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UCINET Visualization and

Quantitative Analysis Tutorial

Session 1 Network Visualization

Session 2 Quantitative Techniques

Page 2

An Overview of UCINET (6.437)

Page 3

Transferring Data from Excel


(From Tab ConCoInfo)

Page 4

Transferring Excel Matrix Data into UCINET

Button To Open
Spreadsheet
Editor

Step 1. Copy data from Excel


Step 2. Open spreadsheet editor in UCINET
Step 3. Paste into spreadsheet editor in UCINET
Step 4. Save as info

Page 5

Transferring Attribute Data into UCINET


(From Tab: ConcoAttr)

Button To Open
Spreadsheet
Editor

Step 1. Copy data from Excel


Step 2. Open spreadsheet editor in UCINET
Step 3. Paste into spreadsheet editor in UCINET
Step 4. Save as attrib

Page 6

Opening NetDraw For Visualization

Step 1. Click The NetDraw Button To Open

Page 7

Opening Data in NetDraw

Step 1. File > Open > Ucinet dataset > Network


Step 2. Choose network dataset (info.##h)

Page 8

Opening Data in NetDraw

Step 1. Click - open folder icon


Step 2. Choose network dataset (info.##h), then click OK.

Page 9

Initial Visual in NetDraw

Page 10

Dichotomizing in NetDraw

Step 1. Click Relations Tab


Step 2. Select Greater Than Operator
Step 3. Insert The Number 3 Or Use The Plus Button To Get To 3
Page 11

Using Drawing Algorithm in NetDraw

Step 1. Choose

= option on tool bar


Page 12

Using Attribute Data in NetDraw

Step 1. Click - open folder icon


Step 2. Choose attribute dataset (attrib.##h), then click Open.
Step 3. Click OK On Matching Box And X Out Of Attribute Editor.
Step 4. May need to re-set tie strength levels and click lightning bolt again.
Page 13

Choosing Color Attribute in NetDraw

Step 1. Select Nodes


Step 2. Select Region
Step 3. Place a check mark in the color box
Page 14

Selecting Nodes in NetDraw

Step 1. Default is all groups selected. To remove one group, e.g. group 2,
remove check from box
Page 15

Selecting Egonets in NetDraw

Step 1. Select Ego Button On ToolBar


Step 2. Ensure Geodesic distance FROM/TO ego is <= 1
Step 3. Select BM
Step 4. De-Select AR
Step 5. Select All Button and X Out Of Ego Net Viewer

Page 16

Changing the Size of Nodes in NetDraw

Step 1. Properties > Nodes > Symbols > Size > Attribute-based
Step 2. Select gender and make minimum node size 8 and maximum 16
Page 17

Changing the Shape of Nodes in NetDraw

Step 1. Properties > Nodes > Symbols > Shape > Attribute-based
Step 2. Select attribute, e.g. hierarchy
Page 18

Changing the Size of Lines in NetDraw

Step 1. Properties > Lines > Size > Tie strength


Step 2. Select minimum =1 and maximum = 5
Page 19

Changing the Color of Lines in NetDraw

Step 1. Properties > Lines > Color > Node attribute-based


Step 2. Select Region attribute, then choose within, between or both
Step 3. Select Properties > Lines > Color > General to return to black lines
Page 20

Deleting Isolates in NetDraw

Step 1. Select Iso option on the toolbar


Step 2. Select ~Nodes button to bring back removed nodes (click on Okay in
pop-up box)
Page 21

Resizing and Re-centering in NetDraw

Step 1. Layout > Move/Rotate


Step 2. Select Center option
Page 22

Saving Pictures in NetDraw

Step 1. File > Save diagram as > Jpeg


Step 2. Choose file name, e.g. Example Jpeg File For Powerpoint
Page 23

Session 1 Network Visualization

Session 2 Quantitative Techniques

Page 24

Dichotomizing Valued Data

The survey data that we collect is usually valued data. Although we can use
valued data in UCINET we prefer to take different cuts of the data. For example,
we may want to examine the data where people only responded strongly agree
to a question. To do this we dichotomize the data i.e. convert it to zeros and
ones where one means strongly agree and zero means any other response.

Step 1. Transform > Dichotomize


Step 2. Choose input dataset (info.##h)

Step 3. Choose cut-off op. and value (e.g. GE and 4)


Step 4. Specify output data set (Info_GE_4)
Page 25

Measures of Network Connection

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Density
Shows overall level of connection within a network.
We can also look at ties within and between groups.
Distance
Shows average distance for people to get to all other
people.
Shorter distances mean faster, more certain, more
accurate transmission / sharing.

Page 26

Network
Connection

Density

Low Density (25%)


Avg. Dist. = 2.27

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

High Density (39%)


Avg. Dist. = 1.76

Number of ties, expressed as percentage of the number of pairs


Dense networks have more face-to-face relationships

Page 27

Quantitative Analysis: Density

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Density of this network is 8%.

Step 1. Network > Cohesion > Density > Density Overall


Step 2. Input dataset Info_GE_4
Page 28

Distance

Short average distance

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Long average distance

Average number of steps to reach all network participants


Lower scores reflect a group better able to leverage knowledge

Page 29

Quantitative Analysis: Distance

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Average Distance is 3.545

Step 1. Network > Cohesion > Geodesic Distance (old)


Step 2. Input dataset Info_GE_4
Page 30

Measures of Centrality

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Degree Centrality: How well connected each


individual is.
Betweenness Centrality: Extent to which individuals
lie along short paths.
Closeness Centrality: How far a person is from all
others in the network.

Page 31

Quantitative Analysis: Degree Centrality

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Step 1. Network > Centrality and Power > Degree


Page 32

Quantitative Analysis: Degree Centrality

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Step 1. Input dataset Info_GE_4


Step 2. Choose whether to treat data as symmetric. I almost always select no. If you
choose no it will calculate separate figures for the people you go to and the people
that come to you.
Page 33

Quantitative Analysis: Degree Centrality

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

In-degree for HA is 7

Page 34

Quantitative Analysis: Degree Centrality

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Average in-degree is 3.652

In-degree Network
Centralization is 12.424%

Page 35

Opportunities exist to re-distribute relational load. Focus on ways to delayer those in the top right quadrant (info access, decision rights, role) while
also better leveraging those in the bottom quadrant
From whom do you typically seek work-related information?
90.00

# People Receives Information From

80.00

Integrators

High Info
Sources

70.00

60.00

279

163
78
170
117
295

50.00

196
37

93
272

40.00

90
255

53
275

119

30.00

278
263
6

171
26

201

141
248177
5161
54299
273
8
178
300
233
19722
118
82
52
55
9
229 211
16
203
212
184 158 199
7 249
174
113
308
20.00 135
268
147 140
3
294
133
270
28
243
303
175
169
95 81
127
30
224 69 241
245189
286
126
202 105 14
191
265
45
230
132
39 5 220
217
198 3530159
234
363874 221
24
240
100
143 164
231 183
296
315
29
155 48
75 144 87
19
10.00
216
195
32
292
302
60
269
185
23
27256
56
153
190
205
57131
242
102
99
101
210
92
264
213
258 1
148176
91
237
317
44 167
257
89
47192
10 209
312
222
246
15 244
188
2316
106
149
120
280
314
281
206
34 139
223
43
116
50
247
67
193
276
111
311
136
145

112

239
160
266
173

187

High Info
Seekers

0.00
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

90.00

# People Each Person Seeks Information From

Page 36

ScatterPlot Step 1: Save Text File

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Step 1. Generate Degree Calc. Network > Centrality > Degree > Info_GE_4
Step 2. File > Save As > Degree Output Text
Page 37

ScatterPlot Step 2: Save Text File

Network
Connection

Centrality

Step 1. Open Excel


Step 2. File > Open > Txt > Degree Output Text
Step 3. Step 1 (In Text Import Wizard) > Next
Step 4. Step 2 (Pictured) > Insert De-Limiter Between Names and Number.
Step 5. Step 3 Finish

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Page 38

ScatterPlot Step 3: Insert Columns


Back In UCINET

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Step 1. Open UCINET Spreadsheet Editor


Step 2. Cut And Paste Relevant Headers And In/Out Degree Numbers
Step 3. Save As A UCINET file titled, Scatterplot
Page 39

ScatterPlot Step 4:
Create Plot In UCINET

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Step 1. Tools > Scatterplot


Step 2. Click on open file folder to open Scatterplot
Step 3. Play with options (e.g., uniform axis)
Page 40

Cross-boundary Analysis

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Density across boundaries: How connected are groups within themselves


and with other pre-defined groups. This view can be used for different
boundaries. We have used the following in our research:
Function or other designation of skill or knowledge.
Geographic location (even if only different floors).
Hierarchical level.
Time in organization or time in department.
Personality traits.
Gender (interesting though may be inflammatory).

Brokers: Which individuals are the links between other groups. Brokers can
be beneficial conduits of information but they can also hold up the flow of
information.

Page 41

Network
Connection

Cross-boundary Analysis

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Information Network: Density as related to practice


Please indicate how often you have turned to this person for information or advice on workrelated topics in the past three months (response of often or very often).

Healthcare
Government
IT
Oil & Gas
Pharmaceuticals
Industrial

Healthcare Government
17%
0%
0%
17%
0%
0%
4%
0%
35%
0%
1%
9%

IT
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
9%

Oil & Gas Pharmaceuticals Industrial


7%
38%
0%
0%
0%
10%
0%
0%
6%
19%
3%
8%
1%
49%
0%
12%
1%
8%

Page 42

Density Across Practice

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Tip: Col 3 is the column that includes


the practice attribute. You can select
different columns for different attributes
MAKE SURE TO USE THE DENSITY /
AVERAGE VALUE WITHIN BLOCKS

Step 1. Network > Cohesion > Density > Old Density Procedure
Step 2. Input dataset Info_GE_4
Step 3. Click on to select Attrib file for Row Partitioning. Arrow to end to select col 3.
Step 4. Column Partitioning will automatically be filled in with the same text as the Row Partition.
Step 5. Scroll all the way down in output file for density matrix.
Page 43

Broker Categories

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Ego

Coordinator - This person connects people within their group.


A

Ego

Gatekeeper - This person is a buffer between their own group


and outsiders. Influential in information entering the group.

Ego

Representative - This person conveys information from their


group to outsiders. Influential in information sharing.

Page 44

Quantitative Analysis: Broker Metrics

Network
Connection

Centrality

Cross
Boundary
Analysis

Tip: Col 2 is the column that includes


the gender attribute. You can select
different columns for different attributes

Step 1. Network > Ego networks > G&F Brokerage


Step 2. Input dataset Info_GE_4
Step 3. Partition vector attrib col 2
Page 45

Additional Quantitative Analysis

Symmetrization & Verification


Combining Networks
QAP Correlation and Regression

Page 46

Symmetrizing Data

Bill

John

Bill says he communicated with John last week, but John doesnt mention
communicating with Bill
Three options
take the conservative option, and put no tie between John and Bill
(minimum)
take the liberal option, and put a tie between John and Bill (maximum)
take the average, assigning a tie strength of 0.5 for the relationship
between John and Bill (average)

Page 47

Symmetrizing Data (Continued)

Tip: See previous slide for how to


choose the most applicable
symmetrizing method.

Step 1. Transform > Symmetrize


Step 2. Input dataset Info_GE_4

Step 3. Symmetrizing method maximum


Step 4. Output dataset Info_GE_4-Sym
Page 48

Combining Networks
In the picture to the left you can
see the information network.
In the picture below is the
combined information and value
network.

Page 49

Combining Networks (Continued)

Tip: The new matrix infovalue can now be


used for various visual and quantitative
analysis.

Step 1. Tools > Matrix Algebra


Step 2. In the Enter Command box type infovalue = mult(ArtCoInfo_GE_4,ArtCoKase)
Page 50

QAP Correlation

Step 1. Tools > Testing Hypothesis > Dyadic (QAP) > QAP Correlation (old)
Step 2. 1st Data Matrix ArtCoInfo_GE_4
Step 3. 2nd Data Matrix ArtCoKase (note that this file is already 1s and
0s so no need to dichotomize)

Page 51

QAP Regression

Step 1. Tools > Testing Hypothesis > Dyadic (QAP) > MR-QAP Linear
Regression > Original (Y-permutation) method
Page 52

QAP Regression (cont.)

Adjusted R-Square of 0.133 indicates a moderate


relationship between the two social relations. The
probability of 0.000 indicates that it is statistically significant.

Step 1. Enter dependent variable ArtCoInfo_GE_4


Step 2. Enter independent variable ArtCoKASE
Page 53