance with the refractory manufacturers
recommendations.
6.5

Heater steel framework shall be fabricated and erected in accordance with AISC S326 and AWS D1.1.

6.6 For all pressure parts, welding and inspection shall conform to EGE 00-B-21 and EGE 16-B-40 as
applicable. The qualifying welding procedure for all shop and field welds on tube coils, pressure fittings,
manifolds, crossovers, and all other pressure parts shall be submitted for Mobil approval before the start
of fabrication.
6.7 All pressure castings, including heater headers, crossovers, and manifolds, shall be inspected in
accordance with the requirements of EGE 00-B-20. The selection of castings and welds to be radiographed
shall be approved by Mobil.
6.8 All tube coils, cast pressure fittings, and cast or fabricated manifolds and crossovers shall be subject
to shop inspection or witness test by Mobil.
6.9 All chrome-moly or austenitic welds shall be 100 percent radiographed. When postweld heat treatment
is required, radiographic examination shall be performed upon completion of heat treatment.
6.10 All welds in chrome-moly coils and manifolds shall be magnetic particle tested. Magnetic particle test
shall be performed after postweld heat treatment. All welds in austenitic stainless steel coils and manifolds
shall be tested using dye penetrant.
6.11 Ten percent of all carbon steel welds shall be 100 percent radiographed.
6.12 Shop fabricated coils requiring no field welding shall be hydrostatically tested to 1 times the cold
maximum allowable working pressure, or as limited by attached fittings.
6.13 The entire coil shall be given a field hydrostatic test after erection at a pressure equal to 1 times the
cold maximum allowable working pressure. If the coils is flanged, the test pressure shall be no greater than
1 times the 40C (100F) rating of the flange.
6.14 Test pressure shall be maintained for a minimum of one hour to determine if there are any leaks.
6.15 Water used for hydrostatic testing shall not be polluted or brackish. The chloride content of hydrotest
water shall not exceed 50 ppm.
7. PAINTING
7.1 Exterior steel surfaces of heater casing and stack not exceeding 180C (350F) shall be given a shop
prime coat of Valspar 13-F-4 or an equivalent approved by Mobil. Dry film thickness shall be no less than
50 m (2 mil). Surfaces shall be cleaned by commercial blast or shop pickle prior to painting.

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EGE 11-B-1 1989

PAGE 30 OF 31

DECEMBER 1989

7.2 Stack surfaces exceeding 180C (350F) shall be given a shop prime coat of Valspar 13-F-12 or an
equivalent approved by Mobil. Dry film thickness shall be no less than 50 m (2 mil). Surfaces shall be
cleaned by near-white blast or shop pickle prior to painting.
7.3

All field finish coats shall be furnished in accordance with EGE 35-B-10.

7.4 All platform flooring, supporting steel, handrails, toe plates, stairways, ladders, and cages shall be
hot-dip galvanized. Galvanizing shall conform to ASTM A123, A153, and A384, as applicable.
8. DRAWINGS AND DATA
Vendor shall furnish drawings and data in accordance with EGE 00-C-4. Specific information shall be
furnished as follows:
(a) Drawings shall include final certified drawings; foundation layouts or mounting information; a
materials list for major components, refractory wall, and arch construction; all coil and manifold weld
joint details; shop details; individual subassemblies; fabricated pieces with materials specifications and
other applicable data; nozzle locations and allowable loadings; and burner capacity curves.
(b) Data shall include final data sheets; manufacturer's data report; partial reports, as defined by the
ASME Code, Section 1, for coils in steam service; material test certificates giving chemical and
physical properties of all material used in fabrication (each certificate to identify part description or
number); stress relieving and pressure test charts; operating and maintenance instructions for heater
and auxiliary equipment, including dryout and refractory replacement procedures; and recommended
spare parts for the first year of operation, with prices and delivery time indicated for each item.
9. GUARANTEE
When the equipment is installed in accordance with the vendor's detail drawings, the vendor shall guarantee
that:
(a)

The heater is free of defective workmanship or materials.

(b)

The equipment meets all requirements of the specifications included in this Guide.

(c) The equipment will render satisfactory performance under continuous operation at the design
conditions outlined on the fired heater data sheets. Satisfactory performance includes operation at
the design throughput at the design heat absorption and specified process temperatures at or below
the specified pressure drop.
(d)

The thermal efficiency will not be less than that stated on the data sheet.

(e)

The sound level will not exceed that stated on the sound level data sheet.

(f)
Proposed NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates concentration in the flue gases will
not be exceeded.
(g) Heater parts are suitable for operations specified in the "Process Design Conditions" of the fired
heater data sheets.

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DECEMBER 1989

PAGE 31 OF 31

EGE 11-B-1 1989

The guarantee period shall extend one year from the date the heater is placed in service, but shall not
exceed 24 months from date of shipment. If the heater does not perform satisfactorily or defects occur
during this period, the vendor shall make necessary repairs, alterations, or replacements at no cost to Mobil.
If shipment or receipt of the heater or its components or auxiliaries is delayed by the purchaser or by factors
outside the control of the vendor or purchaser, extension of the guarantee period shall be subject to
negotiation with Mobil.
Within 12 months after the heater has been put into operation, Mobil may subject it to a performance test.
Test procedure for determining the thermal efficiency of fired process heaters shall be based on API RP 532.
Such tests may be witnessed by the vendors representatives. If the heater does not perform in accordance
with the specified requirements, the vendor shall take the necessary steps, at his expense, to make the
heater meet guaranteed performance.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1a 1989


Page 1 of 5

SI (METRIC) UNITS
ISSUE

APPROVED

ISSUE

4
1. Service
2. Number Required
3. *Total Duty per Heater, MW

APPROVED

JOB NO.

ITEM NO.

LOCATION

UNIT

Reference
Manufacturer

Type
Absorbed: Process

Other

PROCESS DESIGN CONDITIONS


4. *Heater Section
5. *Service
6. *Heat Absorption, MW
7. *Fluid
8. *Flowrate, kg/s
9.

Flowrate, m /day

10. *Pressure Drop, kPa (Allowable)


11.

Pressure Drop, kPa (Calculated)


2

12. *Average Flux Density, W/m (Allowable)


2

13.

Average Flux Density, W/m (Calculated)

15.

Maximum Flux Density, W/m

15.

Velocity Limitation

16.

Maximum Allowable Inside Film Temperature, C

17.

Fouling Factor, m CC/W

18.

Corrosion or Erosion Characteristics

INLET CONDITIONS:

19. *Temperature, C
20. *Pressure, kPa (Abs) (Gage)
21. *Liquid Flow, kg/s
22. *Vapor Flow, kg/s
3

23. *Liquid Density, kg/m

24. *Vapor Molecular Weight


25. *Liquid Viscosity, mPaCs
OUTLET CONDITIONS: 26. *Temperature, C
27. *Pressure, kPa (Abs) (Gage)
28. *Liquid Flow, kg/s
29. *Vapor Flow, kg/s
3

30. *Liquid Density, kg/m

31. *Vapor Molecular Weight


32. *Liquid Viscosity, mPaCs
33. *Distillation Data or Composition Attached
REMARKS AND SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:

COMBUSTION DESIGN CONDITIONS


34. *Type of Fuel
35. *Excess Air, Percent
36.

Guaranteed Efficiency, Percent (LHV)

37.

Calculated Efficiency, Percent (LHV)

38.

Radiation Loss, Percent of Heat Release (LHV)

*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET
SI (METRIC) UNITS

EGE 11-D-1a 1989


Page 2 of 5

COMBUSTION DESIGN CONDITIONS Contd


39.

Flue Gas Temperature, C, Leaving Radiant Section

40.

Flue Gas Temperature, C, Leaving Convection Section

41.

Flue Gas Mass Velocity Through Convection Section, kg/m Cs

42.

Draft at Bridge Wall, mm H2O

43.

Draft at Burner, mm H2O

44. *Ambient Air Temperature, C


45. *Altitude, m, Above Sea Level
46.

Calculated Heat Release, MW (LHV)

47.

Volumetric Heat Release, W/m

FUEL CHARACTERISTICS
48. *Type of Fuel
49. *Heating Value: HHV
50.

LHV
3

51. *Density, kg/m

52. *H/C Ratio (by Weight)


53. *Temperature at Burner, C
54. *Viscosity: At

55.

At

56. *Fuel Pressure Available at Burner, kPa (Gage)


57. *Atomizing Steam Pressure, kPa (Gage)
58. *Liquid Fuels: Vanadium/Sodium Content, ppm
59.

*Nitrogen Content, Percent by Weight

60.

*Sulfur Content, Percent by Weight

62. *Gas: Molecular Weight


62.

Composition, Mole Percent

MECHANICAL DESIGN CONDITIONS


GENERAL
63. *Plot Limitations

*Stack Limitations

64. *Tube Limitations

Other Limitations

65. *Required Drawings


66. *Structural Design Data: Wind Load

Seismic Factor

67. *List of Applicable Standards or Specifications:

COIL DESIGN
68. *Heater Section
69. *Design Pressure (Elastic/Rupture), kPa (Gage)
70. *Design Fluid Temperature, C
71. *Corrosion Allowance, mm: Tubes
72.

Fittings

73.

Hydrostatic Test Pressure, kPa (Gage)

74.

Number of Passes

75.

Overall Tube Length, m

76.

Effective Tube Length, m

77.

Bare Tubes: Number

78.
79.

Total Exposed Surface, m


Extended Surface Tubes: Number

80.

Total Exposed Surface, m

81.

Tube Spacing, Center to Center, mm (Staggered) (In Line)

82.

Tube Center to Furnace Wall, mm Min.

83. *Stress Relieve


84. *Weld Inspection Requirements, X-Ray or Other
*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET
SI (METRIC) UNITS

EGE 11-D-1a 1989


Page 3 of 5

COIL DESIGN Contd


*Heater Section

TUBES
85.

Vertical or Horizontal

86.

*Tube Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

87.

Outside Diameter, mm

88.

Wall Thickness (Minimum) (Average), mm

89.

Maximum Tube Wall Temperature, C (Calculated)

90.

Inside Film Coefficient, W/m CC (Calculated)

91.

Maximum Tube Wall Temperature, C (Design)

92.

Design Basis for Tube Wall Thickness

DESCRIPTION OF EXTENDED SURFACE


93.

Type

94.

Fin or Stud Material

95.

Fin or Stud Dimensions

96.

Fin or Stud Spacing

97.

Maximum Fin or Stud Temperature

98.

Extension Ratio

PLUG-TYPE HEADERS
99.
100.

Manufacturer and Type


*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

101.

Nominal Rating

102.

*Location

103.

*Welded or Rolled

RETURN BENDS
104.

Manufacturer and Type

105.

*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

106.

Nominal Rating or Schedule

107.

*Location

TERMINALS
108.

Manufacturer and Type

109.

*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

110.

Nominal Rating

111.

*Location

112.

*Welded or Rolled:

113.

Flange: Size and Rating

114.

Location

CROSSOVERS
115.

*Welded or Flanged

116.

*Pipe Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

117.

Pipe Size and Wall Thickness

118.

Location

119.

Flange Rating

TUBE SUPPORTS
ENDS, TOP, BOTTOM:
120.

Material

121.

Thickness

122.

Type and Thickness of Insulation

123.

Insulation Reinforcement

INTERMEDIATE:
124.

Material

125.

Spacing, m

126.

Type and Thickness of Coating

127.

GUIDES: Location

128.
Material
*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1a 1989


Page 4 of 5

SI (METRIC) UNITS
HEADER BOXES
129.

Location

130.

Insulation: Material

131.
132.

Material

Thickness
Thickness

Anchor Material
Are Header Box Doors Bolted or Hinged?

BURNERS
133.

Manufacturer and Type

134.

Location

Size

135.

Size and Type of Pilots

136.

Heat Release per Burner at Design Excess Air and Draft, MW: Normal

137.

Number

Maximum

MINIMUM DISTANCE BURNER CENTERLINE TO TUBE CENTERLINE:


138.

Horizontal

Vertical

SETTINGS
EXPOSED VERTICAL WALLS:
139.

Thickness, mm

140.

Wall Construction

141.

Outside Casing: Thickness, mm

142.

Tieback Material

143.

Support Material

144.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

Hot Face Temperature, C: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, C

SHIELDED VERTICAL WALLS:


145.

Thickness, mm

146.

Wall Construction

147.

Outside Casing: Thickness, mm

148.

Tieback Material

149.

Support Material

150.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

151.

Thickness, mm

152.

Arch Construction

Hot Face Temperature, C: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, C

ARCH:

153.

Outside Casing: Thickness, mm

154.

Tieback Material

155.

Support Material

156.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

157.

Thickness, mm

158.

Floor Construction

Hot Face Temperature, C: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, C

FLOOR:

159.

Hot Face Temperature, C: Design

Calculated

Minimum Floor Elevation

160.

Outside Casing: Thickness, mm

161.

Thickness, mm

162.

Construction

163.

Outside Casing: Thickness, mm

Material

Outside Temperature, C

CONVECTION SECTION:
Design Hot Face Temperature, C:

Material

Outside Temperature, C

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1a 1989


Page 5 of 5

SI (METRIC) UNITS
CONVECTION SECTION Contd
164.

Tieback Material

165.

Support Material

166.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

INTERNAL WALL
167.

Type

Dimensions

Material

STACK
168.

Number

169.

Material

Self-supporting or Guyed

170.

Inside Metal Diameter

171.

Lining: Material

Location

Thickness, mm

172.

Type of Material or Reinforcement

173.

Extent of Lining

Minimum Thickness, mm

Height Abovegrade

Stack Length

Thickness, mm

DAMPERS
174.

Location: Stack or Bottom Air Plenum

175.

Material

176.

Description of Provision for Operation from Grade

Multiple or Single Leaf

HOT DUCTS, BREECHING, FLUES, AND COLLECTORS


177.

Material

178.

Insulation: Type

179.
180.

ASTM Specification

Size

Thickness, mm

Type of Anchoring Material


Size of Access Door into Breeching

COLD AIR DUCTS AND PLENUM


181.

Material

ASTM Specification

Size

MISCELLANEOUS
182.

Overall Dimensions of Furnace

183.

Platforms: Location

184.

Width

185.

Type of Floor

186.

Stairs: Location

187.

Ladders: Location

188.

Access Doors: Location and Size

189.

Observation Doors: Location and Size

MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS (Number and Size)


190.

Draft

191.

Temperature

Flue Gas Sample


Smothering Steam

192.

Header Box Drain

Stack Drain

193.

Coil Drains

Other

194.

Painting and Galvanizing Requirements

195.

Are Painters Trolley and Rail Included?

196.

Extent of Tube-Handling Facilities

197.

Explosion Doors: Location and Size

198.

Special Equipment (Sootblowers, Air Preheaters, Noise Suppressors, Fans, etc.)

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1b 1989


Page 1 of 5

CUSTOMARY UNITS
ISSUE

APPROVED

ISSUE

APPROVED

1. Service
2. Number Required
Type
3. *Total Duty per Heater, MM Btu/h

JOB NO.

ITEM NO.

LOCATION

UNIT

Reference
Manufacturer
Absorbed: Process

Other

PROCESS DESIGN CONDITIONS


4. *Heater Section
5. *Service
6. *Heat Absorption, MM Btu/h
7. *Fluid
8. *Flowrate, lb/h
9.

Flowrate, bbl/day

10. *Pressure Drop, psi (Allowable)


11.

Pressure Drop, psi (Calculated)


2

12. *Average Flux Density, Btu/hCft (Allowable)


2

13.

Average Flux Density, Btu/hCft (Calculated)

15.

Maximum Flux Density, Btu/hCft

15.

Velocity Limitation

16.

Maximum Allowable Inside Film Temperature, F

17.

Fouling Factor, hCft CF/Btu

18.

Corrosion or Erosion Characteristics

INLET CONDITIONS:

19. *Temperature, F
20. *Pressure, (psia) (psig)
21. *Liquid Flow, lb/h
22. *Vapor Flow, lb/h
23. *Liquid Density, (API) (Sp Gr at 60F)
24. *Vapor Molecular Weight
25. *Liquid Viscosity, cP

OUTLET CONDITIONS: 26. *Temperature, F


27. *Pressure, (psia) (psig)
28. *Liquid Flow, lb/h
29. *Vapor Flow, lb/h
30. *Liquid Density, (API) (Sp Gr at 60F)
31. *Vapor Molecular Weight
32. *Liquid Viscosity, cP
33. *Distillation Data or Composition Attached
REMARKS AND SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:

COMBUSTION DESIGN CONDITIONS


34. *Type of Fuel
35. *Excess Air, Percent
36.

Guaranteed Efficiency, Percent (LHV)

37.

Calculated Efficiency, Percent (LHV)

38.

Radiation Loss, Percent of Heat Release (LHV)

*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET
CUSTOMARY UNITS

EGE 11-D-1b 1989


Page 2 of 5

COMBUSTION DESIGN CONDITIONS Contd


39.

Flue Gas Temperature, F, Leaving Radiant Section

40.

Flue Gas Temperature, F, Leaving Convection Section

41.

Flue Gas Mass Velocity Through Convection Section, lb/ft Cs

42.

Draft at Bridge Wall, in. H2O

43.

Draft at Burner, in. H2O

44. *Ambient Air Temperature, F


45. *Altitude, ft, Above Sea Level
46.

Calculated Heat Release, MM Btu/h (LHV)

47.

Volumetric Heat Release, Btu/hCft

FUEL CHARACTERISTICS
48. *Type of Fuel
49. *Heating Value: HHV
50.

LHV

51. *Specific Gravity


52. *H/C Ratio (by Weight)
53. *Temperature at Burner, F
54. *Viscosity: At

55.

At

56. *Fuel Pressure Available at Burner, psig


57. *Atomizing Steam Pressure, psig
58. *Liquid Fuels: Vanadium/Sodium Content, ppm
59.

*Nitrogen Content, Percent by Weight

60.

*Sulfur Content, Percent by Weight

62. *Gas: Molecular Weight


62.

Composition, Mole Percent

MECHANICAL DESIGN CONDITIONS


GENERAL
63. *Plot Limitations

*Stack Limitations

64. *Tube Limitations

Other Limitations

65. *Required Drawings


66. *Structural Design Data: Wind Load

Seismic Factor

67. *List of Applicable Standards or Specifications:

COIL DESIGN
68. *Heater Section
69. *Design Pressure (Elastic/Rupture), psig
70. *Design Fluid Temperature, F
71. *Corrosion Allowance, in.:

Tubes

72.

Fittings

73.

Hydrostatic Test Pressure, psig

74.

Number of Passes

75.

Overall Tube Length, ft

76.

Effective Tube Length, ft

77.

Bare Tubes: Number

78.
79.

Total Exposed Surface, ft


Extended Surface Tubes: Number

80.

Total Exposed Surface, ft

81.

Tube Spacing, Center to Center, in. (Staggered) (In Line)

82.

Tube Center to Furnace Wall, in. Min.

83. *Stress Relieve


84. *Weld Inspection Requirements, X-Ray or Other
*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET
CUSTOMARY UNITS

EGE 11-D-1b 1989


Page 3 of 5

COIL DESIGN Contd


*Heater Section

TUBES
85.

Vertical or Horizontal

86.

*Tube Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

87.

Outside Diameter, in.

88.

Wall Thickness (Minimum) (Average), in.

89.

Maximum Tube Wall Temperature, F (Calculated)

90.

Inside Film Coefficient, Btu/hCft CF (Calculated)

91.

Maximum Tube Wall Temperature, F (Design)

92.

Design Basis for Tube Wall Thickness

DESCRIPTION OF EXTENDED SURFACE


93.

Type

94.

Fin or Stud Material

95.

Fin or Stud Dimensions

96.

Fin or Stud Spacing

97.

Maximum Fin or Stud Temperature

98.

Extension Ratio

PLUG-TYPE HEADERS
99.
100.

Manufacturer and Type


*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

101.

Nominal Rating

102.

*Location

103.

*Welded or Rolled

RETURN BENDS
104.

Manufacturer and Type

105.

*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

106.

Nominal Rating or Schedule

107.

*Location

TERMINALS
108.

Manufacturer and Type

109.

*Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

110.

Nominal Rating

111.

*Location

112.

*Welded or Rolled:

113.

Flange: Size and Rating

114.

Location

CROSSOVERS
115.

*Welded or Flanged

116.

*Pipe Material (ASTM Specification and Grade)

117.

Pipe Size and Wall Thickness

118.

Location

119.

Flange Rating

TUBE SUPPORTS
ENDS, TOP, BOTTOM:
120.

Material

121.

Thickness

122.

Type and Thickness of Insulation

123.

Insulation Reinforcement

INTERMEDIATE:
124.

Material

125.

Spacing, ft

126.

Type and Thickness of Coating

127.

GUIDES: Location

128.
Material
*Items designated by asterisks are the minimum to be completed and furnished to the manufacturer. All other items shall be completed by the manufacturer.

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1b 1989


Page 4 of 5

CUSTOMARY UNITS
HEADER BOXES
129.

Location

130.

Insulation: Material

131.
132.

Material

Thickness
Thickness

Anchor Material
Are Header Box Doors Bolted or Hinged?

BURNERS
133.

Manufacturer and Type

134.

Location

Size

135.

Size and Type of Pilots

136.

Heat Release per Burner at Design Excess Air and Draft, MM Btu/h: Normal

137.

Number

Maximum

MINIMUM DISTANCE BURNER CENTERLINE TO TUBE CENTERLINE:


138.

Horizontal

Vertical

SETTINGS
EXPOSED VERTICAL WALLS:
139.

Thickness, in.

140.

Wall Construction

141.

Outside Casing: Thickness, in.

142.

Tieback Material

143.

Support Material

144.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

Hot Face Temperature, F: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, F

SHIELDED VERTICAL WALLS:


145.

Thickness, in.

146.

Wall Construction

147.

Outside Casing: Thickness, in.

148.

Tieback Material

149.

Support Material

150.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

151.

Thickness, in.

152.

Arch Construction

Hot Face Temperature, F: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, F

ARCH:

153.

Outside Casing: Thickness, in.

154.

Tieback Material

155.

Support Material

156.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

157.

Thickness, in.

158.

Floor Construction

Hot Face Temperature, F: Design

Material

Calculated

Outside Temperature, F

FLOOR:

159.

Hot Face Temperature, F: Design

Calculated

Minimum Floor Elevation

160.

Outside Casing: Thickness, in.

161.

Thickness, in.

162.

Construction

163.

Outside Casing: Thickness, in.

Material

Outside Temperature, F

CONVECTION SECTION:
Design Hot Face Temperature, F:

Material

Outside Temperature, F

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE


DIRECT FIRED PROCESS HEATER DATA SHEET

EGE 11-D-1b 1989


Page 5 of 5

CUSTOMARY UNITS
CONVECTION SECTION Contd
164.

Tieback Material

165.

Support Material

166.

Method of Fastening Tiebacks to Structure

INTERNAL WALL
167.

Type

Dimensions

Material

STACK
168.

Number

169.

Material

Self-supporting or Guyed

170.

Inside Metal Diameter

171.

Lining: Material

Location

Thickness, in.

172.

Type of Material or Reinforcement

173.

Extent of Lining

Minimum Thickness, in.

Height Abovegrade

Stack Length

Thickness, in.

DAMPERS
174.

Location: Stack or Bottom Air Plenum

175.

Material

176.

Description of Provision for Operation from Grade

Multiple or Single Leaf

HOT DUCTS, BREECHING, FLUES, AND COLLECTORS


177.

Material

178.

Insulation: Type

179.
180.

ASTM Specification

Size

Thickness, in.

Type of Anchoring Material


Size of Access Door into Breeching

COLD AIR DUCTS AND PLENUM


181.

Material

ASTM Specification

Size

MISCELLANEOUS
182.

Overall Dimensions of Furnace

183.

Platforms: Location

184.

Width

185.

Type of Floor

186.

Stairs: Location

187.

Ladders: Location

188.

Access Doors: Location and Size

189.

Observation Doors: Location and Size

MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS (Number and Size)


190.

Draft

191.

Temperature

Flue Gas Sample


Smothering Steam

192.

Header Box Drain

Stack Drain

193.

Coil Drains

Other

194.

Painting and Galvanizing Requirements

195.

Are Painters Trolley and Rail Included?

196.

Extent of Tube-Handling Facilities

197.

Explosion Doors: Location and Size

198.

Special Equipment (Sootblowers, Air Preheaters, Noise Suppressors, Fans, etc.)