Você está na página 1de 6

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1

General Introduction
The Salt Range confined between latitude 32 18 00 to 33 06 00 and
longitude 71 50 00 to 73 00 00 is a hill system in the Punjab Province of
Pakistan, making the southernmost border of Himalayas, deriving its name
from its extensive deposits of rock salt. Geographically, the Salt Range covers
the area of District Jhelum in the East, District Khushab in the South and
District Mianwali in the West. Salt Range is divided into three parts: Eastern
Salt Range from Jogi Tilla to Nilawahan, Central Salt Range from Nilawahan to
Warchha Mandi and Western Salt Range from Warchha Mandi to Mari Indus
(Fatmi, 1973) (Fig 1.1).
The range is approximately 186 miles (300 km) long from East to West
and its width, in the central and eastern parts, is from 5 to 19 miles. It rises to
an average height of 750 - 900 m. Sakesar Peak is the highest peak (Sameeni
2009).
East-West trending Salt Range at the southern edge of Potwar Plateau,
making an abrupt escarpment against the Punjab Plains in south, bounded on
the East by the River Jhelum and on the West by the River Indus. Strata in the
Salt Range generally dips northward. The deformational style of the Salt
Range is typically marked by broad synclines and long, narrow anticlines
(Davis & Engelder, 1985). Beyond the River Indus at Kalabagh, it takes a
sharp turn to run almost in a North-South direction. (Fig 1.1) The entire
mountainous belt has, therefore, previously been differentiated into the CisIndus Salt Range and Trans-Indus Salt Range and now known as The Salt
Range and Trans-Indus Range, respectively (Sameeni 2009).

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

A complete stratigraphic succession from Precambrian to recent is


exposed in Salt Range. It represents an open book of geology with richly
fossiliferous stratified rocks that include Permian carbonate succession with
brachiopods, Lower Triassic ammonite bearing beds and Lower Tertiary
marine strata composed of age diagnostic foraminifera (Sameeni, 2009).
The Salt Range is one of the most important geological regions in
Pakistan. It is easily accessible and displays a wide variety of geological
features and paleontological remains. It has, therefore, been rightly called a
field museum of geology and paleontology. All the strata are excellently
exposed due to lack of vegetation. The quality of the exposure also provides
excellent opportunities to appreciate tectonic features in the field. The Salt
Range is, therefore, of international scientific and educational value, and is
highly worthy of conservation and preservation (Sameeni 2009).
The Khabeki and Kallar Kahar are some important lakes. The Salt
Range contains the great mines of Khewra, Warchha and Kalabagh, which
yield vast supplies of salt, gypsum and coal.

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

Fig 1.1:Satellite Image Of Salt Range,Pakistan,(Google Pro 4.2)


1.2

Location and Accessibility of the Study Area


The area which is confined between latitudes 32 45 00 to 32 49 51
and longitudes 73 03 07 to 73 06 43, around the vicinity of the town
Naushehra of the District Khushab is our study area, which is a part of the
Central Salt Range, Northern Pakistan. The area is covered in Toposheet No.
43 H/1, of the Survey of Pakistan. Lithostructural mapping of the Sodh,
Surraki, Jhalar,Khorra, Kufri and Manawan is done during the field work in the
month of March-April 2014. The mapped area has sedimentary rocks ranging
in age from ___________ to Recent.
This area is rich in economic deposits such as Coal, Laterite, rocks
such as Limestone, Dolomite and Sandstone.
The study area is easily accessible from Sargodha Salt Range via
Khushab Road . It is 90 Km from Sargodha and 250 Km from Lahore.

1.3

Objective
The main objectives of the field excursion are:
i).

Lithostructural mapping of the Sodh, Surraki, Jhalar,Khorra, Kufri and


Manawan Central Salt Range, Pakistan.

ii).

Better understanding of the distribution of rock units and geological


structures (tectonic disturbance) of the area.

iii).

Understanding of the structural setup of the study area.

iv)

To construct the cross section of area and visualize the subsurface


geological image through surface geology.

V)

Study of the different sedimentary structures to predict the environment


of deposition.

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

Fig 1.2: Geological Map of Salt Range (Ghazi e al., 2010).


1.4

Methodology
By using conventional mapping techniques and toposheets of the
Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP), base map of the study area is prepared.
The pictures of different sedimentary structures are taken and the
contacts of different lithostratigraphic units are marked.

1.5

Preparation of Base Map


Tracing techniques are used to prepare the base map from the
topographic sheets of Geological Survey of Pakistan. The base map includes
the sheet of survey of Pakistan topographic sheet no. 43 H/1, of 1:50000
scale. The base map is enlarged 5 times, and the lithostructural mapping is
done at the scale of 1:10,000. Latitude and Longitude of the Base map are:
73 03 07 E to

73 06 43 E

32 45 00 N to

32 49 51 N
4

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

It was used to locate the particular area for fieldwork, exact location,
elevation, geomorphology of that area. It gives the sense to judge the
elevation or depression and steep slope or gentle slope from the contours on
it.
1.6

Instruments
During the thesis work, following instruments are used:

i).

Geological Hammer was used to collect the rock specimens and


fossils for in-situ and laboratory observations to define the different
properties of rock.

ii).

Hand Lens was used to observe texture, micro structures (such as


veins) and inclusions (such as fossils) in rock specimen. A magnification
of between 7 and 10 times is probably the most useful.

iii).

G.P.S (Global Positioning System) was used to locate ourselves on the


map. It is based on satellite system. It provides reliable positioning,
navigation and timing services on a continuous basis anywhere on or
near the Earth, but its working may be disturbed by the bad condition of
weather.

iv).

Measuring Tape was used for measurement of length and thickness of


different rock beds.

v).

Digital Camera was used for the photography of topographical,


geological and geomorphological features, during field work.

.
.

vi).

Hydrochloric Acid, 10% diluted, was used in-situ for the identification
of carbonate rocks on the base of effervescence.

GENERAL ITRODUCTION

Fig : 1.3 Base Camp of The Students Youth Hostel Katas.