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HUMANAE VITAE and the Challenge of Responsible Sex

and Parenthood
HUMANAE VITAE
1. The Text
2. Main Theological Positions
THE TEXT
INTRODUCTION
I. NEW ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM
II. (DOCTRINAL) PRINCIPLES OF THE TEACHING
III. PASTORAL DIRECTIVES
INTRODUCTION
The transmission of human life is a most serious duty (munus).
Problems for conscience have always been present, but changes
have led to new questions
I. NEW ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM
2. Demographic leads to the temptation of authorities to
intervene; place of women in society; value attributed to
conjugal love meaning of conjugal acts in relation to love;
progress in the domination and rational organization of nature
3.New Questions: Does this lead to a revision of ethical norms?
Does the principle of totality apply? Should the regulation be
entrusted to reason and will in place of biological rhythms?
4.Competency of the magisterium
5.Recognition of the Papal Commission
6.Reply to the Magisterium: Certain criteria departed
from constant teaching
I. NEW ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM
Does this lead to a revision of ethical norms?
Does the principle of totality apply?
Should the regulation be entrusted
to reason and will
in place of biological rhythms?
II.(DOCTRINAL) PRINCIPLES OF THE TEACHING
(CRITERIA)
7.Total
Vision:
beyond
partial
perspectives:
biological/psychological/demographic/social
8.Conjugal Love (Contract or Covenant?)
9.Characteristics: human, total, faithful and exclusive, fecund
10.Responsible Parenthood considered under different aspects:
biological processes and laws; affective elements, instinct and
passion; physical, economic, psychological and sociological
condition
Relationship to objective moral order; Gods intention in the
nature of marriage and its acts
III.(DOCTRINAL) PRINCIPLES OF THE TEACHING
(CRITERIA)
11.Nature and Purpose of Marriage Act: Chaste intimacy; noble
and worthy- even if foreseen to be infertile; each and every
marriage act
12.Inseparable connection of the two meanings
13.Gods Design: nature of generative faculties
14.The Condemnations: Direct abortion, direct sterilization,
contraception

15.Therapeutic Means
16.Use of infertile periods
17.Grave Consequences: could open to marital infidelity and
general lowering of moral standards; may forget the reverence
due to a woman; abuse of power of public authorities to
intervene beyond their limits
18.Church as interpreter and guide in the interpretation of moral
laws
PASTORAL DIRECTIVES
19.Obligation of the Church to teach the law Law not
impossible, need of people to have resolute purpose and
endurance
20.Value of Self-discipline: mastery of emotions and natural
drives
21.Promotion of Chastity in education and media
22.Appeal to Public Authorities to preserve morality in the
search for the true solution to poverty
23.Appeal to Scientists to study natural methods of birth control
24.Appeal to Christian couples to be faithful to their vocation
finding recourse to God
25.Family Apostolate
26.Appeal to Doctors and Nurses to be faithful to their Christian
vocation
27.Appeal to Priests
28.Christian Compassion
29.Appeal to Bishops
MAIN THEOLOGICAL POSITIONS
Total vision beyond partial perspectives. Marriage is
defined as human, total, faithful, exclusive and open to
procreation
Inseparability of the unitive and procreative meanings
of sex in marriage
Responsible Sex and Parenthood
Condemnation of abortion, infanticide, sterilization, and
all forms of contraception
BASIC CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES RELATED TO
MARRIAGE/ FAMILY
Married love is fully human and total sharing
Indissolubility (divorce, separation/annulment?)
Exclusivity (adultery, polygamy)
Procreative (contraception, sterility, impotence)
Between Opposite Sexes (homosexual union)
Sex only within Marriage (pre-marital and extra-marital sex/
pre-nuptial?)
Love as basis of Marriage (forced marriage, pre-arranged
marriage)
New Life is the result of love relation (test tube babies,
artificial insemination, cloning, etc.)
RESPONSIBLE SEX
As Expression of Faithful Love and Genuine Concern for
the Other-half
Only within Marriage: Committed Relationship
Open to Life
RESPONSIBLE PARENTHOOD

Married love, therefore, requires of husband and wife the full


awareness of their obligations in the matter of responsible
parenthood, which today, rightly enough, is much insisted upon,
but which at the same time should be rightly understood. Thus,
we do well to consider responsible parenthood in the light of its
varied legitimate and interrelated aspects. HV 10
Biologically, it means respect for the natural functions
With regard to the biological processes, responsible parenthood
means an awareness of, and respect for, their proper functions. In
the procreative faculty the human mind discerns biological laws
that apply to the human person.

foreseeable impediment to procreation should result there from


provided such impediment is not directly intended for any
motive whatsoever.
Recourse to Infertile Periods
If therefore there are well-grounded reasons for spacing births,
arising from the physical or psychological condition of husband
or wife, or from external circumstances, the Church teaches that
married people may then take advantage of the natural cycles
immanent in the reproductive system and engage in marital
intercourse only during those times that are infertile, thus
controlling birth in a way which does not in the least offend the
moral principles which We have just explained.

Psychologically, it means control of passions by reason


With regard to man's innate drives and emotions, responsible
parenthood means that man's reason and will must exert control
over them.
Socio-economically, etc., it means respect for the natural law and
a prudent decision on procreative function of marriage
With regard to physical, economic, psychological and social
conditions, responsible parenthood is exercised by those who
prudently and generously decide to have more children, and by
those who, for serious reasons and with due respect to moral
precepts, decide not to have additional children for either a
certain or an indefinite period of time.
Responsible parenthood has one further essential aspect of
paramount importance. It concerns the objective moral order
which was established by God, and of which a right conscience
is the true interpreter. In a word, the exercise of responsible
parenthood requires that husband and wife, keeping a right order
of priorities, recognize their own duties toward God, themselves,
their families and human society.
From this it follows that they are not free to act as they choose in
the service of transmitting life, as if it were wholly up to them to
decide what is the right course to follow. On the contrary, they
are bound to ensure that what they do corresponds to the will of
God the Creator. The very nature of marriage and its use makes
His will clear, while the constant teaching of the Church spells it
out.
Unlawful Birth Control Methods
Therefore We base Our words on the first principles of a human
and Christian doctrine of marriage when We are obliged once
more to declare that the direct interruption of the generative
process already begun and, above all, all direct abortion, even
for therapeutic reasons, are to be absolutely excluded as lawful
means of regulating the number of children. Equally to be
condemned, as the magisterium of the Church has affirmed on
many occasions, is direct sterilization, whether of the man or of
the woman, whether permanent or temporary. HV 14
Lawful Therapeutic Means
the Church does not consider at all illicit the use of those
therapeutic means necessary to cure bodily diseases, even if a

Consequences of Artificial Methods


It could open wide the way for marital infidelity and a
general lowering of moral standard.
It gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows
accustomed to the use of contraceptive methods may forget
the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her
physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a
mere instrument for the satisfaction of his own desires.
A careful consideration should be given to the danger of
power passing into the hands of those public authorities who
care little for the precepts of the moral law
PASTORAL DIRECTIVES
Value of Self-discipline
Promotion of Chastity
Appeal to Public Authorities
Seeking True Solutions
Family Apostolate
Christian Compassion
CASE ANALYSIS
Robert was tested positive of HIV virus as a result of a blood
transfusion he underwent when he was confined in the hospital.
He loves his wife and their very young child. He informed his
wife about his health concern and the latter accepted him. They
have resolved to stay in that relationship and decided to use
condom every time they found themselves in marital intimacies.
Would you have any problem with the solution they have opted
for?
Cardinal Lopez Turjillo
If the WHO have stated that consistent and correct condom use
reduces the risk of HIV infection by 90%. Therefore, there is
that 10 % were due to different causes, a risk remains. If 10
persons out of 100 can contract an illness like this, different
causes, a risk remains.
Cardinal Godfried Danneels
If an HIV-positive person insists on having sex, he has to use a
condom. Otherwise he will commit a sin by risking
transmission of a potentially fatal virus.

SEXUALITY AND MARRIAGE


IN CHRISTIAN TRADITION
OBJECTIVES
To retrace the practices and thinking related to human
sexuality and marriage within the long-standing Christian
tradition
To analyze the teaching of the great thinkers from the
influences of the dominant philosophical traditions of the
time.
To appreciate some current traditional perspectives in
human sexuality from the teachings of Augustine, Aquinas,
et al.
THE FIRST 3 CENTURIES: Domestic Celebrations
No specifically Christian pattern for marrying but simply
followed the customs of the place
No official legislation but new concerns emerged from
ecclesiastical writers (on freedom of choosing marriage
partner; the danger of choosing a partner who is not a
Christian etc.).
Dialectical development in the attitudes of the community
(distance from the sexual excesses of the pagan world)
Scriptural understanding of the sacredness of marriage and
sexuality continued but some imposed a rigorous
interpretation of Jesus and Paul; exaltation of virginity and
abstinence.
Tertullian (160-220) abandoned the balance of the
traditional doctrine and moved into a position of extreme
rigorism. Marriage as unbefitting for saints.
THE 4th and 5th CENTURIES Ecclesial Dimension
Age of the local councils (more legal organization of the
Church)
Gradual concern with the pastoral problems about
marriage leading to a legal process
Norms on impediments and warning against dangers
inherent to marriages with unbelievers and heretics
"First elements of marriage liturgy began to appear priest was
invited to the ceremony at home and was asked to pronounce the
blessing over the couple (which used to be the task of the father
of the bride)shortly thereafter wedding at the church and
within the celebration of the Eucharist"
Theological speculations about marriage continued to affirm its
fundamental goodness with cautions and caveats.
JEROME (C.345-420) exalted virginity and devalued marriage.
The doctrine of the equality of the sexes suffered women
consistently regarded as inferior and subordinate to men
Stress on the duty of fidelity but the inevitability of a
separation was accepted easily especially when a man wanted it.
It was favored by Basil of Cesarea (c.329-379) Ambrosiaster
(wrote between 370-384)
First among the Fathers to present a systematic theology of
marriage influence was far reaching into the Middle Ages and
beyond.

Influenced by his experience with his own sexuality (unruly


passion as impediment to his search for God)
Against Pelagians (human beings can save themselves by their
own effort)
Centrality of the concept of sin and grace, incapacities of our
lapsed nature, and Gods power of rescuing us.
Augustines theory of ORIGINAL SIN
God created first couple immortal & innocent
Through disobedience they not only lost the original gifts
but also lapsed into the state of original sin
As their immortality and innocence were to be shared by all
human beings, so their posterity had to inherit their sinful
condition.
Their lapsed nature was to be transmitted by the act of
human generation.
Due to the Fall, that act has become tainted with sin since
it was dominated by concupiscence.
THE MANICHEAN INFLUENCE
Devaluation of nature and the stress on the importance of
grace
Since sexual act could hardly ever be performed without sin,
to be in the married state was to be permanently exposed to
the danger of sin
Need for justification for a Christian to choose marriage: the
inherent dangers had to be compensated by immanent good
things, the BONA MATRIMONII: Proles (children); Fides
(fidelity) and Sacramentum vinculum (sacred commitment
to life).
Sacramentum vinculum led Augustine to speculate on the
sign value of marriage: sacramentum signum: expressing the
fidelity of Christ to his church
Some hesitations on indissolubility: man who has
dismissed his wife and married again as guilty of a light
transgression not excluded from the Eucharist
By the end of the 5th century: narrowing of the horizon of
understanding marriage. Its original sacredness was
obscured by the undue exaltation of the soul and
devaluation of the body

From the 5th CENTURIES onward:


DEVELOPING LITURGY
Liturgy as the only field that remained substantially
untouched by the Augustinian pessimism
The celebration of marriage remained joyous event in the
spirit of the scriptures
Participation of the priest not only conferred a visible
ecclesial dimension on the sacrament but also contributed
toward bringing marriage under the jurisdiction of the
Church

LEO THE GREAT (pope 440-461) first to insist on the duty of


a public celebration not in secrecy or hidden from the
community
Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (c847-c.857) stressed on the need
for discipline ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the marriages of

the faithfulleading to an increased legislation (juridical system


by the 10th century)
From the 5th CENTURIES onward
The Penitential Books
on Marital Problems
(c.500-c.900)
Not to be overrated not reflection of the general thinking in
the Christendomyet speaks a lot about the understood
ecclesiastical discipline related to marriage
Irish and Breton penitentials: yes to separation; no to remarriage
(while former partner was alive)
Anglo-Saxon and Frankish penitentials: divorce and remarriage
possible for the following :
Case of adultery
The husband abandoned by his wife
The wife of a man condemned to slavery
The spouse who obtained freedom
The spouse taken into captivity
The spouse converted to Christianity
The wife of a man who was impotent
THE MIDDLE AGES:
Since 9th Century

What Makes Marriage?


Speculations on the institution of marriage: what is it that
brings marriage into existence?
Customs of Germanic people: marriage came to existence
by
sequential
stages:
betrothal,
solemnization,
consummation.
HINCMAR OF REIMS (805-882): solemnization and
consummation played a role in perfecting marriage
cannot be dissolved thereafter
NICHOLAS I (pope 858-867): Marriage is not brought
into existence by intercourse but by consent.

The dispute continued into the 11th and 12th centuries no


uniform resolution of practical cases on marriage
THE PARISIAN SCHOOL:
Consent and not by sexual intercourse
Ivo of Chartes (1040-1116)
Hugh of St. Victor (1098-1141)
Mary and Joseph were really married by consent, not
intercourse
The sanctifying power of marriage as a sacrament
The BOLOGNESE SCHOOL
consent was not enough for marriage, sexual intercourse
between the spouses was necessary as well
A Camaldolese monk Gratians Decretum or Concordance of
Discordant Canons (c1140): marriage became perfect and
indissoluble when consummated
ALEXANDER III (pope 1159-1181) earlier belonged to the
Bolognese School. But he canonized the consent theory when
he became pope

INNOCENT III (pope 1185-1216 and GREGORY IX (pope


1227-1241) confirmed the same doctrine
The Church had a full and exclusive jurisdiction over
marriage needed a clearer legal framework and found it in the
Roman Law (law of contracts)
Marriage as Contract
12TH Century
The type of contract they adopted was that of the
CONSENSUAL TYPE (Consent without any prescribed
formality, but with determined internal structure of rights and
duties)
THEOLOGICAL SPECULATIONS
12TH and 13TH Centuries
Aristotles thought among the Islamic and Jewish philosophers
Impact on Christian theologians (Albert the Great, Thomas
Aquinas, etc)
New Theological Synthesis: Augustinian Theology and
Aristotelian Philosophy
NEW THEOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS
Whole creation mirrored the Gods image and shared in his
perfection.
Although, wounded by sin, human nature is not radically
corrupt. Body and soul formed a harmonious union, contributing
to the unique beauty and perfection of the human person
All things in the universe is good, both spiritual and material
Human nature is good
Sexuality could not be wrong either belonging to human
nature, therefore, good
Ordered structure of the universe
Rejection of Cathari and Albigenses, who revived Manicheism
Sexuality was meritorious provided done according to the
dictates of reason and the precepts of faith.
Nothing equaled human dignity, but there was no perfect
equality between sexes: man image of God directly; woman,
indirectly
Marriage as one of the seven sacraments indissoluble
Shifts in Perspectives
Shift from the spiritual consideration of the reality of marriage
to one that is focused on the essentialist-philosophical
understanding of the nature of the institution of marriage
Shift from wisdom theology to rational theology
CONTRIBUTORS
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY (c.1034-1109)
First to counter Augustines theory of sin and grace

Original sin did not consist in concupiscence but in the


absence of Gods sanctifying grace
Lifted marriage out of the shadow of sin
CONTRIBUTORS
PETER LOMBARD (C.1095-1160)
First to formulate the doctrine of the 7 sacraments
Marriage as mysterious instrument/carrier of grace
Discussion on the internal structure (matter and form;
substance and accidents, etc.)
WALTER OF MORTAGNE, bishop of Laon
Defended position: sacramental marriage cannot be
dissolved; all others that are not, can be
Appropriated Aristotelian worldview
Sexuality in itself is good, evil only in its inordinate use
Marriage is entirely good and the act of generation was not
sinful
The ends of the institution of marriage in strict hierarchical
order: (1) propagation of the human race, (2) remedy for
concupiscence, (3) mutual love (not given importance)
Hesitated to call marriage a contract
Thomas explained the consent theory in terms of Aristotles
metaphysical psychology
consent as an internal act of the will under the guidance of
intelligence
Mind and will are not autonomous, they mutually support
and complement each other
Not well understood by the succeeding theologians who
spoke of the will as autonomous from the mind
Recovery of the scriptural understanding of marriage:
sacred alliance between a man and a woman in a thoroughly
good universe.
16th CENTURY
THE COUNCIL OF TRENT AND OF THE REFORMERS
Religious Revolution/ Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546), German theologian and
religious reformer, who initiated the Protestant Reformation
Henry VIII (1491-1547), king of England (1509-1547), the
image of the Renaissance king
John Calvin (1509-1564) The great systematizer of
Protestant theology
John Knox (1514?1572) was a Scottish religious reformer
who took the lead in reforming the Church in Scotland
along Calvinist lines
Marriage flowed from their understanding
of the original sin and its consequences
Human nature is Gods creation
But fallen into corruption by sin
Human beings are saved
Not by internal transformation
But by attribution of the merits of Christ
Sexuality being part of corrupt nature
Is in constant need of being disciplined
Marriage in a natural institution
It cannot be a sacrament of the New Covenant
Marriage does not confer grace
It is under civil jurisdiction

Indissoluble, except in adultery

COUNCIL OF TRENT
(1547-1563)
Defended the positions established by theologians and
canonists over the centuries
Marriage belongs to the order of the sacred in the strictest
sense, one of the sacraments, conferring grace
It is a union between a man and a woman
The church has the power to establish diriment impediments
It is indissoluble, except when not consummated
HUMAN SEXUALITY
AND
THE BIBLE

I.FROM GENESIS
Central Message: HUMAN SEXUALITY IS GOOD A GIFT
FROM THE ALL-GOOD AND TRANSCENDENT
CREATOR
Two accounts (Yahwist and Priestly) but with common
elements:
Combats the Myth of Baal
Presents a clear vision of human sexuality according to
perceived Gods design
Contrasts to the human condition after the fall

A. COMBATING THE MYTH OF BAAL


Sex understood as divine
Sexual union between humans a participation in the
divine
Gods as sexual beings capable of unrestrained lust
THESIS: Sexuality is not divine, but human good.

B. PRESENTING GODS VISION ON HUMAN


SEXUALITY
Created not as isolated individual but fashioned according to
the image of God
Sexually differentiated into male and female but equal in
dignity and characterized by complementarity and mutuality
Ordered to a faithful and intimate sharing of life in marriage
Ordained to increase and multiply!

CONTRASTS TO THE HUMAN CONDITION AFTER


THE FALL
Alienation from own body and sexuality
Separation between man and woman
The man lording it over his wife: social and cultural
inferiority of women

FROM THE SONG OF SONGS


Almost did not make it to the canon of the SS because of
strong sexual allusions

Portrays sexuality as good sexual union as occasion for


joy and celebration
It seems to be a love song for wedding celebrationerotic
and genital union
Esteem for the virginal state of the bride
Sexuality is good but needs to be responsibly controlled
according to Gods design and plan
FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT
Critical Question:
Was Jesus teaching on human sexuality coherent and
consistent with the OT teachings? Can one perceive new
dimensions in his teaching?
Are there legal prescriptions in the Judaism that have been
abrogated by the Christian view of reality (sexuality)?
SOME PRELIMINARY NOTES
N.T. within the total vision of the Reign of God: justice,
peace, love, redemption and salvation
Centered on Christas the measure
SYNOPTIC GOSPELS
New understanding of celibacy (from something absurd and
even sinful to something holy and of priority value)
Jews of the first century, except the Essenes, considered
celibacy as absurd and even sinful as rejection of the
exhortation in Genesis: Be fruitful and multiply!
Jesus was a virgin/celibate and recommended the same for
the sake of the Gospel
Going beyond the law on divorce (back to the plan of
Godbeyond the interpretation of the Mosaic law)
unequivocal condemnation of divorce and remarriage (as
adultery)
Clarified and developed the OT teaching on the fundamental
equality of men and women
No toleration of double standard evident in OT
Gracious dealings with women
Morality of internal disposition and not merely of external
behavior (beyond legalism, minimalism, act orientedness,
judgementalism, etc.)

PAULINE EPISTLES
EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS
Context: Two extreme positions taken regarding sexuality:
Corinth as center of sexual licentiousness
Corinth as center of sexual gnosticism
Contentions:
Affirmation of the basic goodness of human sexuality and of
marriage and sexual union.
Condemnation of sexual perversions and vices (1 Cor 6. 910)

EPISTLE TO THE EPHISIANS 5


Marital relationship depicted by the image of Christ as
bridegroom to the Church
Transfiguration of title.
EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS
On homosexuality

As wrong taken as evident


Presented as an evil, a distortion of human life which
follows from sin (Rm 1:26-27)

SUMMARY OF N.T.
Virginity has a place as witness to the kingdom
Respect for the goodness of sexuality
Viewed from the perspective of Kingdom
Sin as ruptured relationship
APPLICATION OF THE BIBLICAL TEACHING ON SEX
IN OUR TIMES
Critical Questions
How normative can certain teachings or legal prescriptions
on human sexuality be in our own times?
Can we sort out teachings or thinking that are purely
cultural from those that are revealed truths from God?
I. Background of the Literature
Cloning, Parenthood, and Genetic Relatedness
Robert Sparrow
Author
Dr.Sparrow is focus on applied ethics and political
philosophy; He interested in philosophical arguments with realworld implications. More specifically, He worked in: political
philosophy, bioethics, environmental ethics, media ethics; just
war theory; and the ethics of science and technology.
In this article will focus on the keywords or the context
of the article. First on the issue of Human Cloning itself and his
ethical issue related on the human cloning, second parenthood
and the third is the issue of genetic relatedness

Context
There are three Context of Human Cloning
Human Cloning
Parenthood
Genetic Relatedness

Abstract
The abstract of the article I will give first the definition of what
is Human Cloning. The term is generally used to refer to
artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical
twins are common place, with their cloning occurring during the
natural process of reproduction. The abstract this article will
examine the best case for human cloning. There two distinct sort
of human cloning with different motivation therapeutic and
reproductive cloning.
3. Motivation
The article give me interest of what is the main issue of
human cloning
The article inspired me to give value on the human person
itself.
The article call my attention to examine what are the ethical
principles belong to this particular issue.
The article suspends me what are the factors and
consequence of this issue.
4. Contribution

Value the dignity of the human person


Give meaning on what is family life
This article catch my attention to examine of what is the
human cloning and his advantages and most specially his
disadvantages.

Summary
First I will focus the issue of therapeutic cloning. The
therapeutic cloning is hypothecal cloning of individual for the
purpose of procuring tissues from the clone which will serve
some therapeutic prupose in relation to the person clone. In this
purpose of therapeutic cloning starts the moral question of we
want life with out end? The therapeutic cloning . In this case I
can considered as play like a little god in our life because of this
therapeutic cloning.
The Therapeutic Cloning is also called biomedical cloning, and
research cloning and involves the process of somatic cell nuclear
transfer in which the nucleus of a cell from a human patient's
body is injected into a human ovum which has had its nucleus
removed. The main goal of therapeutic cloning is to develop
organs for transplant that have an identical DNA structure to the
organ recipient.
Dr.Sparrow focus more on the issue of reproductive cloning as
mention in his article they explain about the three scenarios and
possibilities of the reproductive cloning. Dr. Sparrow sited
first the both member of heterosexual couple are unable to make
a genetic contribution to the genotype of a child because of the
failure to produce or possess viable gametes then the
reproductive cloning serve as useful role to play in order to have
a child. In this case cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer
would allow the couple to bring into a being a child that is
genetically related indeed genetically identical, to one another.
However , the woman is unable to bring the child to term, the
couple will need to make used of the surrogate mother. They will
used the genetically related to one another of its parents, with
out the other partner playing a material partner.
The issue of the same sex couple. Because of the reproductive
cloning the same sex couple or the single person can allow to
procure a child because of this technology.
The third scenario in the article is the scenario of a couple have
already a child and who wants to clone their existing child. Here
we can also find another problem of this reproductive cloning
because of the duplication of individual being by the use of
cloning.
Critical review
The article is very clear in explaining the benefits of the
human cloning and the consequence of this particular issue.
The use of human embryos as a tool to cure and threat the
different illness
The issue of same sex couple or the single individual having
a child.
The issue of identical crisis, pluralty or similarity of
individual
Conclusion I

In the conclusion of this article of Dr. Robert Sparrow I


Personally realized that if the cloning is possible many people
want to use the cloning to reproduce themselves and it can cause
a lot of confusions as well as troubles in the lives. And also this
issue violated the mortality of human being. In this technology
we can extend and prolong our lives any time and it violate the
dignity of the human person. In my personal view of this issue of
the human cloning both Therapeutic and reproductive cloning.
This human cloning is only accessible to those who have much
money and the poor cannot attain in this technology. For me I
will also disagree of this cloning particularly the possibilities and
consequence of the human cloning cloning. Even the good
intention of curing or treating the diseases but using the stem
cells is considered killing the embryos. That is why I am not
favor of this particular therapeutic cloning because it destroy the
dignity of the human embryos. For me cloning a man is cloning
only human body but with out natural soul and emotion.
Therefore this is not considered a human being but this is a
considered a endangered species
FAMILIARIS CONSORTIO
MARRIAGE, FAMILY AND RESPONSIBLE
PARENTHOOD

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: PROBLEMS AND


CHALLENGES
Socio-Economic
Socio-Political
Socio-Cultural

BRIGHT SPOTS AND SHADOWS FOR THE FAMILY


TODAY
John Paul II, Familiaris Consortio (1981)
SIGN OF REFUSAL
SIGN OF SALVATION

BRIGHT SPOTS AND SHADOWS


SIGN OF SALVATION
Greater personal freedom and better quality of interpersonal
relationship in marriage
Promotion of the dignity of women
Responsible procreation
Education of Children

BRIGHT SPOTS AND SHADOWS


SIGN OF REFUSAL
1. A mistaken theoretical and practical concept of the
independence of the spouses in relation to each other.
2. Serious misconceptions regarding the relationship of authority
between parents and children
3. Concrete difficulties that the family itself experiences in the
transmission of values
4. Growing number of divorces
5. Scourge of abortion
6. More frequent resort to sterilization
7. Appearance of a truly contraceptive mentality
ROOT CAUSES OF THE PROBLEMS
Corruption of the idea and experience of FREEDOM
understood as an autonomous power of self-affirmation (loss of
the vision of Gods plan)

Separation from God and His plans = Serious problems in


marriage and family
IN PURSUIT OF WISDOM OF GOD
Need for the Renewal of Covenant with Divine Wisdom
Need for education of conscience
Need for conversion
Need for Inculturation

THE PLAN OF GOD FOR MARRIAGE AND THE


FAMILY
Human Person, the Image of God who is Love
Marriage and communion between God and People
Jesus Christ, Bridegroom of the Church and the Sacrament
of Matrimony
Children, the Precious Gift of Marriage
The Family, A Communion of Persons
Marriage and Virginity or Celibacy

THE PLAN OF GOD FOR MARRIAGE AND THE


FAMILY
1.Human Person, the Image of God who is Love
Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves
to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive
to spouses, is by no means something purely biological, but
concerns the innermost being of the human person as such. It is
realizng in a truly human way only if it is an integral part of the
love by which a man and woman commit themselves totally to
one another until death.
2.Marriage and communion between God and People
The communion of love between God and people, a
fundamental part of the Revelation and faith experience of
Israel, finds a meaningful expression in the marriage covenant
which is established between a man and a woman.
3.Jesus Christ, Bridegroom of the Church and the
Sacrament of Matrimony
By virtue of the sacramentality of their marriage, spouses are
bound by one another in a most profoundly indissoluble manner.
Their belonging to each other is the real representation, by
means of the sacramental sign, of the very relationship of Christ
with the Church.
4.Children, the Precious Gift of Marriage
Love is essentially a gift; and conjugal love, while leading the
spouses to the reciprocal knowledge which makes them one
flesh, does not end with the couple, because it makes them
capable of the greatest gift, the gift by which they become
cooperators with God for giving life to a new human person.
5.The Family, A Communion of Persons
In matrimony and in the family a complex of interpersonal
relationships is set upmarried life, fatherhood and
motherhood, filiation and fraternitythrough which each human
person is introduced into the human family and into the family
of God, which is the Church.

6.Marriage and Virginity or Celibacy


Virginity or celibacy for the sake of the Kingdom of God not
only does not contradict the dignity of marriage but presupposes
it and confirms it. Marriage and virginity or celibacy are two
ways of expressing and living the one mystery of the covenant of
God with his people.
THE ROLE OF CHRISTIAN FAMILY
Forming a Community of Persons
Serving Life: Transmission and Education
Participating in the Development of Society
Sharing in the Life and Mission of the Church
FORMING A COMMUNITY OF PERSONS
Love as the principle and power of communion
The indivisible unity of conjugal communion
An indivisible communion
The broader communion of the family
The rights and role of women
Women and society
Offences against womens dignity
Men as husbands and fathers
The rights of Children
The elderly in the family
Centrality of Love: Marriage as a Covenant (beyond
Contract)
Indissoluble Commitment
Exclusive Relationship
Procreative
Respect of Rights (Father, Mother, Children, Elderly, others)
Broader Community

SERVING LIFE:
Transmission of Life
Cooperators in the love of God the Creator
The Churchs teaching and norm, always old yet always
new
The Church stands for life
That Gods design may be ever more completely fulfilled
In an integral vision of the human person and his or her
vocation
SERVING LIFE:
Education
The right and duty of parents regarding education
Educating in the essential values of human life
The mission to educate and the sacrament of marriage
First experiences of the Church
Relations with other educating agents
Manifold service to life

PARTICIPATING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY


The family as the first and vital cell of society
Family life as an experience of communion and sharing
The social and political role
Society at the service of the family
The charter of family rights
The Christian familys grace and responsibility

SHARING IN THE LIFE AND MISSION OF THE CHURCH


THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY AS A BELIEVING AND
EVANGELIZING COMMUNITY
THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY AS COMMUNITY IN
DIALOGUE WITH GOD
THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY AS A COMMUNITY AT THE
SERVICE OF MAN

CREED
CULT
CODE

THE FAMILY AS
A DOMESTIC CHURCH
FAITH
PROPHET
WORSHIP
PRIEST
SERVICE
KING

CHURCHS TEACHINGS
Short Historical Excursus
1918 Canon Law
1930 Casti Connubii
1935 Herbert Doms The Meaning of
1944 The Roman Rota
1965 Gaudium et Spes
1966 The Papal Commission
1968 Humanae Vitae
1981 Familiaris Consortio

Marriage

CANON LAW (1918)


On the end of marriage:
The primary end of marriage is the procreation and education
of children; its secondary end is mutual help and the allaying of
consciences. (Canon 1013)
Parents are bound by a most serious obligation to provide to the
best of the their power for the religious and moral as well as for
the physical and civil education of their children, and also to
provide for their temporal welfare. (Canon 1113)
CASTI CONNUBII (1930)
Recognition of another very important purpose: mutual love:
By matrimony, therefore, the minds of the contracting parties
are joined and knit together more intimately than are their
bodies, and that not by any passing affection of sense or heart,
but by a deliberate and firm act of the will This outward
expression of love in the home demands not only mutual help
but must go further; must have as its primary purpose that man
and wife help each other day by day in forming and perfecting
themselves in the interior life, so that through their partnership in
life they may advance ever more and more in virtue, and above
all that they may grow in true love toward God and their
neighbor.
On artificial Contraception:
as intrinsically against nature
since, therefore, the conjugal act is destined primarily by nature
for the begetting of children, those who in exercising it
deliberately frustrate its natural power and purpose sin against
nature and commit a deed which is shameful and intrinsically
vicious.

But there is a statement that claims that spouses may have sexual
intercourse when, for natural reasons either of time or defect,
conception cannot occur. Intercourse at such times may be for
such ends as mutual aid or the cultivation of mutual love, and
one is free to pursue such secondary ends so long as they are
subordinated to the primary end and so longs as the intrincic
nature of the act is preserved.
Herbert Doms
The Meaning of Marriage
The Constitution of marriage, the union of two persons outside
themselves for which they marry. It consists in the constant vital
ordination of husband and wife to each other until they become
one. If this is so, there can no longer be sufficient reason, from
this standpoint, for speaking of procreation as the primary
purspose and for diving off the other pruposes as secondary
perhaps it would be best if in the future we gave up using terms
as primary and secondary in speaking of the purpose of
marriage.
THE ROMAN ROTA (1944)
On the question of the unity of the primary and secondary ends
of marriage.
The Roman Rota stated that the procreation and education of
children is to be considered the primary end of marriage, and no
other ends are to be considered as equally principal ends. Other
ends are to be considered secondary and subordate to the
primary end.
GAUDIUM ET SPES
Thus a man and a woman, who by the marriage covenant of
conjugal love are no longer two, but one flesh (Mt 19, 6),
render mutual help and service to each other through an intimate
union of their persons and of their actions. Through this union
they experience the meaning of their oneness and attain to it with
growing perfection day by day. As a mutual gift of two persons,
this intimate union, as well as the good of the children, imposes
total fidelity on the spouses and argues for an unbreakable
oneness between them By their very nature, the institution of
marriage itself and conjugal love are ordained for the procreation
of children, and find in them their ultimate crown. GS48)
THE PAPAL COMMISSION (1966)
SUMMARY:
First, although it would allow artificial contraception in some
cases, yet it insists that sex and marriage are properly oriendted
toward the procreation and education of children. The union of
spouses is not to be separated from the procreative finality of
marriage. Conjugal love and fecundity are in no way opposed
but complement each other.
Second, the majority report approaches the problem from the
point of view of the totality of the marriage. It wishes to take its
moral direction not from a consideration of the sexual act or
faculty by itself but from a consideration of what is good for the
marriage as a whole.
HUMANAE VITAE (1968)
That teaching, often set forth by the magisterium, is founded
upon the inseparable connection willed by God and unable to be
broken by man on his own initiative, between the two meanings
of the conjugal act: the unitive meaning and the procreative
meaning. Indeed, by its intimate structure, the conjugal act,

while most closely uniting husband and wife, capacitates them


for the generation of new lives, according to laws inscribed in
the very being of man and of woman. By safeguarding both
these essential aspects, the unitive and the procreative, the
conjugal act preserves in its fullness the sense of true mutual
love and its ordination toward mans most high calling to
parenthood. We believe that the men of our day are particularly
capable of seizing the deeply reasonable and human character of
this fundamental principle. (HV 12)

PASTORAL CARE
1.STAGES OF PASTORAL CARE OF THE FAMILY
The Church accompanies the Christian family on its journey
through life
Preparation for marriage
The celebration
Celebration of marriage and evangelization of non-believing
baptized persons
Pastoral care after marriage
2.STRUCTURES OF FAMILY PASTORAL CARE
The ecclesial community and in particular the parish
The family
Associations of families for families
3.AGENTS OF THE PASTORAL CARE OF THE FAMILY
Bishops and priests
Men and women religious
Lay specialists
Recipients and agents of social communications
4. THE FAMILY IN DIFFICULT CASES
Particular circumstances (migrants, armed forces, sailors,
and itinerant people)
Mixed marriages
Pastoral care in certain irregular situations (Trial marriages,
de facto free unions, Catholics in civil marriages, separated,
divorced persons who have remarried
Those without a family