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4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

**Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of
**

NERL Series

Sameer Sahu1 Alok Verma2

1

Student 2Assistant Professor

1,2

Department of Mechanical Engineering

1,2

School of Engineering and IT MATS University Raipur, India

Abstract— Wind turbines are the solutions for the today’s

energy crisis within the world. In India plays a major role in

renewable energy generation because it covers over

seventieth of the energy generated by the renewable energy

sources. Still we've turbine with but thirty ninth percent

efficiency. For improvement in performance of turbine we

want to develop some technique for performance prediction

of the turbine. the event of performance prediction is one

among the foremost vital aspects of the planning of wind

turbines. a longtime methodology is employed to calculate

the optimum performance parameters of the horizontal axis

turbine in provisions of the foremost important parameters

like tip speed magnitude relation, blade variety, pitch angle

and wind speed. Our results can show that pitch is suggested

for low wind speed regime. Optimum of tip speed magnitude

relation is found among a spread of (5 to 11) among the

constraints. The cut in speed with the remaining parameters

is additionally studied and their result on power and force are

explored.

Key words: HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine),

Parameters, BEM (Blade Element Moment Theory),

NACA4412

I. INTRODUCTION

In the field of renewable energy, wind energy is that the

most promising one as everywhere the worlds wind energy

is contributory a dominating quantity among all different

sources of renewable energies. In Bharat if we tend to take

total energy production as 100 percent wind energy is

contributory over seventy two 100% in it. this will be

distinguish seen as a lion share. [12] The foreign places

wherever power can't be provided comfortable wind energy

are often used as a significant supply of energy for that

regime. In past years we've got seen thirty fifth will increase

in installation of wind farms worldwide. [1] Supported size

turbine ar classified as small, medium and tiny. For low

speed regime like geographical region small rotary engine

will fulfill our would like. A turbine designed with

improved factors of irresponsibleness and potency may be a

resolution to our constant would like of energy which is able

to conjointly defend our surroundings from pollution and

energy crisis.

Wind turbine gains energy from wind by suggests

that of its blade so it makes blade as a key component. It

converts mechanical energy of wind in to move energy

afterward by the assistance of generator we tend to convert

it in to electricity. Mechanics form optimization is one

among the most analysis fields that ar directly associated

with power production of a turbine. The optimum

distributions of the chord length and also the pitch angle in

every section are often no inheritable with the assistance of

the planning parameters, that comprise the rated wind speed,

blades range, style tip speed quantitative relation and style

**angle of attack [2]. Operative at low cut-in wind speeds has
**

been created probable by mechanics optimization of the

rotor blades that is that the principally vital a part of a

turbine [4, 5]. Mechanics optimization of the rotor blades is

related to optimization of the chord and twist distribution,

selection of aerofoil form, range of blades, and also the tip

speed quantitative relation (TSR) [6]. C. J. Bai, et al. [3]

bestowed style of horizontal-axis turbine blade and

mechanics investigation mistreatment numerical simulation

mistreatment BEM theory for S822 device.

BEM theory typically is uses for evaluating the

forces on the turbine in its style and optimization [7]. Ozge

Polat and Ismail H.Tuncer obtained parallel genetic

algorithmic rule to optimize blade kind at prescribed wind

speed, rotor speed,rotor diameter and range of blades of 4

digit NACA profile of a turbine [8].

There area unit 3 main factors that has got to be

thought of for blade style. First, power extraction happens

primarily on the outer a part of any rotary engine blade.

Second, beginning force is generated primarily close to the

hub. Thirdly, thick airfoil sections don't seem to be to be

used for tiny rotary engine blades as their low-Re

performance is usually terribly poor at high angles of attack.

the primary 2 factors area unit encouraging as they counsel

that an inexpensive compromise between high potency and

sensible beginning is feasible. The third result's cause for

concern as a result of thick sections area unit used close to

the hub of huge blades for structural strength (in

combination with the circular root attachment that enables

pitch adjustment). It’s for these reasons that the most

important distinction between the form of best blades for big

and tiny turbines can occur within the hub region [9].

An airfoil with low Sir Joshua Reynolds range

calculated for purpose of miniature horizontal axis wind

turbines to attain higher start-up and low wind speed

performances. The dimension of turbine blades for an

outlined size, continuously involves analysis as well as

calculations, modeling and experimentation. The

calculations of blade pure mathematics parameters like

chord length, thickness and angle of attack may be a most

noteworthy ingredient of any blade style procedure for

needed profile, length and rated wind speed [7, 8, 10].

Maximum potency is merely one in all the

parameters to be optimized on several blades. it's usually

unattainable to derive analytic expression for multidimensional improvement. There area unit an enormous

range of multi-dimensional improvement strategies on the

market for blade style, variety of that area unit on the market

as MATLAB functions. The strategy delineated here

produces optimum results, straightforward to code, simply

extended to higher dimensional improvement, and

computationally in no time.

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1474

**Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
**

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

A. Functional Design

Functional design is carried out by the considering the use

of the electrical appliances to meet the need of the

household purposes in the rural sectors. The rotor diameter

(d) is calculated from the basic Eq. (1) of wind power (P) at

rated wind speed (v),

1

P = Cp ɳall (⁄4 ? 2 ) V3

2

**II. VARIOUS DESIGN PARAMETERS
**

A. Lift, drag and moment coefficients

In general, there square measure 2 forces and one moment

that affect an aerofoil; these being pitching moment, carry

and drag. The definitions of these 3 forces explained during

this section.

**Fig. 1: Lift and drag on an aerofoil
**

The drag force is due each to viscous friction forces

at the surface of the device and to uneven pressure on the

device surfaces facing to and left from the approaching

flow. The carry is that the force wont to overcome gravity

and also the higher the carry the upper the mass that may be

raised off the bottom. For AN device carry to tug magnitude

relation ought to be maximized. As a result, it will improve

potency once turbine generates electricity. Lift and drag

coefficients CL and CD [11] are:

1) Lift Coefficient

?

CL = 1 ? 2

(1)

**speed turbine chooses worth of tip speed magnitude relation
**

from one to four and a high speed turbine set its vary from

five to nine.

As a preliminary style thought, the most effective

worth of tip speed ratios for a high speed rotary engine is

concerning seven [11], that make sure that the turbine will

run at close to most power constant. the connection between

move speed and tip speed magnitude relation is shown in

Equation 5.

2 ??

=

(5)

60 ??

**Where n is the rotational speed of the rotor, r is the
**

rotor radius and V0 is the wind speed. For instance, if tip

speed ratio is 8, the rotor radius is 9m and speed of wind is

10m/s, then the revolving pace of the rotor should be 85 rpm

using Equation 6.

60??

?=

(6)

2?

Thus, associate in nursing inverse relationship

between the movement speeds and therefore the blade span

is bestowed during this equation. equivalent tip speed

magnitude relation, a blade with an enormous span features

a low movement speed. Taking under consideration of the

structural style of blades, elevated movement speed wants a

extremely significant structure, that outlay too greatly to

make and induces vast noise.

C. Betz limit

⁄2 ?? ?

2) Drag Coefficient

?

CD= 1 ? 2

⁄2 ?? ?

(2)

**Where ρ the density of air and c is is that the
**

control surface length, referred to as chord, unit for the carry

and drag is N/m (SI units). we'd like to grasp pitching

moment M to explain the forces utterly. that is found each in

theory and by experimentation that, if the force is

functioning at a location ¼ chord back from the forefront on

most low speed airfoils, the quantity of the mechanics

pitching moment remains nearly stable with angle of attack?

In most control surface simulations, the pitching moment

centre is ready up at ¼ chord length to urge associate degree

approximate price and therefore the pitching moment

constant is outlined as follows. Moment coefficient

?

CM = 1

(3)

2

⁄2 ?? ?

**B. Tip Speed Ratio
**

The tip speed ratio is the ratio of the blade tip speed over

wind speed. It is a significant parameter for wind turbine

design and its definition is shown in Equation 4.

1) Tip speed ratio

= R/??

(4)

is the angular rate of the turbine rotor, R is radius of the

rotor and Vo is that the wind speed. typically an occasional

**Fig. 2: The efficiency of an optimum turbine with rotation
**

The efficiency is defined as the ratio between power

coefficient Cp and the Betz limit, Betz = 16/27 ≈ 0.593. This

value was concluded by Albert Betz who was a German

physicist in 1919, 0.593 is the upper limit of power

efficiency of a wind turbine which changes the kinetic

?

energy to mechanical energy, So efficiency η = 16 ? =

⁄17

?? ×17

**. Seeing from Figure six, the facility loss is huge for a
**

16

coffee tip speed quantitative relation turbine. A running

turbine will solely accomplish eighty fifth potency once the

tip speed quantitative relation is a pair of. The system can

become additional and additional economical if the tip speed

quantitative relation is higher. Once the tip speed

quantitative relation reaches to six, the potency is

approximate ninety six. It indicates that wind turbines with

high tip speed quantitative relation will extract additional

K.E. from wind by comparison with low tip speed

quantitative relation wind turbines.

1) Number of blades

The number of blades greatly influences the HAWT

performance. The foremost common formats square

measure two-blade and three-blade machines. Some tiny

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1475

**Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
**

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

**HAWTs could have over three blades, and frequently they're
**

low speediness wind turbines. Low speed equipment

operates with nice force. On the opposite hand, high speed

wind turbines have solely two or three blades will thus to

attain similar wind energy utilization with low driving force.

D. Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM)

With this theory, it's potential to calculate the steady masses

and additionally the thrust and power for various settings of

wind speed, motility speed and pitch angle. As shown in

Figure seven, for illustration purpose, the blade is assumed

to be divided into N sections or parts and also the following

assumptions ar made:

1) Each part is independent; a variation in one part

won't have an effect on different parts.

2) The force from the blades is decided separately by

the raise and drag of the surface form of the blades.

**Fig. 3: Schematic of blade elements; c, aerofoil chord
**

length; dr, radial length of element; r, rotor radius; Ω,

angular velocity of rotor

In order to urge sensible results once mistreatment

BEM methodology, it's necessary to use 2 necessary

corrections below. [11]

The first is named Prandtl’s tip loss issue, that

corrects the idea of Associate in infinite range of blades. The

second correction is named Glauert’s correction associate in

an empirical relation between the thrust constant CT and also

the axial induction issue a once worth is bigger than just

about zero.

E. Aerofoil Behavior

Before introducing the control surface behaviour, range

Mach number ratio} and painter number got to be explained.

Mach number could be a proportion of speed of AN object

with sound and it's outlined as:

Ma = vs/ uc

(7)

Where Ma is mach number, vs is object speed and

uc is sound speed. Subsonic is defined as Ma ≤ 1, transonic

is defined as Ma =1 , supersonic is defined as Ma ≥ 1 and

hypersonic is defined as Ma ≥ 1. The Reynolds number is a

non-dimensional value and it is a ratio of inertial force to

viscous force is defined as:

? 2⁄

?

⁄ 2

?

Re = ?

=

??

(8)

**Aerofoil behaviour will be represented into 3 flow
**

regimes: the connected flow regime, the high lift/stall

development regime and therefore the flat plate/fully stalled

regime. In connected flow regime, flow is measured at the

higher face of device, during this scenario; carry will

increase with the angle of attack. In elevated lift/stall growth

regime, the carry constant will increase because the device

becomes a lot of and a lot of trapped. Stall happens once the

angle of attack goes on the far side a particular worth

**(depending on the painter number) and parting of the
**

physical phenomenon on the higher face happens. it's

indispensable to review the device behaviour: mechanics

performances ar totally different completely different}

thanks to different pure mathematics of device, and per

totally different aerofoil’s behaviour, selecting associate

applicable device for turbine blade can improve the potency.

F. Untwisted and Twisted Blade

For some fashionable wind turbines, the blade tips area unit

designed employing a skinny control surface for root region

and also the high elevate to tug quantitative relation is meant

employing a thick version of identical control surface for

structural support. The crucial factors for selecting control

surface are: most elevate to tug quantitative relation and

pitch moment. Figure eight shows that: mutually straight

blade, the stall condition happens from the span wise station

(r/R) is 16 PF. so as to extend the effective flow speed at

The rotary wing from the blade root to the tip, it's

higher to twist blades[11]. Note that so as to realize the

utmost elevate and potency for variety of drawn-out blades,

not solely the chord length, twisted angle and thickness

modification, however conjointly the profile of control

surface varies down the blade. producing issue has to be

taken into consideration yet. Previously, the foremost

standard surface of turbine blade was NACA4412 (Figure

8), since the lower surface of this surface is flat that is

straightforward to manufacture with optical fiber, though it

doesn't have an honest air performance. Nowadays, several

sensible aerofoils are designed for various wind turbines like

NREL, DU and BE series.

**Fig. 4: NACA4412 aerofoil cross section
**

III. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN

All the parameters that area unit associated with the

mechanics like the Chord Length(C), Relative angle (Φ),

native Radius (r), Angle of attack (α), Reynolds range (Re),

constant of raise (CL), constant of drag (CD)

(Corresponding to the Re), Solidity (σ), Axial Induction

issue (a), Radial Induction issue (a’) and constant of power

(Cp) by mistreatment the Blade part Momentum Theory [9,

11, 14]. Blade is split in 10 parts. The relative angle is

calculated by equation (9) as

ф = tan-1 2⁄3

(9)

?

**The chord length at each station is calculated from
**

equation (10) as

C = 16 ⁄ √4

(10)

9?

+ [? + 21 (9 ? )]2

9

Reynolds Number is given by Eq. (11),

× ? × ?⁄

Re =

(11)

1.5 × 10−5

Coefficient of Lift and Coefficient of Drag are

taken from the chart and by using interpolation for

corresponding Reynolds Number and angle of attack

calculated the values of the same. The solidity is calculated

by equation (12) as

= ? × ?⁄2 ?

(12)

The axial induction factor (a) and radial induction

factor (a’) are given by Eq. (13) and Eq. (14) as:-

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1476

**Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
**

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

a = 1⁄

1+4? ???2 ф

1+

?? ???ф

1

a’ = ⁄4? ???ф

−1

(13)

(14)

??

**After conniving the axial and radial induction
**

issue, relative or blade in-flow angle is once more calculated

from equation (15)

tan ф = 1 − ?⁄(1 + ?′)

(15)

?

**Then, through multiple iterations calculates the
**

Axial and Radial Induction Factors, blade influx angle for

the bigger accuracy and to urge hard currency within the

angle of attack. it's any wont to calculate the constant of

Power (Cp) by equivalent. (16)

8

Cp= [? ???2 (cos ф (cos ф −

? ???ф) (sin ф +? ??? ф ) (1 −

??

??

cot ф) ? 2 ] (16)

**Following these steps, through multiple iterations
**

aerodynamic parameters can determined.

IV. OPTIMIZATION OF THE WIND TURBINE

The optimisation with the target of improvement of power

performance and low speed beginning behaviour is

disbursed. For optimisation we've got used the BetzJoukowsky Limit Theory. Sir Joshua Reynolds variety and

solidity square measure calculated by equivalent weight.4

and Eq.5. The axial force constant (Ca) and tangential force

constant (C'a) square measure given by equation (17) and

equation (18) as

Ca = CL cos ф + CD sin ф

(17)

Ca’ = CL sin ф - CD cos ф

(18)

For Tip Loss Correction, two intermediate factors

Y1 and Y2 are given by Eq. (19) and Eq. (20),

4? ???2 ф⁄

Y1 =

(19)

??

4? ???ф ???ф

Y2 =

(20)

⁄

?? ′

Axial and Radial Induction Factors are determined

by Eq. (21) and Eq. (22)

a=

2 + ?1 − √[4 ?1 (1 − ?) + ?1 2 ]⁄

a = 1⁄2 (1−??)?2

(1−?)

2 (1 + ??1 ) (21)

−1

(22)

**Relative angle is given by Eq. (9) and twist angle
**

of blade element is given from equation (23) as

θP = ф- a

(23)

The coefficient of power is given by Eq. (16).

Blade optimization is achieved through multiple iterations.

V. DISCUSSION

**provide North American country higher price of potency in
**

terms of power allotted by the blades of turbine.

REFERENCES

[1] Kale, Sandip Achutrao, and Ravindra N. Varma.

"Aerodynamic Design of a Horizontal Axis Micro Wind

Turbine Blade Using NACA 4412 Profile."International

Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) 4.1

(2014): 69-72.

[2] Prasad, Navin, et al. "Design And Development Of

Horizontal Small Wind Turbine Blade For Low Wind

Speeds."

[3] C. J. Bai, F. B. Hsiao, , M. H. Li, G. Y. Huang, Y. J.

Chen, “Design of 10 kW Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

(HAWT) Blade and Aerodynamic Investigation Using

Numerical Simulation”, Procedia Engineering 67, 2013,

pp 279 – 287

[4] Habali SM, Saleh IA. , “Local design, testing and

manufacturing of small mixed airfoil wind turbine

blades of glass fiber reinforced plastics. Part I: design of

the blade and root”, Energy Conversion & Management

2000;41:249-80.

[5] Ahmed MR, Narayan S, Zullah MA, Lee YH. ,

“Experimental and numerical studies on a low Reynolds

number airfoil for wind turbine blades”, Journal of

Fluid Science and Technology 2011;6:357-71.

[6] Badr MA, Maalawi KY. , “A practical approach for

selecting optimum wind rotors”, Renewable Energy

2003;28:803-22

[7] M.H. Djavareshkian, A. Latifi Bidarouni, M.R.Saber,

“New Approach to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design

Optimization of a Wind Turbine Blade”, International

Journal of Renewable Energy Research, Vol.3, No.3,

2013, pp. 725-735

[8] Ozge Polat, Ismail H.Tuncer,“Aerodynamic shape

optimization of Wind Turbine Blades using a parallel

Genetic Algorithm”, Procedia Engineering, 61, 2013,

pp. 28-31

[9] David Wood, Small Wind Turbine – Analysis, Design

and Application, Springer, 2011.

[10] Xu Baoqing, Tian De, “Simulation and Test of the

Blade Models’ Output Characteristics of Wind

Turbine”, Energy Procedia 17 , 2012 , pp. 1201 – 1208

[11] Cao, Han. Aerodynamics Analysis of Small Horizontal

Axis Wind Turbine Blades by Using 2D and 3D CFD

Modelling. Diss. University of Central Lancashire,

2011.

[12] A Review of Wind Energy Scenario in India Singh

Madhu1* and Singh Payal2. International Research

Journal of Environment Sciences. ISSN 2319–1414

Vol. 3(4), 87-92, April (2014)

**In this paper we've mentioned numerous style parameters of
**

the airfoil that is employed to analytically acquire

parametrical information for any horizontal axis turbine

which can be accustomed simulate the turbine blade airfoil

NERL series for output generation. By suggests that of

appropriate formula we'll optimize the blade parameter

which can provide North American country a changed

airfoil shape; although analyses are allotted on the obtained

airfoil. expected outcome is changed blade profile can

provide additional price of power constant which can

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