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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

articial neural network inverse

ndez b, Victor Salazar b

Y.El. Hamzaoui a, J.A. Rodrguez b, *, J.A. Herna

a

rez (UACJ),

n, CU, Universidad Auto

noma de Ciudad Jua

Instituto de Ingeniera y Tecnologa, Dpto. Ingeniera El

ectrica y Computacio

rez, Chihuahua, Mexico

Av. Del Charro # 450 Norte, CP 32310, AP 1594-D Ciudad Jua

b

n en Ingeniera y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp-UAEM), Av. Universidad #1001, Col Chamilpa, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

Centro de Investigacio

h i g h l i g h t s

The failure assessment in blades is optimized using articial neural network inverse (ANNi).

(ANNi) is a very effective modeling the useful life in blades of steam turbines.

Failure assessment in blades is optimized using articial neural network inverse.

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 30 June 2014

Accepted 23 September 2014

Available online 2 October 2014

The useful life (UL) of the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines is optimized using the articial

intelligence. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach using articial neural

network inverse (ANNi) coupling with a Nelder Mead optimization method to estimate the resonance

stress when the UL of the blades is required. The proposed method ANNi is a new tool which inverts the

articial neural network (ANN). Firstly, It is necessary to build the articial neural network (ANN) that

simulates the output parameter (UL). ANN's model is constituted of feedforward network with one

hidden layer to calculate the output of the process when input parameters are well known, then

inverting ANN. The ANNi could be used as a tool to estimate the optimal unknown parameter required

(resonance stress). Very low percentage of error and short computing time are precise and efcient,

make this methodology (ANNi) attractive to be applied for control on line the UL of the system and

constitutes a very promising framework for nding set of good solutions.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Inverse neural network

Optimal parameters

Optimization

Steam turbine failure

Life cycle assessment in blades

1. Introduction

Steam turbines have many applications in various industrial

sectors. However, by common experience blade failures are the

main origin of operational breakdowns in these machines, causing

great economic lost in turbo machinery industry. The turbines are

designed to work in stable operation condition [1e4]. Nevertheless,

failure in blades has been present after a short time period of work.

These failures commonly attributed to resonance stress of the

blades at different stages to certain excitation frequencies. The

expense of downtime and repair is about the millions of dollars [5].

The useful life (UL) is a very important variable for determining the

E-mail address: jarr@uaem.mx (J.A. Rodrguez).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.09.065

1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

performance of steam turbines [6]. Therefore, the critical components which determine the useful life of the turbine should be

evaluated to determine the rehabilitation or replacement of them.

The critical components are the blades of steam turbines [7]. Most

of the existing analytical models used to predict the useful life of

the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines are based on

analysis using analysis of vibrations for the construction of the diagram of Campbell, which shows the natural frequencies of the

blades like a function of the speed of the rotor (RPM) [8]. These

models do not provide reliable predictions for useful life (UL). This

is caused by the complexity of solving the equations that involve

the radiant energy balance, the spatial distribution of the absorbed

radiation, mass transfer, and the mechanisms of steam turbines [5].

Moreover, in the light of the rapid development witnessed by

the modern world in different elds of knowledge, science and

technology, due to the increased speed of complexity of the system,

in response to the issues requiring urgent attention of the people, in

recent years, computer science and articial intelligence have

received increasing attention proving effectiveness in solving many

issues and outstanding challenges [6]. Articial intelligence has

been used in a wide range of elds including industrial application

system has already proved successful, both on the technical level

and as reservoirs of expertise [7,8].

Therefore in practice an articial intelligence tools such as an

articial neural network (ANN) can provide a new approach to

process without take into account any previous assumptions [5].

ANN is a collection of interconnecting computational elements

which function like neurons in biological brain. It has the ability to

model processes by learning from input and output data, without

mathematical knowledge of the process. The (UL) could be

calculated on-line, when the input variables are well known in

blades of steam turbines. Indeed, the problem is that this (UL)

computed by ANN is not ideal in the system, and therefore it is

necessary that its input variables are well known when a given

(UL) is required, that means Find the effect of this cause. However, the term of neural network inverse can be misleading

sometimes. However, within the scope of this paper is to show the

new strategy which is proposed in our current paper based on

ANN model about the use of articial neural network (ANN) for

modeling the useful life of the failure assessment in blades of

steam turbines. The main idea is coupling the neural network

model with optimization algorithms to estimate the adequate

value of a selected input to obtain the desired output. On the other

hand, to understand very well the difference between inverse and

optimization problem, Marcelo J. Colao and others [9] presented

basic concepts of inverse and optimization problems, and illustrated the inverse and optimization problems are conceptually

different, despite their similarities. According to Marcelo J. Colao

et al., inverse problems are concerned with the identication of

unknown quantities appearing in the mathematical formulation of

physical problems, by using measurements of the system

response. On the other hand, optimization problems generally deal

with the minimization or maximization of a certain objective or

cost function, in order to nd design variables that will result on

desired state variables [9e15].

The problem was developed through inverting an articial

neural network (ANNi) to estimate the optimum input variables on

a required (UL) in the system. However, articial neural networks

inverse (ANNi) have been used successfully in different applications

in which an output desired parameter is selected and then the input

parameters values are determined [6e8,16e29].

The proposed method ANNi is a new tool which inverts articial

neural network (ANN) and it uses an optimization method to nd

the optimum parameter value (or unknown parameter) for given

required conditions in the process. In order to do so, rst, it is

necessary to build the articial neural network (ANN) model that

simulates the output parameters of the failure assessment in blades

of steam turbines is constituted of a feedforward network with one

hidden layer to simulate output, considering one or more wellknown input parameters of the process. LevenbergeMarquardt

S

X

s1

"

LWfk;sg $ tansig

K

X

k1

649

linear transfer-function and several neurons in the hidden layer

(due to the complexity of the process) are considered in the built

model. As soon as the model was validated, the second step was to

invert the model. With the required output and some input parameters it is possible to calculate the unknown input parameters.

However, it is important to note that the analytical solution with one

neuron in the hidden layer neural model exists, and it is described

in Section 4. Nevertheless, in the case that a proposed ANN model

has more than one neuron in the hidden layer it is necessary to use

an optimization method. On the other hand, in many cases, when an

optimal output is required, the optimal input parameters are unknown, that's why, for this reason, we found that the inverse articial neural network (ANNi) is a fundamental strategy to estimate

the optimal operation condition. Rodriguez et al., have performed

the sensitivity analysis to show which parameters have the most

inuence on (UL) [4] in order to optimize them by means of inverse

neural network (ANNi).

The paper is organized as follows second section will give an

overview about articial neural network inverse (ANNi), third

section will discuss the Nelder Mead method, fourth section is

devoted to the optimization approach applied on ANNi, then the

fth section is assigned to the results and discussions. Whilst, the

comparative study is showed in Section 6. Finally, the conclusions

on this work are drawn.

A general neural network is shown in Fig. 1 which is constituted

by hyperbolic tangent (tanh) or sigmoid function (tansig) in the

hidden layer and linear transfer functions in the output layer. Then

the output is given by,

!!#

IWs;k $Ink b1s

!

b2k

(1)

650

used, y(k2) is given by,

y2

13

B

S 6

X

B

6

6LW2;s $B

B

6

@

s1 4

2

1 exp

2

PR

C7

C7

7

!! 1C

C7 b22

A5

(2)

output y(2) then

2

y2

S

S 6

X

X

6

6

b22

LW2;s

6

s1

s1 4

3

2LW2;s

1 exp

2 IWs;3 $p3

PR

subscripts r is the number of neurons in the input layer; l is the

number of neurons in output layer; S is the number of neurons in

the hidden layer; R is the number of input; Tansig is the hyperbolic

tangent sigmoid transfer function; Purelin is linear transfer function; and IW, LW and b1s, b2l are the input and output weights and

the biases, respectively.

The Eq. (4) is to be minimized to zero to nd the optimal input(s)

parameter(s) in a general ANN, in this case, x is the p3 value to be

computed to zero by an optimization method.

7

7

!!7

7

5

method approximately nds a local optimal solution with N variables when the objective function varies smoothly. NeldereMead

generates a new test position by extrapolating the behavior of the

objective function measured at each test point arranged as a simplex. Then, the algorithm chooses to replace one of these test points

with the new test point. Thereby, a new simplex is generated with a

single evaluation of the objective. The numerical algorithm of the

NeldereMead simplex method has been described in detail by

Nelder and Mead [30].

2

f x b22

S

X

LW2;s y2

s1

S 6

X

6

6

6

s1 4

(3)

3

2$LW2;s

1 exp

2 IWs;3 $x

method.

PR

7

7

!!7

7

5

(4)

4. Optimization approach

4.1. Neural network learning

3. NeldereMead method

The NeldereMead method is a generally used nonlinear optimization algorithm. This method is a numerical method to minimize to zero an objective function in a multi-dimensional space.

This algorithm is a direct search method that does not use numerical or analytic gradient [27]. It attends to minimize a scalarvalued nonlinear function of n real variables using only function

values, without any derivative information. The method uses the

concept of simplex, which is a polyhedron of N 1 in N dimensions.

Simplices are a line, a triangle and tetrahedron in one-, two-, and

three-dimensional space, respectively, and so forth [28]. The

consists of adjusting the coefcients (weights and biases) of a

network, to minimize an error function (usually a quadratic one)

between the network outputs, for a given set of inputs, and the

correct (already known) outputs as shown in Fig. 2. If smooth nonlinearities are used, the gradient of the error function can be

computed by the classical backpropagation procedure. To determine the best backpropagation training algorithm, ten backpropagation algorithms were studied. In addition, three neurons

were used in the hidden layer for all backpropagation algorithms.

Table 1 shows a comparison of different backpropagation training

651

Fig. 2. Numerical procedure used for the ANN learning process, and the iterative architecture used by the model to predict the UL of the failure assessment in blades of steam

turbines (S is the number of the neuron in the hidden layer).

which measures the performance of the network. Therefore, the

network having minimum RMSE and maximum R2 was selected the

best ANN model. More detail about neural network training was

already described by Rodriguez et al. [4].

algorithms. LevenbergeMarquardt backpropagation training algorithm could have smaller mean square error (RMSE), on the other

hand, we found training with Levenberg Marquardt algorithm can

run smoothly in computer with lower expanded memory specication (EMS), and the training time is quickly, than the other

backpropagation algorithms. Because, the LevenbergeMarquardt

algorithm was designed to approach second order training speed

without having to compute the Hessian matrix.

However, the performance of the ANN model was statistically

measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) and regression

coefcient (R2), which are calculated with the experimental values

and network predictions as illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4. These calculations are used as a criterion for model adequacy, obtained as

follows:

RMSE

v

!

u

2

u P

N

u

u

n1 yn;pred yn;exp

t

solution is performed as follow:

If tansig and purelin are considered as the hyperbolic tangent

sigmoid and linear transfer function in the hidden layer and

output layer, and k 1.

1A b2

Out1 LW1;1 $@

1 exp 2$ IW1;r $pr b1

(5)

(7)

2

yn;pred yn;exp

n1

R2 1

2

PN

n1 yn;exp ym

PN

layer in ANN model

(6)

1

2

@

1A

Out1 b2 LW1;1 $

1 exp 2$ IW1;r $pr b1

0

where N is the number of data points, yn,pred is the network prediction, yn,exp is the experimental response, ym is the average of

actual values and n is an index of data.

(8)

Table 1

Comparison of 10 backpropagation algorithms with ve neurons in the hidden layer.

Backpropagation algorithm

Function

error (RMSE)

Epoch

Correlation

coefcient (R2)

LevenbergeMarquardt backpropagation

Batch gradient descent

Batch gradient descent with momentum

PolakeRibiere conjugate gradient backpropagation

Scaled conjugate gradient backpropagation

BFGS quasi-Newton backpropagation

PowelleBeale conjugate gradient backpropagation

One step secant backpropagation

FletchereReeves conjugate gradient backpropagation

Variable learning rate backpropagation

trainlm

traingd

traingdm

traincgp

trainscg

trainbfg

traincgb

trainoss

traincgf

traingdx

0.00235005

0.01657932

0.01982303

0.03267017

0.44944913

0.48619630

0.50820237

0.02753381

0.01756329

0.02039637

1000

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

0.990

0.988

0.987

0.979

0.974

0.971

0.965

0.782

0.725

0.718

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

0.990X 0.306

0.986X 0.927

0.988X 0.837

0.957X 2.53

1.020X 0.783

0.982X 1.23

0.960X 2.03

0.617X45.3

0.425X 34.8

0.386X 38

652

1

2$LW1;1

LW1;1 A

Out1 b2 @

1 exp 2$ IW1;r $pr b1

LW

1;1 Out1 b2

Out1 LW1;1 b2

(13)

(9)

Out1 b2 LW1;1

2$LW1;1

LW1;1 Out1 b2

2 IW1;1 $p1 b1 ln

Out1 LW1;1 b2

!

(14)

(10)

1 exp 2$ IW1;r $pr b1

LW1;1 Out1 b2

1

IW1;1 $p1 b1 ln

2

Out1 LW1;1 b2

2LW1;1

Out1 b2 LW1;1

(11)

LW

1;1 Out1 b2

Out1 LW1;1 b2

As k 1, R 1, So

(12)

LW1;1 Out1 b2

1

IW1;1 $p1 ln

2

Out1 LW1;1 b2

!

(15)

!

b1

(16)

one output parameter is required. Then:

653

exp IW1;1 $p1 b1

IW1;1 p1 ln

LW1;1

1 b1

Out1 b2

b1 ln

p1

Fig. 4. Performance plots of ANN during training, validating and testing of the

network.

LW1;1 Out1 b2

1

p1

ln

2$IW1;1

Out1 LW1;1 b2

!

b1

IW1;1

(17)

LW1;1

1

Out1 b2

LW1;1

Out1b2

(21)

(22)

1

IW1;1

(23)

outputs values, when input parameters are well known. However,

in many cases, the problem is that ANN predicted output values

which are not satisfactory in the system, and therefore, it is

necessary that its inputs variables are well known when giving a

required or satisfactory output. Consequently, the new control

strategy which is proposed here using ANN model applied to energy systems. The proposed strategy uses an inverse of neural

network and the NeldereMead optimization algorithm to nd the

optimal input values for the required output value. Then in this

ANNi methodology, as mentioned above, the required output value

is well-known.

If logsig and purelin are considered as the logistic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer function in the hidden layer and output

layer, and k 1

1

1

A b2

Out1 LW1;1 @

1 exp IW1;1 p1 b1

Out1 b2

LW1;1

1 exp IW1;1 $p1 b1

1 exp IW1;1 p1 b1

LW1;1

Out1 b2

(18)

(19)

(20)

described in detail elsewhere [4]. Failures of turbine blade usually

initiate at the zone of high stress concentration which occur in

metallurgical discontinuities or where corrosion is present or even

in regions of excessive wear. During operation of the turbine, the

cracks are frequently caused by erosion, corrosion or small imperfections and then propagate into the fracture. However, these imperfections increase the fatigue stress concentration factor and of

course the stresses themselves. Turbine inspection revealed that

sets of 10 blades failure of the L-0 in low pressure stage of a 110 MW

steam turbine were illustrated within 15 cm from the root. The

blades are signicantly affected by a crack practically is a fracture

observed in a blade root is shown in Fig. 5. The L-0 stage had 110

blades of 0.6 m in length with groups of 10 blades. The blades of

each group are connected in their top end by a shroud and two

wires as shown in Fig. 6. In addition, a visual inspection combined

with a revision of the turbine operation history was carried out into

system description and experimental data. Furthermore, a turbine

Fig. 6. Discrete models of blade group for the calculation of natural frequencies.

654

blade dimensions and tolerances. The natural frequencies and vibration modes analysis of the 10 blades group and the stress

analysis of blades were realized in experimental mode and a nite

element program called ANSYS [2,31e34].

The operation history of the turbine was carefully studied and

revised. The turbine was operated by approximately 1800 h in

intermittent mode, with a record of 650 start-ups, during a period

of 5 years with at least ve replicates of information acquisition to

ensure the verication of measurements a database about 2500

samples was obtained According to the work developed by Garcia

[31], Kubiak [32] and Rodrguez [34].

Rodriguez et al. [5] proposed a neural network model which

demonstrating an efciency of 99% in predicting useful life (UL) of

the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines. This developed

ANN model has three neurons in the hidden layer (21 weights and 4

biases) and considering 6 inputs parameters (resonance stress,

frequency ratio, dynamic stress, damping, fatigue strength, mean

stress). The proposed equation developed by Rodriguez et al. [5] is

2

UL

(25)

where

X1 2 IW1;1 V1 IW1;2 V2 IW1;3 V3 IW1;4 V4

IW1;5 V5 IW1;6 V6 b11

(26)

X2 2 IW2;1 V1 IW2;2 V2 IW2;3 V3 IW2;4 V4

IW2;5 V5 IW2;6 V6 b12

(27)

13

B

S 6

X

B

6

6LW1;s $B

B

6

@

s1 4

1 exp

2LW1;1 2LW1;2 2LW1;3

UL

1 eX1

1 eX2

1 eX3

LW1;1 LW1;2 LW1;3 b21

2$

PR

2

r1

C7

C7

7

!! 1C

C7 b2

A5

the model given by Eq. ( 24), it is possible to simulate the useful life

of the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines, while the

input parameters are well known. Since we found, that the resonance stress is the most inuential parameter [5]. Therefore, it is

important to know in this process, what optimal resonance stress is

needed for a required UL (input number 1). Consequently, we have

developed a strategy to estimate the optimal resonance stress in

the failure assessment process about blades of steam turbines from

the inverse articial neural network (ANNi). In the meantime,

ndez et al. [23] and El-Hamzaoui et al. [18] have been applied

Herna

ANNi with ANN model prediction in order to different processes of

R2 0.915 and R2 0.986, respectively. The authors mentioned that

it is possible to use ANN model with predictions of R2 > 0.985 for

implementing ANNi. In our case the ANN model is of R 0.99.

Consequently, we believe that it is possible to developed ANNi in

this process. The results have been showed that the UL's error

evaluation between the experimental and simulated by ANNi is

0.7%. As we can see very small. In addition, the neural network

model developed by Rodriguez et al. has an efciency of 99%.

Therefore, with this motivation mentioned above, we can use this

model to perform ANNi model.

The proposed method (ANNi) inverts the articial neural

network. Then we have the following equation that calculates UL

during the failure assessment process in blades of steam turbines.

The key information (optimal performance) for useful life of the

failure assessment in blades of steam turbines, when controlling

the required output is to know the optimal input parameters. An

inverted ANN could be considered as a model based method of

supervisory control, the control action in which the unknown input

parameters are obtained by solving an on line optimization problem for the desired output. The inverse of the articial neural

network deduced from Eq. (24) is the following Eq. (25) that calculates UL in the system.

(24)

X3 2 IW3;1 V1 IW3;2 V2 IW3;3 V3 IW3;4 V4

IW3;5 V5 IW3;6 V6 b13

(28)

V2 Frequency ratio

V3 Dynamic stress [MPa]

V4 Damping

V5 Fatigue strength [MPa]

V6 Mean stress [MPa]

UL Useful Life [Min]

At this step, we have obtained the function which has to be

optimized to get the optimal input parameter:

f V1 A

2LW1;1

1 eX11 3:58V1

2LW1;2

1 eX22 34:1V1

2LW1;3

1 eX33 5:5V3

(29)

Table 2

Adjustable parameters obtained (weights and bias) in the proposed model with

S 3, K 6.

IW(s,k)

Wo(s)

b1(s)

b2

Wi(1,1)

1.79

Wi(2,1)

17.05

Wi(3,1)

2.75

Wo(1)

0.19

b1(1)

123.17

0.29

Wi(1,2)

1.14

Wi(2,2)

7.45

Wi(3,2)

0.17

Wo(2)

0.13

b1(2)

17.15

Wi(1,3)

2.53

Wi(2,3)

43.37

Wi(3,3)

3.58

Wo(3)

0.81

b1(3)

6.39

Wi(1,4)

1.21

Wi(2,4)

5.38

Wi(3,4)

0.59

Wi(1,5)

2.37

Wi(2,5)

27.57

Wi(3,5)

0.69

Wi(1,6)

1.17

Wi(2,6)

10.29

Wi(3,6)

12.76

655

Table 3

Some samples of the experimental and simulated information of the system.

Test number

Input

Mean stress

Frequency ratio

Dynamic stress

Damping

Fatigue strength

Resonance stress_Exp

Output

[Useful Life]EXP

[Useful Life]SIMANN

500

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

557.12

0.91

24.12

0.018

1295.36

244

655.97

1.052

35.41

0.020

967.85

221

483.77

1.017

101.75

0.0201

1186.33

208

562.34

0.902

31.66

0.023

977.33

208

602.87

0.916

30.184

0.0188

923.95

211.5

500.71

1.029

85.985

0.0201

1070.33

216

634.83

0.966

60.516

0.0185

971.45

219

492.83

0.889

21.95

0.0201

1128.079

221

673.60

1.036

60.59

0.0207

883.3121

221.5

566.39

0.937

32.159

0.0198

1038.347

220

4.67E11

4.67E9

4.27E17

4.27E15

4.7855E10

4.7855E8

5.38E14

5.38E12

6.87E14

6.87E12

3.19E14

3.19E12

1.54E14

1.54E12

4.18E14

4.18E12

6.03E12

6.03E10

3.04E13

3.04E11

where

(30)

X11 2 IW1;2 V2 IW1;3 V3 IW1;4 V4 IW1;5 V5

IW1;6 V6 b11

(31)

X22 2 IW2;2 V2 IW2;3 V3 IW2;4 V4 IW2;5 V5

IW2;6 V6 b12

(32)

X33 2 IW3;2 V2 IW3;3 V3 IW3;4 V4 IW3;5 V5

IW3;6 V6 b13

(33)

The weights (IW and LW) and biases (b1 and b2) of ANN's model

are showed in Table 2 and the input parameters are reported by

Rodriguez et al. [4] in order to minimize to zero the Eq. (29), an

optimization method (NeldereMead Simplex Method) is used to

calculate the resonance stress (V1). Where, the Input of ANN are

frequency ratio; dynamic stress; damping; fatigue strength; mean

stress. Whilst, the required output is the useful life. However, the

resonance stress will be estimated by ANNi.

The optimization method nds the minimum of a scalar function of several variables, starting at an initial estimate. However,

this is generally referred to as unconstrained nonlinear optimization. However, the optimization method starts at the initial value

and nds a local minimum V1 described in Eq. (29). On the other

hand, Table 3, shows some samples of the experimental and

simulated information of the system as shown in Fig. 7.

An example of this application is shown to calculate the

required resonance stress (V1) considering the experimental data

reported by Rodriguez et al. [34,35], which values are obtained

from experimental test database showing in test number 1000,

thus only, we want to calculate the resonance stress value (V1):

Mean stress (V6) 655.97 [MPa];

Frequency ratio (V2) 1.052;

Dynamic stress (V3) 35.41 [MPa];

Damping (V4) 0.020;

Fatigue strength (V5) 967.85 [MPa];

Resonance stress (V1) ?

And an output value, UL 4.27E 17 [Min]

According to the weights and biases of Table 1 and optimization

method of the NeldereMead, it is possible to calculate the optimum

Resonance

Stress

(V1),

which

is:

Resonance

Stress

ANNi V1ANNi 224 [MPa].

Fig. 7. Architecture of the articial neural network inverse for determining the optimum resonance stress.

656

different data to optimize the resonance stress in different conditions to demonstrate the feasibility of this method about ANNi.

However, the simulation outcomes were then compared with

experimental data in order to check the accuracy of ANNi. This error

is given by:

Err 100

jExp Simj

Exp

(34)

experimental resonance stress of the experimental data using Eq

(34). In Table 2, within the test number 1000, the experimental

value of Resonance Stress is V1EXP 221 [MPa]. Whilst, the error is

given by Eq (34). Therefore, in this case, an error of 1.5% is obtained

which is very acceptable. On the other hand, the elapsed time to

calculate this Resonance Stress from this methodology (ANNi with

Nelder Mead Simplex) is only 35.17 s. It's seem that this time is good

enough to control the process. In addition, Fig. 8, illustrates that

there is a good agreement between the experimental resonance

stress and resonance stress estimated by ANNi. In the meantime,

the tting quality is so good. It has been an outstandingly successful

models in estimating experimental results by ANNi.

6. Comparative results

The remarkable thing is that, according to Fig. 9, there is good

agreement between the predicted values for useful life of the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines by ANN and ANNi

models with experimental data. Indeed, it has been an outstandingly successful models in predicting the experimental results.

Consequently, the UL error between the experimental and simulated by ANNi is 0.7%.

These models: articial neural network (ANN) and articial

neural network inverse (ANNi) prove to be very effective in

modeling the useful life of the failure assessment in blades of steam

turbines. The smaller RMSE and larger R2 mean better performance

[5]. However, the performance of the ANN and ANNi on modeling

UL of the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines is presented in Fig. 9, where the two models are trained using the same

training datasets and validated by the same datasets (fresh data). In

practice, however, the calculation required for system are so

complicated, that's why, all the calculations were carried out on

LINUX system, Intel D CPU 2.80 Ghz, 2.99 GB of RAM. According

to Fig. 9, we can distinguish the following results: The ANN model

has smaller error for datasets than the ANNi (about 0.85%). In this

Fig. 9. UL versus number of test patterns for failure assessment of steam turbines.

way, the ANN achieves better performances than the ANNi model.

Therefore, ANN is a good choice for modeling the useful life of the

failure assessment in blades of steam turbines. It is believed also,

that ANN and ANNi could be used to handle many other types of

problems about the failure assessment in blades of steam turbines.

7. Conclusions

The useful life (UL) of the failure assessment in blades of steam

turbines is optimized using articial neural network inverse in order

to calculate an ideal input value from an ideal (UL) and taking into

account the above well known input values excepting required input

value as resonance stress. Then, NeldereMead method is applied in

the inverse problem to optimize the optimal operating condition is

tested for a single parameter. Thanks to this method, it is possible to

nd any unknown input variable on line in the engineering failure

analysis in blades of steam turbines. Indeed, it is very important to

note that the elapsed time to calculate the optimum input parameter is only a few seconds (<40 s), thus it is feasible to get optimal

parameters on line and is sufciently suitable to direct control of

steam turbines. Briey, ANNi integrated with NeldereMead method

signicantly reduced the computational time with better convergence for optimal solution for useful life of the failure assessment in

blades of steam turbines. Despite its successes, ANNi, is still in its

infancy. It's part of the future. In a way it's amazing we have done so

much with so little, and we have barely begun. However, if there are

many input parameters to be found (solution to multi-parameter

problems) then NeldereMead method couldn't be able to solve

the optimization problem. It would be recommended to use another

advanced techniques for solving optimization problem, such as genetic algorithms (GAs) and particle swarm optimization (PSO).

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Acknowledgements

[22]

project with title is: Experimental and numerical study for evaluation of reliability and life estimation of turbine blades under

resonance conditions [In Spanish] whit reference number: 156757.

Y.El. Hamzaoui, expresses his gratitude to PROMEP for nancial

support (Project PROMEP/103.5/13/7073.UACJ-PTC-289).

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