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Technology of welding hard wearing plates


a

Jacek Grka , Tomasz Kik , Artur Czupryski & Wojciech Foreiter


a

Welding Faculty, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland


Published online: 06 Mar 2013.

To cite this article: Jacek Grka, Tomasz Kik, Artur Czupryski & Wojciech Foreiter (2014) Technology of welding hard
wearing plates, Welding International, 28:10, 749-755, DOI: 10.1080/09507116.2012.753223
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2012.753223

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Welding International, 2014


Vol. 28, No. 10, 749755, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2012.753223
Selected from Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa 2011 (3) 29 33

Technology of welding hard wearing plates


Jacek Gorka, Tomasz Kik, Artur Czuprynski and Wojciech Foreiter
Welding Faculty, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

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The technology of welding of abrasion-resisting plates with the use of different filler metals designed for providing high
wear resistance of the top layer and good plastic properties of the parent material is presented. To this end, we made test
joints which were subjected to metallographic examination, mechanical testing, hardness measurements and testing of wear
resistance of the type metal mineral in accordance with ASTM G65-04 standard. In each case, the weld joining the wear
resistant layer was made with the use of an XHD 6710 covered electrode. For making the weld joining of the parent material
of the abrasion-resisting plate, we applied austenitic and ferritic perlitic filler materials in the form of covered electrodes
and solid wires for gas shielded arc welding. The tests have shown that the XHD 6710 electrode can be used for joining of
top layers of abrasion-resisting plates providing their high wear resistance. For interpasses and filler passes, it is
recommended to use austenitic filler metals which are characterized by very good plastic properties. Moreover, they reduce
the mixing ratio of the weld metal and the material of the abrasion resistant layer.

Introduction
Hard wearing plates are layered liners that combine ease of
installation with very high resistance to abrasion and
erosion. They are made by coating easily weldable, loadbearing steel sheets with a wear-resistant layer of alloyed or
cermetallic material. Two methods are used to obtain very
durable coatings arc welding and diffusion bonding of
cermetallic powders in a vacuum oven [1 4]. Regardless of
the method of production, hard wearing plates are
characterized by their very high quality of manufacture,
constant over the entire surface of the sheet, identical for
plates of the same type [5,6]. The high resistance of the
plates to abrasive wear is achieved by the presence of very
hard and complex carbide phases (1500 3000 HV) in the
surface layer, 2 3 times exceeding the hardness of most
common abrasives. A very important factor improving the
durability of abrasion-resistant layers is the ordered
distribution of hard phases. The ability to control the

Figure 1.

surfacing process and the crystallization of the surfacing


layers means that their structure further increases
durability, irrespective of the chemical composition and
hardness of the used phases. These plates can be plasma cut
under a layer of water, bent and joined to form fragments of
a lining or components of wear resistant devices [5]. Hard
wearing plates can be used not only as flat elements
protecting surfaces exposed to heavy wear and tear, but
thanks to the good weldability of the primary layer and the
ability to withstand bending to a diameter of 400 mm they
can also be used to create complex structures [7 15]
(Figure 1).

Own research
The aim of this study was to test the applicability of
shielded electrodes XHD 6710 for wear resistant layers
[16] and austenitic (CastoMag 45554, Xuper Nucleo

Examples of construction components with hard wearing layers created by welding [5].

q 2012 Taylor & Francis

J. Gorka et al.

750
Abrasion resistant layer

60

(a)

Steel S235JR

Substrate materialsteel S235JR

12

Abrasion resistant layer

(b)

Steel S235JR

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Microstructure of chromium
cast iron of the abrasion
resistant layer

1
Substrate ferriticpearlitic
microstructure of substrate
material

Figure 2. Structure and microstructure of the tested hard


wearing plates.

Abrasion resistant layer

Figure 3. (a) preparation of plates for welding and (b) sequence


of welding passes.

Table 1. Indicative chemical composition of the abrasion


resistant layer [5].
Content of alloying elements (%)
C
5.2

Cr
22

Nb
7

B
1.8

Fe
Rest

Tec 2222) and ferritic pearlitic binders (CastoMag


45250) for creating welded joints of hard wearing plates
(Figure 2 and Table 1) to the native material [16].

Testing
In order to determine the effect of the welding method and
the type of binder on the properties of welded joints of
hard wearing steel sheets, four test joints have been
prepared and designated as follows.
P1: Test joint welded from the side of the base using
shielded electrodes Xuper Nucleo Tec 2222 and using the

Table 2.

P2
P3
P4

Electrode XHD 6710, which was used in all cases to


create the abrasion resistant layer, is designed for
surfacing unalloyed steels, low-alloy steels and austenitic
steels with manganese content of 12 14%. The weld
metal contains a large amount of hard phases resistant to

Technological conditions of welding test plates.

Plate
designation
P1

GMA welding method with binder CastoMag 45250.


Layer resistant to abrasion created using shielded
electrodes XHD 6710. P2: Test joint welded from the
side of the base using shielded electrodes Xuper Nucleo
Tec 2222 and using the GMA welding method with binder
CastoMag 45554. Layer resistant to abrasion created using
shielded electrodes XHD 6710. P3: Test joint welded
using the GMA welding method with binder CastoMag
45554. Layer resistant to abrasion created using shielded
electrodes XHD 6710. P4: Test joint welded using the
GMA welding method with binder CastoMag 45250.
Layer resistant to abrasion created using shielded
electrodes XHD 6710

Pass no.

Welding
procedure

Electrode wire
diameter (mm)

Arc voltage
(V)

Current
(A)

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

111
135
111
111
135
111
135
135
111
135
135
111

3.2
1.0
3.2
3.2
1.0
3.2
1.0
1.0
3.2
1.0
1.0
3.2

26.2
25.6
25.8
26.0
24.2
26.2
25.5
26.1
25.8
25.4
25.2
25.9

95
228
112
93
231
118
229
227
122
226
228
119

Consumable
material
Xuper Nucleo Tec 2222
CastoMag 45250
XHD 6710
Xuper Nucleo Tec 2222
CastoMag 45554
XHD 6710
CastoMag 45554
CastoMag 45554
XHD 6710
CastoMag 45250
CastoMag 45250
XHD 6710

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751

9 10 11

9 10 11

steel S235JR

Abrasion resistant layer

Figure 6. Diagram showing distribution of hardness


measurement points.

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Figure 4. Macrostructure of weld joints of hard wearing plates,


etching: FeCI3, magnification 3 , welding parameters (see
Table 2).

heavy abrasion under moderate pressure and impacts.


Welding with these electrodes is characterized by
minimum mixing with the native material and hardness
in the range of 63 69 (HRC).

The preparation of plates and the order of passes have


been shown in Figure 3; the welding parameters are shown
in Table 2.

Metallographic examination
The samples for metallographic examination were
prepared by grinding, polishing and etching in an aqueous

Figure 5. Microstructure of weld joints of hard wearing plates, from left: abrasion resistant weld joint, transition from weld material to
hard wearing plate, weld joining the substrate material. Etching: FeCI3, magnification 200 , welding parameters (see Table II).

J. Gorka et al.

752

was performed along two measurement lines (Figure 6).


The hardness measurement results are presented in
Table 3.

solution of ferric chloride. Macroscopic examination was


carried out using a stereoscopic microscope OLYMPUS
SZX9; microscopic examination was carried out using a
light microscope OLYMPUS PME-3. The results of
macroscopic and microscopic examination are presented
in Figures 4 and 5.

Strength tests
The static tensile test (according to standard PN-EN
895:1995) and the normal bend test on the side of the face
and root of the weld joints were carried out on the
INSTRON 4210 test machine. The test results are shown
in Tables 4 and 5. Due to the construction of the hard
wearing plate, loads can be carried only by the substrate
material (steel S235JR).

Hardness measurement
The hardness measurement was performed on a cross
section of the joint using the Vickers method (HV1)
on a WILSON WOLPERT 401 MVD machine, with a
load of 10 N and load time of 15 s. The measurement
Table 3.

HV1 hardness measurement test results in a cross section of the weld joint.

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Hardness HV1
Sample
designation

Measurement
line

P1

I
II
I
II
I
II
I
II

P2
P3
P4

Table 4.

Joint P2
Joint P3
Joint P4

Table 5.

R/1
R/2
R/1
R/2
R/1
R/2
R/1
R/2

Joint P2

Joint P3

Joint P4

10

11

152
824
144
806
140
835
138
773

138
832
151
808
138
822
142
825

143
879
148
812
141
844
141
864

288
884
160
972
136
880
143
986

256
892
178
924
193
866
192
948

265
880
184
912
223
932
197
804

304
876
187
939
220
873
224
838

291
868
156
968
132
900
134
840

145
854
147
809
140
836
140
822

146
840
150
810
137
840
139
814

150
842
146
808
140
841
142
802

Active cross-section
S0 (mm2)

Breaking force
Fm (kN)

Tensile strength
Rm (MPa)

168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168

55.15
57.12
60.21
63.02
52.70
54.67
55.18
57.87

325
337
360
371
324
335
330
342

Break location
Outside
Outside
Outside
Outside
Outside
Outside
Outside
Outside

the
the
the
the
the
the
the
the

weld
weld
weld
weld
weld
weld
weld
weld

Bend test results for weld joints of hard wearing plates.

Sample designation
Joint P1

Tensile strength test results for weld joints of hard wearing plates.

Sample designation
Joint P1

Bending side
FBB1
FBB2
RBB1
RBB2
FBB1
FBB2
RBB1
RBB2
FBB1
FBB2
RBB1
RBB2
FBB1
FBB2
RBB1
RBB2

Face
Face
Root
Root
Face
Face
Root
Root
Face
Face
Root
Root
Face
Face
Root
Root

Bending angle (8)


30
30
90
65
55
55
85
85
50
50
60
60
35
35
70
70

Comments
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break
Break

in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in

HAZ and in native


HAZ and in native
HAZ and in native
native material
HAZ
HAZ
HAZ
HAZ
HAZ
native material
HAZ
HAZ
HAZ and in native
HAZ
HAZ
HAZ

material
material
material

material

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753

Figure 7. View of the test station for testing resistance to abrasive wear (metal mineral) in accordance with standard ASTM G65-04.

Tests of resistance to abrasive wear


Tests of resistance to abrasive wear for welded joints of
hard wearing plates were carried out on a test stand
(Figure 7) prepared in accordance with standard ASTM
G65-04 [17]. The abrasion tests were carried out using the
gravimetric method under conditions of metal dry
mineral friction, on the side of the weld joining the hard
wearing plates. During the test the sample was mounted in
a special holder pressing it against a rubber wheel with a
diameter of 228.6 mm. The test sample was pressed
against the rubber wheel with a force of 130 N. The
abrasive, in the form of granular sand, was delivered
through a nozzle at the point of contact of the sample with
the rubber wheel. The flow rate of the abrasive material
was 300 400 g/min. The wheel was rotating in the
direction of the flowing abrasive material at 200 rpm and
performed 6000 rotations. The test was carried out on two
samples with the following dimensions: 25 75 10 mm.
The weight loss was determined using Wa 33 laboratory
scales type PRL T A A13/1 with accuracy of 0.0001 g. The
density measurement was performed on Wa 33 laboratory
scales type PRL T A A13/1. The average density of the
Table 6.

Volume loss mm3 weight loss g


4 density g=cm3 1000:

The test results of abrasive wear resistance are shown


in Table 6.

Summary
The macroscopic metallographic examination of welded
joints of hard wearing plates welded with selected binders
have shown that during formation of the fusion layer
(Figure 3), the binder material, the substrate material and
the wear resistant material partially melt and mix together.
In the case of joints P1, P3 and P4 (fusion layer created
using GMA welding method), the content of the wear
resistant layer material in the weld is high, which is related

Test results of abrasive wear resistance test for weld joints of hard wearing plates, in accordance with standard ASTM G65-04.

Sample
designation
Hard wearing plate
Abrasion resistant weld

weld joints created using electrode XHD 6710 was 2 7.36


(g/cm3), whereas the average density of the hard wearing
plate was 2 7.31 (g/cm3). The average volume loss of the
tested material was determined from the formula (1):

Sample no.

Sample mass
before test
(g)

Sample mass
after test
(g)

Mass loss
(g)

P0-1
P0-2
P1-1
P1-2
P2-1
P2-2
P3-1
P3-2
P4-1
P4-2

109.7678
110.0687
127.3744
123.7821
118.5109
105.4929
138.2340
141.5862
120.6470
143.2293

109.6160
109.9137
127.2277
123.6355
118.3555
105.3311
138.0895
141.4443
120.5059
143.0852

0.1518
0.1550
0.1467
0.1466
0.1554
0.1618
0.1445
0.1419
0.1411
0.1441

Average
mass loss
(g)

Average
volume loss
(mm3)

0.1534

20.9849

1.00

0.1466

19.9184

1.0549

0.1586

21.5489

0.9738

0.1432

19.4565

1.0800

0.1426

19.3750

1.0845

Relative resistance to abrasive wear compared to the material of the abrasion resistant layer of the hard wearing plate.

Relative abrasive
wear resistancea

754

J. Gorka et al.

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Figure 8. Microstructure of joint P1 showing the mixing of


binder material with substrate material and the abrasion resistant
layer.

to the welding method and the adopted welding


parameters. In joint P2 (MMA welding method), a regular
fusion line has been obtained without excessive melting of
the abrasion resistant layer. Macroscopic examination
revealed cracks typical of this type of weld metal in the
abrasion resistant layer. An analysis of the results of
microscopic examination confirmed the structural heterogeneity of the fusion layer (Figure 8). In joint P3, a crack
was observed, initiated in the abrasion resistant layer and
expanding to the substrate layer weld, which may be due to
the large proportion of the material of the abrasion
resistant layer in the joint (Figure 9). HV1 hardness
measurements performed in the cross section of the joint
showed that the joints made on the side of the abrasion
resistant layer with electrode XHD 6710 are characterized
by high hardness in the range of 860 HV1, similar to the
hardness of the hard wearing plate. HV1 hardness
measurements performed in the cross section of the test
joints of substrate material showed that joint P1 has the
highest hardness in the weld area, with an average
hardness of approx. 270 HV1. For other joints this value is:
P2 approx. 180 HV1, P3 approx. 210 HV1, P4
approx. 200 HV1.

Hardness measurements in the area of the fusion layer


for joint P3 showed an increase in hardness to approx. 500
HV1. Such an increase in hardness, caused by mixing the
abrasion resistant material, the substrate material and the
binder, can cause cracks and result in insufficient
functional properties of welded joints.
The tensile strength tests conducted in accordance with
standard PN-EN 895:1995 have shown that the greatest
strength was achieved for test joint P2 (370 MPa) welded
from the side of the substrate material using shielded
electrodes Xuper Nucleo Tec 2222 and using the GMA
welding method with binder CastoMag 45554; the abrasion
resistant layer was created using shielded electrodes XHD
6710. For all the test plates, the break occurred outside the
joint. Due to the design of the hard wearing plate, its tensile
strength should be determined for its cross-section less
thickness of the abrasion resistant layer.
A bend test, carried out according to standard PN-EN
910:1996, of welded joints of hard wearing plates showed
that the largest bending angle on the side of the substrate
material (558) and on the side of the abrasion resistant
layer (858) was obtained for joint P2 welded on the side of
the substrate with shielded electrodes Xuper Nucleo Tec
2222 (fusion layer) and by using the GMA welding
method with binder CastoMag 45554 (filling layer),
whereas the abrasion resistant layer was created using
shielded electrodes XHD 6710.
Tests of resistance to abrasive wear (metal mineral),
carried out in accordance with standard ASTM G65-04,
showed that the value of abrasion resistance of the surface
of weld joints P1, P2, P3, P4 on the side of the abrasion
resistant layer is close to the abrasion resistance of the
joined plates.
The overall conclusion is that the weld metal of
shielded electrode XHD 6710 used to create the weld
joining the abrasion resistant layer meets the requirements
for abrasive wear resistance and ensures that the hardness
of the weld and the HAZ area is maintained at the hardness
level of the hard wearing plates. The fusion layers should
be formed using an austenitic binder with very good
plastic properties (shielded electrode Xuper Nucleo Tec
2222), limiting the degree of mixing of the weld material
with the material of the abrasion resistant layer. To create
the filling layer, it is recommended to use the GMA
welding method with austenitic binder CastoMag 45554,
which will allow to increase the efficiency of the welding
process. Such selection of welding methods and types of
binders will ensure achieving adequate functional properties of the finished components.

References

Figure 9.

Visible crack in the fusion weld area of joint P3.

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