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PIANC

Setting the Course

Report n 134 - 2013

Design and Operational


Guidelines for
Superyacht Facilities
The World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure
PIANC Report 134

PIANC Report 134

PIANC

Setting the course

PIANC REPORT N 134

RECREATIONAL NAVIGATION COMMISSION

Design and Operational


Guidelines for
Superyacht Facilities
2013

PIANC Report 134

PIANC has Technical Commissions concerned with inland waterways and ports (InCom),
coastal and ocean waterways (including ports and harbours) (MarCom), environmental
aspects (EnviCom) and sport and pleasure navigation (RecCom).
This report has been produced by an international Working Group convened by the Recreational Navigation Commission (RecCom). Members of the Working Group represent
several countries and are acknowledged experts in their profession.
The objective of this report is to provide information and recommendations on good
practice. Conformity is not obligatory and engineering judgement should be used in its
application, especially in special circumstances. This report should be seen as an expert
guidance and state of the art on this particular subject. PIANC disclaims all responsibility
in case this report should be presented as an official standard.

PIANC Secrtariat Gnral


Boulevard du Roi Albert II 20, B 3
B-1000 Bruxelles
Belgique

http://www.pianc.org
VAT BE 408-287-945
ISBN 978-2-87223-203-1

All rights reserved

PIANC Report 134

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. FOREWORD . ................................................................................................................................................................... 4
2. MEMBERS OF PIANC WORKING GROUP 134................................................................................................................... 4
3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................................................................................................................................... 5
4.



INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................... 6
4.1. Existing Standards and Criteria..................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2. Definition of Megayachts and Superyachts................................................................................................................... 6
4.3. The Fleet . ................................................................................................................................................................... 7
4.4. Superyacht User and Types of Facilities........................................................................................................................ 8

5.




VESSEL CHARACTERISTICS.............................................................................................................................................. 9
5.1. Dimensions.................................................................................................................................................................... 9
5.2. Access . ................................................................................................................................................................. 10
5.3. Crew
. ..................................................................................................................................................................11
5.4. Onboard Utilities...........................................................................................................................................................11
5.5. Vessel Areas for Calculating Wind and Current Forces............................................................................................... 12

6.


FACILITY PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES............................................................................................................ 13


6.1. Site Location................................................................................................................................................................ 14
6.2. Basin and Channel Geometry...................................................................................................................................... 15
6.3. Slip (Berth) Dimensions............................................................................................................................................... 18

7. BERTHING SYSTEMS........................................................................................................................................................ 21
7.1. Fixed and Floating Docks (Pontoons).......................................................................................................................... 22
7.2. Med-Moor . ................................................................................................................................................................. 24
8.









UTILITIES AND HARDWARE............................................................................................................................................. 26


8.1. Electrical Power........................................................................................................................................................... 26
8.2. Potable Water.............................................................................................................................................................. 30
8.3. Communication Systems............................................................................................................................................. 30
8.4. Fire Protection System................................................................................................................................................ 31
8.5. Fuelling Facility............................................................................................................................................................ 31
8.6. Sanitary Pumpout........................................................................................................................................................ 33
8.7. Gangways ................................................................................................................................................................... 34
8.8. Mooring Hardware....................................................................................................................................................... 34
8.9. Shade Structures......................................................................................................................................................... 36
8.10.Other Hardware and Accessories................................................................................................................................ 36

9.










OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND SUPPORT SERVICES............................................................................................... 36


9.1. Types of Facilities and General Features.................................................................................................................... 37
9.2. Staffing and Marina Management................................................................................................................................ 38
9.3. Security, Safety and Privacy........................................................................................................................................ 40
9.4. Provisioning, Deliveries, Concierge Services and Reservation System...................................................................... 41
9.5. Crew Facilities.............................................................................................................................................................. 41
9.6. Solid Waste Collection................................................................................................................................................. 42
9.7. Waste Oil Removal...................................................................................................................................................... 42
9.8. Parking . ................................................................................................................................................................. 43
9.9. Restrooms, Showers, Laundry and Dry Cleaning........................................................................................................ 43
9.10. Repair and Maintenance............................................................................................................................................ 44
9.11. Customs and Immigration........................................................................................................................................... 44

10. REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................................. 44
APPENDIX A

. ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

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1. FOREWORD
In the late 1970s, an 18 m (60 ft) Hatteras was considered a large private yacht. This vessel had a captain and crew and all the modern conveniences of a house 3 to 4 staterooms, full kitchen facilities and
restrooms. Today, the 163.5 m (536 ft) long, 13,000 tonnes M/Y Eclipse has 11 guest staterooms, two
helipads, a missile detection system and a mini-submarine capable of submerging to 50 m (165 ft). The
total on-board capacity accommodates 50 crew and 62 guests. While this illustrates the extreme in large
yachts over the past 30 years, it speaks to the increasing size and demands of facilities required to berth
these vessels.
According to the 4th edition of the Super Yachting Index by Camper & Nicholsons International (2011), the
current superyacht fleet as of 2010 is comprised of approximately 5,750 vessels. Approximately 365 of
these yachts were delivered in 2010. Between 1997 and 2007, the global market of superyachts more
than doubled. Although there is a recent slow-down of new construction, historically the industry growth in
new superyacht orders ranged from 15 to 20% per year.
As superyachts enter the market, there is a significant increase in marina services and infrastructure requirements to meet the demands of this specialised industry. In most cruising and homeport areas, the
facilities and services are inadequate to accommodate superyachts due to their widths, lengths, drafts,
heights and utility demands, such as electrical power, water and fuelling. Marina design and operational
guidelines that exist today do not address the specific requirements for berthing superyachts.
PIANC Working Group 134 (WG 134) prepared this document to provide international guidelines for assisting in the development and operation of superyacht marina facilities.

2. MEMBERS OF PIANC WORKING GROUP 134


Mr Robert Nathan
Chairperson
Moffatt & Nichol, USA
RNathan@moffattnichol.com
Mr Benno Beimers
Royal Haskoning DHV, The Netherlands
benno.beimers@rhdhv.com
Mr Jean Baptiste Borea dOlmo
Societe Dexploitation Des Ports De Monaco
gborea@ports-monaco.com
Mr Rene Bouchet
Consultant, Ministre dEtat, Monaco
rbouchet@gouv.mc
Mr Jannek Cederberg
Cummins Cederberg, USA
jcederberg@CumminsCederberg.com

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Professor, Dr. Heiner Haass


Deutsche Marina Consult, Germany
zentrale@d-marina-consult.de
Dr. Fabiana Maccarini
PIANC RecCom Secretary, Italy
fabiana.maccarini@gmail.com
Mr Timothy Mason
Applied Technology & Management, USA
tmason@appliedtm.com
Mr Mark Pirrello
Moffatt & Nichol, USA
MPirrello@moffattnichol.com
Mr Oscar Siches
Marina Matters SL, Spain
oscar@siches.com
Mr Philip Slagle
BMT JFA Consultants Pty, Australia
pslagle@bmtjfa.com.au
Dr. Andre Van Tonder
WSP Africa Coastal Engineers (Pty) Ltd., South Africa
Andre.VanTonder@WSPGroup.co.za

3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Working Group is grateful for the following individuals and organisations in facilitating meetings and
providing review comments, technical data and photographs.
Captain Tony Crabbe
Platinum Yacht Management LLC, Dubai
Brian Deher
Director, Marina Operations & Planning
Island Global Yachting
Bill Green
Special Projecs Director
Deputy Chief Operations Officer
Camper & Nicholson Marinas Ltd.
Captain Mike Meyer
Platinum Yacht Management LLC, Dubai

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4. INTRODUCTION
Marina infrastructure requirements that are specific to superyacht berthing include slip and basin dimensions, including width and length, turning basins and water depth; dock loads, dimensions and freeboard;
mooring hardware; electrical power and water demands; fire protection; access requirements; high speed
fuelling; sewage and wastewater pumpout; and solid waste and hazardous waste (e.g. oil) removal.
The other components that are important in development of superyacht marina facilities include operations
and amenities. Superyacht owners and captains consider several factors in determining locations, both
for homeporting and destinations, of their superyacht. These factors include: safety and security; airport
access; provisioning of food supplies; shopping, entertainment and activities; crew facilities; parking; concierge services; convenient and cost-effective fuel delivery; and dockside hookup to utilities.
General planning and design principles for small-craft marina facilities that are presented in existing publications are also applicable to superyacht facilities. The intent of the WG 134 report is to supplement these
principles with guidelines for requirements in the planning, design and operation of superyacht berthing
facilities that are specific and unique to these larger vessels. In addition to planning and design guidelines
for infrastructure requirements, the report presents vessel characteristics, observed trends in the industry
and examples of representative parametres for support services associated with the operation of a superyacht facility. The WG134 report is not intended to be an all-encompassing guideline for development
of superyacht berthing facilities in general, nor is it intended to be a design specification or standard.

4.1. Existing Standards and Criteria


There are several references that exist in the industry discussing planning, design and operational requirements for marinas, such as:
Standards Australia International (2001): Guidelines for Design of Marinas, AS 3962.
American Society of Civil Engineers Manual (ASCE) (2012): Planning and Design Guidelines for Small
Craft Harbors, No. 50, United States.
The Yacht Harbour Association Ltd (2007): A Code of Practice for the Design, Construction and Operation of Coastal and Inland Marinas and Yacht Harbours, United Kingdom.
California Department of Boating and Waterways (2005): Layout & Design Guidelines for Marina Berthing Facilities, United States.
(Civil Engineering Department, Port, Customs & Freezone Corporation (2007): Marinas & Small Craft
Harbour Regulations and Design Guidelines, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
other publications by PIANC as provided in Appendix A.
Although there is acknowledgement and discussion addressing superyachts, these representative references are primarily focused on small-crafts, i.e. vessels less than 24 m (80 ft) long.
The initial basis for preparation of this report are the guidelines for superyacht marinas prepared for the
Principality of Monaco by Mr Bouchet and Mr Borea dOlmo, members of WG 134, to assist in developing
standards for Port of Fontvieille and Port Hercule [Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012].

4.2. Definition of Megayachts and Superyachts


The common definition of a megayacht and superyacht is based on length of the vessel and varies throughout the world. In some locations, a megayacht is defined as a vessel that is between 24 m and 36 m (80
ft and 120 ft) long, while a superyacht is a vessel that is greater than 36m (120 ft) long. While in other
locations, a superyacht is considered the smaller of the two definitions. There does not appear to be a

PIANC Report 134

standard or consensus in the industry and megayacht and superyacht are used interchangeably. As larger
vessels continue to be built, a new definition, gigayachts, is increasingly becoming prevalent in the industry
to describe vessels that are on the order of 70 m (230 ft) long and greater. For purposes of the WG 134
report, a superyacht is defined as any vessel 24 m (80 ft) long and greater. Typically, all of these yachts
are professionally crewed with a captain.

4.3. The Fleet


The approximate 5,750 superyachts that currently exist in the world are comprised of approximately 81%
motoryachts and 19 % sailing yachts [Camper & Nicholsons International, 2011]. As the superyachts get
larger, the number of motoryachts increase and the number of sailing yachts decrease as shown on the
distribution of superyachts per size range in Figure 4.1. The guidelines presented in this report generally
apply to both motoryachts and sailing yachts, although the emphasis will be on the 81 % motoryachts.
The trend in the superyacht market continues towards larger vessels, as illustrated in Figure 4.2,
showing the increase in the size of the fleet between
1997 and 2010 for the worlds 100 largest yachts as
listed in Power & Motoryacht (August 1997 and August 2012). The No. 100 length vessel in 2012 was
No. 17 in 1997. In August 1985, when the annual
Power & Motoryacht list of the top 100 yachts began,
there were only about 300 yachts over 30 m (100 ft)
in length in the world. Today, a 30 m (100 ft) vessel
not only wouldnt make the list, the vessel would be
smaller than the smallest listing by more than 30 m
(100 ft).

Figure 4.1: Distribution of superyachts by length over-


all (LOA) [Camper & Nicholson International, 2011]

Figure 4.2: Distribution of Top 100 superyacht lengths between 1997 and 2012
[Power & Motoryacht, 1997 and 2012]

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The age of the superyacht fleet is relatively young with approximately 40 % of the vessels being less than
5 years old and approximately 57% of the total fleet less than 10 years old. The annual average number of
new superyacht constructed and delivered during the last 10 years averaged 327 vessels per year.

4.4. Superyacht User and Types of Facilities


There are two general types of superyacht user and two general types of superyacht facility. One type of
superyacht operator is a private owner that uses the vessel exclusively for personal use. The other type
of operation or user is a business that operates a year round charter. Several of the superyachts used for
charter operations are privately owned, but are available for charter part-time. The approximate annual
number of superyachts in the charter market ranged from 18 to 22 percent of the total superyacht fleet from
2007 to 2010 [Camper & Nicholsons International, 2011].
A superyacht facility typically consists of a homeport or a destination marina. The primary difference between these two types of marinas is that the homeport marina is the starting and termination of a cruise,
especially for a charter operation. Although a homeport marina has the support facilities necessary to
prepare a superyacht for the start of a cruise, this type of marina can also be a destination. Other types
of marinas, such as facilities associated with a residential development, yacht club and resort can be
categorised as a homeport and/or destination. Additional discussion on support services and amenities
associated with homeport and destination marinas are presented in Section 9.1.
There are over 500 superyacht facilities in the world that can berth at least one vessel 24 m (80 ft) or
greater according to Superports [Boat International Media, 2011], as shown in Figure 4.3. The increase in
the number of superyacht facilities within any given region, either through retrofit or new construction, from
five years ago is represented by the percentage shown in the figure for that region. As expected the majority of facilities are in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. However, the Middle East along the Persian
Gulf has the largest increase in new facilities compared to five years ago.

Figure 4.3: Number of superyacht facilities by region

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5. VESSEL CHARACTERISTICS
The key characteristics of a superyacht that impacts the planning and design of the berthing facility, compared to a small-craft, are: 1) the dimensions of the vessel, 2) the number of crew and passengers and 3)
the necessary support services required to accommodate and operate the vessels while at berth. These
vessel characteristics are incorporated in developing the guidelines for the facility infrastructure and operations.

5.1. Dimensions
Similar to the guidelines for the planning and design of marinas for small-crafts, vessel dimensions and
characteristics of superyachts are used to define the appropriate geometry for the marina facility. This includes entrance channel and fairway widths and depths, turning basin diametres and slip widths, lengths
and depths.
An extensive database of vessel beams and drafts for superyacht lengths were established based on
readily available information from several yachting publications, internet sources and yacht manufacturers. Figure 5.1 presents the correlation between beam and length showing the mean and 90 % population
envelope. Similarly, the correlation between draft and length of superyachts are shown in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.1: Superyacht Beam vs. Length Overall (LOA)

Figure 5.2: Superyacht draft vs. Length overall (LOA)

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One vessel characteristic that is not easily obtained, unlike draft and beam, is the height of the vessel
which is defined as air draft or the distance from the waterline to the highest point on the vessel, such as
the radar dome or bridge. This is an important characteristic for superyacht facilities that require navigation under existing or proposed fixed bridges. The vessel height is also a consideration in the evaluation
of visual impacts and aesthetics associated with environmental impact studies. Although the air draft of
superyachts is not easily obtained like draft and beam, Figure 5.3 shows the air draft of a limited number
of superyachts (excludes sailing yachts) obtained from naval architects.

Figure 5.3: Superyacht air draft vs. Length overall (LOA)


[Murray & Associates, 2011]

5.2. Access
Access on and off superyachts is typically by gangways that extend from the starboard or port side of the
vessels and by passerelles that extend from the stern of the vessel as shown in Figure 5.4. The passerelles are used exclusively in Med-moor berthing arrangements, while the gangways and passerelles are
used while berthed at fixed and floating pontoons.

Figure 5.4: Examples of superyacht access ramps

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5.3. Crew
The number of crew required to operate a superyacht can range from eight members for a 40 m (130 ft)
vessel to more than 70 members for a 100+ m (330+ ft) vessel, as illustrated in Figure 5.5. These yachts
are maintained by crew all year round, but have a reduced number when the owner is not on board or if
charters are not booked. Most crewmembers live on board. The number of crew is an important component
in determining the appropriate support facilities at the superyacht facility, especially at homeport marinas.

Figure 5 5: Number of crew vs. Length overall (LOA)

5.4. Onboard Utilities


Utility demands and capacities onboard superyachts, such as electrical power, water and fuel, have increased almost exponentially with the increased sizes of superyachts. These utility demands, especially
the electrical requirements, are a primary planning and design consideration for support services at a
superyacht facility.
There are no standard power demands for superyachts since each design is customised for the individual
owner requirements and preferences. The degree of luxury lighting, air conditioning, electronic equipment
and luxury entertainment and services vary from vessel to vessel. The power supply voltage requirement
affects the amperage demands and subsequently, the shore connection and land based services. Additionally, the frequency of the power supply is a function of the homeport location of the vessel or its primary
destination. While many vessels operate on 60 Hz, there are a large number of 50 Hz vessels that are in
operation or being constructed. Most of the newly constructed vessels are being fitted with frequency converters that allow the superyacht to satisfactorily operate under either frequency. Almost all vessels longer
than 50 m (165 ft) will have onboard frequency converters.
Figure 5.6 presents representative electrical load demands for superyachts, depending on the equipment
onboard, operational profile and range. As shown, the power demand is high and can range quite significantly depending on the vessel, its location and activity. Adequate shore connected power supply such
that the vessels are not required to use onboard electrical generators is a main desire by superyacht users
for both homeport and destination marinas. Insufficient available electrical power is the primary source of
complaints of superyacht facilities by crew and passengers. Shore-connected electrical power guidelines
for superyachts are described in Section 8.1.

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Figure 5.6: Electrical load demand vs. Length overall (LOA)


[Murray & Associates, 2006]

Tank capacities aboard superyachts for fuel, wastewater and sewage and potable water may affect the infrastructure requirements at the marina for efficient filling and/or discharging of these tanks. For example,
the capacity of the fuel tank for a 70 m (230 ft) yacht can range from approximately 200,000 to 400,000
litres (50,000 to 100,000 gallons) requiring high speed fuelling directly from tanker trucks, fuel barges, or
from large upland fuel storage tanks. The large capacity tanks on board the yachts for holding waste water
and sewage may require specialised pumps and fittings to adequately discharge the waste water and sewage. Similarly, larger water supply outlets (hose bibs) are required to fill the large capacity potable water
tanks and for wash down of vessels. Although there is a strong tendency for superyachts to produce their
own desalinated water, it is likely that superyachts will rely on the marinas potable water source in locations of polluted or silty waters.

5.5. Vessel Areas for Calculating Wind and Current Forces


Planning and design of superyacht berthing facilities require the calculation of wind loads on berthed
vessels that exert forces through the mooring lines and/or by direct contact to fixed and floating docks.
Similarly, currents also generate loads that produce forces that affect design of fixed and floating dock
systems. Both the wind and current forces are calculated using the same methodology; dynamic pressure
multiplied by the area of the vessel. The area of the vessel above the water surface is used for wind forces
and the area below the water surface is used for current forces. The projected vessel area is based on the
assumption that the wind or current approaches either perpendicular (beam) to the vessel or longitudinal
(head) to the vessel. The projected area is usually calculated by using the average profile height of the
vessel multiplied by the beam or length.
The average profile height for superyachts varies with style, type and length. Published information [Standards Australia International, 2001; ASCE, 2012] is available that defines the relationship for small-craft
vessel profile height to vessel length, but little to no information is available for superyachts. Bouchet and
Borea dOlmo (2012), based on characteristics of vessels (motoryachts) visiting Port Hercule, suggest
that the average profile height to vessel length is between 12 % and 20 %. The projected area above the
water surface for superyachts based on this relationship and the mean width of the vessel are illustrated in
Figure 5.7. Likewise, the approximate underwater projected areas for superyachts as defined by Bouchet
and Borea dOlmo (2012) are presented in Table 5.1.

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12

Figure 5.7: Superyacht (motoryacht) profile area vs. Length overall (LOA)
[Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012]

A used for estimating current forces perpendicular (beam) to the vessel


B used for estimating current forces longitudinal (head) to the vessel
Table 5.1: Approximate underwater areas for calculating current forces
[Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012]

6. FACILITY PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES


Facilities to berth superyachts can be dedicated marinas for the larger vessels or, as frequently seen
throughout the world, integrated with other small-crafts. Regardless, there are specific planning and design parametres that must be incorporated in the facility that are unique to accommodating superyachts.
This includes location, basin and channel geometry, slip dimensions, berthing systems, amenities and
hardware.

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6.1. Site Location


Superyacht facilities are being constructed throughout the world to accommodate the increasing number
of superyachts that cruise the globe. There are several criteria that must be considered in the planning
and design of the superyacht facility site location, similar to other marinas. This includes adequate water
depths and water area for navigation; protection from wind, waves and currents; configuration of the basin
to accomplish appropriate water quality and flushing; good access to and from navigable waters and from
land and air; security; available uplands for support facilities; acceptable level of environmental impact; and
suitable zoning and integration with adjacent existing and proposed development and uses, both waterside
and landside.
Superyacht marinas often assist in defining the site. They are often located in areas with attractive upland
facilities and serve as a focal point for activities. This means the superyacht marina itself can become an
attraction and the layout should also be reviewed from this perspective. In many larger master-planned
developments, the superyacht marina is one of the most expensive components. Though it may only be
utilised directly by a limited number of people, it attracts a large group of indirect users. These indirect users do not add to the financial performance of the marina itself, but certainly add value to all the adjacent
facilities.
Therefore, in addition to the technical and navigational parametres, a superyacht marina should be analysed relative to the flow of people, views, real estate, atmosphere and integration with the upland developments to create synergy between each component and achieve the full return of this costly investment. A
superyacht facility should also integrate with the socio-cultural environment surrounding the facility.

Figure 6.1: Tolerance for harbour tranquility criterion


[ASCE, 2012]

One of the key requirements in the planning and design of the superyacht berthing area is to provide a basin that is protected from waves. Although the general common practice is that the significant wave height
in the berthing area should be 0.3 m (1 ft) or less for small-craft marinas also applies to superyacht berths,
there are other factors that should be considered in establishing the tranquility value of the basin. ASCE
(2012) suggests that wave period, return period of the wave event, direction of the approaching waves
and the marina tranquility goal (excellent, good, or moderate condition) be used to define the acceptable

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14

wave height. Figure 6.1 illustrates the range of wave height criterion for berthing areas under various perceived quality of berthing conditions and aversion to risk as presented in ASCE (2012). This figure is most
applicable to locally-generated wind waves with periods of 6 seconds or less. For longer wave periods, the
horizontal movements of the vessel at the dock become important. At wave periods above 14 seconds, the
horizontal movement of the vessel becomes the controlling factor and limits the acceptable wave height to
less than the heights shown in Figure 6.1 for the desired tranquility goals.
Although Figure 6.1 is applicable to all sizes and types of vessels, larger yachts can tolerate a higher wave
condition. The moderate condition illustrated in Figure 6.1 can generally be used for superyacht berthing depending on location and frequency of occurrence of this condition due to beam and displacement
characteristics of the vessel. Other considerations such as passenger tolerance of movement of the vessel
while at berth may be an overriding factor in providing an acceptable marina tranquility goal.

6.2. Basin and Channel Geometry


The layout of the superyacht basin is crucial to the safety and efficiency of maneuvering these large vessels within a confined water area. The width and depth of the basin and waterways, as well as the slip
dimensions, are a function of the vessel characteristics; wind, wave and current conditions; and the skill
of the operator. Since licensed professional captains operate superyachts, the former two are considered
more significant factors in determining the geometry of the basin and channels.
Due to the size of superyachts, the associated turning basin and fairways can occupy a considerable area.
Therefore, it is important to consider the slip mix during the planning phase to ensure efficient utilisation
of available area. Typically, in confined areas a few superyachts in a small-craft marina do not provide
efficient use of the area, as large navigational areas are required for a small percentage of the vessels.
In shallow areas this becomes increasingly important, as additional dredging will be required for the few
larger vessels. With regards to fairways, vessels of similar sizes should generally be located on each side
for efficient use, as the larger vessel will be the limiting design factor regardless.

6.2.1. Entrance Channel


The width and depth requirements to safely maneuver and navigate superyachts through entrance channels
depend on the vessel characteristics and steerage requirements to the wind, wave and current conditions.
If the weather and sea state in the channel and/or
configuration of the channel dictate ideal (minimum)
to poor conditions for steerage, then the minimum
navigable channel width for two-way traffic is the
greater of 6B, where B is the largest beam of the
vessel expected to use the channel, or the length of
the largest vessel. This is illustrated in Figure 6.2.
The minimum navigable channel width designed for
one-way traffic should be 3B under similar steerage conditions. These channel widths should be
increased, ranging from 8B to 9B for two-way traffic, if the entrance channel is expected to be used
during storm conditions or if there are prevailing
winds or currents. It may also be necessary to widen
the channel where the channel changes direction.
PIANC-IAPH (1997) produced guidelines for design
of approach and entrance channels primarily for
commercial cargo vessels that may be applicable for
the larger superyachts.

Figure 6 2: Entrance channel width requirements for ideal,


moderate and poor conditions [ASCE, 2012]

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The navigable width is taken at the depth at the lowest tide with at least one metre below the keel of the
deepest draft of the vessel expected to use the channel. Additional allowance in channel depth may be
required to allow for vessel motions, wave conditions, siltation and if the channel bottom is hard or rocky.
These additional allowances could be more than 50 % of the superyacht draft for vessels up to 40 m (130
ft) long and more than 75 % of the draft for vessels longer than 40 m (130 ft). Figure 6.3 presents minimum entrance channel widths and depths for representative superyacht lengths based on average vessel
characteristics from Figures 5.1 and 5.2. Minimum entrance channel widths and depths in Figure 6.3 may
increase (or decrease) if there is significant deviation from the average characteristics of vessels shown in
Figures 5.1 and 5.2 that are expected to use the channel.

Figure 6.3: Recommended minimum entrance channel widths and depths for 2-way traffic
(Applicable for ideal weather and sea state conditions)

6.2.2. Interior Waterways and Fairways


Similar considerations for planning and design of
entrance channels apply to interior channels and
fairways. Although waves and currents usually
less influence the interior waterways, prevailing
winds and vessel characteristics and manoeuvrability are the primary factors in determining
widths and depths. Minimum and preferred interior channel widths are presented in Table 6.1.
The minimum width is typically 1.5 L, where L is
the length of the longest vessel expected to use
the waterway and is based on ideal calm conditions with minimal wind effects. The preferred
width is 1.75 L and allows for winds and other
environmental effects that may impact steerage.
The preferred width also allows for slightly longer
vessels in the future to occupy the slips adjacent
to the fairway without reducing the channel width
to less than 1.5 L.

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LBerth = length of berth

Table 6.1: Minimum and Preferred Interior Channel Fairway


Widths (All dimensions in metres)

16

Fairways and interior channels located between a fixed structure such as a bulkhead and a dock with sidetie berthing as shown in Figure 6.4 should also follow the aforementioned minimum 1.5 L and preferred
1.75 L width guidelines. Other dock layout scenarios are illustrated in Figure 6.5 showing the suggested
interior channel widths.

Figure 6.4: Side-tie berthing channel width

Juxtaposed

Pitch Fork Berthing

Aligned Piers

Figure 6 5: Minimum fairway widths for other dock configurations


[ASCE, 2012]

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Frequently, the planning and design of the berthing layout for superyacht facilities includes a turning basin
or circle to allow the vessel to reverse direction (turnaround) or manoeuvre to the slip or other areas of the
marina. The turning circle should be clear of other moored vessels, structures and anchor blocks/sinkers.
The diametre of the turning circle should be 1.3 L if the vessel has thruster assistance and up to 3.5 L
without thruster assistance. Most superyachts today have thruster assistance.
Water depths within the interior channels should follow the same rationale as determining the entrance
channel depths except that wave effects, vessel motions and siltation may be lower.

6.3. Slip (Berth) Dimensions


Superyacht slips can be either single- or double-berth configurations, as shown in Figure 6.6. The advantage of the single-berth configuration is that it provides docks access to both sides of the vessel (easier
maintenance, passenger and crew egress and ingress, etc.) and more privacy by having a pier between
each vessel. The primary advantage of the double-berth configuration is the ability to accommodate more
vessels in the same water area as a single-berth configuration by eliminating an additional pier between
each vessel. Double-berth configurations (without mooring piles) also provide more flexibility to moor a
beamier vessel next to a vessel with a narrower beam. During lower occupancy of the marina, a doubleberth configuration allows tenders of the superyachts to berth adjacent to the superyacht, as opposed to a
different location within the marina.

Figure 6.6: Single and double berthing configurations (slips)

The width of the slip, for both single- and double-berth configurations, requires clearance for fenders and
manoeuvring. Ideally, the slip width should be determined for the upper limit (90th percentile) of the vessel beam distributions shown in Figure 5.1, since beams appear to be increasing in the manufacturing of
superyachts. However, the mean value from the beam distribution is often used. The calculated slip width
is the clear width between pier structures or piles.
Slip widths for single- and double-berth configurations considering this additional clearance are calculated
using the following formula:
Slip Widthsingle = 2(mc x fd) + B
Slip Widthdouble = 4(mc x fd) + 2B
Where mc = manoeuvrability coefficient, ranging from 1.0 for minimum conditions to 1.5 for recommended conditions. A manoeuvrability coefficient of 1.0 is typically used in planning of most facilities,
especially for superyachts longer than 45 m (150 ft), to maximize the number of vessels. The
recommended condition allows for more flexibility to accommodate a larger range of superyacht

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sizes and types for the calculated slip width. The wider slips also provides the potential to have
additional space within the slip for other uses such as access to port and starboard garages,
alongside mooring of tenders, etc.
fd = fender diametre (metres) for specified superyacht length as presented in Table 6.2
B = vessel beam (metres)

Table 6.2: Fender diametre (fd) vs. length overall (LOA)

Table 6.3 presents minimum and preferred slip widths for single and double-berthing configurations for
superyachts ranging in length from 25 to 100 m (82 to 330 ft), in increments of 5 metres (16 feet).

LBerth = length of berth


Wdouble = width of slip for double berth configuration
Wsingle = width of slip for single berth configuration
Table 6.3: Minimum and preferred slip widths (all dimensions in metres)

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Occasionally, mooring piles are sometimes required between vessels in a double-berth configuration to
secure the vessel because of frequently occurring high wind and wave conditions at the site. Where mooring piles are included, the width of the double-berth configuration should be increased by the diametre of
the mooring pile with an additional 0.5 m (1.5 ft).
The estimated capacity of superyachts at facilities with Mediterranean-style moorings (Med-moors), as
shown in Figure 6.7, would be calculated based on the formula for single berths. However, additional width
between vessels may be desired to allow for access to the port and starboard garages, as well as the ability to moor tenders alongside the superyacht, as shown in Figure 6.8.

Figure 6.7: Mediterranean-style mooring (Med-moor)

Figure 6.8: Access to vessel starboard garage

The slip length is the same as the superyacht length. The length of the finger, fixed or floating, should not
be less than 0.8 x LOA, where LOA = overall length of the superyacht. Although it is not as desirable due to
reduced access to vessel and mooring lines, finger lengths could be reduced if a mooring pile is provided
at the end of the slip length. In some cases, multi-pile mooring dolphins may be required for secure mooring based on local wind, currents, waves and length of existing finger piers.

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Superyacht facilities that have alongside berthing,


as illustrated in Figure 6.9, should allow a minimum
spacing of 3 m (10 ft) between yachts. Additional
spacing may be required depending on relative locations of cleats and bollards for the mooring lines and
launching requirements for tenders and other craft
stored in aft garages that open towards the transom.
Water depths within the slip area should be equivalent to the channel dimensions for the fairway. Slip
dimensions (and bollard/cleat locations) should also
consider the ability to berth two or more smaller vessels along the finger when a superyacht is not present in the slip.

Figure 6.9 : Side-tie berthing

7. BERTHING SYSTEMS
There are two general types of systems commonly used in marinas to berth superyachts: 1) fixed or floating docks (pontoons) and 2) Mediterranean-style mooring system (Med-moor). The selection of the berthing system depends on several factors: water depths and water level fluctuations, wind and wave conditions, access, available water area, operational requirements and regional preferences. Table 7.1 presents
examples of representative conditions and the applicable berthing system.

Table 7.1: Applicable berthing system for representative site conditions

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7.1. Fixed and Floating Docks (Pontoons)


Fixed and floating docks (pontoons) for superyacht facilities have similar design considerations and construction types and methods as floating docks for small-craft marinas. This includes mooring and fendering systems, utility integration and anchorage systems. Additional dock width (and uplands area) may be
required for handling of sails at superyacht sailing facilities. Higher freeboards (distance from the water
surface to the deck of the dock), wider docks and typically larger live loads if vehicles are permitted on the
docks (e.g. provisioning, maintenance, etc.) are the primary differences between superyacht and smallcraft berthing facilities.
Design of floating docks (pontoons) to withstand the higher loading and freeboard required for superyacht
facilities have improved considerably during the last 10 years. Higher freeboard should be consistent
throughout the marina and the higher loads imposed by larger and heavier gangways, power pedestals,
utility electrical cables and water lines and other equipment used at superyacht facilities must be considered in the design of the floating docks. Frequently superyacht facilities utilise golf carts and host boat
shows and other gatherings. Therefore, live loads associated with golf carts and other small vehicles that
may traverse the dock, as well as large numbers of people on the dock such as during a boat show, must
be applied in the floatation, stability and freeboard calculation. The dock freeboard may also be impacted
by the weight of supplies that are temporarily stored on the pontoon while provisioning the vessel. The
designed freeboard height should also take into consideration a reduction in freeboard over the life of the
dock system from the added weight of marine organisms (oysters, mollusks, barnacles) that may adhere
to the docks and from potential water absorption of the foam floatation.
Freeboard heights from 610 mm to 915 mm (24 to 36 inches) are generally used for floating docks that
berth superyachts. A freeboard height of 750 mm (30 inches) is recommended as a minimum for superyacht floating docks with vessels less than 50 to 60 m (165 to 200 ft). The freeboard height should be increased to at least 915 mm (36 inches) for marinas berthing superyachts greater than 50 to 60 m (165 to
200 ft).
Design of the deck surface height of a fixed dock is a function of the water level fluctuation at the site and
the vessel size. As stated in Table 7.1, a maximum water level (tidal) fluctuation of 1 m (3 ft) is the limiting
condition for utilising fixed docks. Although most superyachts have their own gangway and/or passerelle
to access the dock, there may be challenges if the differential between the deck of the vessel and the deck
of the fixed dock is too high or too low. The potential also exists that elements of the vessel, such as the
swim step, could get caught underneath the fixed dock depending on the difference in heights. Mooring
lines may require constant adjustment to maintain tension during changes in water levels. Surveys of existing superyacht facilities show that the minimum deck surface of the fixed dock ranges from 1.0 to 1.2 m (3
to 4 ft) in the Mediterranean and from 1.2 to 1.8 m (4 to 6 ft) in the Caribbean above the mean high water
elevation, excluding any unusual rises in water levels such as storm surges.
Design of fixed docks for superyacht berths have to consider similar dead and live load criterion as for
floating docks with the additional loading condition for tractor-trailers, fire trucks and mobile cranes that
would more likely operate on a fixed dock. These additional loading conditions are typically defined by local regulations and should be evaluated to determine the controlling design condition. Uplift loading from
the possibility of unusual swell and water levels may also have to be considered in the design of fixed
docks. Another design consideration is seismic loading, as well as the owners level of risk.
Width requirements for superyacht docks are the same regardless if it is fixed or floating. The widths
of the docks should be designed to allow room to pass between gangways from adjacent superyachts,
internal guide piles for floating docks, power pedestals, light standards, dock boxes and other supporting equipment, as shown in Figure 7.1. An example of insufficient dock width is illustrated in Figure 7.2.

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A typical minimum dock width for main and marginal walkways is 5 m (15 ft) and 3 m (10 ft) for fingers,
clear of any obstacles. These widths may be adjusted depending on available water area and other activities or functions that occur on the docks. The clear width of walkways must be sufficient to allow for
adequate movement of crew and guests on and off vessels, emergency services, provisioning and maintenance, especially on fingers. For example, the dock width of a superyacht facility with golf cart access
should be sufficient to accommodate two golf carts passing one another on the main or marginal walkway.

Figure 7.1: Example of sufficient dock width

Figure 7.2: Example of insufficient dock width

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Dock width may also increase with increased pedestrian traffic and maintenance activities. Marginal and
main walkway widths that support small vehicle and truck access may increase up to 50 percent of the
typical dock widths. In the event that the superyacht is berthed with its bow first in the slip, the marginal
walkway width should also allow for overhanging of the superyacht bow, which could reduce the usable
area of the walkway depending on the length and height of the bow, as shown in Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.3: Superyacht bow impacting usable margingal dock width

7.2. Med-Moor
The Mediterranean mooring system is commonly used in Europe and consists of mooring the stern of the
vessel to a fixed or floating dock with the bow being secured with mooring lines attached to an anchor,
deadweight or a fixed or articulated pile. The Med-moor system requires less structure per slip, offers more
flexibility in arrangement of vessels and is less costly to construct compared to floating and fixed docks.
However, it is more challenging to the skills of the captain and assistance is usually required for berthing.
If using line handlers operating from inflatables to assist with the berthing arrangement, then the outboard
motor on the inflatable should include a propeller guard. A pilot is required at some superyacht facilities.
Med-moor configuration also provides less privacy between vessels.
A mooring analysis is required to determine the mooring hardware required for a Med-moor. The following is a general description of the Med-moor system using: 1) chains and deadweight/anchors and 2)
articulated piles. The Med-moor system using dead weight and chains consists of a ground chain that is
parallel to the fixed or floating dock located a distance equal to the slip length plus two to three times the
water depth. This ground chain is maintained in place using numerous ground anchors and/or heavy dead
weights. A second chain is attached to the ground chain with a mooring line and a light line attached to the
pier. The light line is used to lift the mooring line. The second chain, which generally has the same diametre
as the ground chain, dampens the motions of the vessel. Characteristics of the Med-moor system at Port
Hercule are described in Table 7.2 for a range of vessel lengths. Figure 7.4 illustrates the typical Med-moor
arrangement utilised in many regional marinas. Variations in basin depth, vessel size and exposure necessitate deviations from the basic arrangement.

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Note: Second chains are normally attached to the anchor weights of the ground chain.
Table 7.2: Characteristics of Med-moor system at Port Hercule, Monaco
[Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012]

Figure 7.4: Med-moor anchor/chain system at Port Hercule, Monaco

The height of the dead weights (sinkers or anchors) and soil conditions should be a consideration in the
design of the mooring system to avoid significant reduction of water depth at the location of the anchor
point. For example, a 7.2-tonne weight that is typical for a 24 m (80 ft) vessel is usually about 1 m (3 ft)
high. If the bottom conditions consist of rock or hard substrate, the weight will rest on the bottom and thus
be a potential underwater obstacle. In this situation, weights that are wide and low in height should be used.
Med-moor systems using articulating piles are
used at Port Vauban, Antibes, France and are designed for superyachts up to 100 m (330 ft). This
system consists of an articulated pile connected
to a driven pile. A cylindrical 2.4 m (8 ft) diametre
buoy, with a height ranging from 1.5 to 2.5m (5 to
8 ft) depending on the stiffness required, is located
at the upper end of the articulated pile. Figure 7.5
illustrates the articulated pile and buoy that has
been in operation for more than 30 years. Photographs of the buoy and articulated pile, as well as
superyachts at berth using the system, are shown
in Figure 7.6 on the next page.

Figure 7.5: Articulated piles used for Med-moor system


at Port Vauban, Antibes

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Figure 7.6: Articulated piles at Port Vauban, Antibes

8. UTILITIES AND HARDWARE


Utilities and hardware at superyacht berthing facilities include items such as electrical and water systems,
fuelling facilities and mooring hardware for the vessels. The following describes the utilities and hardware
that are required to functionally operate a superyacht marina, as well as enhances the desire for superyachts to berth at the facility, both as a homeport and destination.

8.1. Electrical Power


The electrical power demands of superyachts, as previously shown in Figure 5.6, necessitate shore connection and power supply to consider variability in electrical load demand and varying sizes and types
of vessels. Additionally, the electrical power requirements of superyachts continue to increase. Electrical
power pedestal manufacturers produce specialized equipment for superyacht facilities that incorporate
receptacles of various amperages, voltages and phases to accommodate the range of electrical options
and vessels. Although rare, some superyacht homeport facilities have a dedicated power substation to be
used only for the designated vessel. Examples of dedicated power substations for superyacht homeport
marinas in Dubai and France are shown in Figure 8.1.

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Figure 8.1: Dedicated power substations at superyacht facilities

Table 8.1 provides suggested electrical power requirements at superyacht berths. The table is presented
in two parts to differentiate between typical configurations found on shore power pedestals in locations
with 50 Hz power sources (Europe, most of Asia, Africa, Australia, etc.) and 60 Hz power sources (North
America, parts of South America, etc.). Older vessels up to 30 m (100 ft) may only use single-phase power.
However, the vessel will be able to use the suggested three-phase power in Table 8.1(a) provided there is
sufficient amperage and the operator is aware of the phase unbalance.
A pin-and-sleeve receptacle is usually used for the larger vessels up to 125 and 200 amp service. A range
of receptacle configurations is desired at the power pedestal to accommodate the varied electrical requirements of different vessels. Several superyacht marina operators provide direct wire into the power supply
pedestal using a straight-bolt type or copper bar connection, or by using camlocks as shown in Figure 8.2
especially for yachts requiring 400 amps and greater. A colour code key showing the wire and plug connections for ground, neutral and phase connections should be provided at the power supply pedestal. For
vessels larger than 81 m (265 ft), shore power is often provided in a customised manner to suit the specific
vessel requirements.

Table 8.1(a): Suggested electrical power requirements vs. Vessel lOA for 50hz sources

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Table 8.1 (b): Suggested electrical power requirements vs. Vessel LOA for 60Hz sources

Figure 8.2: Straight-bar and camlock electrical power connection

Several electrical codes (e.g. NFPA 70/NEC Article 555, AS/NZS 3004 and BS 7671) allow for a demand
factor deduction based on the fact that not all receptacles in a marina will be used at one time. According
to Bouchet and Borea dOlmo (2012), the electrical demand factors for superyachts berthed at marinas
in Monaco follow similar demand factors used for multi-unit apartments and houses. Table 8.2 lists the
demand factors at superyacht facilities in Monaco based on occupancy. Superyacht facilities located in

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areas of extreme temperatures warrant high power consumption due to air conditioning and heating while
at berth and thus demand factor deductions may not be appropriate in all locations. Similar high electrical
demands will be required while entertaining at the berth, commonly occurring at destination marinas.

Table 8.2: Electrical demand factors at superyacht facilities in monaco based on occupancy
[Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012]

The electrical frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) at the berth is determined by the geographic location (country)
of the superyacht facility. In the event that the power on board the vessel is not compatible with the locally
available shore-based power and does not have an onboard frequency converter, a temporary frequency
and voltage converter can be provided at the dock. These converters are low noise and avoid the use of
onboard generators while at berth. This is common at destination facilities or at homeport marinas outside
the Mediterranean region, where vessels are undergoing repairs or provisioning at the start of the cruising season. An example of a temporary or portable frequency converter at a superyacht berth is shown in
Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.3: Frequency converter

Location of the on-dock electrical power connection (power pedestal) for the vessel at the slip can be
located along the finger, at the end or near/on the marginal walkway, depending if the yacht is moored
bow first or stern first into the slip. For Med-moor berthing configuration, the power pedestals are located
along the marginal walkway at each slip or between vessels. For side-tie berths, the power pedestals are
frequently evenly spaced depending on the range of vessels expected to use the facility.
Additional power pedestals may also be provided along the fingers to accommodate more than one smaller vessel when the superyacht is not at berth. This provides flexibility in accommodating more than a single
use vessel, especially at destination facilities. The clear width of the walkways with the additional pedestals must be maintained as previously discussed in Section 7.1.

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The power pedestals should include power metres at each slip and possibly remote readers, to accurately
account for costs associated with high power consumption by the vessels.

8.2. Potable Water


Water supply outlets (hose bibs) range from 19 mm (-inch) for superyachts less than 30 m (100 ft) to
25 mm (1-inch) for larger superyachts are common for filling potable water tanks onboard vessels. Hose
bibs of 38 to 51 mm (1.5 to 2 inches) are used for superyachts that are 100m (330 ft) and longer. Alternatively, multiple 13 mm (-inch) or 19mm (-inch) outlets could be used. Typically, one and sometimes
two hose bibs are provided at each berth. The water outlet connections are frequently incorporated into
the power pedestal, although it is an increasing trend to provide separate water service pedestals from the
electrical power service pedestals for safety considerations. Potable water supply can be estimated at 100
litres (26.4 gallons) per person per day. However, daily total vessel consumption of water while at berth
could be much greater due to crew wash down and other uses, especially during the charter season.
It is also common for superyacht crews to attach water softening and water filtration systems to the potable
water outlets while at berth, as shown in Figure 8.4. Ideally, an area to store and place these systems
should be incorporated in the design of the facility to avoid the proliferation of hoses and obstacles along
the edge of the dock.

Figure 8.4: Water softening and filter system

8.3. Communication Systems


Most superyacht marinas have at least one, if not two, direct telephone lines available through the power
pedestal. Although with the usage of mobile and satellite phones, the need and requirement to provide
landline telephones is less prevalent and often eliminated.
Availability to a secure and encrypted, high-speed wireless internet connection at the berth for superyacht crews and passengers is highly desirable. This service should also be available in crew facilities and
lounges within the marina. Internet Protocol (IP) telephony service available through the wireless or Ethernet connection is an added value and is commonly found in newer marinas.

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Another amenity whose connection is typically available through the power pedestal is cable television.
However, with the popularity of satellite dishes, internet television and onboard entertainment systems, a
cable television connection is less of a requirement.

8.4. Fire Protection System


Fire suppression requirements for superyacht facilities are similar to requirements for small-craft marinas.
The fire suppression system includes fire hydrants with working pressures ranging from 415 to 1,380 kPa
(60 to 200 psi), extinguishers and emergency fire call-boxes and alarms. Dry standpipes that utilise water
intake directly from the marina basin are another system commonly located in superyacht facilities. Dry
standpipe systems are equipped with standard fittings and are activated by a pumper truck on land.
Another firefighting system used in marinas is portable carts with a self-contained fire suppression unit
consisting of self-priming high-pressure pump, fire hoses and foam and water discharge, as shown in
Figure 8.5.
In all cases, the design should be done in accordance with local regulations and codes and in consultation
with the local fire marshal.

Figure 8 5: Portable cart with suppression unit

8.5. Fuelling Facility


The fuel capacity of superyachts can exceed 200,000 litres (50,000 gallons) and thus the availability of
fuel is an important amenity for superyacht facilities. Generally, there are two options to providing fuel at
a marina. The first option is to have on-site fuelling facilities and the second option is delivery of fuel by
tanker truck or by barge directly to the vessel.
On-site Fuelling Facilities: Similar to small-craft marina fuelling facilities, the components of a fuelling facility consists of fuel dispensers, fuel lines, holding tanks, containment areas and a contingency and countermeasure plan. However, the conventional fuel dispensers located at small-craft marinas are neither
efficient nor cost-effective. Fuelling facilities for superyachts require the use of high-speed fuel pumps that
can deliver at rates between 5 to 9.5 litres per second (80 to 150 gallons per minute). These dispensers

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are large and require a separate dock to accommodate the fuelling procedures as well as sufficient water
area and dockage to allow for the temporary berthing of the superyacht at the fuel dock. An example of a
fuelling facility for superyachts is shown in Figure 8.6. In-slip fuelling can also be provided at each berth ,
as shown in Figure 8.7, similar to the conveniences of having a sanitary pumpout hydrant available while
the superyacht is moored.

Figure 8.6: Fuel dock

Figure 8.7: In-slip fuelling

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Upland fuel storage tanks need to be sited to minimise the distance from the fuel dispensers while allowing
for tanker truck access for refilling. Design and installation requirements for above-ground storage tanks
(AST) and underground storage tanks (UST) are generally similar to those of motor vehicle facilities and
should comply with requirements of the relevant authorities. For example, NFPA 30A sets the maximum
individual fuel storage tank capacity at 45,000 litres (12,000 gallons) for gasoline and diesel with a maximum aggregate capacity of 182,000 litres (48,000 gallons) at the site.
Both diesel and gasoline should be provided at the marina, although the majority of the fuel should be
diesel since most superyachts operate using this type of fuel. Double-walled piping from the tanks to the
dispensers for the diesel fuel delivery system is recommended and a qualified fuel system designer should
be consulted. In general, it is preferred that the fuel supplier be responsible for the design, installation,
insurance, legal requirements and maintenance of the fuelling facility.
Direct Fuel Delivery: Direct delivery of fuel to the vessel by tanker trucks or by barges, under stringent
safety regulations, is common at many superyacht facilities. The primary requirement in the planning and
design of the facility to accommodate this method of fuelling is to provide adequate area to allow tanker
trucks and barges to get close to and easily access the vessel. A yacht fuel broker is typically used in arranging delivery of fuel and the response time for refuelling services is usually 48 hours.

8.6. Sanitary Pumpout


Most superyacht facilities have the capability to pump out wastewater, consisting of grey and black water,
from the vessel to a shoreside holding tank or into a municipal sewer system. Sanitary pumpout service
at superyacht marinas is provided as a portable system using a boat or truck or as a permanent system
incorporated within the dock. The portable system consists of a boat or truck that is fitted with an 1,100 to
3,800 litres (300 to 1,000 gallon) capacity holding tank and a gas or electric pump. At the request of the
crew, the boat or truck will go to the superyacht berth to complete the pumpout procedure. Examples of
pumpout operations using a barge and a truck are shown in Figure 8.8. Although this method is unobtrusive, it can be expensive and less convenient than a permanent system.

Figure 8.8: Pumpout by barge and truck

Permanent pumpout systems applicable to superyacht facilities are either located at a centralised location or at the berth. The centralised location for a pumpout must be easily accessible for the superyacht,
such as at a fuelling facility. The superyacht has to temporarily berth at the centralised pumpout location,
which makes this type of operation less convenient than a pumpout located at the berth. Since one of the

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objectives of a superyacht marina is the perception of providing superior service, it is likely that the superyacht crew or owner would not perceive a centralised location as providing the desired level of service.
A pumpout located at the berth is the preferred system. These systems are designed for quick, high-volume pumpout with minimal inconvenience. Using this method, each slip is equipped with a suction hose
assembly, a stanchion and a hydrant. Piping runs underneath the decking to the centralised pump, which
leads to a holding tank on shore for emptying on a regular basis or discharging into a municipal sewer. The
advantage of this system is that it is available at the berth without having to move the superyacht. Typically,
one pumpout hydrant is provided at each slip, or 2 to 4 berths share one pumpout hydrant. Examples of
permanent pumpout systems at superyacht slips are shown in Figure 8.9.

Figure 8.9: Pumpout accessible at berth

The marine industry has made assessments of grey and black water generation aboard service vessels,
such as cruise ships and superyachts, but is rarely published. However, vessels are required to maintain
discharge records. Estimates from these records range from 227 to 377 litres (60 to 100 gallons) per
person per day. A wastewater generation rate of 246 to 265 litres (65 to 70 gallons) per day has been suggested as a guideline for planning and design of sanitary pumpout facilities for superyacht marinas.

8.7. Gangways
Planning and design of articulated gangways for access to floating docks at superyacht facilities follow the
same design principles for small-craft marinas. However, the gangways are typically heavier, more robust
and wider than gangways for small-craft marinas to accommodate the additional weight of the utility lines
and use of golf carts and light trucks. Structural design loads for gangways are usually 250 kg/sq m (50
psf) and can increase to 400 kg/sq m (82 psf) when used for golf carts.

8.8. Mooring Hardware


Manufacturers of cleats and bollards used to secure superyachts to fixed and floating docks rarely specify
minimum holding strengths for determining the required size and attachment method. Thus, a site-specific
mooring analysis should be conducted, especially in exposed locations that are subject to extreme wind
and/or wave conditions. It is important to define the required bollard size based on the maximum anticipated mooring load which must be supported by the bollard and the anticipated maximum vessel size.
One general rule of thumb is that such load should not be less than two times the load adopted by the
naval architect/shipyard for the cleats and bollards installed onboard the design vessel. This allows for the

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likely possibility of more than one vessel moored to any bollard on the dock, particularly where vessels
med moor and bollard sharing is likely to occur. In addition, the mooring lines should fail prior to the mooring hardware.
Minimum quasi-static loads applied to cleats or bollards may be estimated where the target vessels and
environmental conditions are reasonably known and where the marina is well managed to ensure vessels
are properly moored to multiple cleats or bollards during extreme wind and wave events. The mooring
analysis should consider winds, currents, waves, number and type of vessels using the cleat/bollard and
the mooring arrangement. A safety factor of 1.25, based on recommendations provided in International
Maritime Organisation (2005) for shipboard fittings and supporting hull structures should also be incorporated in the analysis.
Other general guidelines for mooring lines and bollards include placement to that the lines are oriented as
horizontal as possible to maximise efficiency and resistance to vessel surge, sway and yaw. The working
height of bollards and length of cleats should be sized such that two to four mooring lines can wrap around
them simultaneously. Cleats and bollards should be constructed of cast iron or stainless steel (where
aesthetics are a critical concern) and attached using through bolts into the dock or quay wall structure
with plate washers or other reinforcement to distribute pull-out forces without damaging the structure. Bolt
heads should be recessed and the recess filled to prevent water ponding and corrosion.
For superyachts up to 30 m (100 ft), a minimum of four cleats or bollards is recommended along the dock;
vessels greater than 30 m (100 ft), five or more bollards are recommended. An additional two bollards or
cleats are recommended at the end of each slip along the main walkway, as shown in Figure 8.10.

Figure 8.10: Cleat/bollard arrangement

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8.9. Shade Structures


A recent trend at superyacht facilities in locations of high temperatures is the incorporation of shade structures on the docks, as shown in Figure 8.11. These shade structures should be constructed of UV-resistant
material/fabric and designed for removal during periods of high winds and inclement weather.

Figure 8.11: Shade structures

8.10. Other Hardware and Accessories


Superyacht facilities may have other dock hardware and accessories as small-craft marinas. This includes
dock boxes, life rings, fire extinguishers and ladders. There are no unique requirements for these items at
a superyacht facility compared to a small-craft marina. They are usually preferences of the facility operator
and/or requirements based on life safety regulations. Owners and developers of superyacht marinas frequently provide direction in the selection of types and finishes of hardware and accessories for aesthetics
and integration throughout the facility, including landside amenities.

9. OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES AND SUPPORT SERVICES


Operational guidelines for superyacht facilities, in general, include the same elements as considered necessary for small craft facilities. However, additional requirements are considered necessary due to the
specific demands dictated by superyachts from the vessel needs to the captain and crew, as well as
the yacht guests and owners. Operational criteria and guidelines are necessarily more subjective than
physical requirements (dock dimensions, utilities, draft, fairways, etc.) This is due to differences in regional and local laws and regulations, customs, environmental factors, etc. However, the common theme

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with superyacht facilities, above and beyond small craft harbours, is the need to manage the facility with
a customer-focused approach. Attention to provide the best possible service is critical to attracting and retaining customers. This is not dissimilar from levels of service expected in 5-star hotels and resorts, when
compared with perhaps 3-star facilities.
Past experience shows that expectations of support services and facility features to be an attractive marina are the same for the vessels crews, owners and guests. In general, the key requirements include:








Service and attention (concierge-based management)


Convenient access to airports with good connections
Personal security and protection from surge/winds at the dock
Dependable shore power
Convenient access to restaurants, shopping and entertainment
Ease of port clearance customs and immigration
Convenient and quality ship chandleries/provisioning facilities and reputable repair offerings
Dockside potable water and communications
Aesthetics/natural beauty or social fame of the surrounding area

9.1. Types of Facilities and General Features


The support services and amenities that a superyacht marina provides will have a great effect upon the
overall success of the facility, particularly regarding maximising the potential for transient vessel visitations. Given the ever-expanding number of facilities worldwide, any proposed marina should offer yachtsmen a reason to visit the facility other than only for dockage.
As discussed in Section 4.4, a superyacht marina is typically classified as a homeport or destination facility. The type of facility ultimately established the amenities and upland space required for the marina to
attract and retain its target market.
A homeport facility is where a vessel is anticipated to berth for more than several days at any one time, or
where the vessel returns frequently for provisions, service, passengers, etc. The duration that a superyacht stays at a homeport facility will vary with locations. For example, in the Caribbean the duration is typically about one week during the peak winter season, while in Mediterranean countries the berthing time
at a homeport may be at least three months or the full winter season. Depending on the duration of the
stay and the location of the facility, the vessels crew may require separate amenities from the amenities
provided specifically for the vessels owner and passengers. Facility features and support services that are
typically found at homeport marinas include:
Operations Building: Managers office, accounting office, conference room, concierge desk, restrooms
and showers, laundry/dry cleaning, passenger lounge, boat maintenance and repair, bank/ATM, business center, Customs and Immigration office (if available), staff locker room
Captain and Crew Lounge/Recreation: Crew bar and lounge, restrooms, fitness centre and outdoor recreation, such as a pool, tennis court, or half-court basketball
Provisioning: High-end/gourmet mini supermarket or remote concierge type office for ordering/delivery
Ships Store (minimal): Marine apparel, supplies, charts, bait and tackle, etc.
Yacht Club: (optional): Depending on facility owners programme and club offerings
Long-term Storage: Rental units may range in size from about 2.5 to 15 m2 (27 to 160 sq ft), depending
on the size of the marina and vessels. Superyachts that are 100+ m (330+ ft) may require up to 120 m2
(1,290 sq ft) for storage, including cars and tenders during the off-season.

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A destination facility is typically classified as a marina where a vessel will typically spend a limited duration,
about a week, at the berth. This type of facility will likely provide limited amenities compared to those at a
homeport marina. A destination facility typically will provide or be located near entertainment and upland
amenities for the vessels owner and passengers only. While vessels are berthed at a destination marina,
the crew typically stays on board to attend to the owner, passengers and/or charter guests. Occasionally
an owner and passenger will request a longer stay to enjoy day trips away from the facility, which may allow the crew to enjoy the areas pools, bars and restaurants.
There are no specific guidelines for the size of each of the required/recommended amenities and are usually customised for each type and location of facility. Specific requirements are typically determined during
detailed project planning which should involve the facility owner/developer, planner, market consultant,
marina consultant and operations management.

9.2. Staffing and Marina Management


The perception of any marina is typically a direct reflection of the marina staff. While tolerance for less than
perfect physical infrastructure may occur, such is not usually the case with marina staff. In addition, many
superyacht facilities unless they are homeports are seasonal and thus careful attention must be paid
to customer service during the peak season.
Goals of superyacht marina staffing:




Develop staff policies, manuals and procedures for various service levels.
Hire and train staff for the highest levels of service.
Design and develop uniforms appropriate for each segment of service delivery.
Establish strict employee to patron ratios for the desired level of service.
Select, train and motivate staff in the detailed delivery criteria for the targeted service areas. Staff training should be rigid to ensure a high level and quality of service. Each shall have appropriate requirements for level of protocol, demeanor and comportment. Each of the staff should be required to maintain
pagers or appropriate electronic communication and access devices while on duty.

The Harbour Master or General Manager that will be responsible for the facility and staff will set the tone and
level of customer care and service. The Harbour Master/General Manager must be experienced in dealing
with the needs and requirements of superyachts and focused on customer satisfaction. The number of staff
to support the Harbour Master/General Manager will require more staff than for a small craft facility to attend
to the many needs of the larger vessels especially during the peak boating season. In severely seasonal
locations, staffing may vary throughout the year. The number of staff may range from 3 to 5 for a small
marina to over 50 for a large marina. However, a well-organised staff can deal with a large marina in high
season even with a reduced staff. The following identifies typical staff requirements and responsibilities.
Harbour Master/General Manager
Overall management of marina
First responders in emergencies
Weather warnings and navigational hazards to captains
Primary customer service representative deals with captains and vessel owners, facility ownership
group
Staffing and supervision of staff
Budget development and execution
Contract review/approval
Multi-lingual where necessary
Oversees safety, insurance and risk management on site
Vessel traffic services

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Assistant Manager/Dock Master


Supervised by General Manager (second in command)
Performs daily management of staff, arranges work schedules
Oversees maintenance (including daily dock walks/inspections)
Inspection and maintenance of utilities (including fuelling)
Solid waste collection management
Security management
Service/Repair coordination
Front desk supervision
Coordinates with captains, crew and guests
Responsible for bookings and berthing assignments
Bookkeeper
Reports to General Manager
Daily receipts and profit and loss tracking
Accounts payable and receivable
Billings for berth utilisation and power and water consumption
Dockhand(s)
Reports to Dock Master
General dock duties
Assists with incoming/outgoing vessel docking procedures
Trash removal
Fuel dock
Safety and emergency plan and equipment implementation
Cleaning of premises
Delivery/valet services
Backs up marina desk personnel and possibly chandlery
Chandlery Manager
Reports to General Manager
Develops and manages store budgets
Manages merchandise display
Inventory ordering and stocking
Credit card interface
Staff schedules for store
Supervises all store clerks
Store Clerks
Reports to Chandlery Manager
Serves customers and handles front desk
Stocking and inventory handling
Backs up marina desk personnel
May be trained for most dockhand duties
Marina Yard Workers
Reports to Dock Master or Service Manager
General cleaning, outside and inside (yard, landscaping, restrooms, etc.)
Valet/Delivery duties
Emergency boat handler
Cross trained in dockhand duties
Equipment upkeep and service

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9.3. Security, Safety and Privacy


A high standard of security is required at superyacht facilities due to the vessels owners and passengers
and their investments. Although the public generally enjoys viewing superyachts, security measures at the
marina shall prevent the public from direct access (i.e. touching, boarding) to the vessels. It is imperative
that the vessel and its contents, crew and passengers will be secure 24 hours per day when berthed at
the marina. Security measures at superyacht facilities may include controlled access using keypads or key
access cards, closed circuit television cameras with night vision and recording capabilities, motion sensing
lighting and manned security. In almost all situations, the security cameras should not be aimed into the
vessels for maximum privacy. At some multi-use facilities, it may be desirable to have a separate berthing
facility for superyachts from the smaller vessels.
A set of marina rules and regulations should be developed for each facility, specific to superyachts. This
includes a health and safety plan, as well as an environmental code of practice for marina operations.
Each nationality and locality has specific health, safety and environmental compliance and regulations that
must be addressed. Signage and aids-to-navigation within the marina should be provided to assist boaters
and maximise safety of guests and the public. The health and safety plan, as well as design of the facility,
should include allowance for emergency vehicle (fire, ambulance, police) access to and where necessary,
on the docks. This is usually requested by local regulations.
Other items that should be addressed by the safety plan include having readily available oil spill apparatus
(floating boom, absorbent pads, etc.) Standard best management procedures include use of a floating
oil boom around each vessel when fuelling. The safety plan should also address severe weather/cyclone
conditions, operational (design) limits on vessels at berth, fire protection, emergency response, etc.
Superyacht owners and guests are typically affluent and may be known personalities. Therefore, maximum
privacy should always be assumed unless advised otherwise by the individual. For this reason, the arrival/
departure, destination(s) and other plans of the yacht guests are held in confidence by marina staff. In addition, top facilities should be planned with their berths segregated by user type to maximise privacy for the
superyacht guests, where practical. Superyacht docks should be, again to the extent possible, kept from
general public access to minimise harassment and general foot traffic around the vessels and guests.
Specific to security concerns of vessels and port facilities, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in
December 2002 adopted a number of amendments to the 1974 Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention
including The International Ship and Port Facilities Security (ISPS) Code. The ISPS Code was developed
to prevent acts of terrorism that threaten the safety of passengers, crews and ships worldwide. The ISPS
Code, effective 1 July 2004, states that all marinas that moor vessels over 500 gross tons will implement
security infrastructure and practices to reduce the threat of terrorism.
In essence, the ISPS Code takes the approach that ensuring the security of vessels and port facilities is
basically a risk management activity and that, in order to determine what security measures are appropriate, an assessment of the risks must be made in each particular case. The purpose of the ISPS Code is to
provide a standardised, consistent framework for evaluating risk, enabling governments to offset changes
in threat levels with changes in vulnerability. This risk management concept will be embodied in the ISPS
Code through a number of minimum functional security requirements for ships and port facilities.
The ISPS Code is mandated in almost every costal country worldwide (approximately 160 countries). The
Code only pertains to marinas that have superyacht capabilities. If the Code is not enforced in a particular
country the prudent marina designer should develop the layout based on Code compliance for an easy
transition if compliance is required in the future. ISPS compliant superyachts need to be kept segregated
from the rest of the vessels using a physical barrier such as fences and gates. Separate fuelling operations
may also be required. During the conceptual marina layout phase it is recommended that the local Coast

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Guard Sectors Prevention Office be consulted to ensure compliance. Non-ISPS compliant vessels cannot
moor in ISPS compliant areas and vice versa.
It is the responsibility of the country/port to enforce the ISPS Code. The IMO cannot impose any penalties
directly against the marina, but rather politically pressure the government into compliance. However, it has
been apparent that most countries/ports are aware of terrorist threats and use ISPS Code compliance as
a marketing tool.
Objectives and requirements of the ISPS Code are provided in a User Guide published by the International
Maritime Organisation (2012).

9.4. Provisioning, Deliveries, Concierge Services and Reservation System


Superyachts are usually provisioned with food and related supplies while at homeport prior to departure
of the cruise and at destinations, depending on the length of the cruise. Provisioning is provided by direct
delivery from the stores, either locally or imported to the marina by air. As a minimum, golf cart and trailer
or vehicle access should be available to the vessel stern for drive-up service of deliveries.
If shore side provisioning facilities at the marina is provided, the climate controlled storage capacity should
be planned and designed to accommodate the size and number of vessels and the frequency of provisioning. For example, a 70m (230 ft) vessel with a capacity of 36 persons aboard (24 crew members and
12 passengers), will require approximately six standard shipping pallets, 1.2 m x 1.0 m (48 in x 40 in), of
provisions per week for replenishment of onboard food and beverage supplies. This requires a minimum
of 7 m2 (80 sq ft) of storage area per vessel based on a single-stack storage system, excluding service,
handling and access area for forklifts. The provisioning storage facility should provide approximately 25%
frozen, 25 % refrigerated and 50 % dry storage areas.
For any/all items not provided or directly available on site, management should provide concierge type
service to source and deliver any needs of the crew and guests of the vessels. Requests will typically
come from crew. A good quality concierge approach will have relationships with typical sources to enable
most any request. This may include such things as directions and maps to local points of interest; provisioning; nearby medical facilities; dinner reservations; replacement parts sourcing; directory of preferred
maintenance providers; travel agency services; etc. The key is informed sourcing of any and all needs that
the vessel crew or guests may require (i.e. if we dont have it, we know where and how to get it expediently).
The marinas reservation system should be an interactive, state-of-the-art and web-based system. This
service can be used for any guest request and include the ability to provide advance-ordering so that special requests will be available upon guest/vessel arrival.

9.5. Crew Facilities


Superyacht marinas include amenities for the large number of crew members on vessels as shown in
Figure 5.5. Crew facilities may range from a basic lounge area to recreation rooms to on-site residences.
Stand-alone facilities are only deemed necessary where desirable activities and facilities for crew are not
readily available in the surrounding community and/or where the possible simultaneous number of crew
exceeds about a 100. Thus, designated crew facilities must be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Typical crew facilities may include the following:
Laundry
Computers with Internet access
Telephones

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Bathroom and Showers


Bar/Restaurant
Gymnasium and Swimming Pool
Television/Movie Room
Car Rental
Navigation Chart Room
Apartment/Crew Quarters
Recreation Activities (Pool Table, Cards, Ping-Pong, Tennis/Volleyball Courts)

Facilities that are attractive, upscale and popular with the crew also provide an incentive for the superyacht
marina to be one of the destinations on the itinerary of a charter. Superyacht captains sometimes develop
the routing and locations that appeal to the crew may be a factor on the facility selected, especially if there
are several marinas in the vicinity.

9.6. Solid Waste Collection


Provisioning and daily operation of a superyacht while at berth can generate a significant quantity of solid
waste requiring disposal. Solid collection facilities such as trash receptacles, dumpsters and recycling bins
should be provided at the marina. Typically, trash receptacles with covers are provided at the berth, while
dumpsters and recycling bins are located in areas that minimise visibility and are accessible by trucks for
hauling the waste off-site.
The estimated quantity of refuse generated at each berth is a function of vessel size, number of crew and
passengers and activities such as meals that occur onboard the vessel. For example, a 70m (230 ft) vessel with 36 persons aboard (24 crew members and 12 passengers) will generate between 70 and 120 kg
(155 and 265 lbs) of solid waste on a daily basis, with approximately 60 to 100 kg (130 to 220 lbs) of dry
garbage and 10 to 20 kg (22 to 44 lbs) of organic food material. Regardless of the quantity, the solid waste
collection programme should be capable of removing and handling the refuse on a daily basis and should
be scheduled at an appropriate time to minimise noise impacts.

9.7. Waste Oil Removal


An on-site temporary storage facility for waste oil discharge and sludge provides an added support service
value and environmental awareness at superyacht marinas, especially homeports. Waste oil consists of
lubrication oil removed after service use in onboard machinery such as main engines, generators, auxiliary
equipment, tenders and gearboxes. Sludge is a combination of waste oil, grease, contaminated fuel, or
related matter. Once the waste oil and sludge is disposed into the onsite storage facility, a local bunker fuel
vendor is used to empty the storage tanks.
The lubrication oil storage capacity aboard a vessel is a function of the machinery aboard. The waste oil
tank capacity onboard the vessel is equal to the sum of oil sump capacities for the main engines, main
gearboxes and main generators for one complete oil exchange. The waste oil tank and sludge tank either
share the same tank or are two independent tanks. If the sludge tank is independent, the volume is generally considerably less than the waste oil tank.
For superyachts ranging from 60 to 110 m (200 to 360 ft), powered by twin marine diesel engines and
equipped with single stage reduction gearboxes and up to three generators powered by marine diesel
engines, has a typical lubricating oil capacity of 1,500 litres (400 gallons). Thus, the waste oil and sludge
onsite storage tank at the superyacht facility should allow for a typical discharge of 1,500 litres (400 gallons) per vessel. The overall capacity of the onsite storage tank depends on the number of vessels and
the expected frequency and scheduling of the oil exchanges with the tank emptying by the local bunker
fuel vendor.

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9.8. Parking
Superyacht facilities, primarily homeport facilities, require vehicle parking near the berth for the crew and
guests. Vehicular and truck access at or near the vessel is frequently required for provisioning, transfer
of equipment and maintenance operations such as fuelling, etc. Parking for suppliers and maintenance
services may take up to 30 percent of the available spaces.
General guidelines for typical small craft facilities range from 0.5 to 0.75 spaces per berth are recommended for planning purposes to cover variable demand for parking. This is not including upland marina
management/employee parking and any needs for parking to service the upland amenities (offices, retail,
lodging, etc.). Parking requirements for a superyacht facility will vary based on the number of slips and
type of facility (homeport or destination). Each site is unique and the facility demand as well as needs for
the surrounding upland must be assessed.
In addition to the typical small-craft facility parking requirements per berth, the Yacht Harbour Association
Ltd (2007) suggests an additional 1.5 spaces for each berth larger than 12 m (40 ft) and an additional 3
spaces for each charter yacht. Bouchet and Borea dOlmo (2012) suggest parking recommendations for
homeports based on vessel length as indicated in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1: Suggested Number of parking spaces per vessel vs length overall (LOA)
(based on homeports in Monaco, Bouchet and Borea dOlmo, 2012)

Destination facilities and superyacht marinas in general, may minimize parking by providing or arranging
transportation services for connections to airports, nearby hotels and activities, attractions, restaurants,
etc. In temperate climates, a supply of bicycles and/or golf carts for crew is also recommended. For superyachts of 70 m (230 ft) or longer, a nearby helipad and helicopter parking is desirable.

9.9. Restrooms, Showers, Laundry and Dry Cleaning


Although most often there is high luxury and privacy onboard the vessel, the top superyacht facilities will
provide individual landside bath areas, which are lockable and provide the comfort of a typical large home
bathroom with quality furnishings and fixtures. Cleanliness is paramount for all guest and crew restroom
facilities. These facilities are not open to the general public and are not for use by suppliers and maintenance personnel. Guidance for determining the number of restrooms and the maximum distance from the
vessel are provided in several industry publications as listed in Section 4.1.
Laundry and dry cleaning for superyacht owners and guests can be provided on site, either through a
concession or using services provided by a nearby hotel/resort.

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9.10. Repair and Maintenance


The superyacht facility, especially homeports, should provide staff and/or partners for the repair and maintenance needs of its luxury yacht customers for engine, electronics, canvas, mechanical and hull work in
an efficient and timely manner. Parts for these services can be shipped in overnight through arrangements
made with industry partners.
Stable work floats should be available for crews needing to make minor repairs or to aid during vessel
cleaning. A designated zone for tenders and dinghies is ideal, if berthing does not permit the same in the
immediate area of the main vessel.

9.11. Customs and Immigration


A port clearance office at the marina for passport control/customs and immigration is a key amenity at
superyacht facilities to minimise the cost and time required to complete port entry and exit. This avoids
incoming crews from having to make several stops to complete the necessary paperwork. Any support
that the marina can provide to local authorities, including customer service training to be yacht friendly, is
recommended. Experience has shown that having a port clearance office at the superyacht facility, as well
as any measures to ease the process, will draw boaters to the marina.

10. REFERENCES
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (2012): ASCE Manual 50 - Planning and Design Guidelines
for Small Craft Harbors, United States.
Boat International Media (2011): Superports, The Definitive Superyacht Marina Guide, United Kingdom.
Bouchet, R. and Borea dOlmo J.B. (2012): Guidelines for Superyacht Marinas, Monaco.
British Standards (2008): Requirements for electrical installations, BS 7671 (Amendment 1, 2011).
Camper & Nicholsons International (2011): The (Super) Yachting Index, Switzerland.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2005): Guidance on Shipboard Towing and Mooring Equipment, MSC/CIRC 1175, United Kingdom.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2012): Guide to Maritime Security and the ISPS Code, United
Kingdom.
Murray & Associates (2006): Miscellaneous design recommendation memoranda for confidential marina
in Antigua.
Murray & Associates (2011): Personal communication.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (2011): National Electrical Code (NEC), Article 555, Marinas
and Boatyards.
PIANC-IAPH (1997): Approach Channels A Guide for Design (Volume 2), Supplement to Bulletin nr. 95,
PTC report of MarCom WG 30.
Power & Motoryacht (1997 and 2012): The Worlds 100 largest yachts.

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Standards Australia International (2001): Guidelines for Design of Marinas, AS 3962.


Standards Australia International and Standards New Zealand (2008): Electrical Installations Marinas
and recreational boats Marinas, AS/NZS 3004.
The Yacht Harbour Association, Ltd. (2007): A Code of Practice for the Design, Construction and Operation of Coastal and Inland Marinas and Yacht Harbours, United Kingdom.

APPENDIX A
PIANC Recreational Navigation Commission (RecCom) Working Group (WG) and Special Report (SR)
publications related to marina design and operations.
RecCom WG 132, 2012
RecCom WG S9, 2010
RecCom WG 105, 2009
RecCom WG 98, 2008
RecCom WG 14, 2004
RecCom WG 13, 2004
RecCom WG 10, 2002
RecCom WG 12, 2002
RecCom WG 8, 2000
RecCom WG 7, 1997
RecCom WG 6, 1996
RecCom WG 5, 1991
RecCom WG 81, 1981
RecCom WG 80, 1980
RecCom WG 79, 1979
RecCom WG 1, 1976
RecCom SR, 2001
RecCom SR, 1997
RecCom SR, 1988

Dry Stack Storage


Regeneration of Harbours for Sport and Pleasure Navigation
The Use of Alternative Materials in Marine Structure Construction
Protecting Water Quality in Marinas
Disability Access Guidelines for Recreational Boating Facilities
Dredging of Marinas
Mooring Systems for Recreational Craft
Recreational Navigation and Nature
Standards for the Use of Inland Waterways by Recreational Craft
Guidance on Marine Sanitation Pumpouts
Guidelines for the Use of Certain Powered Craft, such as Waterscooter, Personal Watercraft, Waterbike, Jetski, Waverunner, Seadoo, on Controlled Water
Guidance on Facility and Management Specifications for Marine Yacht Harbours and Inland Waterway Marinas with Respect to User Requirements
Design of Breakwaters for Yacht Harbours
Dry Berthing of Pleasure Boats either for Maintenance or Complementary to
Wet Berthing- Both the Technical and Financial Aspects
Standards for the Construction, Equipment and Operation of Yacht Harbours
and Marinas, with Special Reference to the Environment
Final Report of the International Commission for Sport and Pleasure Navigation
Marina Service Connections
Review of Selected Standards for Floating Dock Design
The Provision of Navigation Aids for Pleasure Craft, Joint Iala/Pianc

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PIANC Secrtariat Gnral


Boulevard du Roi Albert II 20, B 3
B-1000 Bruxelles
Belgique
http://www.pianc.org
VAT BE 408-287-945
ISBN 978-2- 87223-203-1
EAN 9782872232031

978-2-87223-203-1
PIANC Report 134