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USING

ANN AND WAVELET TRANSFORM

the requirement for the degree of

BY

AMIT BANERJEE

(M4MEC12-11)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

KOLKATA 700032

MAY 2012

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL *

subject carried out and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its

acceptance as a prerequisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is

understood that by this approval the undersigned do not endorse or approve

any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein but

approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it has been submitted.

Committee

_______

Evaluation of the Thesis

_______

ii

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

supervision by Mr. Amit Banerjee entitled DETECTION OF CRACK

IN CANTILEVER BEAM LIKE STRUCTURE USING ANN AND

WAVELET TRANSFORM be accepted in partial fulfillment of the

Countersigned

----------------------------------------Thesis Advisor

Mechanical Engineering

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Goutam Pohit for the continuous support of my study and research, for his patience,

motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time

of research and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and

mentor for my study.

I would like to convey my regards to the Laboratory-in-charge of Machine Elements

Laboratory and all other professors and lab technicians who helped me to complete the

thesis.

I thank my friends and lab-mates in machine design specialization for the stimulating

discussions, support and fun which were always constructive and refreshing. In this regard

I tender special thanks to Sri Kaushik Kumar who taught me how to operate the Ansys

software, Sri Anirban Mitra who taught me to operate the matlab computational simulation,

Sri Shouvik Ghosh who taught how to plot a graph in grapher software and Sri Partha

Ghosh who taught me about artificial neural network. Special mention of my friends

Supriyo, Dipendra and Milan is called for their continued support and help.

In this respect, I would also like to grab this opportunity to express my heart-felt

gratitude to my mother her constant cooperation, suggestions and helping attitudes let me

complete the thesis on time.

Date:

(AMIT BANERJEE)

iv

CONTENTS

Page No.

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

ii

CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISOR

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

iv

CONTENTS

v-vii

LIST OF FIGURES

viii-xii

LIST OF TABLES

xiii-xiv

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1-8

for cracked structure

1.2 Objective

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

9-33

14

14

16

17

19

20

22

2.2.7 Backpropagation

23

[Type text]

2.2.8 Training

24

2.2.9 Simulation

25

25

26

27

27

31

32

33

34-86

34

40

Three Relative Natural Frequencies as input

42

Three Average Mode Shape Deviation as input

45

Three Relative Natural Frequencies and First Three Average

Mode Shape Deviation as input

48

Three Relative Natural Frequencies as input

52

Three Average Mode Shape Deviation as input

vi

57

[Type text]

Three Relative Natural Frequencies and First Three Average

Mode Shape Deviation as input

3.2.7 Discussion

61

66

66

66

75

3.4 Comparison with artificial neural network analysis and wavelet transform

analysis

85

87-88

4.1 Conclusion

87

87

88

REFERENCE

89-91

vii

List of Figures

Page No

Fig. 2.1

Fig. 2.2

11

Fig.2.3(a)

12

Fig. 2.3(b)

12

Fig.2.3(c)

13

Fig.2.4

13

from fixed end and depth 10 mm) under 294 KN force at free end.

Fig.2.5

15

Fig.2.6

18

Fig.2.7

18

Fig.2.8

19

vector.

Fig.2.9

22

Fig.2.10

24

Fig.2.11

27

Fig.2.12

Haar wavelet

27

Fig.2.13

Morlet wavelet

28

Fig.2.14

Maxican wavelet

28

Fig.2.15

Mayer wavelet

28

Fig.2.16

Daubechies wavelet

29

Fig.2.17

Bioorthogonal Wavelet

30

Fig.2.18

Symlets Wavelet

30

Fig 3.1

39

viii

Fig 3.2

Relative Natural Frequencies vs. Location from fixed end for first

39

frequency

Fig.3.3

Relative Natural Frequencies vs. Location from fixed end for second

39

frequency

Fig.3.4

Relative Natural Frequencies vs. Location from fixed end for third

39

frequencies

Fig.3.5

40

Fig.3.6

Average Mode Shape Deviation vs. Crack Location form fixed end for

40

Fig.3.7

Average Mode Shape Deviation vs. Crack Location from fixed end for

40

Fig.3.8

Average Mode Shape Deviation vs. Crack Location from fixed end for

40

Fig.3.9

43

Fig.3.10

43

Fig.3.11

46

network

Fig.3.12

47

Fig.3.13

49

Fig.3.14

50

Fig.3.15

54

network

Fig.3.16

54

Fig.3.17

58

Fig.3.18

58

Fig.3.19

63

Fig.3.20

63

Fig.3.21

depth at 50 mm from fixed end

ix

67

Fig.3.22

68

Fig.3.23(a)

68

Fig.3.23(b)

68

mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth. (a) 2D plot (b) 3D plot

Fig.3.24

69

Fig.3.25(a)

69

Fig.3.25(b)

70

Fig.3.26

Relative Static Deflection vs. Node for cracked beam with 3 mm crack

70

Fig.3.27(a)

DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free

71

Fig.3.27(b)

71

depth)

Fig.3.27(c)

72

depth)

Fig.3.28(a)

DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free

72

beam (crack location 250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

Fig.3.28(b)

72

free beam (crack location 250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack

depth)

Fig.3.28(c)

73

free beam (crack location 250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack

depth).

Fig.3.29(a)

DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free

beam (crack location 450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

73

Fig.3.29(b)

74

free beam (crack location 450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack

depth)

Fig.3.29(c)

74

free beam (crack location 450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack

depth).

Fig.3.30

75

fixed end

Fig.3.31

76

Fig.3.32(a)

76

Fig.3.32(b)

77

Fig.3.33

77

Fig.3.34(a)

77

Fig.3.34(b)

78

Fig.3.35(a)

DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam

78

Fig.3.35(b)

79

Fig.3.35(c)

79

Fig.3.36(a)

DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam

79

Fig.3.36(b)

80

Fig.3.36(c)

Beam with 5 mm crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

xi

80

Fig.3.37(a)

DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam

80

Fig.3.37(b)

81

Fig.3.37(c)

81

Fig.3.38(a)

DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam

82

Fig.3.38(b)

82

Beam with 3 mm crack depth at crack location 150 mm from fixed end.

Fig.3.38(c)

82

Beam with 3 mm crack depth at crack location 150 mm from fixed end.

Fig.3.39(a)

DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam

83

Fig.3.39(b)

83

Beam with 3 mm crack depth at crack location 250 mm from fixed end.

Fig.3.39(c)

83

Beam with 3 mm crack depth at crack location 250 mm from fixed end.

Fig.3.40

fixed end for dynamic modal analysis of cracked beam

xii

85

List of Table

Page No

Table 2.1

Beam Characteristics

10

Table 2.2

20

Table 2.3

26

Table 3.1

35

Table 3.2

36

fixed crack depth 3mm.

Table 3.3

37

Table 3.4

38

Table 3.5

41

Table 3.6

42

Table 3.7

44

Table 3.8

45

Table 3.9

46

Table 3.10

47

Table 3.11

48

Table 3.12

with cracked depth at location 50 mm from fixed end for

training.

xiii

49

Table 3.13

51

Crack 50 mm from fixed end.

Table 3.14

52

network

Table 3.15

53

Table 3.16

55

Table 3.17

56

Table 3.18

57

Table 3.19

59

Table 3.20

60

Table 3.21

62

training.

Table 3.22

64

Depth.

Table 3.23

65

shape deviation location network.

Table 3.24

75

Table 3.25

50 mm from fixed end for dynamic modal analysis of cracked

beam

xiv

84

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

It is required that structures must safely work during its service life. However, presence of

damages may lead to breakdown of damages. Crack is one of the most common faults that if

develops, may cause catastrophic damages in structures. Therefore, it must be detected in the early

stage when it is small. Crack-like defects in mechanical and civil engineering structures are a

problem that received considerable attention by researchers. Since beam type structures are very

common used in steel construction and machinery industries, for the last few decades engineers and

scientists are working on various techniques for detection of crack in the beamlike structure.

Cracks are present in structure due to various reasons. The presences of crack could not only cause

a local variation in the stiffness but it could affect the mechanical behavior of the entire structure to a

considerable extent. Cracks may be caused by fatigue under service condition as a result of the

limited fatigue strength. Generally they are small in sizes. Such small cracks are known to propagate

due to the fluctuating stress conditions. If these propagating cracks remain undetected and reach their

critical size, then a sudden structural failure occurs.

Due to its practical importance, the crack identification problem in structures has been extensively

investigated and many methods are proposed. In practice, it is difficult to recognize most cracks by

using visual inspection techniques. Nowadays, the procedures that are often used for crack detection

are those which are called direct procedures, such as ultrasonic, X-rays, acoustic emission, wave

propagation, radiography etc. Such diagnostics can be effectively applied to damage detection in a

few known locations of the structure. However they are impractical in search of potential damage

through all engineering object and also may require minutely detailed periodic inspections, which is

very costly. In order to avoid these costs, during the last decades, people have been in the lookout of

a more efficient procedure in crack detection through vibration analysis.

A crack or local defect affects the dynamic response of structural member. It results in changes of

natural frequencies and mode shapes. A crack in a structure introduces a local flexibility that can

change the dynamics behavior of the structure and this property used to detect existence of a crack

together with its location and depth in the structural member. Most of the approaches use the modal

data of a structure before damage occurs as baseline data and all subsequent tests are compared to it.

Any deviation in the modal properties from the baseline data is used to estimate the crack size and

location.

Chapter 1

A neural network is a powerful data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex

input/output relationships. Recently, neural networks are expected to be a necessity for intensive

computation. Neural networks are expected to be a potential approach to detect the damage of the

structure. In this study feed-forward back-propagation networks are used to learn the input (the

frequency and depth) and output (the location and depth of a crack) relation of the structural system.

Wavelet analysis is also capable to detect the crack in structure. Wavelet transform is applied

on the static and dynamics response of a beam, The result obtained by the wavelet analysis may be

useful to detect the location of crack and its depth quite efficiently.

When a structure suffers from damages, its dynamics properties can change especially, crack

damage can cause a stiffness reduction, with inherent changes in natural frequencies, an increase in

modal damping and a change of the modal shapes. During the last few decades, considerable work

has been carried out for crack detection in beam like structure using vibration analysis in general and

ANN and wavelet analysis in particular. In what follows is a brief literature review of the work being

carried out relevant to the crack detection in beams.

Orhan Sadettin [1] has studied the free and forced vibration analysis of a cracked beam was

performed in order to indentify the crack in a cantilever beam. Single and two edge cracks were

evaluated. Dynamic response of the forced vibration better describes changes in crack depth and

location than the free vibration in which the difference between natural frequencies corresponding to

a change in crack depth and location only is a minor effect.

Friswell and Penny [2] have compared the different approaches to crack modeling and

demonstrate that for structural health monitoring using low frequency vibration, simple models of

crack flexibility based on beam element are adequate. The effect of the excitation for breathing

cracks, where the beam stiffness is bilinear, depending on whether the crack is open or closed has

also addressed in their studies.

Loutridis, Douka and Hadijileontiadis [3] have used a new method for crack detection in beams

based on instantaneous frequency and empirical mode decomposition is proposed. The dynamic

behaviour of a cantilever beam with a breathing crack under harmonic excitation is investigated both

theoretically and experimentally.

Introduction

Chinchalkar [4] have described a numerical method for determining the location of a crack in a

beam of varying depth when the lowest three natural frequencies of the cracked beam are known.

The crack is modeled as a rotational spring and graphs of spring stiffness versus crack location are

plotted for each natural frequency. The point of intersection of the three curves gives the location of

the crack.

Jinhee Lee [5] has presented a simple method of identifying multiple cracks in a beam using the

changes of the forced vibration amplitudes. The Newton-Raphson method and singular value

decomposition method are used for the estimation of the crack parameters.

Nandwana and Maiti [6] have used a method based measurement of natural frequencies is

presented for detection of the location and size of a crack in a stepped cantilever beam. The crack is

represented as a rotational spring, and the method involves obtaining plots of its stiffness with crack

location for any three natural modes through the characteristic equation. The point of intersection of

the three curves gives the crack location. Nandwana et al. [7] have modelling of transverse vibration

of a slender beam in the presence of an inclined edge or internal normal crack using a rotational

spring has been done to enable a possible detection of location of the crack based on the

measurement of natural frequencies. The characteristic equation obtained from the vibration analysis

of the beam is manipulated to give a relationship between the stiffness of the spring and location of

the crack.

Choubey et al. [8] have studied to analysis the effect of cracks on natural frequencies in two vessel

structure. Finite element analysis has been used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of intact and

damaged vessels for the eight modes of these structures.

Chan and Lai [9] have solved to determine the dynamics response during start-up of a turbogenerator. Investigations are performed using the advanced continuous simulation package ACSL via

a Runge Kutta numerical algorithm. Results of the simulation reveal that ultra harmonic resonances

of the system occur at one-half and one-third subcritical speeds, which can be used as a criterion for

crack growth detection.

Kim et al. [10] applied a methodology to nondestructively locate and estimate the size of damage

in structures for which a few natural frequencies or a few mode shapes are available. First, a

frequency-based damaged detection (FBDD) method is outlined. A damage-localization algorithm to

locate damage from the change of natural frequencies and a damage sizing algorithm to estimate

Chapter 1

crack-size from the natural frequency perturbation are formulated. Next, a mode-shape-based damage

detection (MBDD) method is outlined.

Peng, Lang and Chu [11] have used nonlinear output frequency response functions (NOFRFs) to

analyze a typical representation for cracked structures, a single degree of freedom system (SDOF)

bilinear model, to explain the occurrence of the nonlinear phenomena when a cracked structure is

subjected to sinusoidal excitations, including the generation of super-harmonic component and sub

resonances.

Nahvi and Jabbari [12] have presented an analytical, as well as experimental approach to the

crack detection in cantilever beams by vibration analysis. An experimental set up is designed in

which a cracked cantilever beam is excited by a hammer and response is obtained using an

accelerometer attached to the beam.

Kisa and Gurel [13] have presented a novel numerical technique applicable to analysis of uniform

and stepped cracked beams with circular cross section. In this approach the finite element and

component mode synthesis methods are used together, the beam being detached into parts from the

crack section.

Zheng et al. [14] have studied the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cracked beam using

the finite element method. An overall additional flexibility matrix is added to the local flexibility

matrix of the corresponding intact beam element to obtain the total flexibility matrix and therefore

the stiffness matrix.

Saavedra et al. [15] have presented a theoretical and experimental dynamics behavior of different

multi-beams systems containing a transverse crack. The additional flexibility that the crack generates

in its vicinity is evaluated using the strain energy density function given by the linear fracture

mechanics theory.

structure

Rosales et al. [16] have presented the solution of the inverse problem with a power series

technique (PST) and the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for detection of crack in cantilever

beam.

Bakhary et al. [17] have studied a statistical approach to take into account the effect of

uncertainties in developing an ANN model. By applying Rosenblueths point estimate method

4

Introduction

verified by Monte Carlo simulation, the statistics of the stiffness parameters are estimated. The

probability of damage existence (PDE) is then calculated based on the probability density function of

the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The developed approach is applied to detect

simulated damage in a numerical steel portal frame model and also in a laboratory tested concrete

slab.

Liu et al. [18] have studied both direct problem and inverse problem. In the direct problem, the

frequency responses of a cracked medium subjected to an impact loading are calculated by the

computational mechanics combining the finite element method with the boundary integral equation.

In the inverse problem, the back-propagation neural networks are trained by the characteristic

parameters extracted from the various surfaces responses obtained from the direct problem.

Parhi and Dash [19] have studied the dynamic behaviour of a beam structure containing multiple

transverse cracks using neural network controller. The first three natural frequencies and mode

shapes have been calculated using theoretical, finite-element, and experimental analysis for the

cracked and un-cracked beam. Comparisons of the results among theoretical, finite-element and

experimental analysis have also been presented.

Das and Parhi [20] have presented neural network technique for fault diagnosis of a cracked

cantilever beam. In the neural network system there are six input parameters and two output

parameters. The input parameters to the neural network are relative deviation of first three natural

frequencies and first three modes shapes. The output parameters of the neural network system are

relative crack depth and relative crack location. To calculate the effect of crack depths and crack

locations on natural frequencies and mode shapes, theoretical expressions have been developed.

Saeed, Galybin and Popov [21] have presented different artificial intelligence techniques for crack

identification in curvilinear beams based on changes in vibration characteristics. Vibration analysis

has been performed by applying the finite element method to compute natural frequencies and

frequency response functions for intact and damaged beams.

Mahmoud and Kiefa [22] have presented general regression neural networks (GRNN) to solve the

inverse vibration problem of cracked structures. The case study used in the investigation was a steel

cantilever beam with a single edge crack. The first six natural frequencies were used as network

inputs, and crack size and crack location were the output.

z and zkaya [23] have studied the transverse vibration of a Euler-Bernoulli type axially moving

beam. The beam is simply supported at both ends. Axial velocity is assumed as a harmonic function

5

Chapter 1

about a constant mean value. The frequency value and stability borders obtained in a previous study

are trained using ANN. For new value of flexural stiffness and mean velocities, frequencies and

stability borders are determined using ANN.

Nazari and Baghalian [24] have presented a new method for crack detection in symmetric beams.

In this research it is assumed that the structure is a rectangular beam which is fixed at both ends.

Finite Element Method was used to obtain natural frequencies of beam in different condition of

cracks. Based on data were obtained from FEM, two distinct Artificial Neural Networks were trained

for crack location and depth detection in some different conditions and then were tested. Finally

using an algorithm based on first vibration mode shape of structure, locations and depths of cracks

have been identified with good approximations.

Zou et al.[25] have presented the modified function of torsional vibrations in cracked rotor system

based on simple hinge crack model and local flexibility and also studied the torsional stiffness

variation with crack depth. By wavelet time-frequency analysis, the time-frequency features of

torsional vibrations in cracked rotor system are investigated.

Xiang et al. [26] have studied model-based crack identification method for estimating crack location

and size in shaft by B-spline wavelet analysis. The crack is considered through local stiffness change.

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the influences of rotary inertia on the flexural vibrations of the rotor

system are examined to construct BSWI Rayleigh beam element. The slender shaft and stiffness disc

are modeled by BSWI Rayleigh-Eular beam element and BSWI Rayleigh beam element respectively.

Then the crack identification forward and inverse problems are solved by using surface-fitting

technique and contour plotting method. The cracked shaft is modeled by wavelet-based elements to

gain frequencies. The first three measured frequencies are used in crack detection process and the

normalized crack location and depth are detected by means of genetic algorithm [27].

Quek et al. [28] have examined the sensitivity of wavelet technique in the detection of cracks in

beam structures having different crack characteristics and boundary conditions. Wavelet functions

employed are investigated by Haar and Gabor wavelets analysis.

Arcangelo Messina [29] has presented significant refinements concerning the use of wavelets and

have used in the guise of continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) for identifying damage on

transversally vibrating structural components. (E.g. beams, plates and shells).

Introduction

Ovanesova et al. [30] have presented the applications of the wavelet transform to detect cracks in

frame structures, such as beam and plane frames and also detected the localization of the crack by

using a response signal from static or dynamic loads.

Lonkar and Srivastava [31] applied wavelet transform to detect localized damage based on

simulated dynamic response data from finite element analysis of cantilever beam.

Douka, Loutridis and Trochidis [32] have presented a simple method for crack identification in

beam structures based on wavelet analysis. The fundamental vibration mode of a cracked cantilever

beam is analyzed using continuous wavelet transform and both the location and size of the crack are

estimated. Douka et al [33] have also presented crack identification in double cracked beams based

on wavelet analysis.

Wang and Wu [34] have an experimental studied for the location detection of a delamination in a

beam structure under a static displacement with a spatial wavelet transform. An invisible perturbation

in the deflection profile of the delaminated beam at the two delamination edges owing to the

curvature discontinuity is discerned or amplified through a wavelet transform.

Andrzej Katunin [35] has presented the construction of general order two-dimensional B-spline

wavelets and has applied for damage identification in polymeric composite plates.

Kim and Melhem [36] have provided the review of the research that has been conducted on damage

detection by wavelet analysis. First, the theory of wavelet analysis is presented including continuous

and discrete wavelet transform followed by its application to SHM. Then more specific application

namely crack detection of a beam and mechanical gear and roller damage are presented.

Jiang et al. [37] stated a new method for crack detection in beams by using the slop of the mode

shape to detect cracks and introduced the angle coefficients of complex continuous wavelet

transform.

Srinivasa Rao, Mallikarjuna Rao, G.V.Raju [38] have presented in their paper a method for crack

identification in beam structure by analyzing the fundamental mode of cracked cantilever beam

using continuous wavelet transform.

Okafor and Dutta [39] have used a laser-based optical system and wavelet transforms for detection

of changes in the properties of cantilevered aluminum beams as a result of damage. The beams were

modeled using the ANSYS 5.3 finite-element method and the first six mode shapes for the damaged

and the undamaged cases obtained.

7

Chapter 1

Zhong and Oyadiji [40, 41] have proposed a new approach for damage detection in beam-like

structures with small cracks, whose crack ratio [r =

parameters. The approach is based on the difference of the continuous wavelet transforms and

stationary wavelet transforms of two sets of mode shape data which correspond to the left half and

the right half of the modal data of a cracked simply-supported beam.

1.2 Objective

From the literature review, it has been observed that various techniques have been already

employed for identification of crack, its location and size in case of beam like structure.

In the present study, the problem of fault recognition of a cracked cantilever beam is carried out in

two different methods using vibration signature obtained from finite element analysis of the beam

under static and dynamic loads.

In the first case, Artificial Neural Network is applied to identify crack size and its location from the

response data obtained from the numerical experiment conducted by finite element modelling of the

crack beam and subsequent analysis using ANSYS.

In the second method, wavelet transform is applied to detect the crack in the cantilever beam.

Results obtained from both the techniques are compared.

Chapter 4

METHODOLOGY

In the present work, vibration analysis is carried out on a cantilever beam with a single open

transverse cracks. The study is aimed at detecting the size and location of crack in cantilever beam.

Free vibration finite element analysis of crack free beam and a series of cracked beams are

performed. Suitable boundary conditions are used to find out natural frequencies and mode shapes.

The simulations have done with the help of ANSYS 13 software. Comparison studies are

performed on natural frequencies and mode shapes of cracked and cracked free beam. Identification

of crack depth and its location is determined by two different methods, namely, ANN analysis and

wavelet analysis.

Six distinct Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are trained for detection of different crack

location and depth. The inputs are six variables, first three natural frequencies and first three natural

mode shapes and output are depth and location. The MATLAB 7.8 Neural Network Toolbox is used

for this purpose. In section 4.2, a brief introduction to Artificial Neural Network system as applied to

the present study is outlined. Once the training is complete simulation is performed to predict

probable location of crack and its depth.

Wavelet transform is applied to detect the crack of cantilever beam. Relative mode shape

deviations of crack and crack free beam are used as input signals of wavelet analysis. Both discrete

and continuous analyses are performed. The wavelet analysis is performed using MATLAB 7.8

Wavelet toolbox. Both discrete and continuous wavelet transform of localized crack in a cantilever

under static and dynamic conditions are analyzed to detect crack is presented. Application of wavelet

analysis is described in section 2.3.

9

Chapter 4

Finite element model of a cantilevers beam with single open transverse crack is developed in

ANSYS environment. The dimensions of the beam are shown in Fig 2.1. Material properties of the

beam are shown in Table 2.1. In order to perform numerical experiment, modal and structural analysis

of the beam is performed following the steps outlines below.

Define Materials

Generate Mesh

Obtain Solution

Solve.

Table 2.1 Beam Characteristics

Density Poisson Ratio

(Kg/ )

7860

0.3

Elasticity

Modulus

(GPa)

206

Length

(mm)

600

Thickness

(mm)

20

Depth

(mm)

30

Throughout transverse cracks is modeled with 1 mm width for every cracked beam.

Finite element software, ANSYS version 13 is used for free vibration analysis of the crack free and

cracked beams. Beam length, thickness and depth are along X axis, Y axis and Z axis respectively in

ANSYS coordinate system. A 20-node three dimension structural solid element under SOLID 186

was selected to model the beam because it is suitable for all structural analysis and it is mid node

element which gives the more accurate result. Fig 2.2 shows finite element model of a cracked beam.

The modal analysis of cracked and crack free beams are performed. The Block Lanczons mode

extraction method is used to calculate the natural frequencies of the beam. First five modes have been

selected as for both crack and crack free beam as first, third and fifth natural frequencies correspond

10

Methodology

to first three natural frequencies in the transverse direction (Y direction) of vibration. The

corresponding mode shapes for both cracked and cracked free beam are also captured. In order to

determine the mode shape and modal displacement, node points at the bottom surface of the beam are

considered. Distance of each sample point along the lengths is assumed to be 10 mm. First point is

taken at fixed end. Since length of the beam is 600 mm, the total number of sample data point is 61.

The mode shape of the beam is obtained by plotting transverse displacement (Y direction) of the

beam at each sample data point against its position along X direction. The displacement values are

used as a numerical data of ANN and mode shape is used as an input signal of wavelet analysis for

subsequent identification of crack length and location of the beam. For example, Figure 4.3 exhibits

first three mode shape of cracked beam with natural frequency and nodal displacements of the sample

point.

A number of simulations have been performed for various crack depth at different location. The

output values of these simulations are used as training data for the ANN analysis and wavelet

transform analysis.

For static analysis, a load of 294 KN is applied at the free end of the cantilever beam. After static

analysis similar procedure is followed for taking sample data from cantilever beam as mentioned

above. The deflection curve thus obtained is used for wavelet analysis. Figure 2.4 shows static

deflection of the cracked cantilever beam under the application of load.

11

Chapter 4

Fig.2.3 (a) First mode shape of cracked cantilever beam (crack location at 50 mm from fixed end and

depth 10 mm).

Fig.2.3 (b) Second mode shape of cracked cantilever beam (crack location at 50 mm from fixed end

and depth 10 mm).

12

Methodology

Fig.2.3 (c) Third mode shape of cracked cantilever beam (crack location at 50 mm from fixed

end and depth 10 mm).

Fig 2.4 Static deflection of cracked cantilever beam (crack location at 50 mm from fixed end and

depth 10 mm) under 294 KN force at free end.

13

Chapter2

2.2 Artificial Neural Network

Studies on neural networks have been motivated to imitate the way that the brain operates .A

network is described in terms of the individual neurons, the network connectivity, the weights

associated with various interconnections between neurons, and the activation functions for each

neuron. The network maps an input vector from one space to another. The mapping is not specified,

but is learned. The network is presented with a given set of inputs and their associated outputs. The

learning process is used to determine proper interconnection weights and the network is trained to

make proper associations between the inputs and their corresponding outputs. Once trained, the

network provides rapid mapping of a given input into the desired output quantities. This, in turn, can

be used to enhance the efficiency of the design process.

The simplest definition of a neural network, more properly referred to as an artificial neural

network (ANN), is provided by the inventor of one of the first neurocomputers, Dr. Robert HechtNielsen. He defines a neural network as computing system made up of a number of simple, highly

interconnected processing elements, which process information by their dynamic state response to

external inputs. ANNs are processing devices (algorithms or actual hardware) that are loosely

modeled after the neural structure of the mammalian cerebral cortex but on much smaller scales. A

large ANN might have hundreds or thousands of processor units, whereas a mammalian brain has

billion of neurons with a corresponding increase in magnitude of their overall interaction and

emergent behavior.

Neural networks are typically organized in layers. Layers are made up of a number of

interconnected nodes which contain an activation function. Patterns are presented to the network

via the input layer which communicates to one or more hidden layers where the actual processing

is done via a system of weighted connection. The hidden layers then link to an output layer where

the answer is output.

optimizes a criterion commonly known as the learning rule. The input/output training data is

fundamental for these networks as it conveys the information which is necessary to discover the

optimal operating point. In addition, a non linear nature makes neural network processing elements a

very flexible system.

14

Methodology

input, process the data, and provides an output. Commonly, the input consists in a data array which

can be anything such as data from an image file, a WAVE sound or any kind of data that can be

represented in an array. Once an input is presented to the neural network, and a corresponding

desired or target response is set at the output, an error is composed from the difference of the desired

response and the real system output.

The error information is fed back to the system which makes all adjustments to their parameters

in a systematic fashion (commonly known as the learning rule). This process is repeated until the

desired output is acceptable. It is important to notice that the performance hinges heavily on the data.

Hence, this is why this data should pre-process with third party algorithms such as DSP algorithms.

In neural network design, the engineer or designer chooses the network topology, the trigger

function or performance function, learning rule and the criteria for stopping the training phase. So, it

is pretty difficult determining the size and parameters of the network as there is no rule or formula to

do it. The best we can do for having success with our design is playing with it. The problem with this

method is when the system does not work properly it is hard to refine the solution. Despite this issue,

neural networks based solution is very efficient in terms of development, time and resources. By

15

Chapter2

experience, I can tell that artificial neural networks provide real solutions that are difficult to match

with other technologies.

Depending on the nature of the application and the strength of the internal data patterns it can

generally expect a network to train quite well. This applies to problems where the relationships may

be quite dynamics or non linear. ANNs provide an analytical alternative to conventional techniques

which are often limited by strict assumption of normality, linearity, variable independence etc.

Because an ANN can capture many kinds of relationships it allows the user to quickly and relatively

easily model phenomena which otherwise may have been very difficult or impossible to explain

otherwise. Some of characteristics of ANN are given below.

When an element of the neural network fails, it can continue without any problem by

their parallel nature.

therefore needs to be emulated.

Another aspect of the artificial neural networks is that there are different architectures, which

consequently requires different types of algorithms, but despite to be an apparently complex system,

a neural network is relatively simple.

There are many different types of Neural Networks, each of which has different strengths

particular to their applications. The abilities of different networks can be related to their structure,

dynamics and learning methods. Neural Networks offer improved performance over conventional

technologies in areas which includes: Machine Vision, Robust Pattern Detection, Signal Filtering,

Virtual Reality, Data Segmentation, Data Compression, Data Mining, Text Mining, Artificial Life,

Adaptive Control, Optimization and Scheduling, Complex Mapping and more.

16

Methodology

ANNs have been applied successfully in a various fields of mathematics, engineering, medicine,

economics, meteorology, psychology, neurology and many others. Some of the most important ones

are:

Facial Animation

Nowadays, neural network technologies are emerging as the technology choice for many

applications, such as patter recognition, prediction, system identification and control.

A neuron with a single scalar input and no bias appears on the left is shown below. The

scalar input p is transmitted through a connection that multiplies its strength by the scalar weight w to

form the product wp, again a scalar. Here the weighted input wp is the only argument of the transfer

function f, which produces the scalar output a.

17

Chapter2

The neuron on the right has a scalar bias, b. You can view the bias as simply being added to the

product wp as shown by the summing junction or as shifting the function f to the left by an amount b.

The bias is much like a weight, except that it has a constant input of 1.

The transfer function net input n, again a scalar, is the sum of the weighted input wp and the bias

b. This sum is the argument of the transfer function f. Here f is a transfer function, typically a step

function or a sigmoid function, that takes the argument n and produces the output a. w and b are both

adjustable scalar parameters of the neuron. The central idea of neural networks is that such

parameters can be adjusted so that the network exhibits some desired or interesting behavior. Thus,

you can train the network to do a particular job by adjusting the weight or bias parameters, or perhaps

the network itself will adjust these parameters to achieve some desired end.

A neuron with a single R-element input vector is shown below. Here the individual element

inputs

,...

, ...

the summing junction. Their sum is simply Wp, the dot product of the (single row) matrix W and the

vector p.

18

Methodology

Fig 2.8 Neuron with Vector Input where R = number of elements in input vector.

The neuron has a bias b, which is summed with the weighted inputs to form the net input n. This

sum, n, is the argument of the transfer function f.

n=

+ ... +

+b

n = W*p + b

However, you will seldom be writing code at this level, for such code is already built into

functions to define and simulate entire networks.

The perception internal sum of the inputs is passed through an activation function, which can be

any monotonic function. Linear functions can be used but these will not contribute to a non-linear

transformation within a layered structure, which defeats the purpose of using a neural filter

implementation. A function that limits the amplitude range and limits the output strength of each

perception of a layered network to a defined range in a non-linear manner will contribute to a

nonlinear transformation. There are many forms of activation functions, which are selected according

to the specific problem. All the neural network architectures employ the activation function which

defines as the output of a neuron in terms of the activity level at its input (ranges from -1 to 1 or 0 to

1). The most practical activation functions are the sigmoid and the hyperbolic tangent

The bias gives the network an extra variable and the networks with bias are more powerful than

those of without bias. The neuron without a bias always gives a net input of zero to the activation

19

Chapter2

function when the network inputs are zero. This may not be desirable and can be avoided by the use

of a bias.

Name

Mathematical Representation

f(x) = kx

Linear

Step

f (x) ={

Sigmoid

f(x) =

Hyperbolic Tangent

f(x) =

, >0

>0

Gaussian

f(x)=

A learning rule defines as a procedure for modifying the weights and biases of a network.

There are three major learning paradigms, each corresponding to a particular abstract learning

task. These are supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning.

In supervised learning, we are given a set of example pairs (x, y), x ,

find a function f: X

in the allowed class of functions that matches the examples. In other words,

we wish to infer the mapping implied by the data; the cost function is related to the mismatch

between our mapping and the data and it implicitly contains prior knowledge about the problem

domain. A commonly used cost is the mean squared error, which tries to minimize the average

squared error between the network's output, f(x), and the target value y over all the example pairs.

When one tries to minimize this cost using gradient descent for the class of neural networks called

multilayer perceptions, one obtains the common and well-known back propagation algorithm for

training neural networks.

20

Methodology

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of supervised learning are pattern recognition (also known as

classification) and regression (also known as function approximation). The supervised learning

paradigm is also applicable to sequential data (e.g., for speech and gesture recognition). This can be

thought of as learning with a "teacher," in the form of a function that provides continuous feedback

on the quality of solutions obtained thus far.

In unsupervised learning, some data x is given and the cost function to be minimized, that can be

any function of the data x and the network output, f

The cost function is dependent on the task (what we are trying to model) and our a priori

assumptions (the implicit properties of our model, its parameters and the observed variables)

As a trivial example, consider the model f(x) = a where a is a constant and the cost

[{ ( )} ] minimizing this cost will give us a value of a that is equal to the mean of the data.

The cost function can be much more complicated. Its form depends on the application: for example,

in compression it could be related to the mutual information between x and f(x) whereas in statistical

modeling, it could be related to the posterior probability of the model given the data. (Note that in

both of those examples those quantities would be maximized rather than minimized).

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of unsupervised learning are in general estimation problems;

the applications include clustering, the estimation of statistical distributions, compression and

filtering.

In reinforcement learning, data x are usually not given, but generated by an agent's interactions

with the environment. At each point in time t the agent performs an action

generates an observation

dynamics. The aim is to discover a policy for selecting actions that minimizes some measure of a

long-term cost; i.e., the expected cumulative cost. The environment's dynamics and the long-term

cost for each policy are usually unknown, but can be estimated.

Tasks that fall within the paradigm of reinforcement learning are control problems, games and

other sequential decision making tasks.

21

Chapter2

2.2.6 Feed-forward Networks

A feedforward neural network is a biologically inspired classification algorithm. It consists of a

(possibly large) number of simple neuron-like processing units, organized in layers. Every unit in a

layer is connected with all the units in the previous layer. These connections are not all equal; each

connection may have a different strength or weight. The weights on these connections encode the

knowledge of a network. Often the units in a neural network are also called nodes.

Data enters at the inputs and passes through the network, layer by layer, until it arrives

at the outputs. During normal operation, that is when it acts as a classifier, there is no

feedback between layers. This is why they are called feedforward neural networks.

Feed-forward networks have the following characteristics:

Perceptrons are arranged in layers, with the first layer taking in inputs and the last

layer producing outputs. The middle layers have no connection with the external

world, and hence are called hidden layers.

Each perceptron in one layer is connected to every perceptron on the next layer. Hence

information is constantly "fed forward" from one layer to the next and this explains why

these networks are called feed-forward networks.

22

Methodology

2.2.7 Backpropagation

Input vectors and the corresponding target vectors are used to train a network until it can

approximate a function, associate input vectors with specific output vectors, or classify input vectors

in an appropriate way as defined by you. Networks with biases, a sigmoid layer, and a linear output

layer are capable of approximating any function with a finite number of discontinuities.

Standard backpropagation is a gradient descent algorithm in which the network weights are

moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function. The term backpropagation

refers to the manner in which the gradient is computed for nonlinear multilayer networks. There are a

number of variations on the basic algorithm that is based on other standard optimization techniques,

such as conjugate gradient and Newton methods. Neural Network Toolbox implements a number of

these variations. This chapter explains how to use each of these routines and discusses the advantages

and disadvantages of each.

Properly trained backpropagation networks tend to give reasonable answers when presented with

inputs that they have never seen. Typically, a new input leads to an output similar to the correct

output for input vectors used in training that are similar to the new input being presented. This

generalization property makes it possible to train a network on a representative set of input/target

pairs and get good results without training the network on all possible input/output pairs. There are

two features of Neural Network Toolbox that are designed to improve network generalization:

regularization and early stopping.

The primary objective is to explain how to use the backpropagation training functions in the

toolbox to train feedforward neural networks to solve specific problems. There are generally four

steps in the training process:

1. Assemble the training data

2. Create the network object

3. Train the network

4. Simulate the network response to new inputs

Backpropagation Algorithm

The network that is most commonly used with the backpropagation algorithm is the multilayer

feed-forward network. An elementary neuron with R inputs is shown below. Each input is weighted

23

Chapter2

with an appropriate w. The sum of the weighted inputs and the bias forms the input to the transfer

function f. Neurons can use any differentiable transfer function f to generate their output.

2.2.8 Training

The first step in training a feedforward network is to create the network object. The function

newff create a feedforward network.

Before training a feedforward network, the weights and biases must be initialized. The newff

command will automatically initialize the weights but it may want to reinitialize them. This can be

done with the command init. This function takes a network object as input and returns a network

object with all weights and biases initialized. i.e. net=init (net).

After initialized, the network is ready for training. The training process requires a set of

examples of proper network behavior- network inputs and target outputs. Various training functions

can be used to train the network to reach from a particular input to a specific target output. As each

input is applied to the network the network the network output is compared with the actual target

value and the error is calculated. The goal is to minimize the average of sum of these errors which is

called as Mean Square Error (MSE) of the output.

Mean Squared Error (MSE) =

( )

( )

where t(k) is the actual value, a(k) is the network value and Q is the number of epochs.

When the MSE falls below a predetermined value or the maximum number of epochs have been

reached the training process stops.

24

Methodology

2.2.9 Simulation

The trained network can be used for simulating the system. The sim function simulates a network.

It takes the network input, and the network object and returns the network outputs. The trained

networks are supplied with new inputs and the predicted outputs of the networks can be obtained.

Method used for improving the generalization performance is called early stopping. This

technique is automatically provided for all of the supervised network creation functions, including

the backpropagation network creation functions. In this technique the available data is divided into

three subsets. The first subset is the training set, which is used for computing the gradient and

updating the network weights and biases. The second subset is the validation set. The error or the

validation set is monitored during the training process. The validation error normally decreases

during the training process. However, when the network begins to over fit the data, the error of

validation set typically begin to rise. When the validation error increase for a specified number of

iterations, the training is stopped and the weight and biases at the minimum of the validation error are

returned. The third subset is test set which is used to compare different models. The error in the test

set reaches a minimum at a significantly different iteration number than the validation set error, this

might indicate a poor division of data set.

In the present work, crack detection of cantilever beam is obtained using Artificial Neural

Network. The Levenberg-Marquardt (TRINLM) algorithm is used for training the network as this

algorithm is often the fastest backpropagation algorithm in MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox and

is highly recommended as a first choice supervised algorithm. The results of finite element modal

analysis are used as an input to the neural network analysis whereas depth and location are used as

target value during the training process.

Instead of feeding the FE results directly, relative natural frequency and percentage deviation of

the corresponding mode shapes are calculated and are used as input parameters. Relative frequencies

are determined by comparing frequencies of cracked beam with cracked free beams. It should be

mentioned that first input is normalized between 0 to 1 and then it is used to train. Target parameters

are also normalized between 0 to 1. The number of neurons in the hidden layers and number of

hidden layers are varied to achieve beast results. After proper training it is simulated for other

cracked beam and the location and depth of the crack for those beams are thus obtained.

25

Chapter2

Altogether six deferent networks are used in this study to determine two output parameter as

shown in table below.

Table 2.3 Parameters for neural network

Input parameters

First three relative natural frequencies in

particular location with different depth

First three mode shapes deviation in particular

location with different depth

First three relative natural frequencies in

particular depth with different location

First three mode shapes deviation in particular

depth with different location

First three relative natural frequencies and mode

shapes deviation in particular location with

different depth

First three relative natural frequencies and mode

shapes deviation in particular depth with

different location

Output parameter

Depth

Depth

Location

Location

Depth

Location

A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with amplitude that starts out at zero, increases, and then

decreases back to zero. It can typically be visualized as a "brief oscillation" like one might see

recorded by a seismograph or heart monitor. Generally, wavelets are purposefully crafted to have

specific properties that make them useful for signal processing. Wavelets can be combined, using a

"reverse, shift, multiply and sum" technique called convolution, with portions of an unknown signal

to extract information from the unknown signal.

As a mathematical tool, wavelets can be used to extract information from many different kinds of

data, including -. A set of "complementary" wavelets will deconstruct data without gaps or overlap so

that the deconstruction process is mathematically reversible. Thus, sets of complementary wavelets

are useful in wavelet based but certainly not limited to - audio signals and images. Sets of wavelets

are generally needed to analyze data fully compression/decompression algorithms where it is

desirable to recover the original information with minimal loss.

26

Methodology

2.3.1 Introduction to wavelet

Wavelet transform is a tool that cuts up data, functions or operators into different frequency

components and then studies each component with a resolution matched to its scale. A wavelet is a

small wave which has its energy concentrated in time. It has an oscillating wavelike characteristic but

also has the ability to allow simultaneous time and frequency analysis and it is suitable tool for

transient, non-stationary or time-varying phenomena. Just as the Fourier transform decomposes a

signal into a family of complex sinusoidal, the wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a family

of wavelets. Unlike sinusoids, which are symmetric smooth and regular, wavelets can be symmetric

or asymmetric, sharp or smooth, regular or irregular.

Wavelet analysis is capable of revealing aspects of data that other signal analysis techniques miss

aspects like trends, breakdown points, discontinuities in higher derivatives, and self-similarity.

Further, because it affords a different view of data than those presented by traditional techniques,

wavelet analysis can often compress or de-noise a signal without appreciable degradation.

Haar: Haar wavelet is a sequence of rescaled "square-shaped" functions. It is discontinuous, and

resembles a step function.

27

Chapter 2

Gaussian window. This wavelet has no scaling function but it explicit.

Mexican Hat: Mexican hat wavelet is the negative normalized second derivative of a Gaussian

function, i.e., up to scale and normalization. This wavelet has no scaling function and is derived

from a function that is proportional to the second derivative function of the Gaussian probability

density function.

Mayer: The Meyer wavelet and scaling function are defined in the frequency domain.

28

Methodology

Daubechies

db1

db2

db5

db3

db6

db8

db4

db7

db9

db10

Daubechies wavelets are a family of orthogonal wavelets defining a discrete wavelet transform and

characterized by a maximal number of vanishing moments for some given support. With each

wavelet type of this class, there is a scaling function (also called father wavelet) which generates an

orthogonal multi resolution analysis.

29

Chapter 2

Bioorthogonal: A biorthogonal wavelet is a wavelet where the associated wavelet transform is

invertible but not necessarily orthogonal. Designing biorthogonal wavelets allows more degrees of

freedom than orthogonal wavelets. One additional degree of freedom is the possibility to construct

symmetric wavelet functions. This family of wavelets exhibits the property of linear phase, which is

needed for signal and image reconstruction. By using two wavelets, one for decomposition and the

other for reconstruction instead of the same single one, interesting properties are derived.

Decomposition

Reconstruction

bior 1.3

Decomposition

Reconstruction

bior 6.8

Symlets: The symlets are nearly symmetrical wavelets proposed by Daubechies as modifications

to the db family. The properties of the two wavelet families are similar.

sym2

sym8

Fig.2.18 Symlets Wavelet

30

Methodology

The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) uses to measure the similarity between a signal and an

analyzing

function.

exponentials

In

the

Fourier

transform,

the

analyzing

functions

are

complex

a single variable, . In the short-time Fourier transform, the analyzing functions are windowed

complex exponentials, ( )

coefficients, F(,) represent the match between the signal and a sinusoid with angular frequency

in an interval of a specified length centered at .

In the CWT, the analyzing function is a wavelet, . The CWT compares the signal to shifted and

compressed or stretched versions of a wavelet. Stretching or compressing a function is collectively

referred to as dilation or scaling and corresponds to the physical notion of scale. By comparing the

signal to the wavelet at various scales and positions, you obtain a function of two variables. The twodimensional representation of a one-dimensional signal is redundant. If the wavelet is complexvalued, the CWT is a complex-valued function of scale and position. If the signal is real-valued, the

CWT is a real-valued function of scale and position. For a scale parameter, a>0, and position, b, the

CWT is

( , )=

( )

By continuously varying the values of the scale parameter, a, and the position parameter, b, obtain

( )=2

(2

The results of the transform are wavelet coefficient that show how well a wavelet function

correlates with the signal analyzed. Hence, sharp transitions in f(x) create wavelet coefficient with

large amplitude and this precisely is the basis of the proposed identification method.

The inverse CWT permit to recover the signal from its coefficients C(a,b) and its defined as

f(x) =

( , )

( )

31

Chapter 2

CWT is highly redundant, not necessary to use the full domain of C(a,b) to reconstruct f(x).

C(a,b) can also be represented as

( , ) = ( ),

( )

Therefore, CWT is a collection of inner products of a signal f(x) and the translated and dilated

wavelets , ( ).

The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), which is based on sub-band coding, is found to yield a

fast computation of Wavelet Transform. It is easy to implement and reduces the computation time

and resources required.

In CWT, the signals are analyzed using a set of basic functions which relate to each other by

simple scaling and translation. In the case of DWT, a time-scale representation of the digital signal is

obtained using digital filtering techniques. The signal to be analyzed is passed through filters with

different cutoff frequencies at different scales.

DWT adopts dyadic scales and translations in order to reduce the amount of computation, which

results in better efficiency of calculation. Filters of different cutoff frequencies are used for the

analysis of the signal at different scales. The signal is passed through a series of high-pass filters to

analyze the high frequencies and trough a series of low-pass filters to analyze the low frequencies.

DWT signal can be represent as

( )=

The coefficient

( )

( )

( )=

( )

( )

( )=

( )

( )

The original function can be expressed as the sun of its approximation at level J plus all its detail

up to the same level. Finally the signal f(x) is defined as

32

Methodology

( )=

( )+

( )

In the present work crack detection of cantilever beam is done by continuous and discrete wavelet

analysis. Wavelet analysis is detected small discontinuities of structural response in the presence of

cracks. The structural response in terms of mode shape difference between cracked free and cracked

beams is treated as input signal for the CWT and DWT analysis. Biorthonal6.8 wavelet is used for

the analysis. Biorthogonal wavelet is preferred for this analysis because in this wavelet analysis

scaling function and fast algorithm are available.

The Wavelet coefficients of the CWT or the DWT for different crack location and depth are

plotted. From the discontinuity of CWT and DWT plotted curve, the crack location of beam is

determined. The maximum wavelet coefficient of CWT is used for prediction of crack depth.

For static analysis relative deflection shape of cracked and cracked free beam is used as input

signal for wavelet analysis. Similar procedure is followed for detection of crack and its location.

33

Chapter 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section is divided in three parts. In the first part, the results of the numerical experiment are

presented. In the second and third part, identification of crack depth and crack location is described

using Neural Network and Wavelet analysis respectively.

As mentioned in Section 2.1, a numerical experiment is performed on crack free and cracked

cantilever beam using ANSYS software. The relevant dimensions and other properties of the beam

are already presented in Table 2.1.

The first, second and third natural frequencies corresponding to various crack locations and

depths are obtained from the modal analysis of the beam in ANSYS environment. The first three

mode shapes under transverse vibration of cracked and crack free beams are captured. At the same

time, first three natural frequencies of cracked free beam under transverse vibration are also obtained.

They are 46.013 Hz, 286.88 Hz and 796.79 Hz respectively. The relative frequencies and average

mode shape deviation for different cracked depth and location are obtained from Equation (1) and (2),

respectively.

( 1)

60

(2)

Table 3.1 represents the values of first three relative natural frequencies of the cantilever beam

having various depths at crack location 50 mm from fixed end as obtained from the numerical

experiment. The graphical representation of the same result is also shown in Figure 3.1. Similarly,

Table 3.2 represents the results obtained from the ANSYS analysis with fixed crack depth (3 mm) but

various crack locations, corresponding graphical representations are shown in Figure 3.2 to 3.4. Table

3.3 exhibits average relative mode shape deviation at different depth, crack location being fixed at 50

mm from fixed end. Figure 3.5 represents the values of the same table in graphical from. The values

34

of average mode shape deviation at different crack location from fixed end with crack depth of 3mm

are represented in Table 3.4. Figure 3.6 to 3.8 shows them in graphical form.

Table 3.1 Different natural frequencies with relative natural frequencies at different depth with

crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Dept

h

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

First

Natural

Frequencie

s

45.947

45.873

45.772

45.645

45.497

45.321

45.123

44.89

44.608

44.324

44.002

43.621

43.231

42.717

42.225

41.696

41.066

40.402

39.668

First

Relative

Natural

Frequencies

0.998565623

0.996957381

.994762349

0.99200226

0.988785778

0.984960772

0.98065764

0.975593854

0.969465151

0.963292982

0.95629496

0.948014692

0.939538826

0.92836807

0.91767544

0.906178689

0.892486906

0.878056202

0.862104188

Second

Natural

Frequencie

s

286.69

286.47

286.18

285.82

285.41

284.91

284.37

283.73

282.96

282.2

281.36

280.37

279.39

278.11

276.92

275.68

274.24

272.77

271.18

35

Second

Third

Relative

Natural

Natural

Frequencie

Frequencies s

0.999337702

796.62

0.998570831

796.42

0.997559955

796.14

0.996305075

795.81

0.994875906

795.42

0.993133017

794.96

0.991250697

794.45

0.989019799

793.85

0.98633575

793.13

0.983686559

792.43

0.980758505

791.65

0.977307585

790.73

0.973891523

789.83

0.969429727

788.65

0.965281651

787.58

0.960959286

786.46

0.955939766

785.15

0.950815672

783.83

0.945273285

782.4

Third

Relative

Natural

Frequencies

0.999786644

0.999535637

0.999184227

0.998770065

0.998280601

0.997703284

0.997063216

0.996310195

0.995406569

0.994528044

0.993549116

0.992394483

0.991264951

0.989784008

0.98844112

0.98703548

0.985391383

0.983734736

0.981940034

Chapter 3

Table 3.2 Different natural frequencies with relative natural frequencies at different location

from fixed end with fixed crack depth 3mm.

Location

from

fixed end

First

Natural

Frequencies

First Relative

Natural

Frequencies

Second

Natural

Frequencies

25

40

50

75

80

100

120

125

150

160

175

200

225

240

250

275

280

300

320

325

350

360

375

400

425

440

450

475

480

500

520

525

550

560

575

45.44

45.469

45.497

45.56

45.569

45.621

45.666

45.672

45.725

45.747

45.771

45.814

45.85

45.875

45.887

45.913

45.92

45.938

45.955

45.96

45.976

45.982

45.991

46.002

46.01

46.014

46.016

46.021

46.022

46.025

46.027

46.028

46.031

46.032

46.033

0.987546998

0.988177254

0.988785778

0.990154956

0.990350553

0.991480669

0.992458653

0.992589051

0.993740899

0.994219025

0.994740617

0.995675135

0.996457523

0.997000848

0.997261643

0.997826701

0.997978832

0.998370026

0.998739487

0.998848152

0.999195879

0.999326277

0.999521874

0.999760937

0.999934801

1.000021733

1.000065199

1.000173864

1.000195597

1.000260796

1.000304262

1.000325995

1.000391194

1.000412927

1.00043466

284.35

285

285.41

286.2

286.32

286.69

286.87

286.88

286.83

286.75

286.58

286.2

285.76

285.55

285.4

285.06

285.02

284.86

284.82

284.85

284.93

285.02

285.18

285.5

285.82

286.03

286.16

286.45

286.5

286.67

286.8

286.82

286.91

286.93

286.97

36

Second

Relative

Natural

Frequencies

0.991180982

0.993446737

0.994875906

0.997629671

0.998047964

0.999337702

0.999965142

1

0.999825711

0.999546849

0.998954267

0.997629671

0.996095929

0.995363915

0.994841049

0.993655884

0.993516453

0.992958728

0.992819297

0.992923871

0.993202733

0.993516453

0.994074177

0.995189626

0.996305075

0.997037089

0.99749024

0.998501115

0.998675404

0.999267987

0.999721138

0.999790853

1.000104573

1.000174289

1.00031372

Third

Natural

Frequencies

791.93

794.25

795.42

796.8

796.84

796.36

795.21

794.84

793.22

792.78

792.27

792.41

793.47

794.46

795.07

796.34

796.52

796.79

796.33

796.11

794.53

793.79

792.69

791.24

790.53

790.76

791.07

792.38

792.872

794.07

795.32

795.58

796.52

796.73

796.95

Third

Relative

Natural

Frequencies

0.993900526

0.996812209

0.998280601

1.00001255

1.000062752

0.999460335

0.998017043

0.99755268

0.995519522

0.994967306

0.994327238

0.994502943

0.995833281

0.997075767

0.997841338

0.999435234

0.99966114

1

0.999422684

0.999146576

0.997163619

0.996234893

0.994854353

0.993034551

0.992143476

0.992432134

0.992821195

0.994465292

0.99508277

0.996586303

0.998155097

0.998481407

0.99966114

0.999924698

1.000200806

Table 3.3 Average relative mode shape deviation at different depth with crack location 50 mm

Depth

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

Second Average

First Average Relative

Relative Mode Shape

Third Average Relative

Mode Shape Deviation

Deviation

Mode Shape Deviation

0.00156

0.002198

0.001747

0.005358

0.007738

0.006018

0.011498

0.016552

0.01262

0.019617

0.028391

0.021645

0.029898

0.04329

0.033008

0.041879

0.060564

0.046026

0.056007

0.080872

0.061405

0.071769

0.103513

0.078484

0.090282

0.129908

0.098344

0.112653

0.161687

0.122306

0.135015

0.192954

0.145216

0.16003

0.228719

0.172146

0.189606

0.269637

0.20214

0.219432

0.310989

0.232523

0.258379

0.36471

0.271678

0.295064

0.41444

0.307388

0.333857

0.467682

0.346535

0.380022

0.528162

0.388475

0.427147

0.591732

0.434575

0.478778

0.659398

0.482486

37

Chapter 3

Table 3.4 Different average mode shape deviation at different location from fixed end with

fixed crack depth 3mm.

Location

From Fixed

End

25

40

50

75

80

100

120

125

150

160

175

200

225

240

250

275

280

300

320

325

350

360

375

400

425

440

450

475

480

500

520

525

550

560

575

Average Third Mode

Shape Deviation

Shape Deviation

Shape Deviation

0.060627

0.121252

0.148608

0.049444

0.08101

0.074377

0.041879

0.060564

0.046026

0.026441

0.0314

0.007746

0.024134

0.028467

0.001652

0.015975

0.01822

0.038314

0.010873

0.00744

0.081137

0.010404

0.004322

0.091617

0.010605

0.01529

0.115215

0.012449

0.023657

0.111895

0.015377

0.036247

0.102315

0.018858

0.0521

0.091285

0.020893

0.058953

0.092657

0.020636

0.055798

0.087874

0.020703

0.053642

0.083405

0.020204

0.04888

0.051732

0.019806

0.047914

0.04114

0.018597

0.048239

0.006268

0.016632

0.052183

0.054078

0.01586

0.053349

0.06356

0.013363

0.065821

0.097464

0.012225

0.072119

0.101126

0.010481

0.078754

0.099961

0.007723

0.081787

0.106798

0.005291

0.076892

0.139548

0.003927

0.068109

0.154691

0.003202

0.061869

0.166645

0.003263

0.043466

0.165261

0.003493

0.039473

0.159242

0.004192

0.025545

0.126191

0.004962

0.013121

0.078956

0.005079

0.010671

0.067342

0.005921

0.00728

0.020748

0.006273

0.008608

0.008899

0.006973

0.01109

0.011036

38

from fixed end for first frequency.

Figure 3.1 shows that with increase of crack depth relative natural frequencies decrease whereas

Figure 3.5 exhibits that with increase of crack depth average mode shape deviations increases. First

relative natural frequency is monotonously increased as the crack location moves from the fixed end

to the free end when the crack depth is kept constant (Figure 3.2). On the other hand, the second and

third relative frequencies oscillate under the same situation (Figure 3.3 and 3.4). Remarkable changes

are observed in average mode deviations at different location as observed from Figure 3.6 to 3.8.

from fixed end for second frequency

Location from fixed end for third frequencies

39

Chapter 3

Depth

Location form fixed end for first natural frequencies

frequencies

frequencies

Six variable, three relative natural frequencies and three average mode shape deviation are used as a

input to the network .Crack depth and location are used as a target output of the network. All values

of variable are taken from finite element analysis performed by ANSYS software. The number of

40

hidden layers and number of neurons in hidden layer are varied to obtain desired result having least

deviation from the target values.

For the identification of crack location and crack depth by Artificial Neural Network, feedforward

backpropagation algorithm is used. It comprises of four functions as describe in Table 3.5.

Table 3.5 Different Function of Network

Type of function

Training Function

Adaption Learning Function

Performance Function

Transfer Function

TRAINLM

LEARNGDM

MSE (Mean Square Error)

TANSIG

TRAINLM is a network training function that updates weight and bias value according to LevenbergMarquardt optimization. In Lavenberg-Marquardent algorithm divides the entire set of input and

target vector into three groups- 60% for training, 20% for validation and the rest for testing the

results. However formation of group is achieved by random selection of vectors

LEARNGDM is the gradient decent with momentum weight and bias learning function

MSE is a network performance function -lower the value of MSE lower is the error.

TANSIG is a neural transfer function that calculates a layers output from its net output.

Before proceeding further all the input and target variables are normalized between 0 to 1 based on

the following equation.

Normalized (value) =

Then the normalized input and target variables with various combinations are entered in a MS

Excel sheet. The Excel sheet is then imported to MATLAB workspace. Finally neural network

analysis is done by means Neural Network Toolbox provided in MATLAB.

In the present study, target vectors are depth of crack and its location whereas input variable being

first three relative mode shapes values as obtained from the modal analysis performed by ANSYS. In

order to identify the crack location and depth, neural network system has to be trained first using

known sample data. For each set of target (either depth or location) it is being trained in three stages

41

Chapter 3

of input values keeping other target value unchanged. For each case of target, the network is trained

using three sets of input values, e.g. first three relative natural frequencies, first three average mode

shape deviation and both first three relative natural frequencies along with first three average mode

shape deviation. Accuracy of training is measured from the value of Mean Square Error (MSE) and

Regression coefficient (R) obtained from performance curve and regression plot produced after

training operation. Once the training is complete, output depth are obtained by simulation data of

relative natural frequency. Lastly output depth of the ANN results is compared with FE model depth

to estimate error in the ANN process. The objective of the present study is to keep the error minimum

by proper choice of layer and neuron number while ANN network is designed.

In the following sections, six different neural networks are performed for identifying crack depths

and their locations. Modal analysis using FEM are conducted to generate training data. For training

ten damage cases are used to determine depth and twenty three damage cases are used to determine

crack location.

There are two types of output target data; locations and depths are used in present

study. For location output data 23 patterns are used for training and 35 patterns are simulated. For

depth output data 10 patterns are used for training and 19 patterns are simulated.

Relative Natural Frequencies as input.

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.6 where target is the depth of the crack having

location fixed at 50 mm from fixed end.

Table 3.6 Natural Frequencies with cracked depth at location 50 mm from fixed end for training.

Input ( Relative Natural Frequencies)

First

Second

0.998565623

0.999337702

0.99476235

0.997559955

0.988785778

0.994875906

0.98065764

0.991250697

0.969465151

0.98633575

0.95629496

0.980758505

0.939538826

0.973891523

0.91767544

0.965281651

0.892486906

0.955939766

0.862104188

0.945273285

42

Third

0.999786644

0.999184227

0.998280601

0.997063216

0.995406569

0.993549116

0.991264951

0.98844112

0.985391383

0.981940034

Target

Depth

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

The performance curve and regression plot for relative natural frequencies and depth network are

shown in Figure 3.9 and 3.10 respectively.

Fig 3.9 Performance curve for Relative natural frequencies and Depth network

Fig 3.10 Regression plot for Relative natural frequencies and Depth network

43

Chapter 3

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is.00041412 at 20 epochs and R

value is .99996. Neural network model for this analysis is (3-1-3-1). i.e. 3 input, 1 output, 2 hidden

layers in which first layer having one neuron and second layer having three neurons. After the

network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of input values. The simulated data is

shown in Table 3.7. Table 3.8 shows the value of depth obtained by ANN analysis and their deviation

from the assumed FE model depth values.

Table 3.7 Simulation data of Natural frequencies and depth at location 50 mm from fixed end.

Input

Normalized

Relative First

Natural

Frequencies

1

0.988211968

0.972126671

0.951900604

0.928330069

0.900300244

0.868766691

0.831659025

0.786747601

0.741517656

0.690235817

0.629557617

0.567446073

0.485586243

0.407230141

0.322981406

0.222647373

0.116898488

0

Normalized Relative

Second Natural

Frequencies

1

0.985810247

0.967112834

0.943902253

0.917467979

0.885231061

0.850415188

0.809151932

0.759507077

0.710506961

0.656348937

0.592519838

0.529335477

0.446808965

0.370085099

0.29013754

0.197295214

0.102518673

0

44

Output

Normalized Relative

Third

Natural

Frequencies

1

0.985915658

0.966225512

0.943019269

0.915593708

0.883245612

0.847381417

0.805188248

0.754556444

0.705331079

0.650479959

0.585783765

0.522494011

0.439514111

0.364269625

0.285509041

0.193387288

0.100562314

0

Depth

0.126870949

0.141410936

0.171269008

0.217542097

0.282055378

0.353808288

0.415362901

0.464963033

0.507015506

0.544012192

0.590052763

0.649720757

0.702194244

0.756723979

0.798333287

0.84459635

0.901793715

0.947403026

0.975609502

Table 3.8 Comparing target result of depth with ANN result for frequency depth network

Target (mm)

ANN (mm)

Error (mm)

1

1.268709487

-0.268709487

1.5

1.414109356

0.085890644

2

1.712690077

0.287309923

2.5

2.175420974

0.324579026

3

2.82055378

0.17944622

3.5

3.538082882

-0.038082882

4

4.153629007

-0.153629007

4.5

4.649630334

-0.149630334

5

5.070155058

-0.070155058

5.5

5.440121916

0.059878084

6

5.900527626

0.099472374

6.5

6.497207565

0.002792435

7

7.021942442

-0.021942442

7.5

7.567239788

-0.067239788

8

7.983332871

0.016667129

8.5

8.445963499

0.054036501

9

9.017937154

-0.017937154

9.5

9.474030256

0.025969744

10

9.75609502

0.24390498

Maximum Error 0.3246 mm

Average Error 0.1141 mm

Average Mode Shape Deviations as input.

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.9 where target is the depth of the crack having

location fixed at 50 mm from fixed end.

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is.00055188 at 95 epochs and R

value is .99879. Neural network model for this analysis is (3-2-1). i.e. 3 input, 1 output, 1 hidden

having two neuron. After the network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of input

values. The simulated data is shown in Table 3.10. Table 3.11 shows the value of depth obtained by

ANN analysis and their deviation from the assumed FE model depth values

45

Chapter 3

Table 3.9 Average Mode Shape Deviation with cracked depth at location 50 mm from fixed end

for training.

Target

First

Second

Third

Depth

0.005358

0.007738

0.006018

1

0.019617

0.028391

0.021645

2

0.041879

0.060564

0.046026

3

0.071769

0.103513

0.078484

4

0.112653

0.161687

0.122306

5

0.16003

0.228719

0.172146

6

0.219432

0.310989

0.232523

7

0.295064

0.41444

0.307388

8

0.380022

0.528162

0.388475

9

0.478778

0.659398

0.482486

10

The performance curve and regression plot for average mode shape deviation and depth network are

shown in Figure 3.11 and 3.12 respectively

Fig 3.11 Performance curve for Average Mode Shape Deviation and Depth network

46

Fig 3.12 Regression for Average Mode Shape Deviation and Depth network

Table 3.10 Simulation data of Mode Shape Deviation and Depth at Crack location 50 mm from fixed

end.

Normalized Average

First Mode Shape

Deviation

0

0.012969456

0.030119133

0.051835579

0.077142917

0.106985341

0.140279245

0.179384056

0.22663808

0.273873094

0.32671201

0.389185079

0.452186219

0.534453551

0.611942884

0.693884922

0.791398758

0.890940391

1

Input

Normalized Average

Second Mode Shape

Deviation

0

0.013525458

0.031692907

0.054556057

0.081063745

0.112227235

0.146970813

0.187475064

0.236241291

0.284221833

0.339104748

0.40189516

0.465351564

0.547788724

0.624101525

0.70580364

0.798612774

0.896163644

1

47

Output

Normalized Average

Third Mode Shape

Deviation

0

0.013856125

0.032797586

0.056645987

0.083967864

0.116244952

0.152089962

0.19377167

0.24406256

0.292145538

0.348665598

0.41161631

0.475383447

0.557561053

0.632508374

0.714669191

0.802691891

0.899445503

1

Depth

0.131103118

0.14841815

0.175580644

0.21508305

0.275025008

0.33905225

0.406008699

0.466190873

0.516321736

0.562642068

0.596402523

0.633277096

0.671062663

0.731754985

0.800693041

0.863347343

0.945569702

0.980956187

0.995953402

Chapter 3

Table 3.11 Comparing target result of depth with ANN result for mode shape deviation depth network

Target (mm)

ANN (mm)

Error (mm)

1

1.311031

-0.31103

1.5

1.484182

0.015818

2

1.755806

0.244194

2.5

2.150831

0.349169

3

2.75025

0.24975

3.5

3.390523

0.109477

4

4.060087

-0.06009

4.5

4.661909

-0.16191

5

5.163217

-0.16322

5.5

5.626421

-0.12642

6

5.964025

0.035975

6.5

6.332771

0.167229

7

6.710627

0.289373

7.5

7.31755

0.18245

8

8.00693

-0.00693

8.5

8.633473

-0.13347

9

9.455697

-0.4557

9.5

9.809562

-0.30956

10

9.959534

0.040466

Maximum Error 0.4557 mm Average Error 0.2796 mm

Relative Natural Frequencies and First Three Average Mode Shape

Deviations as input

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.12 where target is the depth of the crack

having location fixed at 50 mm from fixed end.

48

Table 3.12 Relative Natural Frequencies and Mode Shape Deviation with cracked depth at location 50

mm from fixed end for training.

Input

Target

First

0.998565623

0.99476235

0.988785778

0.98065764

0.969465151

0.95629496

0.939538826

0.91767544

0.892486906

0.862104188

Second

0.999338

0.99756

0.994876

0.991251

0.986336

0.980759

0.973892

0.965282

0.95594

0.945273

Third

0.999787

0.999184

0.998281

0.997063

0.995407

0.993549

0.991265

0.988441

0.985391

0.98194

First

0.005358

0.019617

0.041879

0.071769

0.112653

0.16003

0.219432

0.295064

0.380022

0.478778

Second

0.007738

0.028391

0.060564

0.103513

0.161687

0.228719

0.310989

0.41444

0.528162

0.659398

Third

0.006018

0.021645

0.046026

0.078484

0.122306

0.172146

0.232523

0.307388

0.388475

0.482486

Depth

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

The performance curve and regression plot for relative natural frequency with average mode shape

deviation and depth network are shown in Figure 3.13 and 3.14 respectively

Fig 3.13 Performance curve for Relative Natural Frequencies and Average Mode Shape Deviation

with Depth network

49

Chapter 3

Fig 3.14 Regression for Relative Natural Frequencies and Average Mode Shape Deviation with

Depth network

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is. .000019627 at 31 epochs

and R value is .99913. Neural network model for this analysis is (6-3-1). i.e. 6 input, 1 output, 1

hidden having three neurons. After the network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of

input values. The simulated data is shown in Table 3.10. Table 3.11 shows the value of depth

obtained by ANN analysis and their deviation from the assumed FE model depth values.

50

Table 3.13 Simulation data of Relative Natural Frequencies with Average Mode Shape Deviation and

Depth at location of Crack 50 mm from fixed end.

Input

Normalized

Relative

First

Natural

Frequencies

1

0.988211968

0.972126671

0.951900604

0.928330069

0.900300244

0.868766691

0.831659025

0.786747601

0.741517656

0.690235817

0.629557617

0.567446073

0.485586243

0.407230141

0.322981406

0.222647373

0.116898488

0

Normalized

Relative

Second

Natural

Frequencies

1

0.985810247

0.967112834

0.943902253

0.917467979

0.885231061

0.850415188

0.809151932

0.759507077

0.710506961

0.656348937

0.592519838

0.529335477

0.446808965

0.370085099

0.29013754

0.197295214

0.102518673

0

Normalized

Relative

Third

Natural

Frequencies

1

0.985915658

0.966225512

0.943019269

0.915593708

0.883245612

0.847381417

0.805188248

0.754556444

0.705331079

0.650479959

0.585783765

0.522494011

0.439514111

0.364269625

0.285509041

0.193387288

0.100562314

0

Output

Normalized

Average

First Mode

Shape

Deviation

0

0.012969456

0.030119133

0.051835579

0.077142917

0.106985341

0.140279245

0.179384056

0.22663808

0.273873094

0.32671201

0.389185079

0.452186219

0.534453551

0.611942884

0.693884922

0.791398758

0.890940391

1

51

Normalized

Average

Second

Mode

Shape

Deviation

0

0.013525458

0.031692907

0.054556057

0.081063745

0.112227235

0.146970813

0.187475064

0.236241291

0.284221833

0.339104748

0.40189516

0.465351564

0.547788724

0.624101525

0.70580364

0.798612774

0.896163644

1

Normalized

Average

Third Mode

Shape

Normalized

Deviation

Depth

0

0.114143

0.013856125

0.13962

0.032797586

0.192303

0.056645987

0.254352

0.083967864

0.304858

0.116244952

0.348735

0.152089962

0.388134

0.19377167

0.435485

0.24406256

0.496043

0.292145538

0.54674

0.348665598

0.607344

0.41161631

0.668895

0.475383447

0.716369

0.557561053

0.771355

0.632508374

0.803911

0.714669191

0.846957

0.802691891

0.901003

0.899445503

0.961898

1

0.982508

Chapter 3

Table 3.14 Comparing target result of depth with ANN result for relative natural frequency with

average mode shape deviation depth network

Target

(mm)

ANN(mm)

Error (mm)

1

1.141426

-0.14143

1.5

1.396201

0.103799

2

1.92303

0.07697

2.5

2.543521

-0.04352

3

3.048577

-0.04858

3.5

3.487354

0.012646

4

3.881336

0.118664

4.5

4.354852

0.145148

5

4.960431

0.039569

5.5

5.467401

0.032599

6

6.073442

-0.07344

6.5

6.688948

-0.18895

7

7.163691

-0.16369

7.5

7.713551

-0.21355

8

8.039112

-0.03911

8.5

8.469566

0.030434

9

9.010026

-0.01003

9.5

9.618975

-0.11898

10

9.825078

0.174922

Maximum Error 0.2136 mm Average Error 0.0935 mm

3.2.4 Prediction of Location of crack for particular depth using First Three

Relative Natural Frequencies as input.

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.15 where target is the location of the crack

having fixed 3 mm depth.

52

Table 3.15

Natural Frequencies with cracked location from fixed end with fixed 3 mm depth for

training.

Input ( Relative Natural Frequencies)

Target

First

Second

Third

Depth

0.987546998

0.991180982

0.993900526

0.988785778

0.994875906

0.998280601

0.990154956

0.997629671

1.00001255

0.991480669

0.999337702

0.999460335

0.992589051

1

0.99755268

0.993740899

0.999825711

0.995519522

0.994740617

0.998954267

0.994327238

0.995675135

0.997629671

0.994502943

0.996457523

0.996095929

0.995833281

0.997261643

0.994841049

0.997841338

0.997826701

0.993655884

0.999435234

0.998370026

0.992958728

1

0.998848152

0.992923871

0.999146576

0.999195879

0.993202733

0.997163619

0.999521874

0.994074177

0.994854353

0.999760937

0.995189626

0.993034551

0.999934801

0.996305075

0.992143476

1.000065199

0.99749024

0.992821195

1.000173864

0.998501115

0.994465292

1.000260796

0.999267987

0.996586303

1.000325995

0.999790853

0.998481407

1.000391194

1.000104573

0.99966114

1.00043466

1.00031372

1.000200806

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

425

450

475

500

525

550

575

The performance curve and regression plot for relative natural frequency and location network are

shown in Figure 3.15 and 3.16 respectively

53

Chapter 3

Fig.3.15 Performance curve for Relative Natural Frequencies and Location network

Fig 3.16 Regression for Relative Natural Frequencies and Location network

54

Table 3.16 Simulation data of Natural frequencies and location from fixed end for 3 mm crack depth.

Input

Normalized Relative

First Natural

Frequencies

0

0.04890241

0.09611871

0.202355385

0.217532053

0.305219468

0.381102808

0.391220587

0.480594298

0.51769282

0.558163934

0.630674681

0.691381353

0.733538764

0.753774321

0.797618028

0.809422103

0.839775439

0.868442479

0.876873961

0.903854704

0.913972483

0.929149151

0.947698411

0.961188783

0.967933969

0.971306562

0.979738044

0.98142434

0.98648323

0.991542119

0.989855822

0.996601008

0.998287305

1

Normalized Relative

Second Natural

Frequencies

0

0.248082482

0.40456655

0.706084632

0.751884847

0.893102176

0.961802499

0.965619183

0.94653576

0.916002284

0.851118646

0.706084632

0.53815051

0.458000134

0.400749866

0.27098259

0.255715852

0.194648898

0.17938216

0.190832214

0.22136569

0.255715852

0.316782805

0.438916711

0.561050618

0.641200994

0.690817894

0.801501746

0.820585169

0.885468807

0.942719076

0.935085707

0.977069237

0.984702606

1

55

Output

Normalized Relative

Third

Natural

Frequencies

0.218109439

0.57945011

0.761677949

0.976613348

0.98284336

0.908083221

0.728970388

0.671342781

0.419027312

0.350497185

0.271064537

0.292869578

0.457964885

0.612157671

0.707165348

0.904968215

0.933003267

0.975055845

0.903410712

0.869145648

0.623060191

0.507804977

0.336479659

0.110641739

0

0.035881601

0.08416419

0.288197069

0.364826212

0.551415058

0.786597995

0.74610292

0.933003267

0.965710828

1

Depth

0.047884999

0.065393002

0.082807912

0.122880704

0.128988608

0.168170735

0.204544428

0.208468874

0.252215691

0.271422729

0.291446647

0.332527071

0.370688518

0.402131883

0.418447744

0.457466909

0.470106134

0.5016026

0.534053729

0.54605147

0.574788236

0.588556147

0.612157563

0.651126134

0.693796524

0.729213856

0.751790022

0.809212187

0.821986114

0.854408953

0.88268662

0.877678727

0.898489669

0.902062475

0.90621364

Chapter 3

Table 3.17 Comparing target result of location from fixed end with ANN result for relative natural

frequency location network

Target (mm)

Ann (mm)

25

40

50

75

80

100

120

125

150

160

175

200

225

240

250

275

280

300

320

325

350

360

375

400

425

440

450

475

480

500

520

525

550

560

575

Error(mm)

28.731

-3.731

39.2358

0.764199

49.68475

0.315253

73.72842

1.271577

77.39316

2.606835

100.9024

-0.90244

122.7267

-2.72666

125.0813

-0.08132

151.3294

-1.32941

162.8536

-2.85364

174.868

0.132012

199.5162

0.483757

222.4131

2.586889

241.2791

-1.27913

251.0686

-1.06865

274.4801

0.519855

282.0637

-2.06368

300.9616

-0.96156

320.4322

-0.43224

327.6309

-2.63088

344.8729

5.127058

353.1337

6.866312

367.2945

7.705462

390.6757

9.32432

416.2779

8.722086

437.5283

2.471686

451.074

-1.07401

485.5273

-10.5273

493.1917

-13.1917

512.6454

-12.6454

529.612

-9.61197

526.6072

-1.60724

539.0938

10.9062

541.2375

18.76252

543.7282

31.27182

Average Error 5.1 mm

56

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is. .000014395 at 14 epochs

and R value is .99887. Neural network model for this analysis is (3-3-1). i.e. 3 input, 1 output, 1

hidden having three neurons. After the network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of

input values. The simulated data is shown in Table 3.16. Table 3.17 shows the value of depth

obtained by ANN analysis and their deviation from the assumed FE model depth values.

3.2.5 Prediction of Location of crack for particular depth using First Three

Average Mode Shape Deviations as input.

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.18 where target is the location of the crack

having fixed 3 mm depth.

Table 3.18 Mode Shape deviations with cracked location from fixed end with fixed 3 mm depth for

training

Input ( Average Mode Shape Deviation)

Target

First

Second

Third

Depth

0.060627

0.121252

0.148608

25

0.041879

0.060564

0.046026

50

0.026441

0.0314

0.007746

75

0.015975

0.01822

0.038314

100

0.010404

0.004322

0.091617

125

0.010605

0.01529

0.115215

150

0.015377

0.036247

0.102315

175

0.018858

0.0521

0.091285

200

0.020893

0.058953

0.092657

225

0.020703

0.053642

0.083405

250

0.020204

0.04888

0.051732

275

0.018597

0.048239

0.006268

300

0.01586

0.053349

0.06356

325

0.013363

0.065821

0.097464

350

0.010481

0.078754

0.099961

375

0.007723

0.081787

0.106798

400

0.005291

0.076892

0.139548

425

0.003202

0.061869

0.166645

450

0.003263

0.043466

0.165261

475

0.004192

0.025545

0.126191

500

0.005079

0.010671

0.067342

525

0.005921

0.00728

0.020748

550

0.006973

0.01109

0.011036

575

57

Chapter 3

The performance curve and regression plot for average mode shape deviation and location network

are shown in Figure 3.15 and 3.16 respectively

3.17 Performance curve for Mode Shape Deviation and Location network

58

Table 3.19 Simulation data of Mode shape deviation and location from fixed end for 3 mm crack

depth.

Normalized Average

First Mode Shape

Deviation

1

0.805259034

0.673521985

0.404684371

0.364510231

0.222429256

0.133582934

0.12541576

0.128915977

0.161027427

0.212015673

0.27263387

0.308071397

0.303595995

0.304762734

0.296073139

0.28914236

0.268088811

0.233870266

0.220426643

0.17694384

0.157126687

0.126756639

0.078728777

0.036377884

0.012625163

0

0.001062255

0.005067479

0.017239878

0.032686112

0.030648672

0.047348716

0.05347845

0.065668263

Input

Normalized Second

Average Mode Shape

Deviation

1

0.655845378

0.480988626

0.231574446

0.206491063

0.118857436

0.026665526

0

0.093799709

0.165355341

0.273026597

0.408603438

0.467211152

0.440229197

0.421790815

0.381065595

0.372804242

0.375583683

0.409313264

0.419285042

0.519683

0.579808432

0.636551783

0.662490379

0.620627726

0.54551441

0.492149149

0.334764389

0.300615753

0.181501753

0.054297443

0.07525015

0.025297186

0.036654409

0.057880783

59

Output

Normalized Third

Average Mode Shape

Deviation

Location

0.916315931 0.0518652

0.440776275 0.0579487

0.27668556 0.0726661

0.037997967 0.1568779

0 0.2042596

0.228598864 0.2987911

0.481747711 0.2774727

0.560959489 0.2000622

0.708100289 0.1928135

0.66816774 0.2236895

0.627664815 0.2740666

0.558889367 0.3629567

0.56744421 0.3617726

0.522579746 0.3588123

0.509755139 0.3427681

0.312264227 0.3970693

0.239331366 0.4312363

0.028782182 0.5318792

0.317746814 0.5289886

0.386015451 0.5357272

0.597417335 0.5709642

0.602898305 0.5948169

0.6129869 0.6180335

0.655617701 0.6633266

0.85982404

0.702399

0.927548441 0.7446918

1.028782182 0.7522083

1.020152516 0.7534696

0.95513143 0.7671778

0.77653903 0.7911822

0.409597386 0.8881955

0.468528968 0.8757403

0.119069443

0.926014

0.043923076 0.9296989

0.058512131 0.9200483

Chapter 3

Table 3.20 Comparing target result of location from fixed end with ANN result for average mode

shape deviation location network

Target (mm)

Ann (mm)

Error (mm)

25

31.1191067

-6.1191067

40

34.76919888

5.230801119

50

43.59964193

6.400358068

75

94.12674136

-19.1267414

80

122.5557496

-42.5557496

100

179.2746378

-79.2746378

120

166.4836316

-46.4836316

125

120.0373382

4.962661828

150

115.6881005

34.31189955

160

134.2137235

25.78627651

175

164.4399739

10.56002614

200

217.774015

-17.774015

225

217.0635373

7.936462678

240

215.2873993

24.71260075

250

205.6608424

44.33915764

275

238.2415705

36.75842955

280

258.7417604

21.25823963

300

319.127523

-19.127523

320

317.3931605

2.606839503

325

321.43633

3.563670015

350

342.5785255

7.421474532

360

356.8901116

3.109888395

375

370.8200773

4.179922687

400

397.9959457

2.004054296

425

421.4394211

3.560578894

440

446.815058

-6.81505803

450

451.3249957

-1.32499569

475

452.0817365

22.91826349

480

460.306658

19.69334199

500

474.7093327

25.2906673

520

532.9172817

-12.9172817

525

525.444175

-0.44417498

550

555.6083954

-5.60839538

560

557.8193111

2.180688894

575

552.0289764

22.97102361

Maximum Error 79.27 mm

Average Error 17.13 mm

60

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is.00056089 at 13 epochs and R

value is .98933. Neural network model for this analysis is (3-3-2-1). i.e. 3 input, 1 output, 2 hidden

layers in which first layer having three neurons and second layer having two neurons. After the

network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of input values. The simulated data is

shown in Table 3,19. Table 3.20 shows the value of depth obtained by ANN analysis and their

deviation from the assumed FE model depth values.

3.2.6 Prediction of Location of crack for particular depth using First Three

Relative Natural Frequencies and First Three Average Mode Shape

Deviations as input.

Input sample data for training are presented in Table 3.21 where target is the location of the crack

having fixed 3 mm depth.

The performance curve and regression plot for relative natural frequency with average mode shape

deviation and location network are shown in Figure 3.15 and 3.16 respectively

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is. .000010764 at 31 epochs and

R value is .99989. Neural network model for this analysis is (6-3-1). i.e. 6 input, 1 output, 1 hidden

having three neurons. After the network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of input

values. The simulated data is shown in Table 3.19. Table 3.20 shows the value of depth obtained by

ANN analysis and their deviation from the assumed FE model depth values

61

Chapter 3

Table 3.21 Relative Natural Frequencies and Mode Shape Deviation with cracked location from fixed

end of 3 mm crack depth for training.

Input

Average Mode Shape Deviation Relative Natural Frequencies

First

0.987546998

0.988785778

0.990154956

0.991480669

0.992589051

0.993740899

0.994740617

0.995675135

0.996457523

0.997261643

0.997826701

0.998370026

0.998848152

0.999195879

0.999521874

0.999760937

0.999934801

1.000065199

1.000173864

1.000260796

1.000325995

1.000391194

1.00043466

Second

0.991181

0.994876

0.99763

0.999338

1

0.999826

0.998954

0.99763

0.996096

0.994841

0.993656

0.992959

0.992924

0.993203

0.994074

0.99519

0.996305

0.99749

0.998501

0.999268

0.999791

1.000105

1.000314

Third

0.993901

0.998281

1.000013

0.99946

0.997553

0.99552

0.994327

0.994503

0.995833

0.997841

0.999435

1

0.999147

0.997164

0.994854

0.993035

0.992143

0.992821

0.994465

0.996586

0.998481

0.999661

1.000201

First

0.060627

0.041879

0.026441

0.015975

0.010404

0.010605

0.015377

0.018858

0.020893

0.020703

0.020204

0.018597

0.01586

0.013363

0.010481

0.007723

0.005291

0.003202

0.003263

0.004192

0.005079

0.005921

0.006973

Second

0.121252

0.060564

0.0314

0.01822

0.004322

0.01529

0.036247

0.0521

0.058953

0.053642

0.04888

0.048239

0.053349

0.065821

0.078754

0.081787

0.076892

0.061869

0.043466

0.025545

0.010671

0.00728

0.01109

Target

Third

Location

0.148608

25

0.046026

50

0.007746

75

0.038314

100

0.091617

125

0.115215

150

0.102315

175

0.091285

200

0.092657

225

0.083405

250

0.051732

275

0.006268

300

0.06356

325

0.097464

350

0.099961

375

0.106798

400

0.139548

425

0.166645

450

0.165261

475

0.126191

500

0.067342

525

0.020748

550

0.011036

575

The performance curve and regression plot for relative natural frequency with average mode shape

deviation and location network are shown in Figure 3.15 and 3.16 respectively

It has been observed that best MSE value of validation performance is. .000010764 at 31 epochs and

R value is .99989. Neural network model for this analysis is (6-3-1). i.e. 6 input, 1 output, 1 hidden

having three neurons. After the network is trained, we can simulate it with all combination of input

values. The simulated data is shown in Table 3.19. Table 3.20 shows the value of depth obtained by

ANN analysis and their deviation from the assumed FE model depth values

62

Fig 3.19 Performance curve for Relative Natural Frequencies and Average Mode Shape Deviation

with Location network.

Fig 3.20 Regression for Relative Natural Frequencies and Average Mode Shape Deviation with

Location network .

63

Chapter 3

Table 3.22 Simulation data of Relative Natural Frequencies with Average Mode Shape Deviation and

Location of 3 mm Crack Depth.

Output

Input

Normalized

Relative

First

Natural

Frequencies

0.988786

0.990155

0.990351

0.991481

0.992459

0.992589

0.993741

0.994219

0.994741

0.995675

0.996458

0.997001

0.997262

0.997827

0.997979

0.99837

0.998739

0.998848

0.999196

0.999326

0.999522

0.999761

0.999935

1.000022

1.000065

1.000174

1.000196

1.000261

1.000304

1.000326

1.000391

1.000413

1.000435

Normalized

Relative

Second

Natural

Frequencies

Normalized

Relative

Third

Natural

Frequencies

Normalized

Average

First Mode

Shape

Deviation

Normalized

Average

Second Mode

Shape

Deviation

Normalized

Average

Third Mode

Shape

Deviation

0.994876

0.99763

0.998048

0.999338

0.999965

1

0.999826

0.999547

0.998954

0.99763

0.996096

0.995364

0.994841

0.993656

0.993516

0.992959

0.992819

0.992924

0.993203

0.993516

0.994074

0.99519

0.996305

0.997037

0.99749

0.998501

0.998675

0.999268

0.999721

0.999791

1.000105

1.000174

1.000314

0.998281

1.000013

1.000063

0.99946

0.998017

0.997553

0.99552

0.994967

0.994327

0.994503

0.995833

0.997076

0.997841

0.999435

0.999661

1

0.999423

0.999147

0.997164

0.996235

0.994854

0.993035

0.992143

0.992432

0.992821

0.994465

0.995083

0.996586

0.998155

0.998481

0.999661

0.999925

1.000201

0.041879

0.026441

0.024134

0.015975

0.010873

0.010404

0.010605

0.012449

0.015377

0.018858

0.020893

0.020636

0.020703

0.020204

0.019806

0.018597

0.016632

0.01586

0.013363

0.012225

0.010481

0.007723

0.005291

0.003927

0.003202

0.003263

0.003493

0.004192

0.004962

0.005079

0.005921

0.006273

0.006973

0.060564

0.0314

0.028467

0.01822

0.00744

0.004322

0.01529

0.023657

0.036247

0.0521

0.058953

0.055798

0.053642

0.04888

0.047914

0.048239

0.052183

0.053349

0.065821

0.072119

0.078754

0.081787

0.076892

0.068109

0.061869

0.043466

0.039473

0.025545

0.013121

0.010671

0.00728

0.008608

0.01109

0.046026

0.007746

0.001652

0.038314

0.081137

0.091617

0.115215

0.111895

0.102315

0.091285

0.092657

0.087874

0.083405

0.051732

0.04114

0.006268

0.054078

0.06356

0.097464

0.101126

0.099961

0.106798

0.139548

0.154691

0.166645

0.165261

0.159242

0.126191

0.078956

0.067342

0.020748

0.008899

0.011036

64

Normalized

Depth

0.082633

0.123559

0.131832

0.168108

0.197715

0.197066

0.247388

0.269442

0.294208

0.33618

0.370885

0.398858

0.415024

0.457213

0.470662

0.504992

0.538131

0.550809

0.580971

0.611235

0.643514

0.673975

0.69509

0.718823

0.737492

0.792886

0.813402

0.84767

0.882056

0.876178

0.911786

0.920095

0.928805

Table 3.23 Comparing target result of crack location from fixed end with ANN result for relative

natural frequency with average mode shape deviation location network.

Target (mm)

ANN(mm)

Error (mm)

39.42166

-14.4217

25

40

43.70619

-3.70619

49.57962

0.420384

50

74.13547

0.864535

75

79.09911

0.900891

80

100.8646

-0.86458

100

118.6291

1.370852

120

118.2397

6.760264

125

148.4329

1.567059

150

161.6652

-1.66518

160

176.5251

-1.52506

175

201.7081

-1.70812

200

222.5309

2.469117

225

239.3151

0.684943

240

249.0144

0.985629

250

274.3281

0.671944

275

282.3971

-2.39706

280

302.9953

-2.99527

300

322.8786

-2.87858

320

330.4852

-5.48519

325

348.5825

1.417452

350

366.7411

-6.74112

360

386.1085

-11.1085

375

404.3852

-4.38515

400

417.0543

7.9457

425

431.2939

8.706128

440

442.4951

7.504927

450

475.7313

-0.73133

475

488.0414

-8.04137

480

508.6022

-8.6022

500

529.2333

-9.23331

520

525.7069

-0.70692

525

547.0719

2.928132

550

552.057

7.942951

560

557.283

17.71703

575

Maximum Error 17.71mm

Average Error 4.15 mm

65

Chapter 3

3.2.7 Discussion

For all networks MSE and R value are less than 0.001 and 0.988 respectively. Maximum and

average errors of 19 patterns in relative natural frequency depth network (Table 3.8) are 0.3246 mm

and 0.1141mm respectively. Maximum and average errors in average mod shape deviation - depth

network (Table3.11) are 0.4557 mm and 0.1796 mm respectively. Maximum and average errors in

relative natural frequency and average mode shape deviation depth network (Table3.14) are 0.2136

mm and. 0.0935 respectively. Maximum and average errors of 35 patterns in relative natural

frequency location network (Table 3.17) are 31.27 mm and 5.1 mm respectively. Maximum and

average errors in average mode shape deviation - location network (Table 3.20) are 79.27 mm and

17.13 mm respectively. Maximum and average errors in relative natural frequency and average mode

shape deviation location network (Table 3.23) are 17.71 mm and 4.15 mm. Most of the predicted

results by the developed ANN and their comparison with corresponding finite element results which

show very good agreement. It is observed that neural networks can successfully identify and calculate

the depth and location of different crack cases.

analysis

In order to identify the crack depth and its location application of wavelet analysis is performed on

the displacement response of the cracked beam. Two cases of the beam have been considered.

a) Beam under static load.

b) Beam under dynamic load

In both cases, identification of crack is investigated using discreet wavelet transform (DWT) and

contentious wavelet transforms (CWT).

In order to determine the location of crack and its depth static analysis is performed first. The beam

specification is already mentioned in Table 2.1. Beam is divided 60 finite parts with 61 nodes. First

node is being taken at the fixed end. A static load of 294 N is applied for both cracked and crack free

beam. The location of the crack of depth 3 mm is assumed to be 50 mm from fixed end. The

deflection of the beams under the said load is shown in Figure 3.21.

66

Identification of Location

In order to determine the efficacy of the wavelet technique for crack detection, two cracked beams

are considered at the same location, one crack being small (3mm depth) and the other one big (10 mm

depth). .

Fig 3.21 Static deflection of crack free and cracked beam with 3 mm cracked depth at 50 mm

from fixed end

Both DWT bior6.8 wavelet and CWT bior6.8 wavelet is applied to crack beam taking static

deflation as an input signal of wavelet analysis. Figure 3.22 and 3.23 show DWT and CWT responses

of those cracked beam. Those figures show that if the crack is big it can be clearly identified but when

crack is small like 3 mm depth it is difficult to detect.

From Figure 3.22 it has been observed that no disturbance is detected in the response signal except

at 61 node which is nothing but free end of the cantilever beam. Figure 3.23 (a) shows the CWT

response (scale and coefficient) along the length for the same cracked beam. Figure 3.23 (b) exhibits

the same result in a 3D plot. In order to eliminate the end effect, beam length is shown till 50 node.

From this analysis it is not possible to detect any damage that may exist in the beam.

67

Chapter 3

Fig 3.22 DWT plot of static deflection cracked beam with 3 mm crack depth at location 50 mm

from fixed end.

Fig 3.23(a) CWT 2D plot of static deflection of cracked Beam crack location 50 mm from fixed

end with 3 mm crack depth.

Fig. 3.23(b) CWT 3D plot of static deflection of cracked Beam crack location 50 mm from fixed end

with 3 mm crack depth. (a) 2D plot (b) 3D plot

68

A similar analysis is undertaken with a crack depth at 10 mm and the DWT and CWT response are

presented in Figure 3.24 and 3.25 respectively. A careful inspection of the plots reveals that there

could be a crack at node 6 though one may not be very sure about its existence.

Fig 3.24 DWT plot of static deflection cracked beam at location 50 mm from fixed end with 10

mm crack depth

Fig. 3.25 (a) CWT 2D plots of static deflection of cracked beam crack location at 50 mm from fixed

end with 10 mm crack depth.

69

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.25 (b) CWT 3D plots of static deflection of cracked beam crack location at 50 mm from fixed

end with 10 mm crack depth.

Fig. 3.26 Relative Static Deflection vs. Node for cracked beam with 3 mm crack depth at location 50

mm from fixed end

In order to overcome this difficulty an investigation is carried out with relative deflection of

cracked free and cracked beam as an input signal to detect the crack in a beam. Three cracked beams

70

are taken with 3 mm crack depth at a distance of 50 mm, 250 mm and 450 mm from the fixed end

respectively. Figure 3.28 shows the variation of relative static deflection along the nodes for the beam

having crack at a distance of 50 mm from fixed end. Figure 3.27, 3.28 and 3.29 shows DWT and

CWT of three cracked beam at different location, input signal being relative deflection of cracked free

and cracked beam.

.

Fig. 3.27 (a) DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free beam (crack location

50 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

Fig. 3.27 (b) CWT 2D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 50 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

71

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.27 (c) CWT 3D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 50 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

Fig. 3.28 (a) DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free beam (crack location

250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

Fig. 3.28 (b) CWT 2D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

72

Fig. 3.28 (c) CWT 3D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 250 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth).

From Figure 3.27, it is clearly detected that there is a crack at node 6 at a distance of 50 mm from

fixed end Even DWT response shows this which is actually not possible to understand from Fig 5.28.

Similarly, for the other two cases (crack at 250 mm and 450 mm from fixed end), also existence of

crack is also recognized at nodes 26 and 46 from DWT and DWT plots shown in Figure5.28 and 5.29.

Identification of Depth

Similar analysis is performed to estimate of crack depth. If wavelet analysis is performed with

various cracked beam deferent depth at same location, the maximum wavelet coefficient is changed.

Table 3.24 shows maximum coefficients of cracked beam at location 50 mm from fixed end. Figure

5.32 shows graphical representation of Table 3.24. Therefore it is possible to determine the crack

depth of an identical beam by determining maximum wavelet coefficient of the beam (Figure 3.30) if

location of crack is at a distance of 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig. 3.29(a) DWT plot of relative static deflection cracked beam and crack free beam (crack location

450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

73

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.29(b) CWT 2D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth)

Fig. 3.29(c) CWT 3D plot of relative static deflection of cracked beam and crack free beam (crack

location 450 mm from fixed end with 3 mm crack depth).

74

Table 3.24 Maximum wavelet coefficient at different depth at location 50 mm from fixed end

Depth (mm)

1

3

5

7

10

0.0011

0.0084

0.0235

0.0487

0.197

. Fig.3.30 Maximum wavelet coefficient versus depth at location 50 mm from fixed end

In order to determine the location of crack and its depth now dynamic modal analysis is performed.

The beam specification is already mentioned in Table 2.1.Beam is divided 60 finite parts with 61

nodes. First node is being taken at the fixed end. The continuous wavelet transform and discrete

wavelet both are performed. For present study the wavelet transform is implemented for scales 1-16

with bior6.8 wavelet as the analyzing wavelet. Biorthogonal wavelet is preferred for this analysis

because in this wavelet analysis scaling function exists, DWT is possible and also a fast algorithm is

available.

Identification of Location

In order to determine the efficacy of the wavelet technique for crack detection, two cracked beams

are considered at the same location, one crack being small (5mm depth) and the other one big (10 mm

depth).

75

Chapter 3

Both DWT and CWT wavelet is applied to crack beam taking first mode shape of the cracked beam

as an input signal of wavelet analysis. Figure 3.31 - 3.34 shows DWT and CWT response of those

cracked beam. .

From Figure 3.31 it has been observed that no disturbance is detected in the response signal expect

at 61 node which is nothing but free end of the cantilever beam. Figure 3.32 (a) shows the CWT

response (scale and coefficient) along the length for the same cracked beam. Figure 3.32 (b) exhibits

the same result in a 3D plot. From this analysis it is not possible to detect any damage that may exist

in the beam.

A similar analysis is undertaken with a crack depth of 10 mm and the DWT and CWT response are

presented in Figure 3.33 and 3.34 respectively. Only Figure 3.33 shows little discontinuity of DWT

for crack with 10 mm depth. But CWT (Figure 5.34) plot do not show any evidence of crack.

Fig. 3.31 DWT plot of plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 5 mm crack depth and

location 50 mm from fixed end

Fig. 3.32 (a) CWT plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 5 mm crack depth and location

50 mm from fixed end

76

Fig. 3.32 (b) CWT plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 5 mm crack depth and location

50 mm from fixed end

Fig. 3.33 DWT plot of plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 10 mm crack depth and

location 50 mm from fixed end

Fig. 3.34 (a) CWT 2D plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 10 mm crack depth and

location 50 mm from fixed end

77

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.34 (b) CWT 3D plot of original mode shape of Cracked Beam with 10 mm crack depth and

location 50 mm from fixed end

In order to overcome this difficulty an investigation is carried out with the mode shape difference of

cracked and cracked free beam as an input signal to wavelet analysis. Three cracked beam are taken

with 1 mm, 5mm, and 10 mm depth at a distance 50 mm from fixed end respectively. Figure 3.35,

3.36 and 3.37 shows DWT and CWT of three cracked beam of different depth input signal being

relative first mode shape difference of crack free and cracked beam. From the plots it is evident that

there is a crack at node 6 at a distance of 50 mm from fixed end. It is to be pointed out that though

CWT plots could indicate the position of the crack in all cases, DWT plot fails to identify crack

position when crack depth is small, 1 mm (Figure 3.37 (a)).

Fig 3.35 (a) DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 1 mm crack

depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

78

Fig 3.35 (b) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 1 mm

crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.35 (c) CWT 3D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 1 mm

crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.36 (a) DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 5 mm crack

depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

79

Chapter 3

Fig 3.36 (b) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 5 mm

crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.36 (c) CWT 3D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 5 mm

crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.37 (a) DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 10 mm crack

depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

80

Fig 3.37 (b) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 10 mm

crack depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.37 (c) CWT 3D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with mm crack

depth at crack location 50 mm from fixed end.

81

Chapter 3

Fig 3.38 (a) DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm crack

depth at crack location 150 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.38 (b) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm

crack depth at crack location 150 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.38 (c) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm

crack depth at crack location 150 mm from fixed end.

82

Fig 3.39 (a) DWT plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm crack

depth at crack location 250 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.39 (b) CWT 2D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm

crack depth at crack location 250 mm from fixed end.

Fig 3.39 (c) CWT 3D plot of mode shape difference of Crack free and Cracked Beam with 3 mm

crack depth at crack location 250 mm from fixed end.

Now investigation is carried out for other location of crack. Two cracked beams are taken with 3

mm crack depth at a distance of 150 mm and 250 mm from the fixed end respectively. Figure 3.38

83

Chapter 3

and 3.39 shows DWT and CWT of three cracked beam at different location, input signal being

relative first mode shape of cracked free and cracked beam. From Figure3.38 it is clearly shown that

there is a crack at node 16 at a distance of 150 mm from fixed end. Similarly Figure 3.39 exhibits that

there is a crack at node 26 at a distance of 250 mm from fixed end.

Identification of depth

Similar analysis is carried out to estimate of crack depth. If wavelet analysis is performed with

various cracked beam having deferent depth at same location, the maximum wavelet coefficient

obtained from CWT response from Table 3.22 it is observed that maximum coefficients of cracked

beam found to occur at location 50 mm from fixed end for all cases of crack depth. Figure 3.40 shows

graphical representation of Table 3.22. Therefore it is possible to determine the crack depth of an

identical beam by knowing maximum wavelet coefficient of the beam (Figure 3.40) if location of

crack is at a distance of 50 mm from fixed end.

Table 3.25 Maximum wavelet coefficient at different depth at location 50 mm from fixed end for

dynamic modal analysis of cracked beam

Depth (mm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Maximum coefficient

0.0066

0.0239

0.051

0.0874

0.1369

0.1944

0.266

0.3575

0.4601

0.5798

84

Fig 3.40 Maximum wavelet coefficient versus depth at location 50 mm from fixed end for

dynamic modal analysis of cracked beam

transform analysis.

Two completely different methodologies are adopted detection of crack location and its

depth in a cantilever beam one with the application of Artificial Neural Network and the

other being wavelet transform. Both the methods have some merits and demerits as

mentioned below.

It is evident from the ANN analysis result described in section that whatever may be the

process of training the network, there is existed some error when location and depth of the

crack is predicted by this method. However, in case of wavelet analysis, one may claim that

there is almost no error present while predicting the crack location. It also provides a very

good estimation in respect to prediction of depth of crack.

For crack detection by this method, one should take precaution to exclude signal arising

from geometrical discontinuity due to boundary condition at ends or otherwise. If crack

exists very near to the boundary it may be difficult to find it. On the other hand, ANN

method is free from this type of problem.

85

Chapter 3

In order to predict crack through a cracked free beam is also required. This is not essential

in case of wavelet transform.

Even with the help of static analysis also, detection of crack is possible using wavelet

transform. However it is not possible in case of ANN analysis.

86

Chapter 4

CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

4.1 Conclusion

The dynamic behavior of beam structure undergoes remarkable changes in presence of crack so far

as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure is concerned using this characteristics of a

vibrating beam two different techniques have been employed for identification of crack of a cracked

cantilever beam. Two techniques are Artificial Neural Network and Wavelet Transform. First finite

element modeling of crack and crack free beam is done for subsequent modal analyses of the beam

using ANSYS software. Then the result obtains from finite element analysis is used for ANN and

Wavelet Transform analysis.

The neural network technique considered here is used to predict the crack location and its intensity

by using relative deviation of first three natural frequencies and first three mode shapes as inputs. Six

different Artificial Neural Networks are used for detection of crack depth and its location. Feed

forward back propagation Levenberg Marquardt algorithm is used for this analysis. After proper

training results are obtained by simulation. Lastly output targets are comparing with the FEA data. It

is observed that predicted results by ANN are reasonably acceptable and agreement with the FEA

data.

In the second method, wavelet transform is applied to detect the crack in the cantilever beam. Both

dynamic and static wavelet analysis is done in this present work. For analysis bior6.8 wavelet is used.

It has been observed that better detection of crack is possible when relative mode shape difference

between crack and crack free beam is introduced as the input signal instead of when only mode shape

of the cracked beam is fed as input for wavelet analysis. It is also shown that crack detection is also

possible from the results of static analysis also in conjunction with wavelet transform. It can be

inferred that wavelet analysis could be very efficient tool for prediction of crack in beam like

structure in most cases. However, it may fail to detection the existence of crack with certainty when

crack is situated near the boundary.

ANN analysis can be used in crack identification for other different beam-type structures.

The cracked cantilever can be analyzed under the influence of external forces.

The dynamic response of the cracked beams can be analyzed for different crack

orientations.

87

Chapter 4

To establish an accurate methodology for the selection of the optimal wavelet and to derive a

procedure to eliminate the effects free end.

88

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