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2 BACHILLERATO: GRAMMAR REVIEW

GETTING STARTED
PRESENT SIMPLE

FORMS
A: I

USE
work.
works.
work.

He/she/it
You/we/they
N: I

do not (dont) work.


He/she/it
does not (doesnt)
work_.
You/we/they do not (dont) work.
Q: Do

Does
Do

I
work?
he/she/it
work_?
you/we/they work?

1-to talk about general


truth and permanent
actions(facts):
The Earth rotates round its axis.
It rains a lot in autumn.
I speak English and French.

2-to talk about repeated,


customary actions:
He gets up at 8 oclock every
morning.
They never listen to their
teacher.

TIME
PHRASES
always, every
day/month/ye
ar never,
often,
normally,
seldom,
sometimes,
usually, twice
a week/day,
all the time

3-to talk about a planned


future action (a timetable
or schedule )
The train
leaves at 3 tomorrow.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORMS

to be (am/is/are) + verb +
A: I-ing
am (Im)
working.
He/she/is
working.
You/we/they
working.
N: I

is (hes)
are (were)
am not (Im not)

working.
He/she/it
is not (isnt)
working.
You/we/they/ are not (arent)
working.
Q: Am

working?
Is
working?
Are
working?

USE
1-to talk about actions that
are happening now, at the
moment of speaking:
Look! The boys are playing
football. Hurry up! The train is

coming.
2- to talk about actions that
are happening around now,
but not exactly at the
moment of speaking:
We are studying very hard
these days. We have to prepare
for our exams.
3-to speak about what you
have already arranged to
do:
-What are
you doing on Saturday?
-I
am meeting my friend at the
station.
She
is arriving at 8 pm.

TIME
PHRASES
now,
at the
moment,
at present;
Look!, Listen!
these days,
this morning,
today

he/she/we
you/we/they

PAST SIMPLE
FORMS

USE

Regular verbs + ed : worked, played,


Irregular verbs II column: went, ate
A: I
He/she/it
You/we/they
N: I
work_/go.
He/she/it
work_/go.
You/we/they
work_/go.

worked /went.
worked/went.
worked/went .
did not (didnt)
did not (didnt)
did not (didnt)

Q: Did I
Did he/she/it
Did you/we/they

work_/go?
work_/go?
work_/go?

1-to talk about actions


performed in the past (with
finished time expressions):
I met my friend yesterday.
Did you go to the seaside last
summer?
2-to talk about a
succession of past actions
(stories):
He opened the door,
switched on the light and fed
his cat.
3- to talk about an action
taking place in the middle
of another action:
He fell asleep while the
teacher was explaining new
grammar rules.

TIME
PHRASES
yesterday,
2minutes/hou
rs/days/years
ago,
in 1970,
the other day,
last
month/year/
week/ Sunday

PAST CONTINUOUS
FORMS

USE

TIME
PHRASES

to be(was/were) + verb + -ing


A: I
He/she/it
You/we/they

was
was
were

working.
working.
working.

N: I
was not (wasnt)
working.
He/she/it
was not (wasnt)
working.
You/we/they were not (werent)
working.
Q: Was
Was
Were
working?

I
he/she/it
you/we/they

working?
working?

1-to talk about a


temporary action taking
place at a given moment in
the past:
What were you doing at 6
oclock yesterday?
2-two or more actions
happening at the same
time in the past:
She was cooking dinner and
her kids were watching TV.
3- action interrupted by
another shorter action in
the past:
I was
working on computer when
the telephone rang.
4- background information
in a story:
The sun was shining and the
birds were singing

at 6 oclock
yesterday,
from 3 to 6
On Monday,
when Mum
came, while

FUTURE SIMPLE
FORMS

USE

TIME
PHRASES

A: I/we
He/she/it
You/they

shall*/ will
will
will

work.
work.
work.

N: I/we
work

shall not (shant) *


will not (wont)

work.
He/she/it
You/they
Q: Shall/will
Will
Will

will not (wont) work.


will not (wont) work.
I/we
he/she/it
you/they

work?
work?
work?

*NOTE!!!
Shall is used mostly in the
questions shall I?/shall
we?
In
spoken English we normally use
Ill and well.

1-to talk about future


actions:
Ill call you tomorrow.
Mary will get a present next
month.
2-to predict the future
(with probably, I
expect..., I'm sure...,
(I) think..., don't think,
I wonder..., perhaps) I
think it will rain
tomorrow. Perhaps
she'll be late.
I don't think the exam will
be very difficult.
3- to express intention at
the moment of decision:
Do you like these shoes?
- Yes, I'll buy them.

tomorrow,
the day after
tomorrow,
one of these
days,
next
week/month/
year etc.,
soon,
in the near
future,
some day,
in two
days/five
minutes/a
month etc.

4-in the 1 st type of


conditional sentences
If the weather is fine, well
go to the country.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
FORMS

USE

TIME
PHRASES

A: I/we
He/she/it
You/they
N: I/we
working.

shall*/will be working.
will
be working.
will
be working.

shall not (shant) *be


will not (wont)

be

working.
He/she/it will not (wont)
working.
You/they will not (wont)
working.
Q: Shall/will
Will
Will

be
be

1- to talk about an action


at a particular moment in
the future. The action will
start before that moment
but it will not have finished
at that moment:
I will be playing tennis at
10am tomorrow.
This time on Sunday I'll be
bathing in the sea.
When you arrive, he will be
waiting for you.

at 5 oclock
tomorrow,
this time on
Sunday,
when I come

I/we
be working?
he/she/it be working?
you/they be working?

*NOTE!!!
Shall is used mostly in the
questions shall I?/shall
we?
In
spoken English we normally use
Ill and well.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


FORMS

USE

TIME
PHRASES

have/has +participle
II
- regular verbs +ed
worked, asked
A: I/we/you/they have
He/she/it
has

worked/gone.
worked/gone.

N: I/we/you/they have not (havent)


worked/gone.
He/she/it
has not (hasnt)
worked/gone.
Q: Have
worked/gone?
Has
worked/gone?

I/we/you/they
he/she/it

It is always connected
with the present and the
only thing which matters
here is the result: the
time when the action
took place is of no
importance:
I have lost my keys. I cant
open the door.
1-to
talk
about
a
completed
action
connected
with
the
present:
I have seen this film and I
can discuss it with you now.
2-questions
in
the
Present Perfect never
start
with
when:
When did you see this film?
3-with
this
morning/evening, today
this week, this year
(when the time periods
are not finished at the
time of speaking):
Have you called you
mother today?

already,
ever,
just,
never,
not
yet, so far,
till now, up
to now , of
late, lately,
recently;
with for and
since;
with
This is the
first time
this
morning/
evening,
today,
this
week,
this
year

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


FORMS
had +participle II
- regular verbs +ed :
worked,
asked
-irregular verbs-III column: gone,
A: I/you/we/they had
He/she/it
had

worked/gone.
worked/gone.

N: I/we/you/we/they had not (hadnt)


worked/gone.
He/she it
had not (hadnt)
worked/gone.
Q: Had
Had

I/you/we/they
he/she/it

worked/gone?
worked/gone?

USE
1-denotes an action
completed before a certain
moment in the past; it is not
used to denote a succession of
actions (Past Simple):
She had already finished her
work when he came.
But: When I wrote the letter, I
posted it.(Past Simple
succession of actions)
By the time the police arrived ,he
had already disappeared.
2-with the
conjunctions(hardly/scarcely/
nearly/barely + when)
I had hardly done it when they
came.
No sooner had they arrived
than it started to rain.

TIME
PHRASES

when I
entered,
by 5
oclock
yesterday,
(with the
same
adverbs as
Present
Perfect but
in the past
context);
no
sooner
than

FUTURE PERFECT
FORMS

USE
1-denotes an action completed
before a definite moment in the
future:
She will have finished this work by 2
oclock tomorrow.
The film will have already started by
the time we come .Hurry up!

shall/will + have
+participle II
A: I/we

shall*/will have
worked/gone.
He/she/it will
have
worked/gone.
You/they will
have
worked/gone.
N: I/we
shall not (shant) * have
worked/gone.
will not (wont)
He/she/it will not (wont)
You/they will not (wont)
worked/gone.
Q: Shall/will
I/we
worked/gone?
Will
he/she/it
worked/gone?
Will
you/they
worked/gone?

TIME
PHRASES

have

*NOTE!!!
Shall is used mostly in the questions
shall I?/shall we?
In spoken English we normally use
Ill and well.

by this
time
tomorrow,
by 2
oclock
tomorrow,
when you
come back

have
have
have

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


FORMS

USE

TIME
PHRASES

1-denotes an action which will


begin before a definite
moment in the future, will
continue up to the moment
and will be going on at that
moment:
You will have been waiting for
more than two hours when her
plane finally arrives.
In the fall I will have been
studying here for 2 years.
He will be tired when he arrives.
He will have been travelling for
24 hours.

shall/will + have + been+ verb + -ing


A: I/we
working.
He/she/it
working.
You/they
working.

shall/will * have been


will

have been

will

have been

N: I/we shall not (shant)* have been


working.
will not

(wont)

for

He/she/it will not (wont) have been


working.
You/they will not (wont) have been
working.
Q: Shall/will
working?
Will
working?
Will
working?

I/we

have

been

he/she/it

have

been

you/they

have

been

*NOTE!!!
Shall is used mostly in the questions
shall I?/shall we?
In spoken English we normally use
Ill and well.

UNIT 1

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


FORMS

*NOTE!!!
Shall is used mostly in the questions
shall I?/shall we?
In spoken English we normally use Ill
and well.

USE

TIME
PHRASES

have/has + been + verb +


-ing
A: I we/you/they have been working.
He/she/it
has been working.
N: I/we/you/they have not (havent)
been working.
He/she/it
has not (hasnt)
been working.
Q: Have
working?
Has
working?

I/we/you/they

been

he/she/it

been

1-to say how long things


have been continuing up
to now:
Ive been learning English
for six years.
Its been raining all day.

for, since;
How long?

2-to say how we have


been filling our time (up
to now)
-Your hands are dirty.
-Ive been painting the
walls.
NOTE!!! We dont use
Present Perfect Cont.
with be, know , have
and other nonprogressive verbs:
How long have you had NOTE!!! We dont use Present

Perfect Cont. with be, know , have


and other non-progressive verbs:

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


FORMS

had + been + verb +


-ing
A: I /we/you/they
He/she/it
N: I/we/you/they
working.
He/she/it
working.
Q: Had
Had

had been working.


had been working.
had not (hadnt) been
had not (hadnt) been

I/we/you/they been working?


he/she/it
been working?

How long have you had your


car? (Present Perfect)

USE
1-denotes an action which
began before a definite
moment in the past,
continued up to that moment
and was still going on at the
moment:
We could not go out because it
had been raining for two hours.
2-denotes an action which
was no longer going on at a
definite moment in the past,
but which had been in
progress not long before:
The babys face was red and wet.
He had been crying.

TIME
PHRASES

since,
for

NOUN SUFFIXES
Nouns from adjectives
-ness is one of a number of noun suffixes. It is used to make nouns from adjectives.:
happy
sad
weak
good
ready
tidy
forgetful
-ity is another noun suffix that is formed from adjectives.
possible
probable
responsible
complex
hilarious
scarce
Nouns from verbs
-tion, or, less frequently -sion (both pronounced with a 'sh' sound on the initial letter)
are noun suffixes that are used to make nouns from verbs.
admit
alter
inform
decide
describe
multiply
Note that adjustments that are necessary to the spelling in each case:
Admission
Information
Description
Alteration
Decision
multiplication
-er /-or (person who does the action of the verb)
sail
work
paint
run
teach
law
Nouns from verbs and adjectives
-ment is another suffix that is used to make nouns from verbs and occasionally from
adjectives:
enjoy
replace
appoint
arrange
merry
-ance and -ence are suffixes that are used to make nouns from adjectives and
sometimes from verbs:
absent
silent
independent
important
admit
appear
exist
More restrictive noun suffixes (nouns from nouns)
-ship (abstract nouns denoting different kinds of relationships)
Relationshi
friendship
partnership

membership

-hood (abstract nouns denoting different kinds of 'families')


childhood
motherhood
neighbourhood

priesthood

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
-ous: danger, fame
-al: music, politics, economics, industry
-y: cloud, fog, sun, dirt
-ive: attract, create
Note: Sometimes there is a spelling change. Here are common examples:
double the consonant,
leave out the finals before al,

sun/sunny,

politics/political;

fog/foggy

economics/economical
leave out the final e,
change y to i before al,

create/creative,

industry/industrial

fame/famous
-able
This suffix (also -ible in some words . Quite often, -able (and -ible) has the meaning can
be done.
Enjoy
confort
knowledge
suit
wash
drink
Words ending -able quite often express the opposite meaning by adding the prefix un-,
words ending -ible add the prefix in-.
-ful often means full of + th.e meaning of the adjective:
Care
helpful
pain
thought
-less means without + the meaning of the adjective:
Care
pain
use
thought
job
home
10

-ate means full or showing a particular quality:


Consider
affection
for

UNIT 2
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
There are three types of the if-clauses.
Form
Type
if clause
1st (condition possible to fulfill)Simple Present
infinitive)
2nd (condition improbable to fulfill) Past simple
3rd (condition impossible to fulfil)
Past Perfect
participle *

main clause
will-future (or Modal +
would + infinitive *
would + have + past

Examples: 1st : If you buy the cake, I will bring the sandwiches.
2nd: If Sam read the book, he would like it
3rd: If the museum had opened the exhibition, we would have visited it today.

The sentence containing if can be the first or the second.


If I study, I will pass the exam. / I will pass the exam if I study.
If I were there by six oclock, I would drive you to the airport.
I would drive you to the airport if I were there by six.

* We can substitute would for could or might (should, may or must are sometimes
possible, too).

So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. Depending on
the context other tenses different to the ones mentioned above can be used.

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)

11

Condition
refers to:

IF Clause

Simple
Present

future action

action going
on now

If the book is
interesting,

Present
Progressive

finished
action

improbable
action

present facts

Present
Perfect

should +
Infinitive

Simple
Present

Main Clause

If he is snoring,

If he has moved into


his new flat,

If she should win this


race,

If he gets what he
wants,

Future I

I will buy it.

Imperative

buy it.

Modal
Auxiliary

you can buy it.

Future I

I will wake him


up.

Imperative

wake him up.

Modal
Auxiliary

you can wake


him up.

Future I

we will visit
him.

Imperative

visit him.

Modal
Auxiliary

we can visit
him.

Future I

I will
congratulate her.

Imperative

congratulate
her.

Modal
Auxiliary

we can
congratulate her.

Simple
Present

he is very nice.

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)


Condition refers
to:

IF Clause

Main Clause

present / future
event

Simple
Past

If I had a lot of
money,

Condition
al I

I would travel around


the world.

consequence in
the past

Simple
Past

If I knew him,

Condition
al II

I would have said


hello.

Conditional Sentences Type III (impossible)


Condition
refers to:

IF Clause

Main Clause

present

Past
Perfect

If I had known it,

Condition
al I

I would not be here


now.

past

Past
Perfect

If he had learned for


the test,

Condition
al II

he would not have


failed it.
12

INVERSION IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


Inversion in conditions is possible, in this case, they are more formal than the usual
constructions.
In the first conditional, inversion can be applied using should:
If you feel hungry,.
If you should feel hungry,. (should form of the condition clause)
Should you feel hungry, you can eat what you want.(inverted form)
In the second conditional, inversion is possible in the case where the verb is were:
If she were here, everything would be easier. (usual condition clause)
Were she here, everything would be easier. (inverted form)
In the third conditional, the condition clause formed with the auxiliary had can be
inverted:
If he had listened the message,. (usual condition clause)
Had he listened the message, he would have arrived on time. (inverted form)

WISH
There are three distinct types of I wish / if only sentences:
1. Wish, wanting change for the present or future with the simple past.
If only I knew how to use a computer.
Use: To express a wish in the present or in the future.
The simple past here is an unreal past.
When you use the verb to be the form is were.
Example: I wish I were a millionaire!
2. Regret with the past perfect.
I wish I had woken up early. (I didn't wake up early and I missed my bus.)
Use: To express a regret.
The action is past.
3. Complaints with would + verb.
I wish you wouldn't arrive so late all the time (I'm annoyed because you always
come late and I want you to arrive on time)
Use: To complain about a behavior that you disapprove.
Expressing impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action.

TIME CLAUSES
Time clauses referring to the future are formed like the first conditional (present simple in
the subordinate clause and future simple in the main clause). What we change are the
conjunctions.
as long as

by the time
13

the
(that)

moment

as soon as

when

until

before

Examples: I will phone you when I arrive


food.

By the time she arrives, we will order the

UNIT 3

THE PASSIVE
Passive voice is used when the important information is on the action and not on the
person who does it.
How to transform a sentence into the passive?
Active form: subject + verb + object + complements
Passive form: subject + passive verb + complements + by + agent
How to turn a verb into the passive?
Active: the verb is written in the right verbal tense
Passive:to be (verbal tense of the active verb + past participle.
Example: The students finished the project on time.
The project was finished on time by the students

THE VERB: FROM ACTIVE TO PASSIVE


SIMPLE
TENSES
Present
Past
Future
Present Perfect
Past Perfect

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Bill buys the dinner.


Bill bought the dinner.
Bill will buy the dinner.
Bill has bought the dinner.
Bill had bought the dinner.

The dimmer is bought by Bill.


The dinner was bought by Bill
The dinner will be bought by Bill.
The dinner has been bought by Bill.
The dinner had been bought by Bill.

CONTINUOUS
TENSES
Present

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Bill is buying the dinner.

Past

Bill was buying the dinner.

Future

Bill will be buying the dinner.

Present Perfect

Bill has been buying the dinner.

Past Perfect

Bill had been buying the dinner.

The dimmer is being bought by


Bill.
The dinner was being bought by
Bill.
The dinner will be being bought by
Bill.
The dinner has been being bought
by Bill.
The dinner had been being bought
by Bill.

MODAL
Can
Could

ACTIVE
The boy can open the box.
The boy could open the box.

Might

The boy might open the box.

PASSIVE
The box can be opened by the boy.
The box could be opened by the
boy.
The box might be opened by the
14

May
Have to

The boy may open the box.


The boy has to open the box.

Must

The boy must open the box.

Should

The boy should open the box.

Ought to

The boy ought to open the box.

MODAL
PERFECT
Can
Could
Might
May
Must
Should
Ought to

boy.
The box may be opened by the boy.
The box has to be opened by the
boy.
The box must be opened by the
boy.
The box should be opened by the
boy.
The box ought to be opened by
the boy.

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

The boy can have opened the


box.
The boy could have opened the
box.
The boy might have opened the
box.
The boy may have opened the
box.
The boy must have opened the
box.
The boy should have opened the
box.
The boy ought to have opened
the box.

The box can have been opened by the


boy.
The box could have been opened by
the boy.
The box might have been opened by
the boy.
The box may have been opened by the
boy.
The box must have been opened by
the boy.
The box should have been opened by
the boy.
The box ought to have been opened
by the boy.

VERBS WITH PREPOSION IN PASSIVE


When a verb is followed by a preposition in the active, the preposition is put right behind
the verb in the passive.
Martin looked after the children yesterday.
The children were looked after yesterday by
Martin.

A burglar has brought into the house.


The house has been broken into by a
burglar.

PASSIVE WITH TWO OBJECTS


If there are two objects (direct and indirect) in the active sentence, each of them can be
the subject of the passive voice. An indirect object is usually a person and the direct
object a thing.
NOTE: when the indirect object (Paula) follows
Michael sent Paula a message yesterday.
the direct one (a message), the personal object is
Michael sent a message to Paula
preceded by to
Passive using indirect object as
subject:
Paula was sent a message by
Michael.

Passive using direct object as subject:


A message was sent to Paula by Michael.
(The indirect object is preceded by to)

IMPERSONAL PASSIVE
Intransitive verbs (verbs without an object) cannot usually form a passive sentence as
there is no object to be the subject, so if we want to do a passive construction, we need
15

an impersonal structure. This kind of sentence doesnt exist in other languages (Spanish,
German, etc)
STRUCTURE: There are two structures to make this kind of passive:
1. It + to be + past participle of the intransitive verb + by + agent + that +
subordinate clause.
2. Subject of the subordinate clause + to be + past participle of the intransitive
verb + to + infinitive clause+ by + the teacher
SOME INTRANSITIVE
VERBS
SAY
BELIEVE
THINK
CONSIDER
EXPECT
KNOW
HOPE

LETS SEE SOME EXAMPLES:


Active: 1.They say that Mary was in Rome.
2. The teacher considered Peter the smartest.
3. They knew that the picture had been stolen.
Passive: 1. It is said that Mary was in Rome. Mary is said to be in
Rome.
2. It was considered by the teacher that Peter was the
smartest.
Peter was considered to be the most intelligent by the
teacher.

THE CAUSATIVE (have / get something done)


It is a common structure in English which is linked to the passive voice because the main
information offered is not the person who carries out the action. It is used when one thing or
person CAUSES another thing or person to do something.
SUBJECT + CAUSATIVE VERB + OBJECT + ACTION VERB + by + AGENT (only when
we know by whom)
I had/got my hair cut by the hairdresser.
I had/ got the car fixed

UNIT 4
MODAL VERBS
What are modal verbs?

Modals are special verbs which behave irregularly in English.

They are used to indicate modality and give additional information about the
function of the main verb that always follows it.

They have a great variety of communicative functions such as:


1. Permission
2. Ability
3. Obligation

4. Prohibition
5. Lack of necessity
6. Advice

7. Possibility
8. probability

16

Remember: Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without "to

Exceptions: ought to, have to, need to

A list of modals

Modal
Verb

Meaning

Expressing

Example

must

internal
oligation

100 % internal
obligation

I must stop when the


traffic lights turn red.

He must be very
tired after such
enormous work

You must not smoke


in the hospital.

must
not

to be very
probable

logical
conclusion
(deduction)

not to be
allowed to

prohibition

can

could

may

might

have
to
need
to
dont
have
to
need
not

shoul
d/oug
ht to

had
bette

to be
allowed to
it is
possible
to be
allowed to
it is
possible,
probable
it is
possible,
probable

ability
permission
possibility

ability in the
past

more polite
permission

possibility

permission
possibility,
probability

weak
possibility,
probability

I can swim
Can I use your phone
please?
Smoking can cause
cancer !
When I was younger I
could stay up all
night and not get
tired..
Excuse me, could I
just say something?
It could rain
tomorrow!
May I use your phone
please?
It may rain
tomorrow!
I might come and
visit you in America
next year, if I can
save enough money.
Do I have to say
more?

necessary

necessity

not
necessary

lack of
necessity/absen
ce of obligation

I need not buy any


tomatoes. There are
plenty in the fridge.

used to say
or ask what
is the
correct or
best thing
to do.
to suggest
an action or
to show
that it is
necessary
to be very
probable
to suggest
an action or

50 % obligation

I should / ought to
see a doctor. I have a
terrible headache.

Advice

to be able
to
to be
allowed to
it is
possible
to be able
to

logical
conclusion
(deduction)

You should / ought to


revise your lessons
He should / ought to
be very tired after
such enormous work

advice

You 'd better revise


your lessons

to show
that it is
necessary

MODAL PERFECT

All modal perfect auxiliary verbs refer to the past.

1. must have done = we are almost sure something happened in the past
Jane wasn't feeling well yesterday. She must have caught a cold.
Bill didn't answer the phone when I called him. He must have fallen asleep.

2. can't have done = we are almost sure something did not happen in the
past
She can't have forgotten to send you an invitation. I gave her your address.
They can't have gone to bed late. They were very tired.

3. may / might / could have done = it is possible that something


happened in the past but we aren't sure.
Laura hasn't arrived yet. She may/might/could have missed the bus.
I didn't see Paul at work. He may/might/could have been ill.

4. could have done = we had the ability to do something in the past but
did not do it.
You could have told us about the new project!
She could have called me when she arrived but she forgot.

5. should have / ought to have done = (a) it was the right thing to do but
we didn't do it. (b) we expected something to happen but it didn't.
You should have told him the truth.
They ought to have received the cheque by now.

6. would have done = we wanted to do something but we didn't do it in


the end.
They would have emailed you but the Internet was down yesterday.
I would have bought that DVD but I didn't have enough money.

7. needn't have done = it wasn't necessary to do something but we did it.


You needn't have gone to the supermarket. I've already done the shopping.
The weather was warm and sunny. I needn't have taken an umbrella.

FORM: MODAL+ HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

UNIT 5

CHANGE OF THE VERB TENSES


Direct Speech
Reported Speech
SIMPLE PRESENT
SIMPLE PAST
I like oranges.
He said (that) he liked oranges.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PAST CONTINUOUS
She is eating a cake.
He said she was
eating a cake.
REPORTED
PRESENT PERFECT/SIMPLE
SPEECH
PAST
PAST PERFECT
When we want to quote
She has worked hard.
. He said she had worked hard.
somebody's words, we
She went to London.
He said she can
haduse
gone
London
thetoREPORTED

SPEECH, in which we
PRESENT PERFECT
PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
talk about
the idea that
CONTINUOUS
/PAST
was
expressed

He
said
he
had
been
writing.
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
CONTINUOUS
without
He he
saidcan
he had been joking.
"I can explain
He says
quoting
the
I have been writing.
the fact.
explain the fact.
exact
words
I was joking.
that
were
used.
CONDITIONAL SHOULD /
REPORTED
FUTURE SHALL / WILL
WOULD
STATEMENTS
We will be late.
He said he would be late.
If the CONTINUOUS
reporting verb is
CONDITIONAL
the Simple
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
He said he in
would
be using the
Present,
Present
I will be using the car.
car.
Perfect or Future,
CAN / MAY / MUST
COULD / MIGHT / HAD TO
there is no change of
I can swim.
She saidtense
she could
in the swim.
words
It may rain.
He said
it might rain.
reported.
I must go.
She said she had to go.
CHANGE OF TIME EXPRESSION
Direct
Reported Speech
Speech
Today
That day/the same day
Yesterday
The day before/the previous
day
The day
Two days before
before
yesterday
Tomorrow
The following day/the next
day/the day after
Ago
Before
Now
Then/at that time
Last
The previous week / The
week/year
week/year before

Next
The following week/month
week/mon
th

However, when the


reporting verb is in
the Simple Past or
Past Perfect a
number of changes
typically occur.

REPORTED QUESTIONS

CHANGE OF
PRONOUNS /
DETERMINERS

Dir
Rep
ect
orte
Sp
d
eec
Spee
h
ch
I/
He /
You
She
We
They
My
His /
/
Her /
you
Our
r
Our
Their
Thi
That
s/
/
The
Thos
se
e

The same changes of reported statements;


The interrogative form changes to the affirmative;
The auxiliary verb to do is not used (do,does,did);
The question mark is eliminated ( ? );
The introductory verbs are asked, wondered, enquired and wanted to
know

Direct Speech
Where does he live?
Where is the station?
Why is my mother
driving so fast?

Reported Speech
She wanted to know where he
lived.
He enquired where the station
was.
He asked why his mother was
driving so fast.

If there is no question word, IF or WHETHER is placed after the introductory verb.

Direct Speech
Is anyone her?, he asked.
Can I help you?, she
asked.
Did you buy this book?

Reported Speech
He asked if anyone was there.
She asked whether she could
help me.
She enquired if I had bought that
book.

REPORTED COMMANDS AND REQUESTS

The introductory verb expresses command or request: tell, order, command,


ask
The introductory verb must be followed by the person addressed and the
infinitive.
The auxiliary verb to do is not used.

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Be quiet!, the teacher


told the students.
Get your coat, Tom., he
ordered.
Close the door, please!
Dont do it!, his mother
said.
Dont eat that
chocolate, she said.

The teacher told the students


to be quiet.
He ordered Tom to get his
coat.
His mother asked him to close
the door.
His mother ordered him not to
do it.
She told him not to eat that
chocolate.

SUGGESTIONS

We can use the following reporting verbs: suggest, recommend, advise or invite,
depending on the speakers intentions. The structures used are:
A clause formed by that + subject + verb in the base form:
Lets watch the new film Mathew suggested
Mathew suggested that we watch the new film.
A gerund with no specified subject:

Buy the food in the new shop around the corner Molly recommended

Molly recommended buying the food in the new shop around the corner.

REPORTING VERBS

Statements: admit, announce, answer, apologize, boast, claim, complain,


declare, explain, inform, insist, mention, offer, remind, reply, state.

Questions: enquire, request, want to know, wonder.

Orders: demand, order, shout, warn.

Request: beg, ask

Suggestions: admire, invite, suggest, recommend

UNIT 6
RELATIVE CLAUSES

We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without


starting another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your
text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

How to Form Relative Clauses

Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend
whether he knows her. You could say:

A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?


That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? It would be easier with a relative
clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most
important thing you want to know who the girl is.

Do you know the girl

As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the
additional information the girl is talking to Tom. Use the girl only in the first part of
the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the
relative pronoun who). So the final sentence is:

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
rel
ati
ve
pr
on
ou
n

use

example

wh
o

subject or object pronoun for people

I told you about the


woman who lives next
door.

wh
ich

subject or object pronoun for animals


and things

Do
you
see
the
cat which is lying on
the roof?

wh
ich

referring to a whole sentence

He
couldnt
read which surprised
me.

wh
os
e

possession
things

and

Do you know the


boy whose mother is a
nurse?

wh
om

object pronoun for people, especially in


non-defining
relative
clauses
(in
defining relative clauses we colloquially
prefer who)

I was invited by the


professor whom I met
at the conference.

th
at

subject or object pronoun for people,


animals and things in defining relative
clauses
(who or which are
also
possible)

I
dont
like
table that stands
the kitchen.

for

people

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

animals

the
in


Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms, who, which,
that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as
follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject


pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

The apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun, the relative pronoun is


an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which
are then called Contact Clauses.

The apple (which) George lay on the table

RELATIVE ADVERBS

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This
often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike. This is the shop where I
bought my bike.

rela
tive
adv
erb

mea
ning

use

example

whe
n

in/o
n
whic
h

refers to a time expression

the day when we


met him

wher
e

in/at
whic
h

refers to a place

the
place where we
met him

why

for
whic
h

refers to a reason

the reason why we


met him

Defining Relative Clauses

Defining relative clauses give detailed information defining a general term or


expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

The relative clause is necessary to identify the girl, other way it is not possible to
know which girl we are referring to.

Defining relative clauses are also used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped.

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Non-defining relative clauses give additional information on something, but do not


define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Do you know Sarah, who won the first price in the competition?

In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

How to Shorten Relative Clauses?

Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a
ing form. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.

I told you about the woman who lives next door. I told you about the
woman living next door.

the roof?

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Do you see the cat lying on

Formal / Informal Relative Clauses


When the relative pronoun is accompanied by a preposition, we can still use which
if the antecedent is refers to a thing; but if it refers to a person, we can use whom
instead of who. This use is very formal, so the preposition usually comes at the end of
the sentence and the pronoun can be omitted.

This is the house in which I lived. This is the house (which) I lived in.

The student to whom I talked was very mature. The student (who) I
talked to was very mature.

BOTHAND / EITHEROR / NEITHER NOR

We use bothand in order to express to possibilities.

Both your mother and I agree on this matter.

We use either or to talk about two alternatives when no other alternative is


possible.

Either I get a rise or I resign.

We use neithernor in order to associate two elements and show that both of
them are excluded or impossible.

I am neither prepared nor willing.