IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of
NERL Series
Sameer Sahu1 Alok Verma2
Student 2Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
School of Engineering and IT MATS University Raipur, India
Abstract— Wind turbines are the solutions for the today’s
energy crisis within the world. In India plays a major role in
renewable energy generation because it covers over
seventieth of the energy generated by the renewable energy
sources. Still we've turbine with but thirty ninth percent
efficiency. For improvement in performance of turbine we
want to develop some technique for performance prediction
of the turbine. the event of performance prediction is one
among the foremost vital aspects of the planning of wind
turbines. a longtime methodology is employed to calculate
the optimum performance parameters of the horizontal axis
turbine in provisions of the foremost important parameters
like tip speed magnitude relation, blade variety, pitch angle
and wind speed. Our results can show that pitch is suggested
for low wind speed regime. Optimum of tip speed magnitude
relation is found among a spread of (5 to 11) among the
constraints. The cut in speed with the remaining parameters
is additionally studied and their result on power and force are
Key words: HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine),
Parameters, BEM (Blade Element Moment Theory),
In the field of renewable energy, wind energy is that the
most promising one as everywhere the worlds wind energy
is contributory a dominating quantity among all different
sources of renewable energies. In Bharat if we tend to take
total energy production as 100 percent wind energy is
contributory over seventy two 100% in it. this will be
distinguish seen as a lion share. [12] The foreign places
wherever power can't be provided comfortable wind energy
are often used as a significant supply of energy for that
regime. In past years we've got seen thirty fifth will increase
in installation of wind farms worldwide. [1] Supported size
turbine ar classified as small, medium and tiny. For low
speed regime like geographical region small rotary engine
will fulfill our would like. A turbine designed with
improved factors of irresponsibleness and potency may be a
resolution to our constant would like of energy which is able
to conjointly defend our surroundings from pollution and
energy crisis.
Wind turbine gains energy from wind by suggests
that of its blade so it makes blade as a key component. It
converts mechanical energy of wind in to move energy
afterward by the assistance of generator we tend to convert
it in to electricity. Mechanics form optimization is one
among the most analysis fields that ar directly associated
with power production of a turbine. The optimum
distributions of the chord length and also the pitch angle in
every section are often no inheritable with the assistance of
the planning parameters, that comprise the rated wind speed,
blades range, style tip speed quantitative relation and style

angle of attack [2]. Operative at low cut-in wind speeds has
been created probable by mechanics optimization of the
rotor blades that is that the principally vital a part of a
turbine [4, 5]. Mechanics optimization of the rotor blades is
related to optimization of the chord and twist distribution,
selection of aerofoil form, range of blades, and also the tip
speed quantitative relation (TSR) [6]. C. J. Bai, et al. [3]
bestowed style of horizontal-axis turbine blade and
mechanics investigation mistreatment numerical simulation
mistreatment BEM theory for S822 device.
BEM theory typically is uses for evaluating the
forces on the turbine in its style and optimization [7]. Ozge
Polat and Ismail H.Tuncer obtained parallel genetic
algorithmic rule to optimize blade kind at prescribed wind
speed, rotor speed,rotor diameter and range of blades of 4
digit NACA profile of a turbine [8].
There area unit 3 main factors that has got to be
thought of for blade style. First, power extraction happens
primarily on the outer a part of any rotary engine blade.
Second, beginning force is generated primarily close to the
hub. Thirdly, thick airfoil sections don't seem to be to be
used for tiny rotary engine blades as their low-Re
performance is usually terribly poor at high angles of attack.
the primary 2 factors area unit encouraging as they counsel
that an inexpensive compromise between high potency and
sensible beginning is feasible. The third result's cause for
concern as a result of thick sections area unit used close to
the hub of huge blades for structural strength (in
combination with the circular root attachment that enables
pitch adjustment). It’s for these reasons that the most
important distinction between the form of best blades for big
and tiny turbines can occur within the hub region [9].
An airfoil with low Sir Joshua Reynolds range
calculated for purpose of miniature horizontal axis wind
turbines to attain higher start-up and low wind speed
performances. The dimension of turbine blades for an
outlined size, continuously involves analysis as well as
calculations, modeling and experimentation. The
calculations of blade pure mathematics parameters like
chord length, thickness and angle of attack may be a most
noteworthy ingredient of any blade style procedure for
needed profile, length and rated wind speed [7, 8, 10].
Maximum potency is merely one in all the
parameters to be optimized on several blades. it's usually
unattainable to derive analytic expression for multidimensional improvement. There area unit an enormous
range of multi-dimensional improvement strategies on the
market for blade style, variety of that area unit on the market
as MATLAB functions. The strategy delineated here
produces optimum results, straightforward to code, simply
extended to higher dimensional improvement, and
computationally in no time.

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Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

A. Functional Design
Functional design is carried out by the considering the use
of the electrical appliances to meet the need of the
household purposes in the rural sectors. The rotor diameter
(d) is calculated from the basic Eq. (1) of wind power (P) at
rated wind speed (v),
P = Cp  ɳall (⁄4 ? 2 ) V3

A. Lift, drag and moment coefficients
In general, there square measure 2 forces and one moment
that affect an aerofoil; these being pitching moment, carry
and drag. The definitions of these 3 forces explained during
this section.

Fig. 1: Lift and drag on an aerofoil
The drag force is due each to viscous friction forces
at the surface of the device and to uneven pressure on the
device surfaces facing to and left from the approaching
flow. The carry is that the force wont to overcome gravity
and also the higher the carry the upper the mass that may be
raised off the bottom. For AN device carry to tug magnitude
relation ought to be maximized. As a result, it will improve
potency once turbine generates electricity. Lift and drag
coefficients CL and CD [11] are:
1) Lift Coefficient
CL = 1 ? 2

speed turbine chooses worth of tip speed magnitude relation
from one to four and a high speed turbine set its vary from
five to nine.
As a preliminary style thought, the most effective
worth of tip speed ratios for a high speed rotary engine is
concerning seven [11], that make sure that the turbine will
run at close to most power constant. the connection between
move speed and tip speed magnitude relation is shown in
Equation 5.
2  ??
60 ??

Where n is the rotational speed of the rotor, r is the
rotor radius and V0 is the wind speed. For instance, if tip
speed ratio is 8, the rotor radius is 9m and speed of wind is
10m/s, then the revolving pace of the rotor should be 85 rpm
using Equation 6.
Thus, associate in nursing inverse relationship
between the movement speeds and therefore the blade span
is bestowed during this equation. equivalent tip speed
magnitude relation, a blade with an enormous span features
a low movement speed. Taking under consideration of the
structural style of blades, elevated movement speed wants a
extremely significant structure, that outlay too greatly to
make and induces vast noise.
C. Betz limit

⁄2 ?? ?

2) Drag Coefficient
CD= 1 ? 2
⁄2 ?? ?


Where ρ the density of air and c is is that the
control surface length, referred to as chord, unit for the carry
and drag is N/m (SI units). we'd like to grasp pitching
moment M to explain the forces utterly. that is found each in
theory and by experimentation that, if the force is
functioning at a location ¼ chord back from the forefront on
most low speed airfoils, the quantity of the mechanics
pitching moment remains nearly stable with angle of attack?
In most control surface simulations, the pitching moment
centre is ready up at ¼ chord length to urge associate degree
approximate price and therefore the pitching moment
constant is outlined as follows. Moment coefficient
CM = 1
⁄2 ?? ?

B. Tip Speed Ratio
The tip speed ratio is the ratio of the blade tip speed over
wind speed. It is a significant parameter for wind turbine
design and its definition is shown in Equation 4.
1) Tip speed ratio
 = R/??
 is the angular rate of the turbine rotor, R is radius of the
rotor and Vo is that the wind speed. typically an occasional

Fig. 2: The efficiency of an optimum turbine with rotation
The efficiency is defined as the ratio between power
coefficient Cp and the Betz limit, Betz = 16/27 ≈ 0.593. This
value was concluded by Albert Betz who was a German
physicist in 1919, 0.593 is the upper limit of power
efficiency of a wind turbine which changes the kinetic
energy to mechanical energy, So efficiency η = 16 ? =

?? ×17

. Seeing from Figure six, the facility loss is huge for a
coffee tip speed quantitative relation turbine. A running
turbine will solely accomplish eighty fifth potency once the
tip speed quantitative relation is a pair of. The system can
become additional and additional economical if the tip speed
quantitative relation is higher. Once the tip speed
quantitative relation reaches to six, the potency is
approximate ninety six. It indicates that wind turbines with
high tip speed quantitative relation will extract additional
K.E. from wind by comparison with low tip speed
quantitative relation wind turbines.
1) Number of blades
The number of blades greatly influences the HAWT
performance. The foremost common formats square
measure two-blade and three-blade machines. Some tiny

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Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

HAWTs could have over three blades, and frequently they're
low speediness wind turbines. Low speed equipment
operates with nice force. On the opposite hand, high speed
wind turbines have solely two or three blades will thus to
attain similar wind energy utilization with low driving force.
D. Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM)
With this theory, it's potential to calculate the steady masses
and additionally the thrust and power for various settings of
wind speed, motility speed and pitch angle. As shown in
Figure seven, for illustration purpose, the blade is assumed
to be divided into N sections or parts and also the following
assumptions ar made:
1) Each part is independent; a variation in one part
won't have an effect on different parts.
2) The force from the blades is decided separately by
the raise and drag of the surface form of the blades.

Fig. 3: Schematic of blade elements; c, aerofoil chord
length; dr, radial length of element; r, rotor radius; Ω,
angular velocity of rotor
In order to urge sensible results once mistreatment
BEM methodology, it's necessary to use 2 necessary
corrections below. [11]
The first is named Prandtl’s tip loss issue, that
corrects the idea of Associate in infinite range of blades. The
second correction is named Glauert’s correction associate in
an empirical relation between the thrust constant CT and also
the axial induction issue a once worth is bigger than just
about zero.
E. Aerofoil Behavior
Before introducing the control surface behaviour, range
Mach number ratio} and painter number got to be explained.
Mach number could be a proportion of speed of AN object
with sound and it's outlined as:
Ma = vs/ uc
Where Ma is mach number, vs is object speed and
uc is sound speed. Subsonic is defined as Ma ≤ 1, transonic
is defined as Ma =1 , supersonic is defined as Ma ≥ 1 and
hypersonic is defined as Ma ≥ 1. The Reynolds number is a
non-dimensional value and it is a ratio of inertial force to
viscous force is defined as:
? 2⁄

⁄ 2

Re = ?




Aerofoil behaviour will be represented into 3 flow
regimes: the connected flow regime, the high lift/stall
development regime and therefore the flat plate/fully stalled
regime. In connected flow regime, flow is measured at the
higher face of device, during this scenario; carry will
increase with the angle of attack. In elevated lift/stall growth
regime, the carry constant will increase because the device
becomes a lot of and a lot of trapped. Stall happens once the
angle of attack goes on the far side a particular worth

(depending on the painter number) and parting of the
physical phenomenon on the higher face happens. it's
indispensable to review the device behaviour: mechanics
performances ar totally different completely different}
thanks to different pure mathematics of device, and per
totally different aerofoil’s behaviour, selecting associate
applicable device for turbine blade can improve the potency.
F. Untwisted and Twisted Blade
For some fashionable wind turbines, the blade tips area unit
designed employing a skinny control surface for root region
and also the high elevate to tug quantitative relation is meant
employing a thick version of identical control surface for
structural support. The crucial factors for selecting control
surface are: most elevate to tug quantitative relation and
pitch moment. Figure eight shows that: mutually straight
blade, the stall condition happens from the span wise station
(r/R) is 16 PF. so as to extend the effective flow speed at
The rotary wing from the blade root to the tip, it's
higher to twist blades[11]. Note that so as to realize the
utmost elevate and potency for variety of drawn-out blades,
not solely the chord length, twisted angle and thickness
modification, however conjointly the profile of control
surface varies down the blade. producing issue has to be
taken into consideration yet. Previously, the foremost
standard surface of turbine blade was NACA4412 (Figure
8), since the lower surface of this surface is flat that is
straightforward to manufacture with optical fiber, though it
doesn't have an honest air performance. Nowadays, several
sensible aerofoils are designed for various wind turbines like
NREL, DU and BE series.

Fig. 4: NACA4412 aerofoil cross section
All the parameters that area unit associated with the
mechanics like the Chord Length(C), Relative angle (Φ),
native Radius (r), Angle of attack (α), Reynolds range (Re),
constant of raise (CL), constant of drag (CD)
(Corresponding to the Re), Solidity (σ), Axial Induction
issue (a), Radial Induction issue (a’) and constant of power
(Cp) by mistreatment the Blade part Momentum Theory [9,
11, 14]. Blade is split in 10 parts. The relative angle is
calculated by equation (9) as
ф = tan-1 2⁄3

The chord length at each station is calculated from
equation (10) as
C = 16 ⁄ √4
+ [? + 21 (9 ? )]2
Reynolds Number is given by Eq. (11),
 × ? × ?⁄
Re =
1.5 × 10−5
Coefficient of Lift and Coefficient of Drag are
taken from the chart and by using interpolation for
corresponding Reynolds Number and angle of attack
calculated the values of the same. The solidity is calculated
by equation (12) as
 = ? × ?⁄2  ?
The axial induction factor (a) and radial induction
factor (a’) are given by Eq. (13) and Eq. (14) as:-

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Study of Functional and Aerodynamic Design for Blade Parameters of NERL Series
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/416)

a = 1⁄
1+4? ???2 ф
 ?? ???ф
a’ = ⁄4? ???ф


 ??

After conniving the axial and radial induction
issue, relative or blade in-flow angle is once more calculated
from equation (15)
tan ф = 1 − ?⁄(1 + ?′)

Then, through multiple iterations calculates the
Axial and Radial Induction Factors, blade influx angle for
the bigger accuracy and to urge hard currency within the
angle of attack. it's any wont to calculate the constant of
Power (Cp) by equivalent. (16)
Cp= [? ???2 (cos ф (cos ф −

? ???ф) (sin ф +? ??? ф ) (1 −


cot ф) ? 2 ] (16)

Following these steps, through multiple iterations
aerodynamic parameters can determined.
The optimisation with the target of improvement of power
performance and low speed beginning behaviour is
disbursed. For optimisation we've got used the BetzJoukowsky Limit Theory. Sir Joshua Reynolds variety and
solidity square measure calculated by equivalent weight.4
and Eq.5. The axial force constant (Ca) and tangential force
constant (C'a) square measure given by equation (17) and
equation (18) as
Ca = CL cos ф + CD sin ф
Ca’ = CL sin ф - CD cos ф
For Tip Loss Correction, two intermediate factors
Y1 and Y2 are given by Eq. (19) and Eq. (20),
4? ???2 ф⁄
Y1 =
 ??
4? ???ф ???ф
Y2 =

 ?? ′
Axial and Radial Induction Factors are determined
by Eq. (21) and Eq. (22)

2 + ?1 − √[4 ?1 (1 − ?) + ?1 2 ]⁄

a = 1⁄2 (1−??)?2

2 (1 + ??1 ) (21)



Relative angle is given by Eq. (9) and twist angle
of blade element is given from equation (23) as
θP = ф- a
The coefficient of power is given by Eq. (16).
Blade optimization is achieved through multiple iterations.

provide North American country higher price of potency in
terms of power allotted by the blades of turbine.
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"Aerodynamic Design of a Horizontal Axis Micro Wind
Turbine Blade Using NACA 4412 Profile."International
Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) 4.1
(2014): 69-72.
[2] Prasad, Navin, et al. "Design And Development Of
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[4] Habali SM, Saleh IA. , “Local design, testing and
manufacturing of small mixed airfoil wind turbine
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[8] Ozge Polat, Ismail H.Tuncer,“Aerodynamic shape
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[9] David Wood, Small Wind Turbine – Analysis, Design
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[11] Cao, Han. Aerodynamics Analysis of Small Horizontal
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Vol. 3(4), 87-92, April (2014)

In this paper we've mentioned numerous style parameters of
the airfoil that is employed to analytically acquire
parametrical information for any horizontal axis turbine
which can be accustomed simulate the turbine blade airfoil
NERL series for output generation. By suggests that of
appropriate formula we'll optimize the blade parameter
which can provide North American country a changed
airfoil shape; although analyses are allotted on the obtained
airfoil. expected outcome is changed blade profile can
provide additional price of power constant which can

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