Você está na página 1de 33

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Problem
Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of
verbal and non-verbal symbols. Speaking in English is a crucial part of foreign
language learning and teaching in Indonesia because speaking is an activity used
by someone to communicate with other. English is considered as one of world
languages. Almost people from all over the world use English in their
communication for many activities among governments over the world. Besides,
English is used as politics, education, economics, science, technology also
literature. It functions as a bridge to cross culture, religion, language, nationality,
and the lack of understanding between one and the other languages. It takes place
everywhere and has become part of our daily activities. When someone speaks,
he or she interacts and uses the language to express his or her ideas, feeling and
thought. He or she also shares information to other people through
communication. Furthermore in Indonesia, English is the first foreign language
and has been set as one of the compulsory subject studied at school.
In learning English, there are four skills that the students should master. They
are listening skill, reading skill, writing skill and speaking skill. Each skill has its
own challenging in learning them. The most difficult one is speaking. Speaking is
the capability in pronouncing sound or word to express or convey thought, idea or
feeling, opinion and wish.

Based on the researchers observation at the eighth grade students of SMK


Negeri 2 Tembilahan, it was found that there are number of reasons why students
find that speaking is difficult. Instanced of becoming frustrated when the students
be worried about making mistake in their utterance, they afraid being laughed by
his or her friends, the students are having of lack confidence when they speak in
English, and their pronounciation has been unsatisfied enough. Those reasons
obligated the teachers to pay more attention to their students ability and find out
an approach, method, strategy or model which can solve the students problem
therefore the students speaking skill is getting better.
There are many techniques that the teacher can apply in solving the
difficulties in teaching English, those are drama, role play, simulation, discussion,
peer worker, brain storming, poster presentation etc. Based on the difficulties
found in teaching speaking, the researcher is inspiring to use brain storming.
According to Clark (1958 : 69) brainstorming is a technique of creative thinking.
It is based on the premise that there are constantly better ways of doing things;
new ideas, methods, materials, and ever changing combinations of old ones.
Brainstorming is a technique which is generally used in a group setting but it
also used by individual to quickly generate a large number of ideas about a
specific problem or topic. Brainstorming offers the teacher an opportunity to help
students to be more active, giving feedback on ideas, working together in a group,
drawing connections among various concepts, and helping students developing
the topics. This technique gives enough opportunity for students to express their

ideas freely about the main topic given by teacher, and then they could discuss
and share ideas with each other.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher conducted a research entitled
THE EFFECT OF USING BRAIN STORMING TECHNIQUE TOWARD
STUDENTS SPEAKING SKILL AT THE EIGHTH GRADE OF SMK
NEGERI 2 TEMBILAHAN
B. Identification of the Problem
Based on the background above, the writer identified some problems, they
are :
1. Most of students are worried on making mistakes, they afraid being
laughed by his or her friends.
2. The students are having of lack confidence when they speak in
English.
3. The students are less of pronunciation.
4. The students get difficulty in speaking English.
C. Limitation of the Problem
Based on identification of the problem described in the previous session, the
students were hoped to practice English in the classroom. So this study were
focused to investigate the effect of using brain storming technique toward
students speaking skill at the eighth grade of SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan.
D. Research Question
Based on the problems above, the problems which is formulated in the
following research question : Is there any significant effect of using brain
storming technique on students speaking skill at the eighth grade of SMK Negeri
2 Tembilahan?
3

E. Purpose of the Research


Refer to the research question above, the purpose of this research is to find
out whether or not there is significant effect of using brain storming technique on
students speaking skill at the eighth grade of SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan.
F. Significance of the Research
The findings of this research later is expected can give contribution and
benefit to:
a. Students
It can motivate them to try to speak English as often as possible, so
that they can improve their ability in speaking skill.
b. Teachers
Through this brain storming technique, it can be the one an example or
technique to teaching speaking, which teacher can manage classroom
activities more communicatively.
c. Researcher
This research is useful to increase her knowledge about the effect of
using brain storming technique toward students speaking skill and in
conducting a research, especially about experiment research.
d. Readers
This research could be an example an innovative learning and could
give motivation in order the processes of learning is interesting.
G. Definition of the Key Terms
a. Brainstorming
According to Al-blwi in Al-Khatib (2006 : 30) Brainstorming is an innovative
conference with special nature in order to produce a list of ideas that can be used as
clues lead students to the development of the problem while giving each student the
chance to express her ideas and share those ideas with others and encourage new
ideas.

b. Speaking
According to Nurjamal, dkk in Nurgubitasari and Sukma (2015 : 237)
speaking is an ability to orally express the idea, opinion, thought, and feeling
to other people both directly and indirectly.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
A. Review of the Related Theories
1. Speaking
a. Definition of Speaking
According to Noor (2010:85) speaking is a crucial part of second
language learning and teaching. Teaching speaking is not merely to let
students to repeat or memorize dialogues, but they should be able to use
the utterance to communicate in the real situations.

Hornby in Hidayat (2012 : 2) Speaking is also one of the language arts


that is most frequently used by people all over the world.
Kramsch in OMalley and Pierce (1996:59) states that
speaking means negotiating intended meanings and adjusting ones
speech to produce to the desired effect on listener.
Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce,1997 in Hasibuan (2012:2)
states that speaking is defined is an interactive a of constructing
meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing
information.
Meanwhile, Endang (2012:1) states that speaking is the
process of oral communication involving the interaction both
speaker and listener in sharing information.
Finocchiaro and Brumfit in Iamsaard and Kerdpol (2015 :
71) stated that speaking is the reaction related to the message,
situation, articulation, by using the appropriate language, grammar
rules, meaning and culture properly. The speaker sends the message
using the appropriate stress, intonation, facial expression, gesture to
help convey the meanings for the listeners. Sometimes the speech
might lack the completion or improper grammar; however,
speaking occurs between two people by using the language as the
means of communication.
In addition, Thornbury (2005 : 1) states that speaking is so
much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The average
person produces tens of thousands of word a day, although some

people like auctioneers or politicians may produce even more than


that.
Based on the definitions above, the researcher concludes
that speaking is a crucial part in language learning and teaching,
where through utterance or oral language to communicate with
other people to share their feeling or information.
a. Function of Speaking
According to Richards (2008:21) there are three parts
version of functions of speaking by Brown and Yules framework,
as follows: talk as interaction, talk as transaction, and talk as
performance. Below are the explanations of the functions of
speaking:
a. Talk as Interaction
This refer to conversation and describes interaction
which serves primarily social function. When people meet,
they exchange greetings, engage in small talk and chit chat,
recount recent experiences, and so on because they wish to be
friendly and establish a comfortable zone of interaction with
others.
The main features of talk as interaction can be
summarized as follows:
Has a primarily social function
Reflects role relationship
Reflects speakers identify
May be formal or casual
Some of the skill involved in using talk as interaction
are :

Opening and closing conversation


Choosing topic
Making small-talk

Recounting personal incidents and experiences

Mastering the art talk as interaction is difficult and may


not be a priority for all learners. However, the students who
do need such skill and find them lacking report that they
sometimes feel awkward and at a loss for words when they
find themselves in situation that requires talk for interaction.
b. Talk As Transaction
This refers to situations where the focus is on what is
said or done.The massage and making oneself understood
clearly and accurately is the central focus, rather than the
participants and how they interact socially with each other.
Accruracy may not be priority as long as information is
successfully communicated or understood. The second type is
transactions which focus on obtaining good or services, such
as checking into a hotel or ordering food in a restaurant.
The main features of talk as transaction are :
It has a primarily information focus
The main focus is on the message and not the

participants
Participants employ communication strategies to

make themselves understood


Linguistic accuracy is not always important
Some of the skills involved in using talk for
transactions are:
Describing something
Confirming information
Making suggestions
Making comparison
b. Talk as performance

This refers to public talk or public speaking, which


transmits information before an audience such as classroom
presentations, public announcements and speeches. This talk
tends to be in the form monolog rather than dialog, often
follows a recognizable format, and is closer to written
language than conversational language. Examples of talk as
performance are giving a class report about a school trip,
conducting a class debate, making a sales presentation, an d
giving a lecture.
The main features of talk as performance are :
A focus on both message an audience
Importance of both form and accuracy
Language is more like written language
Some of the skill involved in using talk as performance
are:

Presenting information an appropriate sequence


Using correct pronounciation and grammar
Using appropriate vocabulary
Using an appropriate opening and closing
1. Teaching Speaking
a. Definition of Teaching Speaking
According to Harmer (2002:271) states that teaching
speaking is started at teaching the students how to speak in english
as their foreign language, for then ask them to able to pronounce
the new language accurately. It is continued then to guide student to
a point where they can begin to judge whether their sound
productions are correct or not. At this point, the teacher is no longer
primarily to correct, but he or she is supposed to encourage
students to practice speaking the target language. Meanwhile,

10

teacher should be able to encaourage students speaking some


sounds, repating, and imitating him/her. Finally, the students are
required to be used to practice and do oral language.
In addition, according to Nunan in Hayriye (2003:48)
teaching speaking is to teach english language larners to : (1)
Produce the English speech sound and sound patterns; (2) Use
words and sentences stress, intonation pattern and rhythm of the
second language; (3) Select the appropriate words and sentence
according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and
subject matter; (4) Organize their thought in a meaningful and
logical sequence; (5) Use language as a means of expressing values
and judgments; (6) Use the language quickly and confidently with
natural pauses which is called fluency.
In those meanings of teaching speaking above, the teacher
must pay attention of some important aspects include producing
sentences, intonation, rhythm and stress. Those sound productions
must be meaningful because it must be produce logically from
thoughts.
b. The Goal of Teaching Speaking
As to Hasibuan (2012 : 10) said that The goal of teaching
speaking is communicative efficiency. So, in learning speaking,
students should be able to make themselves understood and they
should try to avoid confusion in the message due to its
pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary and to observe the social
rule that apply in communication situation.

10

11

According to Murcia (2001 : 7) when teaching speaking


English as a foreign language, teacher needs to particularly
competent at organizing activities in class and motivating the
students. However, the teacher needs to make the speaking class to
be fun and enjoyable. The teacher has to create activities that give
students many opportunities of communicating with their friends.
So, teaching speaking must be an enjoyable and fun activity that
makes the students feel secure to speak up and express their feeling
freely.
c. Classroom Speaking Activities
Murcia (2006 : 106) states that to help students developed
communicative efficiency in speaking, there are some activities
used in the classroom to promote the development of speaking
skills in our learners. The discussion below centers on the major
types of speaking activities that can be implemented as follows :
a. Discussion
Discussion is probably the most commonly used in the
speaking skills classroom activity. Typically, student are
introduced to a topic via reading, listening passage, or a video
tape and are then asked to get into pairs or group to discuss a
related topic in order to come up with a solution, a response,
or the like. Teacher must take care in planning and setting up
discussion activity.
b. Speeches
Another common activity in the oral skills class is the
prepared speech. Topics for speeches will vary depending on

11

12

the level students and the focus of the class. For example
asking students to tell us about an unforgettable experience
you had. Allow to talk about something that is personally
meaningful while at the same time encourages narration and
description.
c. Role play
Role play is activity in which students are assignes
roles and improvise a scane or exchange based on given
information or clues and its one way of getting student to
speak in different social context and to assume varied social
roles is to use role play activities in the classroom. Role play
can be performed from prepared scripts, created form a set of
prompt and expression or written using consolidation
knowledge gained from interaction or discussion of the
speech act and its variations prior to the role play themselves.
d. Conversations
One of the recent trends in oral skills pedagogy is the
emphasis on having students analyze and evaluate the
language that they or others produce. In other word, it is not
adequate to have students produce lots of language; they must
become more metaliguistically aware of many features of
language in order to become competent speakes and
interlocutors in English. One speaking activity which is
particulary suited to this kind of analysis is conversation, the
most fundamental form of oral communication.
e. Information-gap activities

12

13

In this activity, each student has different information


and they need to obtain information from each other in order
to finish a task. They must use target language to
accompolish it.
d. The Role of Teacher During Speaking Activities
According to Diane in Irtatik (2009:11) the teacher
facilitates communication in the classroom. In this role, one of the
major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote
communication.
According to Harmer (2001:347) teachers should play such
a.

of different roles in teaching speaking. The roles as follow:


Prompter: Students sometimes get lost, cannot think what to
say next, or in some other way lose the fluency the teacher
expects of them. The teacher can leave them to struggle out
of situation on their own, and indeed sometimes this may be

b.

the best option.


Participant: Teachers should be good animators when asking
students to produce language. At other times, teachers may
want to participate in discussion or role play themselves. That
way they can prompt covertly, introduce new information to
help the activity along, ensure continuing students

c.

engagement, and generally maintain creative atmosphere.


Feedback provider: When students are in the middle of a
speaking activity, over-correction may inhibit them and take
the communicativeness out of the activity. On the other hand,

13

14

helpful and gentle correction may get students out of the


mistakes or errors they have made
2. The Assessment of Speaking
According to Hughes (1989 : 111) the components of the speaking
rubric focus on fluency, pronouncation, vocabulary, grammar and
communication strategy.
The Assesment of Speaking
Accents
1. Pronunciation frequently unintelligible.
2. Frequent gross errors and a very heavy accent
makeunderstanding

difficult,

require

frequent

repetition.
3. 'Foreign accent'' requires concentrated listening, and
mispronunciations

lead

to

occasional

mispronunciations

lead

to

occasional

misunderstanding and apparent arrors in grammar or


vocabulary
4. Marked
''foreign
mispronunciations

accent''
which

do

and
not

occasional

interfere

with

understanding.
5. No conspicuous mispronunciations, but would not be
taken for a native speaker.
6. Native pronounciation, with no trace of foreign
accent
Grammar
1. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate phrases.
2. Constant errors showing control of very few major
patterns and frequently preventing communication.

14

15

3. Frequent

errors

showing

some

major

patterns

uncontrolled and causing occasional irritation and


misunderstanding.
4. Occasional errors showing imperfect control of some
patterns

but

or

weakness

that

causes

misunderstanding.
5. Few errors, with no patterns or failure.
6. No more than errors during the interview
Vocabulary
1. Vocabulary

inadequate

for

even

the

simplest

conversation.
2. Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas
( time,food, transportation, family, etc.)
3. Choice of words sometimes inaccurate, limitation of
vocabulary

prevent

discussion

of

some

common

professional and socialtopics.


4. Professional vocabulary adequate to discuss special
interest; general vocabulary permits discussion of
many

non-technical

subject

with

some

circumlocutions.
5. Professional vocabulary broad and precise; general
vocabulary adequate to cope with complex practical
problems and varied social situations.
Fluency
1. Speech

is

so

halting

and

conversation is virtually impossible.

15

fragmentary

that

16

2. Speech is very slow and uneven except for short or


routine sentences.
3. Speech is frequently hesitant and jerky; sentences
may be left uncompleted.
4. Speech
is
occasionally

hesitant,

with

some

unevenness caused by rephrasing and groping for


words.
5. Speech is effortless and smooth, but perceptibly nonnative in speech and evenness
6. Speech on all professional and general topics as
effortiess and smooth as a native speakers
Comprehension
1. Understands

too

little

for

the

simplest

type

of

conversation.
2. Understand only slow, very simple speech on common
special

and

touristic

topics;

requires

constant

repetition and rephrasing.


3. Understand careful, some what simplified speech
when

engaged

in

dialogue,

but

may

require

considerable repetition and rephrasing.


4. Understand quite well normal educated speech when
engaged

ina

dialogue,

repetition or rephrasing.
5. Understands
everything
conversation

exceptfor

but

requires

occasional

in

normal

educated

very

colloquial

or

low

frequency items, or exceptionally rapid or slurred


speech.

16

17

6. Understands everything in both formal and colloquial


speech to be expected of an educated native speaker.
3. Brainstorming
a. Definition Of Brainstorming
According to Weir (1990:79) role play is situations where
the candidate is expected to play one of the roles in an interaction
which might be reasonably expected of him in the real world.
Ladousse in Setiawan (2014:18) indicated that role play is
one of communicative techniques which develops fluency in
language students, which promotes interaction in the classroom,
and which increases motivation.
Omalley and Pierce (1996:85) states that role plays assign
distinct roles to each student and ask them to speak through these
roles. Role-plays tend to be more structured than improvisations
but less scripted than plays.
In addition, Crookal and Oxford (1990:3) states that there
is a little consensus on the terms used in the role playing and
simulation literature. A few of the terms often used interchangeably
are, simulation, games, role play, simulation game, role play
simulation, and role playing game.
From those explanation above, the writer views that role
play is a technique which involves fantasy or imagination to be
someone else or to be ourselves in a specific situation for a while,
improvising dialogue and creating a real world in scenario. It aims
at the students to encourage thinking and creativity, lets students
develop and practice new language and behavioural skills in a

17

18

relatively non-threatening setting, and can create the motivation


and involvement necessary for learning to occur.
a. Types of Roles In Role Play
Ladousse (1995:13) states that there are several types of
roles in role play. The first is the roles which correspond to a real
need in the students lives. In this category, it involves such roles as
doctors dealing with patients, or salesman traveling abroad. The
second type of role is the students play themselves in a variety of
situations which may or may not have direct experience. The
example which include in this category is a customer complaining
or a passenger asking for information. The third type is the type
that few students will ever experience directly themselves, but it is
easy to play because the teachers have such vast indirect experience
of them. The television journalist is a good example of this type
and it is very useful kind of role taken from real life. The last type
is fantasy roles, which are fictitious, imaginary, and possible even
absurd.
b. Procedure of Role Play
According to The National Educational Department
(2009:4) there are some procedure of role play activity :
1. The teacher arranges or prepares scenario that will be
performed by the students. This scenario is important for the
students to know the situation of their roles.
2. The teacher appoints some students to learn about scenario
several days before teaching and learning activity. Giving time

18

19

for the students is useful to have them good preparation for


acting
3. The teacher make groups of students consists of five people
per group. The teacher has to make group in variant member
due to their ability of speaking. So, the smart student is
combined with low student.
4. The teacher explains about compentence will be achieved. The
teacher enlightens that students that from their performance,
they will know some expression of giving

opinion and it

response, and making and declining and invitation.


5. The teacher calls a group of students who have been choosen
to play prepared scenario. On the other hand, the teacher
chooses the group to perform
6. Each student in his/her group observes scenario being
performed.
7. After finishing the performance, each student is given work
sheet for discussing each group performance
8. Every group which has performed gives conclusion about what
scenario has been performed
9. The teacher gives general conclusion. That is about the
material that has been done by the students in their role play
10. Evaluation. It is held by test to know their understanding in the
material
11. Closing.
b. Review of the Related Findings
There are some researches were observed that has relation about the
researchers topic. The first is by Kadek Pande Yuni Artini (2014) entitled
The Application Of Brainstorming Technique To Improve Writing Skill Of
The Eighth Grade Students Of SMPN 2 Sukawati In Academic Year

19

20

2013/2014. The result shown that there were positive responses concerning
the technique applied in improving the subjects writing skill. The present
classroom action study proved that brainstorming technique could improve
writing skill of the eighth grade students of SMPN 2 Sukawati in academic
year 2013/2014.
Second is by Tossi Ana Ari Utami (2014) entitled Improving The
Ability In Writing Descriptive Texts Through Brainstorming Technique For
Grade VIII Students At Smp N 1 Piyungan. The results of this study showed
that the implementation of brainstorming technique in the writing classes was
believed to be effective to improve students ability in writing descriptive
texts.

The third is by Aisyah (2014) entitled Improving Students Speaking


Ability Through Role Play Technique On Narrative Text at Grade XI MIA 1
Students of SMAN 1 Mandah. The purpose of this research is to improve
students speaking ability at grade XI MIA 1 students of SMAN 1
Mandahthrough role play technique on narrative text. This research used
Classroom Action Research (CAR) method. The population of this research
was grade XI MIA 1 students of SMAN 1 Mandah. Where in the class there
are 27 students, 11 males and 16 females. Instrument of this research used a
test, the researcher give a test speaking about narrative text to collect the data.

20

21

The finding of this research indicated that using role play technique can
improve students speaking ability on narrative text.
From the related studies above, it can be supposed that implementing
of using brainstorming can improved the students speaking and writing skill.
Therefore, the researcher was interested in examining using brainstorming of
teaching in the class to improve students speaking skill. Since previous
studies gave better result that can be used as the basis to conduct a next
research related to this instruction, due to the fact that the writer will also
investigate using brainstorming of teaching in teaching speaking. In addition,
the researcher also wants to find whether or not it will give a better
contribution to the teaching and learning process in speaking especially to the
students of SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan.
c. Conceptual Framework

The eighth grade


students of SMPN
1 Tembilahan Kota

Problem

Pre-test
1) The teacher begin by reviewing the
speaking activity
to decide what
Experiment
class
information.
Role
playtechnique
Treatment
2) The teacher prepares scenario that will
be performed by the students.
3) The teacher divide the class into some
groups and learn about scenario several
days before teaching and learning
activity.
4) The teacher chooses the group to
perform. Students act out their role play.
5) The teacher gives general conclusion.
That is about the material that has been
done by the students in their role21
play
Post-test
6) The teacher compared the score of the
post-test between the score of pre-test

Lack of students
in speaking skill
The effect using role play
technique
Pre-test
1) The teacher begin by
reviewing
theclass
speaking
Control
activity to decide
what
Conventional
technique
information.
Treatment
2) The
teacher
gives
explanation
about
ahead the material.
3) The teacher gives the
students exercises
personally or group
assignment.
Post-test
4) The teacher collects the
students assignment.
5) The teacher concludes
the lesson before
closing.

22

Expected result

SPEAKING skill achievement


H0: There is no significant effect of using role
playtechnique toward students speaking
skill.
Based on the theoretical
above,
explain
that role
the object of
H1: Thereframework
is a significant
effect
of using
playtechnique toward students speaking
this research was the eighth grade
skill. students of SMPN 1TembilahanKota.In this
research, the problem of this research is lack students speaking ability. Based
on the problem above, the researcher focused to investigate the effect ofusing
role play techniquetoward students speaking skill.
In this research, the researcher used experiment research, there was
control class and experiment class. The pre-test is given for each class both
experimental and control class to know about their speaking, after that, the
writer give the different treatment, an experimental group which recieves the
special treatment and control group which does not, in experimental class the
writer use role play technique as treatment to teach the students, and control
class use conventional technique. After conducting the treatment, the writer
will do the post-test for both of class to measure the students speaking after
and before treatment is given, is there are significant different or not after pretest and post-test conducted.
d. Hypothesis
According to Nasution (2012 : 38) hypothesis is every question about
something while that not yet the true empirically. There are two kinds of
hypothesis:
Ha ( Alternative Hypothesis)
22

23

There is a significant effect of using brainstorming technique toward


students speaking skill.
H0 (Null Hypothesis)
There is no significant effect of using brainstorming technique toward
students speaking skill.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Research Design
The type of this research was Quasi Experimental Research. This
research consisted of two variables, they were independent variable (X) was
role play technique, and dependent variable (Y) was students speaking skill.
As pointed out by Creswell (2008:313) that quasi-experiments include
assignment, but not random assignment of participants to group. This is

23

24

because experimenter can not artificially create groups for the experiment. In
addition, as Creswell (2005 : 51) said that Experimental design (also called
in intervention studies or group comparison studies) are procedures in
qualitative research in which the investigator determines whether an activity
or materials make a difference in result for participants.
In this research, the writer taked two classes; the first class as
experimental class (X) was taught by using role play technique. While the
second class as control class (Y) was taught without using role play
technique. It was an appropriate way of this research in order to know the
significant effect of using role play technique toward students speaking skill
of the eighth grade students at SMPN 1 Tembilahan Kota.

B. Location and Time of the Rersearch


The location of the research is at SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan Kota Jl.
SKB, Tembilahan, Riau. This research will be conducted from .
C. Population and Sample of the Research
1. Population
Gay (1987: 107) states that population is a group to which the
researcher would like the result of the study to be generalized and
sampling is the processes of selecting a number of represent one
the large group from which they selected. The population of this
research was all students of the eighth grade at SMK Negeri 2
24

25

Tembilahan. The total number of students of the eighth grade at


SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan was 104 students from nine classes.
The sample consisted of two classes. The writer took class VIII.8
and VIII.9 as sample. Where class VIII.8 was Experimental class
and VIII.9 was control class. For the population could be seen on
table below:
Table 3.2
Total of Population
No
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Number of Classes
VIII.1
VIII.2
VIII.3
VIII.4
VIII.5
VIII.6
VIII.7
VIII.8
VIII.9
Total

Number of Students
22 students
22 students
21 students
23 students
23 students
23 students
22 students
24 students
24 students
204 students

2. Sample
To get sample of population, the writer used purposive
sampling to obtain sample of population, according to Gay and
Airasian (2009:75) states that purposive sampling, also referred to
as judgment sampling, is the process of selecting a sample that is
believed to be representative of a given population.

All the

students (selected groups) of the eighth grade at SMK Negeri 2


Tembilahan had similar characteristics.
Table 3.3
Sample of the Research

25

26

No.
1.
2.

Class
VIII.8 (experimental class)
VIII.9 (control class)
Total

Number of students
32 students
32 students
64 students

D. Research Instrument
A research instrument is the way to get the data, in this study the
instrument that is used by the speaking is test in quantitative research.
According to Creswell (2005:97) quantitative is process collecting the data
with test, observation, interview, questioner and respond. The writers use test
as the instrument in this study, the research use speaking test to testing the
students at the eighth grade of SMK Negeri 2 Tembilahan.
1. Test
According to Arikunto (2010: 150) test is appliance used to measure
skill, knowledge of interagency, talent or ability had by each and
everyone. And as Junianto and Rudi in Anastasi and Brown (1976:89)
said that Test represent an objective measurement appliance and standard
to my sample. Its mean that test used to know until where understanding
of someone or student in given object or items.
E. Research Procedure
In this reserach the writer will conducting pre-test, treatment and posttest for experimental class using brainstorming, and for control class used
conventional method:
1. Pre-test.
Pretest is given in the first meeting, conducting before the
treatment is given for the students, the writer used pre-test for both of
class, to know the students mark about their speaking skill.
2. Treatment

26

27

Treatment is given after conducting the pre-test, the researcher


give the treatment to experimental class as much as 4 meetings.

1.

2.

3.

Experimental Group
First meeting
1.
1).The writer explains the title
of the study to the students
2).The writer explains what the
study is about
3).The writer asked the
students to work in group
4).The writer asked the
students to learn about their
rolealso found the difficulty
words from the study
5).The writer closing the lesson
Second meeting
2.
1).The writer asked the
students to work in group
2).The writer asked the
students to learn the study
given in the previous
meeting
3).The writer asked each the
students group to explain
the study as orally in front
of the class
Third meeting
3.
1).The writer explains the title
of the study to the students
2).The writer explains what the
study is about
3).The writer asked the
students to work in group
4).The writer asked the
students to learn about their
role
also
found
the
difficulty words from the
study
27

Control group
First meeting
1).The writer explains the title
of the study to the students
2).The writer explains what the
study is about
3).The writer asked the
students
to
work
as
individually.
4).The writer asked the
students as an individually
found the difficulty words
from the study.
5). The writer closing the lesson
Second meeting
1). Students as an individually
2).The writer asked the
students to read the study
given in the previous
meeting
3).The writer asked the
students to explain the study
as orally in front of the class
Third meeting
1).The writer explains the title
of the study to the students
2).The writer explains what the
study is about
3).The writer asked the
students
to
work
as
individually
4).The writer asked the
students as an individually
found the difficulty words
from the study.

28

4.

5).The writer closing the


lesson
Fourth meeting
4.
1).The writer asked the
students to work in group
2).The writer asked the
students to learn the study
given in the previous
meeting
3).The writer asked each the
students group to explain
the study as orally in front
of the class

5). The writer closing the lesson


Fourth meeting
1). Students as an individually
2).The writer asked the
students to read the study
given in the previous
meeting
3).The writer asked the
students to explain the study
as orally in front of the class

3. Post-test
Conducting the post-test after the treatment is given to the
students, to know whether there are different significant after and
before given the treatment.
F. Data Collection Technique
This research will use the collection technique is test. The test is going
to be used for measuring the students speaking ability of the use of
brainstorming technique. The test will divide into two ways: pretest and posttest in which the pre-test giving before treatment and pos-test is given after
doing treatment. In collecting the data, the researcher uses a tape recorder to
record the students voice. in this case, the researcher calls the students to
come forward to perform their speaking and the researcher record their
performances for data of the research, the research provides them a group,
every students gets one figure, in this test, the researcher record the result of
students speaking ability to make an assesment.
G. Data Analysis Technique

28

29

After obtaining individual scores, the writer processes the score for
both of class with the formula, according to Evelyne and Hussaein (1982:87)
the formula is :
1. Determine the mean of both groups (experimental and control group) :
Total score
Me = Amount of data
Mc =

Total score
Amount of data

2. Determine the deviation standard (DS) of both groups (experimental and


control group) :
Sc=

Se =

2
X

N 1

2
X

N 1

Se =Deviation standard of control group


Sc= Deviation standard of experimental group
2

SE ( Xe.Xc )

S
S
e c
n
n
1
2

3.

Determine
different between the means:

SE( X e. X c ) Standard Error of Difference between th e means

29

standard

error

of

30

t observed

Xe Xc
SE X e. X c

4.

Determine t-observed

t t - observed

X e Mean of Experiment al Group X c Mean of Control Group

SE( X e. X c ) Standard Error of Difference between th e means

5. Find out Degree of Freedom (df) :

df N1 N 2 2

6. Hypothesis testing:
If t-observed is greater () than t-critical value (table); null
hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted, and vice
versa.

30

31

REFERENCES
Anastasi & Brown. 1976. Metode Penelitian. Bandung: Alphabeta.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2012. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.
Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Celce Murcia, Marianne. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign
Language. Boston: heinle & heinle.
Creswell, John W. 2005. Educational Research; Planning, Conducting, and
Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Lincoln: Pearson Education,
Inc.
Cresswell, Jhon W. 2005. Educational Research; Planning, Conducting, And
Evaluating Quantitative And Qualitative Research (2nded). Singapore:
Pearson Education International.
Creswell, John W. 2008. Educational Research; Planning, Conducting, and
Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jearsey: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Crookal, D. & R.L. Oxford. 1990. Simulation, Gaming and Language Learning.
New York: Newbury House.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional . 2009. Model Pembelajaran Yang Efektif.
Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Donough, Jo MC & Show, Christoper. 1993. Material and Method in ELT:
Applied Language Studies. Cambridge : Blackwell.
Endang. 2012. Teaching Speaking for Junior High school Students Using
Cooperative Learning Think Pair Share. __________
Evelyn & Husein. 1982. Research Design and Statistics For Applied Linguistics.
_________
Gay, L. J. 1987. Educational Research; Competences Analysis and Application.
Columbus: Merill Publishing Company.
Gay, LR. & Airasian Peter. 2009. Educational Research Conpetencies for
Analysis and Aplication. United State of America.

31

32

Harris, D.P. 1994. Testing English as a Second Language. New York: Mc.Grow
Hill.
Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching: fouth edition.
USA: Harlow Pearson Education Limited.
Hasibuan,Kalayo. 2012. Teaching Speaking as a Productive Skill. Journal on
English and Arabic Language Teaching J.E.A.L.T; Jurnal Pengajaran
Bahasa Asing. 3 (1), 1-114.
Hughes, Arthur. 1989. Testing For Language Techers. USA: Cambridge
University Press.
Kayi, Hayriye. 2006. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a
Second Language. The Internet TESL Journal. 12 (11).
Ladousse, Porter Gillian. 1995. Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Malihah, Noor. 2010. The Effectiveness of Speaking Interaction Through Task
Based Language Teaching. Published Thesis. Salatiga: Islamic Studies
Institute ( STAIN ) of Salatiga.
OMalley J. Michael & Pierce Lorraine Valdez. 1996. Authentic Assessment For
English Language Learner; Practical Approaches For Teacher. United
States of America: Addision-Wesley Publishing Company.
Penny, Ur. 1996. A Course In Language Teaching. Cambridge university
press .

Richards, Jack C. 2008. Teaching Listening And Speaking; From Theory To


Practice. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Setiawan, Alfian Rahmad. 2014 Improving The Students Speaking Ability Through
Role Playing Technique. 4(8).
Tillit & Bruder. 1993. Lesson From Good Language Learner. New York:
Cambridge.
Thornburry, Scott. 2005. How To Teach Speaking. Pearson Longman.
Weir, J Cryil. 1990. Communicative Language Testing. UK: Pretince Hall
International.

32

33

33