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Tissue Structure and Function General Review

Anatomy & Physiology


Mr. Andrew Evans
1. Define tissue 1
A group of similar cells working together for the same goal
2. Use the key choices to identify the major types of tissue described below.
12
a) Connective Tissue b) Epithelial Tissue c) Muscle d) Nervous Tissue
B

Lines the body cavities and covers the bodys external


surface.
Pumps blood, flushes urine out of the body, allows one to
swing a bat.
Transmits electrical signals.
Anchors, packages, and supports body organs.
Cells may absorb, secrete and filter.
Most involved in regulating and controlling body functions.
Major function is to contract.
Synthesises hormones
The most durable tissue type.
Abundant non-living extra-cellular matrix.
Most widespread in the body.
Forms nerves and the brain.

C
D
A
B
C
C
B
A
A
A
D

3. Describe 5 general features of epithelial tissue. 5


Regenerate easily, Have no BV, Cell fits tightly together in continuous
sheets, joined by cell junctions, forms membranes (the apical surface)
4. How are epithelial tissues classified? 2
Number of layers and shape
5. List 5 major functions of epithelium in the body, and give examples of
each. 10
Function
Protection
Secretion

Absorbtion

Example
Stratified
squamous
Simple
cuboidal,
produce
mucus
Simple
columnar
in
intestines

Filtration

Simple
cuboidal
Kidney
Glandular

Make Hormone

6. How does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of
simple epithelia? 2
Stratified are mostly good for protection (many layers) simple is mostly
good for absorption secretion and filtration
7. Where is ciliated epithelium found? What role does it play? 2
Trachea, respiratory tract, trap harmful particles and move them out of the
body.
8. Transitional epithelium is actually stratified squamous epithelium with
special characteristics.
How does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia? 1
It can stretch and slide over one another
How does the structural difference support its function? 1
It needs to expand once you need to store more urine.
9. How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function?
4 endocrine has no duct exocrine has ducts. Endocrine secretes hormones
and exocrine secretes other proteins that are hormones.
10.Respond to the following with the key choices. Some tissues are used
more than once. 6
a) Simple squamous
d) Pseudo-stratified
ciliated columnar

b) Simple cuboidal
e) Stratified
squamous

c) Simple columnar
f) transitional

________e________ is found in the lining of the esophagus.


_______c_________ is found in the lining of the stomach.
__________a)______ is found in the alveolar sacs of the lungs.
___________b_____ is found in the tubules of the kidneys.
__________e______ is found in the epidermis of the skin.
___________f_____ is found lining the bladder; these are cells that have the
ability to slide over each other.
Connective Tissue
11.What are three general characteristics of CT? 3
Have Matrix, Lots of BV, supportive
12.What functions are performed by CT? 3
Connect, protect/support, binds
13.How are the functions of CT reflected in its structure? 2
The extracellular matrix structure varies between each type of cell,
protection based cells have rigid, and in blood it is full of plasma.

14.Using the key, choose the best response to identify the CT described
below? Some tissues are used more than once. 12
________Dense CT___________ - attaches bones to bones, and muscles to bones.
______adipose________ - insulates against heat loss.
__Dense Irregular CT____ - the dermis of the skin.
______fibrocartilage_________ - makes up the intervertebral discs.
_____Osseous_________ - forms the hip bone.
______mesenchymal CT_______ - composes basement membranes: a soft
packaging tissue with a jelly-like matrix.
____Hyaline________ - forms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the
embryonic skeleton.
____Elastic Cartillage_________ - provides a flexible framework for the external ear.
___Hyaline_____ - firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers;
appears glassy and smooth.
____Osseous tissue______ - matrix hard owning to calcium salts; provides levers
for muscles to act on.
________Adipose___ - acts as a storage of fat.
_______Elastic CT____ - walls of large arteries.
15.Why do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel? 1
They have a very large vacuole and the jewel is the nuclei on the side
Nervous Tissue
16.What two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons? 1
Irritability, conductivity
17.In what ways are neurons similar to other cells? 1
They have neucleus
18.Describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the
body. 1
There long extensions help sent nervous signals along the cell very fast.

Total =

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