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Gene Gelfendbeyn

Communication
1. Definecommunicationandexplainwhycommunicationbythestrictchainof
commandisoftenineffective
Theprocessbywhichinformationisexchangedbetweenasenderand
receiver
ModeloftheCommunicationProcess:
o Sender:
I. Thinking(Weneedtorefilloninventory)
II. Encoding(Writesmemotoassistant:ordermoresupplies)
III. Transmitting(Sendsmemothroughemail)
o Receiver:
I. Perceiving(Assistantreadsmemo)
II. Decoding(Checkswhatsuppliesneedtobeordered)
III. Understanding(Needstoplaceanorderforcertainitems)
Inorderforcommunicationtobeeffective,therightpeopleneedtoreceive
therightinformationinatimelymanner
Chainofcommand:linesofauthorityandformalreportingrelationships(3
Types)
o Downward:fromtopmanagementtoemployees
o Upward:fromemployeestotopmanagement
o Horizontal:Betweendepartments(FinanceandMarketing)
DeficienciesoftheChainofCommand:
I. InformalCommunication:informalgrapevinemightspread
inaccuraterumours
II. Filtering:thetendencyforamessagetobewatereddownor
stoppedduringtransmission
III. Slowness
Opendoorpolicy(communicatingdirectlytoamanger)isasolutiontothe
ChainofCommand
2. Discussbarrierstoeffectivemanageremployeecommunication
Bothmanager&employeesperceptionofthefollowing(8)issuesmustbe
inagreementinorderforcommunicationtobeeffective:
I. Jobexpectations(5Ws)
II. Allocatingtime
III. Timetolearnajob
IV. Importanceemployeesattachtopay
V. Authoritygiventoemployees
VI. Skillsandabilities
VII. Performanceandobstaclestogoodperformance

Gene Gelfendbeyn

VIII. Managersleadershipstyle
BarrierstoeffectiveManagerEmployeecommunication:
I. Perceptualdifferences
II. Differencesinpersonality
III. Conflictingroledemands:Managershavedifficultybalancing
taskandsocialemotionalfunctions
Trycommunicatingeachfunctionseparately
IV. TheMumEffect:tendencytoavoidcommunicatingunfavourable
newstoothers
3. Explaintheorganizationalgrapevine
Anorganizationsinformalcommunicationnetwork
Pros:
o Cankeepemployeesinformed
o Atestofemployeereactionstoproposedchanges
o Potentialinformalrecruitingsource(Ifreachesoutsideof
organization)
Cons:
o Pipelineforrumours
4. Reviewtheroleofverbalandnonverbalcommunicationatwork
Jargon(Verbal):Specializedlanguageusedbymanagersoforganizations
o Efficientmeansofcommunicatingandprovidesatouchofstatusof
thosewhohavemasteredit
o Notalwaysclearbetweendifferentdepartments
o Newmembersfinditintimidatingandconfusing
NonVerbal:Anothermediumofcommunicationotherthanspeech/writing
o BodyLanguage
Eye/PhysicalContactshowsinterest
Recliningpositionandlackoffidgetingseenfromhigher
status
o OfficeDcor
Tidy,Decorated,Deskagainstwall(Studentsmore
comfortableinprofessorsoffice)
o Clothing
Formalvs.NonFormal
BrandRecognition
5. Discussgenderdifferencesincommunicationandidentifyhowafailureto
recognizethesedifferencescancausecommunicationproblems
I. Gettingcredit:Menbragmoreaboutaccomplishments
II. ConfidenceandBoasting:Menareboastfulandminimizedoubtsand
areperceivedasmoreconfident

Gene Gelfendbeyn

III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.

AskingQuestions:Menasklessquestion
Apologies:Menseeitasweakness
Feedback:Menareblunt,womenbeataroundthebush
Compliments:Womenprovidemore,Mencritique
RitualOpposition:Menchallengeotherspointofviewtoexchange
ideas,Womenseethisasapersonalattack.
VIII. ManagingUp/Down:Mencommunicatetotheirsuperiorsabouttheir
accomplishmentswhileWomenwaittoberecognizedfortheir
accomplishments,Womendownplaysuperiority
IX. Indirectness:Womenaremoreindirectwhengivingorderswhichleads
tomisunderstandings
Needtorecognizedifferentlinguisticstylesandbeflexibletoadaptfor
bettercommunication
6. Discusschallengesrelatingtocrossculturalcommunicationandidentifyuseful
strategiestodetermiscommunication
Languagedifferences
o Differentterminologyandmeansofcommunication
Nonverbalcommunication
o FacialExpressions
o Gestures
o Gaze
o Touch
Etiquetteandpoliteness
o CarefulDecoding
o Modestyvs.Politeness
SocialConventions
o Differentwaysofgreeting(Punctuality)
o Paceoflife
o Nepotism
CulturalContext:Theculturalinformationthatsurroundsa
communicationepisode
o Lowcontext:Literalinterpretations,Needbackground
information,Carefuldirections
o Highcontext:Informationmustbedrawnfromsurroundings,
verylittlemustbeexplicitlysaid
Precautions:
o Assumedifferencesuntilyouknowotherwise
o Recognizedifferencesincultures
o Watchyourlanguageandtheirs

Gene Gelfendbeyn

7. Definecomputermediatedcommunicationandhighlightitsstrengthsand
weaknesses
Informationrichness:potentialinformationcarryingcapacityofa
communicationmedium
CMC:Computermediatedcommunicationformsofcommunication
thatrelyoncomputertechnology
TwoimportantdimensionsofInformationRichness
o DegreeofSynchronization(High=RealTime)
o Degreeofnonverbal/paraverbalcues(High=FacetoFace)
INFORMATION
MEDIUM

INFORMATION
RICHNESS

Facetoface

Highest

Telephone/
teleconference/
videoconference

High

Written,personal
(Includessocial
media)

Moderate

Written,formal
(memo/letter)

Low

Numericformat
(Computeroutput)

Lowest

PersonalApproachestoImprovingCommunication:
Takethetime:shouldnotbegenerallycommunicated,addressproblems
specifictoemployees,notgenerally
Beacceptingofotherpeople:differentperceptions
Donotconfusethepersonwiththeproblem
Saywhatyoufeel
o Congruence:Aconditioninwhichapersonswords,thoughts,
feelings,andactionsallcontainthesamemessage
ActiveListening:Empathy,paraphrasingandbodylanguage
Givetimelyandspecificfeedback
OrganizationalapproachestoImprovingCommunication:
360degreefeedback:performanceappraisalconductedbyeveryone

Gene Gelfendbeyn

EmployeeSurveysandFeedback
Suggestionandquerysystems:Programsdesignedtoenhanceupward
communication
Telephonehotlines&Intranets
ManagementTraining

Gene Gelfendbeyn

IndividualDecisionMaking
Theprocessofdevelopingacommitmenttosomecourseofaction
o Alsoknownasproblemsolving
Awellstructuredproblemhasaclearexistingstateanddesiredstate
Illstructuredproblem:existinganddesiredstatesareunclearandthemethodof
gettingtothedesiredstateisunknown
Therationaldecisionmakingprocess
I. Identifytheproblem
II. Searchforrelevantinformation
III. Developalternativesolutionstotheproblem
IV. Evaluatealternativesolutions
V. Choosebestsolution
VI. Implementchosensolution
VII. Monitorandevaluatechosensolution
Perfectrationality:decisionstrategythatiscompletelyinformed,perfectlylogicaland
orientedtowardeconomicgain
o Cangatherinformationwithoutcost
o Donotexistinrealdecisionmakers
Boundedrationality:decisionstrategythatreliesonlimitedinformationandthat
reflectstimeconstraintsandpoliticalconsiderations
o Framing:Aspectofthepresentationofinformationaboutaproblemthatare
assumedbydecisionmakers
o CognitiveBiases:tendenciestoacquireandprocessinformationinanerror
proneway
Shortcutsthatleadtoefficiencybuterrorsinjudgment
ProblemIdentificationandFraming:
o Perceptualdefence(defendagainstunpleasantperceptions
o FunctionalSpeciality:asolutionfromonedepartmentcannotfixandproblem
causedbyanotherone
o Jumpingtoconclusions
o Attentiontosymptomsratherthanproblems(Lowmoraleduetopoorpay
suggestsdifferentsolutionsthanlowmoraleduetoboringwork)
ProblemswithInformationSearch:
o Toolittleinformation(ConfirmationBias):Tendencytoseekoutinformation
thatconformstoonesowndefinitionorsolutiontoaproblem
o Toomuchinformation(InformationOverload):Moreinfothannecessaryto
makedecisions
o Littledecisionrelevance
o Slowandcostly
ProblemswithDevelopment&EvaluationofAlternatives

Gene Gelfendbeyn

o Maximization:Thechoiceofthedecisionalternativewiththegreatestexpected
value(Notaproblem)
o Anchoringeffect:Decisionmakersdonotadjusttheirestimatesenoughfrom
someinitialestimatethatservesasananchoraskingpricevs.evaluationprice
o Satisficing:Establishinganadequatelevelofacceptabilityforasolutiontoa
problemandthenscreensolutionsuntilonethatexceedsthislevelisfound
Hindsight:Thetendencytoreviewthedecisionmakingprocesstofindwhatwasdone
rightorwrong
Problemswhenriskisinvolved:
o Whenpeopleviewaproblemasachoicebetweenlosses,theytendtomake
riskydecisions
o Whenpeopleviewaproblemasachoicebetweengains,theytendtomake
conservativedecisions
Problemswithsolutionevaluation:
o Justification:ofafaultydecisioninordertoavoiddissonance
o Escalationofcommitment:thetendencytoinvestadditionalresourcesinan
apparentlyfailingcourseofaction
Stage
ProblemIdentification

PerfectRationality
Easy,Accurateperception

InformationSearch

Free,Fast,Rightamount

Developmentof
AlternativeSolutions
EvaluationofAlternative
Solutions
SolutionChoice
SolutionImplementation

Canconceiveall

BoundedRationality
PerceptualDefence,Jump
tosolutions
Slow,Costly,obtainedtoo
littleortoomuch
Notallknown

UltimateValueand
probabilityofeachknown
Maximizes
Consideredinevaluation
ofalternatives
Objective

Miscalculationsinclude
politicalfactors&mood
Satisfices
Maybedifficultowingto
relianceonothers
Justification,Escalation

SolutionEvaluation