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Chapter 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance

Introduction and 7.1 Sexual Reproduction


What is a basic characteristic of all living things?
Highlight the correct answer of the choices in parentheses for each statement
The offspring of any organism closely resembles its parents because they reproduce (in
kind/exactly the same).
Many single-celled organisms can produce genetically identical clones of themselves
through (mitosis/meiosis).
Meiosis leads to (diploid/haploid) cells that are part of the sexual reproductive cycle.
Sexual reproduction introduces (variation/identical traits) into offspring
The use of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is evidence of its evolutionary
(failure/success)
There is (no need/need) to find or attract a mate for sexual reproduction
An (asexual/sexual) population can grow twice as fast, giving them an advantage
(Environment/mutation) is the ultimate source of variation in sexual organisms and the
only source in asexual
organisms
(Mitosis/Meiosis is the division of the contents of the nucleus that divides the
chromosomes among gametes

Life Cycles of Sexually Reproducing Organisms


Use figure 7.2 (print book) figure 1 in section 7.1 (online book)
What three kingdoms are represented in the figure?
a.
b.
c.
Each of the three portions of the figure is split into two parts.
Which part, upper blue or lower purple, is the diploid part of the life cycle?
Follow the overall direction of the arrows. What process moves the life cycle from diploid
to haploid?
Continue following the direction of the arrows. What processes move the life cycle from
haploid to diploid?
Animals and Plants =
Fungus =
Comparing the three kingdoms represented, highlight those that have multicelled diploid
bodies. These are called diploid-dominant. (look for the diploid zygote and follow the arrow to see if
the zygote goes through mitosis to become multicelled)
Animal
Fungus
Plant
Comparing the three kingdoms represented, highlight those that have multicelled haploid bodies.
They are referred to as haploid-dominant. (look for haploid spores going through mitosis to become
multicelled)
Animal
Fungus
Plant

Comparing the three kingdoms represented, highlight those that have both multi-celled
haploid and diploid bodies. Since these are not haploid or diploid dominant, they are
referred to as having alternating generations. They alternate between multicellular diploid
and haploid bodies.
Animal

Fungus

Plant

Animal life cycle (diploid-dominant)


In the animal diagram, what are the only haploid cells?
Gametes, egg and sperm, are produced by specialized cells called ________ cells. (see
paragraph two of this
section)
Fungus life cycle (haploid-dominant)
What is the only diploid cell in the fungus life cycle?
When the spores divide by mitosis they grow into the main body of the fungus composed
primarily of long
slender filaments called ______________.
Plant life cycle (alternation of generations)
What is the name of the multicelled haploid body in plants?
What is the name of the multicelled diploid body in plants?

7.2 Meiosis

Read through the text, Label the diagram by filling in the empty text boxes.
1.

2.

1.

3.

4.

4.

5.

6.
7.

Answer
questions and use the indicated answers to correctly label the figure.

the following

What type of cells are the nonreproductive cells in a multicellular organism?


What type of cells are specialized to go through meiosis? Use this answer as the label in
both text boxes 1.
The two cells at the top of the figure each have two of the same type of chromosome. Are
they diploid (2n) or haploid (n)? Write this in text box 2.
How many cell divisions occur for meiosis?
After the first round of cell division (meiosis I) what happens to the chromosome number in
each cell. (Count each duplicated chromosome as 1 chromosome not 2. They have two
sister chromatids, but still count as one chromosome.)
Are the cells in the pink box, following meiosis I diploid (2n) or haploid (1n)? Write this in
text box 3.
Following meiosis II four cells are produced from each original germ cell. What are these
cells called? Write this in both text boxes 4.

What is the process called when two haploid gametes fuse together? Write this answer in
text box 5.
What cell is produced following fertilization? Write this answer in text box 6.
Is the zygote diploid or haploid? Write this answer in text box 7.

Interphase, Meiosis I, and Meiosis II


Match each term with its description
_____ 223
spindle equator

A. Random positioning of maternal and paternal chromosomes at the

_____paternal chromosomes
_____prophase I

B. tight pairing of homologous chromosomes

C. reduction of the parental chromosomal number by half

_____nonsister chromatidsD. these break at the same places along their length and then
exchange corresponding
segmentsincluding genes
_____crossing over
held together

E.

Four sister chromatids of each pair of homologous chromosomes

_____function of meiosis
of a cell in

F.

orientation of each pair of homologous chromosomes at the center


metaphase I is random

_____maternal chromosomes G. 23 chromosomes inherited from your father


_____metaphase I
in pairs of

H. breaks up old combinations of alleles and puts new ones together


homologous chromosomes

_____synapsis

I.

A time of much gene shuffling

_____tetrads

J.

23 chromosomes inherited from your mother

_____independent assortment K. possible number of combinations of maternal and paternal


chromosomes possible
in gametes from one germ cell

Organize the images into the correct

order to represent meiosis.

Prophase I

Metaphase
I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Prophase II

Metaphase
II

Anaphase
II

Telophase
II

Briefly explain the following methods of increasing variation in offspring from sexual reproduction
Crossing over during Prophase I (examine the figure showing crossing over)

Independent assortment during Metaphase I (examine the figure showing chromosome


arrangements)

Examine the figure. Explain why


homologous pairs are separated during
meiosis I but sister chromatids are
separated during meiosis II.

Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis


Read through this section studying the figure to note the differences between the two processes.

7.3 Errors in Meiosis


Disorders in Chromosome Number: Nondisjunctions, Duplications, and Deletions
Define each of the following:
Nondisjunction
Euploid
Autosomes
Aneuploid
Monosomy
Trisomy

If a nondisjunction occurs at anaphase I of the first meiotic division, what will be the proportion of
abnormal gametes (for the chromosomes involved in the nondisjunction)?
If a nondisjunction occurs at anaphase II of the second meiotic division, what will be the
proportion of abnormal gametes (for the chromosomes involved in the nondisjunction)?
Choose from the following:
A.
Down syndrome
B.
Turner syndrome
C.
Klinefelter syndrome
D.
XXY condition
E.
XYY condition
F.
XXX syndrome
_____ 1. About one of every 500 to 1000 males inherits one Y and two or more X chromosomes,
mainly by
nondisjunction
_____ 2. Most dont have functional ovaries and cant produce enough sex hormones
_____ 3. The testes and the prostate gland usually are smaller than average; hair is sparse, the
voice is pitched high, and
the breasts are a bit enlarged
_____ 4. Tend to be taller than average, with mild mental impairment, but most are
phenotypically normal
_____ 5. Most affected individuals show moderate to severe mental impairment and heart
defects; as a group, they
tend to be cheerful and sociable people
_____ 6. Occurs at a frequency of about 1 in 1000 live births, adults are fertile; no physical or
medical problems

Disorders in Chromosome Number: Chromosome Structural Rearrangements


Label each of the diagrams of abnormal chromosome structure as a deletion, a duplication, an
inversion, or a translocation.

1. ________________

2. _________________

3. ________________

4. _________________

Which type of the above rearrangements results in the cri-du-chat syndrome?


What gene is thought to have evolved 350 mya which today determines male sex?
Fill in the numbers in the following statements about human chromosomes compared to
chimpanzees
____________ chromosomes are almost identical
____________ chromosomes are similar, except for some inversions
____________ chromosome matches up with ______________ in chimpanzees