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RoK SNiP 2.01-19-2004


Corrosion Protection of Engineering Structures.

Table of Contents
1. General provisions
2. Concrete and reinforced concrete structures
General Requirements
Aggressive impact rate
Requirements to materials and structures
Corrosion protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures
Floors
Smoke stacks, gas-&-smoke stacks, capacitive facilities and pipelines
Specificity of reinforced concrete structures protection from electrical corrosion
3. Woodwork structures
4. Stone and asbestos cement structures
5. Steel structures
Aggressive impact rate
Requirements to materials and structures
Corrosion protection of steel and aluminium structures surfaces
Smoke stacks, gas-&-smoke and ventilation stacks, tanks
Attachment 1
Mandatory Groups of aggressive gases rated against their types and concentration
Attachment 2 - Reference Description of solid medium (salts, aerosols and dust)
Attachment 3 - Reference Paintwork materials for corrosion protection of reinforced
concrete structures
Attachment 4 - Reference Protective coating of internal surfaces of capacitive
facilities' reinforced concrete structures operating in liquid medium
Attachment 5
Recommended Corrosion protection of underground concrete and reinforced concrete
structures' external surfaces
Attachment 6
Recommended Materials for protection of floors designed for use within buildings
with aggressive medium
Attachment 7
Recommended Chemically resistant materials for floors
Attachment 8 - Reference Paintwork materials for wood protection
Attachment 9 - Reference Compositions for wood preservation and conservation
Attachment 10 - Reference Compositions for timber penetration treatment
Attachment 11
Mandatory Protection of steel ropes used in open air conditions
Attachment 12
Recommended Materials for welding of steel structures in aggressive medium
corresponding with low-alloy steel grades
Attachment 13
Mandatory Minimal thickness of steel sheets of enclosing structures without corrosion
protection
1

Attachment 14
Recommended Steel structures corrosion protection methods
Attachment 15 - Reference Paintwork materials for corrosion protection of steel and
aluminium structures
Attachment 16
Recommended Options of non-metallic protective coatings of tanks designed for
accomodation acid, alkaline and fluid mineral fertilisers
See also: 3.04.03-85 "Corrosion protection of structural units and facilities "
The current norms cover corrosion protection design for engineering structures (made of
concrete, reinforced concrete, steel, aluminium, wooden, stone and asbestos-cement) of buildings
and facilities operated under impact of aggressive medium with temperatures between minus 70 to
plus 50 .
These norms do not cover corrosion protection design for engineering structures caused by
radioactive materials as well as design of structures made of specific concrete types (polymer
concrete, heat-resistant and acid-resistant concrete).
1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1.1 Protection of engineering structures shall be performed by use of corrosion-resistant (for
selected environment) materials and compliance with design requirements (primary protection),
surface application of metallic, oxide, paint-&-varnish, metallized paint-&-varnish coatings, mastic
coatings, lubricants, films, cladding and other materials (secondary protection), as well as by use of
chemical-electric methods.
1.2 In regard to severity of exposure, the mediums shall be divided into:
- non-aggressive;
- slightly aggressive;
- moderately aggressive;
- highly aggressive.
In regard to physical status mediums shall be divided into gaseous, solid and fluid.
In regard to nature of action mediums shall be divided into chemically and biologically active.
1.3 Protection of plant-manufactured engineering structure surface shall be performed at the
factory.
1.4 In order to reduce the medium aggressive impact on engineering structures, the following
shall be provided for in the course of design:
- development of enterprises plot plans, space planning and structural design solutions with
account of wind pattern ("wind rose") and direction of ground water flow;
- process equipment featuring maximum possible air- and water tightness, supply and exhaust
ventilation, suction units in locations of maximum concentration of vapours, gases and dust.
1.5 Design of engineering structures shall provide for such sections which prevent or minimize
possibility of aggressive gases concentration, as well as accumulation of fluids and dust on
structures surfaces.
1.6 Corrosion protection design of engineering structures of buildings and facilities for
industries related to fabrication and use of food products, animal feed, as well as venues for staying
of people or animals shall account for sanitary and hygienic requirements to protection materials
and possible aggressive impact of disinfectants.
1.7 When designing the corrosion protection for refurbished buildings and facilities an analysis
of the corrosion status of the structures and protective coatings should be provided, taking into
account the medium and level of aggressiveness of the environment in new operating conditions.
1.8 These construction norms and regulations use references to regulatory documents and
standards specified in Attachment 17.
2

2 CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


General Requirements
2.1 In the course of engineering and design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures one
shall comply with ST SEV 2441 requirements.
In the course of engineering and design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures
envisaged for operation in an aggressive environment their corrosion resistance shall be ensured
first and foremost by primary protection measures, i.e. the use of corrosion resistant materials,
additives, use of corrosion resistance improving concrete and its protective properties for steel
rebar, lowering the permeability of concrete using treatment methods, implementing the
requirements of the crack resistance category, for the width of the design crack opening
displacement, and the thickness of the protective concrete layer.
In the event of that the stated measures are not sufficiently effective then secondary protection
measures should be provided for the structure's surfaces:
- paintwork;
- insulation lining from sheet and film materials;
- cladding, lining or using products from ceramic, slag glass ceramics, glass, cast stone
material, natural stone;
- cement, polymer binder, liquid glass, or bitumen based plaster surfacing;
- treatment with chemically resistant sealing materials
2.2 Corrosion protection measures for reinforced concrete structures should be designed taking
into account the type and specifics of the structures, the technology used to fabricate and erect them,
and the operational conditions.
2.3 For concrete and reinforced concrete structures one should use concrete with a permeability
that complies with appropriate standards.
The permeability of concrete is specified using direct indicators (concrete grade depending on
water resistance or by its coefficient of filtration). Indirect indicators (the water absorption of
concrete and the water-cement ratio) are used for guidance and are additional to the direct
indicators.
The permeability indicators of concrete are given in Table 1.
Table 1

Key for concrete


permeability
indicators
H - standard
permeability
concrete
H - low
permeability
concrete
O - very low
permeability
concrete

Concrete permeability indicators


direct
indirect
the coefficient of
water
concrete grade
water-cement
filtration, cm/s (at
absorption
depending on water
ratio (W/C), Kf
equilibrium moisture
capacity, %
resistance
no more than
content), K f
by mass
W4

> 210-9 to 710-9

> 4.7 - 5.7

0.6.

W6

> 610-10 to 210-9

> 4.2 - 4.7

0.55

W8

> 110-10 - 610-10

up to 4.2

0.45

Notes:
1 The coefficient of filtration and concrete grade depending on water resistance is determined per GOST 12730.3.
2 The indicators for water absorption and the water-cement ratio given in Table 1 correspond to heavy concrete. The
water absorption of light concretes should be determined by multiplying the values given in Table 1, by a factor equal
to the ratio of medium density heavy concrete to medium density light concrete. The water-cement ratio of light
concretes should be determined by multiplying the values given in Table 1, by 1.3.
3 Hereinafter in the text of these regulations the value for concrete permeability is given according to the water
resistance indicator.

Aggressive impact rate


2.4 The aggressiveness of different environments on concrete and reinforced concrete structures
is as follows:
- gaseous: in Table 2;
- solid: in Table 3;
- soils above the water table: in Table 4;
- liquid inorganic environments: in Table 5, 6, 7;
- liquid organic environments: in Table 8;
- biologically active environments: in Table 8a.
The aggressiveness of environments on ferro concrete is adopted as the same as for structures
from reinforced concrete in Tables 2 and 3.
The aggressiveness classifications are as per ST SEV 2440.
2.5 When determining the aggressiveness of an environment on a structure located inside
heated premises, the moisture conditions should be determined per Table 1 ofSNiP RK 2.04-032002, and for a structure located inside an unheated building, in the open air, or i soil above the
water table, per Appendix 1 of SNiP RK 2.04-03-2002 .
2.6 The aggressiveness of environments, given in Table 5, is given for concrete made from any
type of cement complying with the requirements of GOST 10178 and GOST 22266.
2.7 The aggressiveness of environments given in Tables 5 and 6 should be lowered one level for
concrete of a bulky low-reinforced construction (thickness greater than 0.5 m, reinforcement up to
0.5%).
2.8 The aggressiveness of environments, given in Tables 5, 6, and 7, is given for structures where
the liquid pressure is less than 0.1 MPa (1 atm).
Requirements to materials and structures
2.9 The concrete for the reinforced concrete structures of buildings and facilities in aggressive
environments should be grade W4 water resistant and higher as per Tables 5-11.
Concrete used for reinforced concrete structures subject to aggressive liquid environments
(chlorides, sulphate, nitrates and other salts where there is an evaporating surface) and at the same
time alternating freeze thaw cycles, should comply with requirements for frost resistance. Frost
resistance testing should be performed to GOST 10060.2.
2.10 The following types of cement should be used for the concrete and reinforced concrete
structures of buildings and facilities in aggressive environments:
- portland cement, portland cement with mineral additives and slag-portland cement meeting
the requirements of GOST 10178;
- sulphate-resistant cements meeting the requirements of GOST 22266;
- aluminus cement meeting the requirements of GOST 969;
- high-expansion cement.
2.11 In gaseous and solid environments (see Tables 2 and 3) one should use cements meeting
the requirements of GOST 10178.
In liquid and solid environments with containing sulphates (see Tables 3, 4 and 6) sulphate
resistant cements, slag-portland cements and portland cement should be used.
4

In liquid environments that are moderately aggressive due to bicarbonate alkalinity (see Table
5), portland cement with mineral additives, slag-portland cement or puzzolan portland cement
should be used.
In liquid environments that are aggressive due to their overall content of salts (see Table 5), the
use of aluminus cement is permitted provided that the drying temperature conditions are complied
with.
The use of aluminus cement in structures with prestressed reinforcement is not permitted.
For structures where the requirements for water resistance are above W6, the use of highexpansion cement above grade NTs10 is permitted.
2.12As a fine filler material one should use quartz sand per GOST 8736 (with no more than 1 %
of elutriated particles), and also porous sand, meeting the requirements of ST RK 948.
Table 2
The moisture conditions of premises
Moisture zone
(per SNiP RK 2.04-03-2002 )

A
Dry
_______________

concrete

reinforced concrete

Non aggressive

Non aggressive

Same

Same

Same

Slightly aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Non aggressive

Non aggressive

Same

Slightly aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Highly aggressive

Non aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Highly aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

Dry
A
Standard
____________________
Standard

humid or wet
_____________________
Damp

Aggressiveness of gaseous environments


for structures from

Gas group per Mandatory


Appendix 1

Notes:
1 For the structures of heated buildings, on the surface of which condensation is permitted to form, the aggressiveness
is considered to be as per structures with premises having a damp environment.
2 If a gaseous environment contains several aggressive gases the aggressiveness of the environment is determined by
the most aggressive gas.

Table 3
The moisture conditions of
premises
Concrete moisture zone
(per SNiP RK 2.04-03-2002 )

Solubility of solid particles in water1;2


and their water-absorbing capacity

Dry
Dry

Easily dissolved, low water absorbency

Standard
Standard

Easily dissolved, low water absorbency

Easily dissolved, water absorbent

Easily dissolved, water absorbent

Aggressiveness of solid environments on


structures built from
concrete

reinforced concrete

Non aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive3

Easily dissolved, low water absorbency


Damp or wet
Damp

Easily dissolved, water absorbent

Slightly aggressive

Moderately
aggressive4

Moderately
aggressive3

Highly aggressive

1 The list of the most common soluble salts and their characteristics are given in reference Appendix 2. As aggressive
salts for concrete and reinforced concrete one should consider the chlorides, sulphates and nitrates given in Appendix
2.
2 The presence of low solubility substances does not affect the aggressiveness.
3 The level of aggressiveness should be checked together with the requirements of Table 5, 6, 7 taking into account the
aggressiveness of the solution formed.
4 Salts containing chlorides should be a considered highly aggressive environment.

2.13 As a coarse aggregate one should consider graded crushed stone from igneous rocks,
gravel and crushed stone gravel which meet the requirements of GOST 8267. Gravel from igneous
rocks should be at least grade 800, and gravel and crushed stone gravel at least grade Dr12.
If they are uniform and do not contain weak interlayers, crushed stone from sedimentary rocks
(with a water absorption no more than 2% and grade at least 600) can be used for structures,
operated in gaseous, solid and liquid environments at any degree of aggressiveness (except liquid
environments having a pH lower than in a slightly aggressive environment, see table 5).
Aggregates as per ST RK 948 should be used for light-weight construction concretes The
presence and quantity of harmful impurities in aggregates should be stated in the relevant
documentation and taken into account when designing concrete and reinforced concrete structures.
2.14 Fine and coarse aggregates should be checked for their content of potentially reactive
types of rock. As a protection against internal corrosion due to potentially reactive types of rock and
lower interaction of the aggregate with the alkalis of the cement, the following measures should be
taken:
-selection of concrete with a minimum consumption of cement;
-production of concrete based on cement with an alkali content not more than 0.6% expressed
as Na2O;
-preparation of concrete from portland cement with mineral admixtures, puzzolan portland
cement and slag portland cement;
-introduction of hydrophobic and gas forming admixtures into the concrete mix.
If the aggregate is potentially reactive then the introduction of sodium or potassium salts into
the concrete mix is not permitted.
Table 4
Aggressiveness, mg per 1 kg of soil
chlorides in terms
of Cl- for
sulphates in terms of
for concretes based on
concretes based on
The
Moisture
portland cement
aggressiveness
of the
per GOST 10178
of soil on
portland cement,
area per
containing C3S
concrete and
Sulphate
slag portland
SNiP RK
not more than
reinforced
Portland
resistant
cement
2.04-0365%, C3A not
concrete
cement per
cements
per GOST 10178
2002
more than 7%,
structures
GOST 10178
per GOST
and sulphate
C3A + C4AF
22266
resistant cements
not more than 22%
per GOST 22266
and slag portland
cement

Dry

normal
and
damp.

> 60 - 1,000

> 3,000 - 4,000

> 1,000 1,500


> 1,500

> 4,000 - 5,000

> 250 - 500

> 1,500 - 3,000

> 500 - 1,000

> 3,000 - 4,000

> 1,000

> 4,000

> 5,000

> 6,000 12,000


> 12,000 15,000
> 15000
> 3,000 6,000
> 6,000 8,000
> 8,000

> 400 - 750


> 750 - 7,500
> 7,500
> 250 - 500
> 500 - 5,000
> 5,000

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Notes:
1 Aggressiveness indexes based on the content of chlorides are only used for reinforced concrete structures, regardless
of the water resistance grade of the concrete. If the concrete contains sulphates as well, their quantity is converted to a
chloride equivalent by multiplying by 0.25 and added to the content of chlorides to give a total.
2 Aggressiveness indexes based on the content of sulphates are given for W4 water resistance grade concretes. When
assessing the aggressive impact on W6 water resistance grade concretes, the figures should be multiplied by 1.3, and
for W8 water resistance grade concretes by 1.7.
3If there is groundwater the environment is evaluated for Aggressiveness depending on the chemical composition of
the groundwater per tables 5, 6, 7.

Table 5
The aggressiveness index of a liquid environment1 for Aggressiveness
structures situated in soils with Kf above 0.1 m/day, in
of inorganic
an
open
water
body
and
for
structures
where
the
water
Aggressiveness index
liquids
is under pressure using water resistance grade concrete environments
on concrete
W4
W6
W8
Bicarbonate alkalinity
Slightly
> 0 - 1.05 (3)
meq/l (deg) *
aggressive
> 5.0 - 6.5
> 4.0 - 5.0
> 3.5 - 4.0
Same
Moderately
> 4.0 - 5.0
> 3.5 - 4.0
> 3.0 - 3.5
alkalinity **
aggressive
Highly
> 0.0 - 4.0
> 0.0 - 3.5
> 0.0 - 3.0
aggressive
Content of aggressive
Slightly
> 10 - 40
> 40***
carbonic acid
aggressive
Moderately
> 40***
aggressive
Content of magnesium
Slightly
> 1,000 - 2,000 > 2,000 - 3,000 > 3,000 - 4,000
salts mg/l in terms of
aggressive
Mg2 + ions
Moderately
> 2,000 - 3,000 > 3,000 - 4,000 > 4,000 - 5,000
aggressive
Highly
> 3,000
> 4,000
> 5,000
aggressive
Slightly
> 100 - 500
> 500 - 800
> 800 - 1,000
aggressive
7

Content of ammonium
salts mg/l in terms of
NH+4 ions
Content of caustic
alkalis mg/l in terms of
Na+ + ions

Total content of
chlorides, sulphates2,
nitrates and other salts
mg/l, with evaporating
surfaces

> 500 - 800

> 800 - 1,000

> 1,000 - 1,500

> 800

> 1,000

> 1,500

> 50,000 60,000


> 60,000 80,000

> 60,000 80,000


> 80,000 100,000

> 80,000 100,000


> 100,000 150,000

> 80,000

> 100,000

> 150,000

> 10,000 20,000


> 20,000 50,000

> 20,000 50,000


> 50,000 60,000

> 50,000 60,000


> 60,000 70,000

> 50,000

> 60,000

> 70,000

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

When evaluating the aggressive impact of the environment where facilities are operating in low filtering soils with Kf
less than 0.1 m/d, the index values in the table should be multiplied by 1.3.
2
The concentration of sulphates, depending on the type and mineralogical composition of cement should not exceed
the limits shown in tables 4 and 6.
*At any value for bicarbonate alkalinity the environment is not aggressive in relation to the concrete with water
resistance grade W6 and more, as well as W4 if the soil filtration level isKf below 0.1 m/day.
*The evaluation of the aggressive impact of the environment by pH does not apply to high concentration solutions of
organic acids or carbonic acid.
***If the aggressiveness values shown in table 5 are exceeded, the aggressiveness of the environment due to this
factor will not increase.

Table 6

Cement

Portland cement
per GOST 10178

The aggressiveness index of a liquid environment1


The aggressive
-2
containing sulphates converted to SO4 mg/l ions, impact of a liquid
for structures, situated in soils withKf more than
inorganic
0.1 m/day, in an open body of water or for
environment on
facilities where the water is under pressure and
water resistance
contain HCO3-, meq/l ions.
grade W4 concrete*
> 0.0 - 3.0

> 3.0 - 6.0

> 6.0

> 250 - 500

> 500 - 1,000

> 1,000 - 1,200 Slightly aggressive

> 500 - 1,000

> 1,000 - 1,200 > 1,200 - 1,500

Moderately
aggressive

> 1,000

> 1,200

Highly aggressive

> 1,500

Portland cement per


GOST 10178 with
> 1,500 - 3,000 > 3,000 - 4,000 > 4,000 - 5,000 Slightly aggressive
clinker content C3S not >
65%, C3A not more than
Moderately
7%, C3A + C4AF not
> 3,000 - 4,000 > 4,000 - 5,000 > 5.0 - 6,000
aggressive
more than 22% and slag
portland cement
> 4,000

> 5,000
8

> 6,000

Highly aggressive

Sulphate resistant
cement
per GOST 22266

> 3,000 - 6,000 > 6,000 - 8,000

> 8,000 12,000

Slightly aggressive

> 6,000 - 8,000

> 8,000 12,000

> 12,000 15,000

Moderately
aggressive

> 8000

> 12,000

> 15,000

Highly aggressive

When assessing the aggressiveness of the environment under operational conditions facilities located in poor filtration
soils with Kf less than 0.1 m/d, the values in the table should be multiplied by 1.3.
* When assessing aggressiveness for water resistance grade W6 concrete the values in the table should be multiplied
by 1.3, and for water resistance grade W8 concrete, by 1.7.

Table 7
Equivalent content of chlorides
as Cl-, mg/l
up to 500
> 500 - 5,000
> 5000

The aggressiveness of liquid inorganic environments on the rebar


of reinforced concrete structures, subject to
constant immersion
periodic wetting
Non aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Same
Moderately aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Highly aggressive

Notes:
1 The zone of periodic wetting includes zones where fluid levels fluctuate and capillary lift zones.
2If the fluid environment contains both sulphates and chlorides, the sulphates are converted to a chloride equivalent by
multiplying by 0.25 and added to the content of chlorides.
3 The corrosion resistance of structures, exposed to medium and highly aggressive sea water, should be ensured by
primary protection measures.

2.15 The water used for mixing the concrete should comply with the requirements ofGOST
23732.
2.16 To improve the durability of the concrete used in reinforced concrete structures operating
in hostile environments, admixtures should be used that reduce the permeability of the concrete or
improve its chemical resistance, and increase the protective ability of the concrete with regard to the
rebar.
The use of chloride salts in the concrete mix, including in the composition of the binder,
aggregates and the water used for mixing is not permitted for reinforced concrete structures:
- with prestressed rebar;
- with class V-1 non-prestressed rebar 5 mm or less in diameter;
- operated in a damp or wet conditions;
- fabricated with the use of autoclave curing;
- subject to galvanic corrosion
The use of chloride salts in concretes, and mortars for grouting and the jointing of cast in place
and precast constructions is not permitted.
2.17 The design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments should be
carried out according to SNiP 2.03.01-84*, taking into account this standard for the category of
requirements for crack resistance and the permissible crack width. In this regard, the category of
requirements for the crack resistance of reinforced concrete structures, as well as the maximum
permissible width of crack openings should be assigned taking into consideration the steel class
used for the rebar and the aggressiveness of the environment.
For structures, intended for use in gaseous and solid aggressive environments, these
requirements are listed in table 9 and for liquid aggressive environments in table 11.
Table 8
9

The aggressive impact of organic liquid


environments on water resistance grade
concretes

Environment
Oils:
mineral
vegetable
animal
Hydrocarbons:
crude oil1
sour crude

W4

W6

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same

Same

Same
Slightly
aggressive
Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Same

Same

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Highly
aggressive

Highly
aggressive

Highly
aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

sulphurous fuel oil1


diesel fuel1

W8
Non aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Same

Same

Same
Same
Slightly
Same
Non aggressive
aggressive
Same
Same
Same
Non aggressive Non aggressive
Same

kerosene1
benzine
Solvents:
saturated hydrocarbons (heptane, octane, decane,
etc.)
aromatic hydrocarbons (benzol, toluene, xylene,
chlorobenzene, etc.)
ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone,
diethylketone, etc.)
Acids:
aqueous acid solutions (acetic, citric, lactic, etc.)
with concentrations greater than 0.05 g/l 0.05 g/l
water insoluble fatty acids (caprylic, capra new
etc.)
Alcohols:
monobasic alcohol

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

polyalcohols
Monomers:
chlorobutadiene

Highly
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive

stirol
Amides:
10

Non aggressive Non aggressive


Moderately
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Highly
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Non aggressive

carbamide (aqueous solutions with a


concentration of 50 to 150 g/l)
same, > 150 g/l
dicyandiamide (aqueous solutions with a
concentration up to 10 g/l)
dimethylformamide (aqueous solutions with a
concentration of 20 to 50 g/l)
same, > 50 g/l
Misc. organic substances:
phenol (aqueous solutions with a concentration
up to 10 g/l)
formaldehyde (aqueous solutions with a
concentration of 20 to 50 g/l)
same, > 50 g/l
dichlorobutene
tetrahydrofuran

Same

Same

Moderately
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same

Moderately
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same
Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

sugar (aqueous solutions with a concentration


more than 0.1 g/l)
1

Same

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Same

Non aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Same
Same
Non aggressive

The aggressiveness to the structural elements of storage tanks for petroleum and petroleum products is given in 2.57.

Table 8a

Environment
Mushrooms
Thiobacteria

The aggressive impact of biologically active environments on


concrete
Slightly aggressive
From slightly aggressive to highly aggressive depending on the
concentration of hydrogen sulphide per table 2 and Appendix 1

Note The concentration of hydrogen sulphide is calculated by the design organisation depending on the composition of
wastewater and design characteristics of the reservoir.

Table 9

Reinforcin
g steel
group
I

Reinforcing
steel class

A-I, A-II, A-III,


V-I, Vr-I

Category requirements for crack resistance of concrete structures


and the maximum permitted width of short and long crack
openings, mm, where the aggressiveness of a gaseous and solid
environment on the reinforced concrete is1
Moderately
Slightly aggressive
Highly aggressive
aggressive
3
3**
3
_______________
________________ _________________
0.25 (0.20)
0.20 (0.15)
0.15 (0.10)
11

A-IIIv, A-IV,
At-IVK
At-III, At-IIIS
At-IVS, AtVSK, -VIK
II
V-II, Vr-II, K-7,
K-19
A-V, A-VI, AtV, At-VI
III

V-II, Vr-II, K-7,


K-19 if the wire
diameter is less
than 3.5 mm

3
3**
2
__________________ _______________
___________
0.25 (0.20)
0.15 (0.10)
0.10
3
_________________ Not permitted for use Not permitted for use
0.25(0.20)
3
2*, **
_______________
______________
1
0.15 (0.10)
0.10
2
2
_______________
_____________
1
0.10
0.05
2*
_______________
1
Not permitted for use
0.1
2*
______________
0.05

Above the line - crack-resistance requirements category; below the line - maximum permissible width of short and
long-term (in parentheses) crack openings.
* The structure shall be classified as category 1 for crack resistance requirements if the environment contains chlorine,
chloride dust, nitric and rhodanate salts, hydrogen chloride, or hydrogen sulfide.
** If moderately aggressive exposure is only determined due to moisture and the presence of carbon dioxide, the
requirements for crack resistance and crack width opening maybe taken as for a slightly aggressive environment.
Note - Heat strengthened reinforcement bars with the index "K" are resistant to corrosion cracking, "S"means it is
weldable, "SK" means resistant to stress corrosion cracking.

Table 10
Reinforcin
g steel
group
(see Table
9)
I
II
III

Thickness of the protective layer of concrete for prefabricated blocks and structures,
mm (above the line) and water resistance grade of concrete (below the line) at a
aggressiveness of the gaseous and solid environment as follows
slightly aggressive
moderately aggressive
highly aggressive
20
W4
25
W4
25
W6*

20
W6
25
W6*
25
W8

25
W8
25
W8
25
W8

* When using grades II, Vr-II, K-7 and K-19 reinforcement wire, W8 grade concrete should be used.

When determining the width of short term crack openings shown in tables 9 and 11, it is
permissible to:
- use a wind load of 30% of the standard value;
- take into account the crane load from one bridge or suspended crane operating on each gantry
rail. In this regard, the width of short term crack openings from loads given in SNiP 2.01.07-85,
shall not exceed the values given in SNiP 2.03.01-84 *.

12

Note When designing structures such as towers, chimneys, overhead power line poles, or masts, for which wind loads are a
factor, the wind load must be taken into account fully.

2.18 Reinforcing steel is divided into three groups depending on the danger of corrosion
damage (see tables 9 and 10).
For the reinforcement of prestressed structures to be operated in aggressive environments, it is
preferable to use group II reinforcing steel II.
2.19The thickness requirements for the protective layer and the water resistance of concrete
subject to gaseous and solid aggressive environments are outlined in Table 10, and in liquid
environments, in table 11.
2.20 For heavy duty and light concretes used in flat slabs, ribbed slabs and wall panel slabs the
thickness of the protective layer may be 15 mm for slightly aggressive and medium aggressive
gaseous environments and 20 mm for highly aggressive environments, regardless of class of the
grade of the reinforcing steel.
The thickness of the protective layer for caste in place structures should be 5 mm more than the
values shown in tables 10 and 11.
For prestressed reinforced concrete crack resistance category 2 structures, the width of shortterm crack openings should be 0.05 mm with the protective layer thickness increased by 10 mm.
2.21 When using galvanized reinforcement in mild and moderately aggressive environments the
thickness of the protective layer may be decreased by 5 mm or the permeability of the concrete may
be increased by one level. In this case the water resistance grade of the concrete should not be less
than W4.
2.22 For category 3 crack-resistance structures it is not permitted to use -I and -I class wire
with a diameter of less than 4 mm.
2.23 Prestressed structures for buildings subject to an aggressive environment may not be
fabricated by jacking the rebar of hardened concrete.
2.24 Reinforcing cable for prestressed concrete structures should be from wire with a diameter
of at least 2.5 mm for external cable and at least 2.0 mm for the wire in the inner layers.
2.25 The use of concrete and reinforced concrete structures constructed from light concretes is
allowed in aggressive environments provided that they meet the respective water resistance
requirements in Tables 10, 11.
2.26 Load bearing structures from light-weight porous aggregate materials with a water
absorption of more than 14% by volume for use in aggressive environments is not allowed.
2.27 Enclosing structures from light and cellular concretes in aggressive gaseous and solid
environments should be used per Table 12.
2.28 Structures from ferro-concrete may be used in slightly aggressive gaseous and solid
environments. In gaseous environments the thickness of the protective layer should be at least 4
mm, and the concrete water permeability not more than 8% - provided the reinforcement grids and
wires are galvanised to a zinc thickness of not less than 30 microns or that the surface of the
structure is protected with group III paint. In addition to other prescribed measures, in solid
environments both the reinforcement and the surface should be protected.
Table 11
Requirements for reinforced concrete structures when exposed to liquid
aggressive environments
concrete water
Aggressiveness requirement category for crack resistance and thickness
resistance grade, at
per Tables 4,7, maximum permissible width of short and longof the
least, depending on
8*
term crack openings1, mm, depending on
protective rebar steel group
the rebar steel group (see Table 9)
layer not
(see Table 9)
less, mm
I
II
III
I
II
III
13

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

3
3
2
____________ _____________ __________
0.2 (0.15)
0.15 (0.10)
0.1
3
3
1
____________
___________ __________
_
0.1 (0.05)
0.15(0.1)
3**
2
Not
____________ ____________ permitted for
0.15(0.1)
0.05
use

20

W4

W6

W6

30

W6

W6

W6

30

W6

W6

Above the line - crack-resistance requirements category, below the line - permissible width of short and long-term (in
parentheses) crack openings.
* The aggressiveness of a liquid environment per Table 8 should be taken into account only for crude oil, sour crude
and sulphurous fuel oil.
** Steel grade -III may be used.
Note - The requirements of this table do not apply to the design of reinforced concrete piping for buried pipelines.

Table 12
Aggressiveness
of the
environment in a
premises
Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Highly
aggressive

Safety requirements enclosing structures


from light concretes
(toughened and porous structures)

from autoclave cured aerated concrete


using cement of mixed binder

The use of this construction is


permitted provided there is an
insulating layer from heavy or light
structural concrete on the side subject
to the aggressive environment.
The use of this construction is
permitted provided there is an
insulating layer from heavy or light
structural concrete and paintwork on
the side subject to the aggressive
environment.
Not permitted for use

The use of this construction is


permitted provided the reinforcement
is protected with a special coating and
the concrete surface is vapor-proofed
by paintwork.
Not permitted for use

Same

Notes:
1 The water resistance grade of the of heavy or lightweight structural concrete insulation layer must comply with the requirements
of Table 10.
2 In buildings and facilities where the aggressive environment is characterised by damp or wet conditions or the presence of carbon
dioxide, the use of light-weight concrete constructions without paint protection is permitted, as is the use of aerated concretes
protected for slightly aggressive environments. The coating/surfacing Groups are summarized in Table 13.

2.29 When concreting the embedded steel parts of connection elements, no having a protective
coating, the thickness of the protective layer and water resistance grade of the concrete should
conform to the requirements prescribed for concrete used in joined structures.
Corrosion protection for the surfaces of concrete and reinforced concrete structures
2.30 Surface protection for structures should be provided in the cases indicated in Table 13, and
selected depending on the type and extent of aggressiveness of the environment.
2.31 When designing structures the following should be included:
14

- painting: when subject to gaseous and solid environments (aerosols);


- painting of high-build (mastic) coatings: when subject to liquid environments, when there is
direct contact with a strong and aggressive medium;
- backlining: where the impact is from liquid environments and soils, as an impermeable
sublayer when cladding;
- cladding, including polymer concretes: in liquid environments and soils, as a protection
against mechanical damage to backlining;
- impregnation (sealant) with chemically resistant materials: subject to liquid environments and
soils;
- hydrophobisation: when there is periodic wetting from water or atmospheric moisture, or
where there is condensation, as a surface treatment before applying an undercoat prior to painting;
- biocide: when subject to bacteria emitting acid, and mushrooms.
2.32 Paintwork, backlining and cladding in accordance with their protective properties are
divided into four groups (the fourth having the most protective properties).
Paintwork materials used for protecting the surfaces of concrete structures are listed in the
reference Appendix 3.
Crack-resistant paint coatings should be provided for structures where deformations are
accompanied by crack openings within the parameters specified in Tables 9 and 11.
Painting of high-build (mastic) coatings, backlining and cladding for surface protection of
concrete structures in contact with liquid aggressive environments, are given in the reference
Appendix 4.
It is not permitted to use paintwork, roll, sheet materials and sealants based on bitumen in liquid
organic environments (oil, oil products, solvents).
All materials used to protect against corrosion, should be accompanied by a certificate of quality.
2.33 To protect the underside of concrete and reinforced concrete foundations and structures an
insulation that is resistant to the impact of a aggressive environment sould be provided.
2.34 The side surfaces of buried concrete and reinforced concrete structures in contact with
aggressive ground water or soil should be protected according to the recommended Appendix 5
taking into account possible increases in the level of subsoil waters and their aggressiveness during
operation of the facility.
If the soil contains water-soluble salts over 1% of the mass of soil for areas with an average
monthly temperature in the hottest month in excess of 25 and a mean monthly relative humidity of
less than 40%, waterproofing of all the surfaces of the foundations should be provided.
Table 13

Environmen
Aggressiveness
t
Slightly
aggressive
Gaseous,
solid

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Surfacing/coating groups (above the line) and thickness1, mm


(below the line)
paintwork
adhesive
cladding
lining
standard
thick (mastic)
I*, II*
_____________
------0.1-0.15
III**
_____________
------_
0.15-0.2
IV
____________
-----0.2-0.25
15

Liquid

Slightly
aggressive

---

Moderately
aggressive

---

Highly
aggressive

---

II
____________
1.0-1.5
III
____________
1.5-2.5
IV
____________
2.5-5.0

---

II

III - IV

III

IV

IV

The thickness included all the coating/surfacing elements.


* Group I and II coatings/surfacings should be used when there are finishing requirements.
** Group III coatings/surfacings should be used when the environment contains group B gases and in damp and wet
operational conditions (or in a humid region), and also for the protection of the internal surface of enclosing structures
constructed from light-weight and aerated concretes.

2.35 In liquid aggressive environments concrete and reinforced concrete foundations under
metal columns and equipment, and also some surface areas of other structures adjoining the floor
should be protected with chemically resistant materials to a height of at least 300 mm from the
finished floor level. Drip pans should be provided where moderately and highly aggressive liquids
systematically come into contact with the foundations. On those areas of the structure's surface
where it is possible to avoid soaking or splashing from aggressive liquids by technical means,
additional local protection with backlining, cladding or other surface coverings should be provided.
2.36 Subsoil utility pipelines carrying liquids that are aggressive to concrete or reinforced
concrete should be placed in channels or tunnels and be accessible for regular inspection.
Sewage outflow channels, inlets, and headers carrying aggressive liquids should be placed away
from the foundations of buildings, columns, walls, and equipment by at least 1 m.
2.37 The surfaces of driven and vibro-driven piles should be protected by mechanically strong
coatings or by soaking, whilst maintaining the protective properties during the driving process. In
addition the concrete used for the pile should be at least W6 water resistance grade,
When using paintwork (mastic) or soaking to protect the surface, the load bearing capacity of
the piles should be tested.
2.38 For structures where surface protection is difficult to implement (bored piles, structures
built using caste-in-place trench walls etc) one should use primary protection in the form of special
types of cement, fillings, concrete mix design, use of admixtures etc. to increase the resistance of
the cement.
2.39 For the expansion joints of enclosing structures, the expansion compensators should be
from galvanised, stainless steel, rubber coated steel, isobutene polymer coated or other materials
and they should be installed on chemically resistant mastic and tightly fastened. The design of the
expansion joint should prevent possibility of a aggressive medium ingressing through it. Sealing of
joints and seams of enclosing structures should be provided by filling the gaps with joint sealant.
2.40 Corrosion protection for embedded steel elements not covered with concrete and the
connecting elements of reinforced concrete structures should be provided as follows:
- paintwork (per reference Appendix 3) in premises having dry or regular moisture conditions
where the environment is not aggressive or only slightly aggressive;
- metal coatings (zinc or aluminium) in premises having damp or wet moisture conditions
where the environment is not aggressive or only slightly aggressive;
- combined coatings (paintwork on a metallised coating) where the environment is moderately
or highly aggressive.
On the welded adjoining surfaces of embedded steel elements and connecting elements it is
permitted not to apply protective coatings.

16

2.41 Embedded and connecting elements in the joins of external enclosing structures subject to
damp from atmospheric moisture, condensation, industrial water, regardless of the aggressiveness
of the environment should be protected by metal or combined coatings.
2.42 Paintwork should be provided for the protection of connecting elements and the surfaces
of embedded elements fully accessible for the renewal of the coatings over the course of operation,
regardless of the aggressiveness of the environment.
2.43 Where a structure protected by a combined coatings (with a metal sublayer based on zinc
or aluminium) is subject to a highly aggressive medium, and the protection is not sufficient,
embedded elements that are not covered with concrete and connecting elements of the reinforced
concrete structure should be made from steel that is chemically resistant to the given environment.
2.44 Embedded elements in autoclaved concrete structures should have aluminium coatings.
Aluminium coatings should also be used for the protection of the embedded and connecting
elements in the construction of buildings and facilities subject to aggressive gaseous environments
containing sour gas and hydrogen sulphide. Aluminium coated embedded elements in contact with
concrete should be subjected to further protection treatment before the structures are filled with
concrete.
2.45 For zinc and aluminium coatings, the metal coatings and metal protective layers in
combined coatings should be at least 120 microns thick.
Hot dip galvanised zinc coatings should be at least 50 microns thick, and galvanised at least 30
microns.
Note - If the aluminium layer is thicker than 120 microns then prior to welding the embedded elements the coating
is removed from the place where the weld seam is to be placed.

2.46 In cases where it is not possible to implement the corrosion protection measures for
concrete and reinforced concrete structures prescribed in these regulations, constructions from
chemically resistant concretes, polymer concretes or acid resistant concrete should be used.
Floors
2.47 Waterproofing for the floor should be selected depending on the degree of impact of liquid
mediums on the floor as per SNiP RK B.2.6-3-2000 and the level of aggressiveness of these
mediums.
Where the degree or impact is slight and the aggressiveness is low insulating paintwork should
be used.
Where the degree of impact of the liquid is moderate or high and the aggressiveness is low or if
the degree of impact of the liquid is slight and the aggressiveness is moderate or high then back
lining insulation should be provided using rolls based on bitumen or rolls or sheets of polymer
materials.
If the degree of impact of the liquid is high and its aggressiveness is also high then strengthened
back lining insulation should be used. Strengthened insulation should likewise be used under
channels and wastewater outflow channels and extend 1 m in all directions.
Materials used for the protection of floors are given in the recommended Appendices 6 & 7.
For the drainage of wash water and industrially aggressive solutions from floors, drainage and
outflow channels, accessible for inspection and repair should be provided, with the straight section
as long as possible.
2.48 When designing floors laid on soil, if the degree of impact from the medium is moderate
or high, and the aggressiveness moderate or high, then additional insulation is provided under the
bedding regardless of the presence of ground water and its level.
2.49 Foundations under equipment placed at floor level or higher, should be level with the floor
structure. To preserve the integrity of both, compensators or other similar measures should be
included.
17

Chimneys, flues, ventilation and drain pipes,


tank facilities and pipelines
2.50 For reinforced concrete piping transporting aggressive gaseous mediums at least B 30
strength, F 200 frost resistance, and W 8 water resistance grade concrete should be used.
2.51 For the reinforced concrete stacks of chimneys and flue ducts, and also for drain pipes
carrying aggressive media containing sulphur compounds, sulphate resistant portland cement or
sulphate resistant portland cement with mineral admixtures should be used. The use of portland
cement with mineral admixtures, the clinkers of which contain tricalcium aluminate 3 not
exceeding 7 % is permitted.
2.52 Graded crushed stone from igneous rocks, and quartz or feldspar bearing sand should be
used as an aggregate for the concrete of pipes.
For the concrete of drainage pipes aggregates from carbonaceous rocks meeting the
requirements set forth in item 2.13 may be used.
2.53 Protection for the internal surfaces of reinforced concrete chimney and flue stacks, and
also the external surfaces of the parts falling within the envelopment zone with temperatures up to
80 should be implemented depending on the aggressiveness of the medium, in the form of
paintwork as per Table 13 and reference Appendix 3.
2.54 Areas of pipe stacks and foundations where the formation of condensation is possible
should be protected with a protective mastic or backline covering using press in lining.
When constructing drainage pipelines at sites with highly aggressive media one should use
reinforced concrete piping with an internal lining of polyethylene, PVC etc.
2.55 For the lining of chimney stacks one should use acid resistant or argillaceous bricks on an
acid resistant filler or mortar.
For the lining of flu gas stacks one should use acid resistant bricks on an acid resistant filler.
For the lining of reinforced concrete ventilation piping moulded acid resistant ceramic tiles or
acid resistant bricks on a polymer or acid resistant filler should be used.
2.56 The protection of external surfaces of pipe and gas flues foundations should be in
accordance with the requirements for the protection of subsoil structures from corrosion.
2.57 For tank facilities and subsoil pipelines the aggressiveness of the liquid medium should be
determined per Tables 5-8.
For the internal surfaces of the walls and bottom of tanks storing oil and oil products the action
of crude oil and residuum on the structure should be considered as moderately aggressive, and the
aggressiveness of fuel oil, diesel fuel and kerosene as slightly aggressive. For the internal surfaces
of the tank roof the action of the aforementioned liquids should be considered as slightly aggressive.
2.58 The requirements for the reinforced concrete structures of tank facilities depending on the
aggressiveness of the medium should be adopted per Table 11.
Tank facilities for the storage of oil and oil products should use concrete with a water resistance
grade at least W 8,
2.59 Corrosion protection methods for the internal surfaces of tank facility structures should be
applied per Table 13 and reference Appendix 4.
2.60 Tank facilities, embedded in the ground should have external water proofing, to prevent
ground moisture from coming into contact with the surface of the reinforced concrete.
2.61 Reinforced concrete pipe used in subsoil pipelines should be protected from corrosion
using cathodic protection if the aqueous extract from the soil (GOST 9.602) or the groundwater
contains chlorides, mg/l:
- for vibro-hydrotreated pipes (GOST12586.0).
- for steel cored pipes;
1) when the water resistance grade of the concrete layer is W4 and
permissible crack width opening of 0.1
mm .........................................
18

......... more than 500;


......... more than 300;

2) when the water resistance grade of the concrete layer is less than
W4 and permissible crack width opening of 0.2
mm .........................................

......... more than 150.

When designing cathodic protection one should include measures to ensure the uninterrupted
electrical conduction along reinforced concrete pipelines.
Specificity of reinforced concrete structures protection from electrocorrosion
2.62 Protection from electrocorrosion should be provided:
- where there are stray currents from DC units, for:
1) reinforced concrete structures of the buildings of electrolytic compartments;
2) DC rail transport facilities structures;
3) pipelines, collectors, foundations and other extensive underground structures of buildings
and facilities located within the electromagnetic field of an extraneous source;
4) to protect from the influence of AC currents when using reinforced concrete structures as
earthing devices.
2.63 The corrosion hazard from stray currents should be established by measuring the voltage
potential of the concrete rebar or the leak current density from the rebar. Hazard factors are given in
Table 14.
2.64 The reinforced concrete buildings and facilities of electrolytic compartments and DC rail
transport reinforced concrete structures are invariably hazardous, for which reason when designing
these structures protection from electrocorrosion is obligatory.
The electrocorrosion hazard to underground reinforced concrete structures located within the
electromagnetic field of an extraneous source, and the necessity to protect them from
electrocorrosion should be established based on calculations or by measuring the voltage of stray
currents in the ground or at nearby existing similar reinforced concrete structures.
2.65 The corrosion hazard from industrial frequency AC currents for structures used as earthing
devices is determined by the current density of the sustained current flowing from the external
surface of the reinforcement of the underground structures into the ground, exceeding 10 mA/dm2.
2.66 Methods for the corrosion protecting of reinforced concrete structures from stray currents
are divided into the following groups:
I - limiting the current leakage, which is undertaken at the sources of stray currents;
II - passive protection, undertaken on the reinforced concrete structures;
III - active (galvanic) protection, undertaken on the reinforced concrete structures if passive
protection is not possible or not sufficient.
When designing the reinforced concrete structures of buildings and facilities of electrolytic
compartments and DC rail transport facilities group I and II electrocorrosion protection methods
should be used.
2.67 The passive protection of the reinforced concrete structures of buildings and facilities of
electrolytic compartments and DC rail transport facilities should be ensured by:
- the use of W 6 water resistance grade concrete;
- avoiding use of concrete admixtures that lower the electrical resistance of concrete, including
those that inhibit steel corrosion;
- using a concrete protective layer thickness of at least 20 mm, and for the supports of overhead
wiring networks, at least 16 mm;
- limiting the crack width displacement to less than 0.1 mm for prestressed steel designs and
less than 0.2 mm for standard designs.
2.68 It is not permitted to use admixtures of chloride salts in the concrete used for structures
located within the electromagnetic field of an extraneous source, or to use admixtures of chloride,
nitrate or nitrite salts in the concrete used in prestressed steel structures reinforced with -IV, V, -VI, A-V A-VI grade steels.
19

2.69 For the electrocorrosion protection of buildings and facilities of electrolytic compartments
the following should be provided:
- electro-insulating seams in reinforced concrete ceilings, reinforced concrete areas for
servicing the electrolysers, in underground reinforced concrete structures;
- polymer concrete for structures adjoining electric load carrying equipment (supports, beams
and foundations under electrolysers, the support posts for busbars, support beams and foundations
for equipment connected to electrolysers) in electrolytic compartments containing aqueous
solutions;
-measures to prevent spills of solution from the structures (installation of protective screens
etc.);
- surface protection of the foundations with coatings recommended for the corrosion protection
of underground structures;
- the steel reinforcement of foundations under electrolysers is not permitted if they are installed
at or below ground level, the level of channels, gutters,
2.70 For the protection of the reinforced concrete structures of rail transport facilities from
electrocorrosion the one should include the installation of electro-insulating elements and devices
ensuring an electrical resistance of at least 10,000 Ohms for the ground loop of overhead wiring
network supports and of fixing elements for the overhead network to bridges, flyovers, tunnels etc.
2.71 When using reinforced concrete structures as earthing devices one should envisage the
interconnection of the reinforcement of all the structures elements (and also the embedded elements
installed in reinforced concrete columns for connection to electrical industrial equipment) in a
continuous electrical circuit along the metal by welding the reinforcement or embedded elements of
adjoining parts of the structure. In this regard, the working structural model for the structure should
remain unchanged.
2.72 It is not permitted to use reinforced concrete foundations subject to moderate or Highly
aggressive as earthing devices, or reinforced concrete structures for earthing of power generation
plants running on DC currents.
3 WOODEN STRUCTURES
3.1 The aggressive impact on wooden structures comes from biological agents: wood
destroying fungi etc, causing biological corrosion of the wood, and also chemically Moderately
aggressive environments (gaseous, solid, liquid), causing chemical corrosion of the wood.
3.2 The aggressive impact on the wood from biological agents should be taken from table 15.
Table 14

Type of
structure

Main hazard factors in anodic and alternating


field zones1
electric potential of
current loss density
the concrete
from the
reinforcement with
reinforcement,
respect to a coppermA/dm2
sulphate electrode, V

Buildings and facilities

Those given in item 2.62 if the


Underground ground water contains up to 0.2 g/l
of l*
Above
Electrolytic compartment with
ground
molten electrolyte in railway
transport industry facilities

20

> 0.5

> 0.6

> 0.5

> 0.6

Electrolyte compartment with


aqueous solutions

> 0.0

> 0.6

The figures are valid when protecting the reinforcement of concrete in structures with a crack width displacement no more than as
shown in item 2.67. If there are cracks whose widths are more than those shown in 2.67 in the protective layer of concrete,
electrocorrosion hazard figures should be adopted from GOST 9.602
* The method for determining chlorine ions in groundwater is performed in accordance with GOST 9.602

Table 15

Service
Condition
Wooden structures and their elements
s

Load bearing elements of the structure,


bracings, girders, elements of internal
partition walls, walls, suspended
ceilings etc
Structure support elements,
Inside the intersections of structures from
premises different materials, joists, floor boards,
or under a window and door units, elements of
covering dados, of enclosing structures
Elements of the load bearing
structures, bracings, girders, the
sidings of enclosing structures
Elements of tile cladding, the carcass
of enclosing structures
Topsides of unclad structures, open
elements of roofs, elements of bridges
Supports for power transmission lines,
posts, piles elements of bridges
Outside
Shore structures, cooling towers,
elements of bridges

Type of
wetting

aggressive impact of biological


agents in damp premises
(above the line) or in the
moisture zone
(below the line) per SNiP RK
2.04-03-2002
dry, normal
damp, wet
dry, normal
damp

Gaseous
Non
environment aggressive

Periodic
wetting and
freezing

Slightly
aggressive

Moderately aggressive

Condensation
Moderately aggressive
moisture
Same

Highly aggressive

Precipitation Moderately aggressive


In contact
with the
ground
Zone within
which the
water level
varies

Highly aggressive

Same

The aggressiveness of chemically aggressive mediums on wooden structures are given as


follows:
- gaseous: in Table 16;
- solid: in Table 17;
- liquid inorganic mediums: in Table 18;
- liquid organic mediums: in Table 19;
3.3 When designing wooden structures for operation in moderate and highly aggressive
chemical environments the aggressiveness of biological agents is not taken into account.

21

3.4 Design solutions for buildings and facilities should ensure that it is possible to undertake
periodic inspections of the wooden structural elements and to renew the protective coatings.
3.5 For wooden structures intended for operation in moderate or highly aggressive
environments, it is necessary to comply with the following additional requirements:
- structures should be constructed from conifers (pine, fir etc);
- the adhesive bonding of structures should be done using phenolic, resorcinol resin, and
phenolic-resorcinol resin adhesives;
- load bearing structures should be designed from solid cross sectional elements (laminate,
block board);
As enclosing structures one should use laminated plywood panels The use of boarded roofs and
siding wall panels is permitted providing the required corrosion protection is ensured.
3.6 Structures should be designed with the minimum amount of metal connecting pieces and
using chemically resistant materials (modified polymer wood, fibreglass etc.). When using metal
connecting pieces they should be provided with corrosion protection.
3.7 For the protection of wooden structures from corrosion caused by biological agents,
antiseptics, preservatives, paintwork or surface soaking with multi-action solutions. In chemical
aggressive environments structures should be painted or surface soaked with multi-action solutions.
Table 16

The moisture conditions of


premises
____________________

Gas group (see mandatory


Appendix 1)

Aggressiveness of gaseous
environments on wood

A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D

Non aggressive
Same
Same
Slightly aggressive
Non aggressive
Same
Slightly aggressive
Moderately aggressive
Non aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Same
Moderately aggressive

Moisture zone per SNiP RK 2.0403-2002


Dry
_________________
Dry
Standard
______________________
Standard
Damp or wet
_________________________
Damp

Notes:
1 For the structures of heated buildings, on the surface of which condensation is permitted to form, the aggressiveness
is considered to be as per structures with premises having a damp or wet environment.
2 If a gaseous environment contains several aggressive gases the aggressiveness of the environment is determined by
the most aggressive gas.

Table 17
Solubility of solid mediums in
22

Aggressiveness of solid

The moisture conditions of


premises
___________________________ water1 and their water absorbency
Moisture zone per SNiP RK
2.04-03-2002
Semisoluble
Dry
____________________
Easily dissolved, low water
absorbency
Dry
Easily dissolved, water absorbent
Semisoluble
Standard
Easily dissolved, low water
_____________________
absorbency
Standard
Easily dissolved, water absorbent
Semisoluble
Damp or wet
_____________________
Easily dissolved, low water
absorbency
Damp
Easily dissolved, water absorbent
1

mediums on wood

Non aggressive
Same
Slightly aggressive
Non aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Same
Non aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Moderately aggressive

The list of the most common soluble salts and their characteristics are given in reference Appendix 2.

Table 18
Aggressiveness
Environmen Concentration,
of inorganic
t
%
liquid mediums
on wood1

Aggressiveness
Concentration,
of inorganic
Environment
%
liquid mediums
on wood1
Acid:
sulphurous
> 5 - 10
water
nitric water
> 5 - 10
brine
up to 5
Moderately
aggressive
phosphorou
> 10
s
Ammonia
> 5 - 10
caustic water up to 2 and
more 30
Acid:
sulphurous
> 10
water
Highly
nitric water
> 10
aggressive

Water
river water
lake water
seawater

Acid:
phosphorous

up to 10

sulphurous
water
nitric water
Ammonia

up to 5

Non aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

up to 5
up to 5

brine
caustic water

>5
> 2 - 30

1 where the temperature of the medium is 45-50 the aggressiveness is increased one level

Table 19
23

Environment

The aggressive impact of organic liquid


mediums on wood

Hydrocarbons:

Non aggressive

Oils: mineral, vegetable, animal

"

organic acid solutions acetic, citric, oxalic

Slightly aggressive

Solvents: benzol, acetone

"

3.8 Methods for the protection of wooden structures from corrosion due to biological agents are
given in Table 20.
Methods for the protection of wooden structures from corrosion due to gaseous, solid, and
liquid mediums are given in table 21.
A list of paint materials for the protection of wood is given in reference Appendix 8.
A list of antiseptic and wood preservative solutions is given in reference Appendix 9.
A list of multi-purpose solutions used for the surface impregnation of woodwork is given in
reference Appendix 10.
4 MASONRY & ASBESTOS CEMENT STRUCTURES
4.1 The requirements of this section apply to stone structures constructed from clay and silica
bricks and to asbestos cement structures.
4.2 The aggressiveness of gaseous and solid mediums on brick structures should be taken from
Tables 22 and 23.
The aggressiveness of saline soils on brick structures should be taken from Table 4.
The aggressiveness to brick structures of liquid mediums where there is an impact from
solutions containing chlorides, sulphates, nitrates and other salts and caustic alkalis in quantities
greater than 10 up to 15 g/l, should be taken as slightly aggressive, more than 15 up to 20 g/l as
moderately aggressive, more than 20 g/l as highly aggressive.
The construction of silica brick structures for use in aggressive liquid environments is not
permitted.
Table 20
Aggressivenes
s as per Table
15

Wooden structures and


their elements

Type of protection
antiseptic

The elements of load


bearing un-bonded and
bonded structures, the
Non aggressive
bracing, joists, elements of
internal partitions, walls
and suspended ceilings
Slightly
Load bearing wooden
aggressive
bonded constructions,
girders, sidings of
enclosing structures

preservative

protective coating

No protection required

24

Water resistant
paintwork or
water and bioresistant dipping
solutions

Elements of load bearing


un-bonded structures, the
frames of enclosing
structures

Antiseptic
treatment with
water soluble
antiseptics or
treatment with
antiseptic pastes

Elements of load bearing


wooden structures, girders
Butts, support elements,
intersections with external
walls, sidings of enclosing
structures

Moderately
aggressive

Highly
aggressive

Antiseptic
treatment with
water soluble
antiseptics or
treatment with
antiseptic pastes
Elements of load bearing
Antiseptic
unbonded structures,
difficult to washjoists, floorboards,
off water soluble
window and door units,
antiseptics or
trusses, girders, the frames treatment with
of enclosing structures, the antiseptic pastes
topsides of exposed
facilities, the exposed
elements of roofs, bridge
elements
Roof covering elements,
Preservation with
the frames of enclosing
difficult to washstructures
off water soluble
antiseptics
Electricity pylons, piles,
Preservative
bridge elements, cooling
treatment with oil
towers
based or difficult
to wash off
antiseptics

Moisture resistant
paintwork or
moisture and bioresistant dipping
solutions
Moisture resistant
paintwork

It is permitted to use antiseptic pastes based on difficult to wash off antiseptics.

Table 21

Aggressiveness per
Tables 16,17, 18

The moisture conditions of


premises
_______________________

Protection

Moisture zone per SNiP RK 2.0403-2002


Non aggressive

Moderately aggressive

25

Elements of load bearing wooden


structures, girders

dry, normal
dry, normal

No protection required

Slightly aggressive

Chemically and moisture resistant


paints or moisture and bio-resistant
impregnation solutions

damp, wet
Damp
Dry, normal
Dry, normal

Chemically resistant paints

Moderately aggressive

Chemically and moisture resistant


paints or chemically and moisture
resistant impregnation solutions
Chemically and moisture resistant
paints or chemically and moisture
resistant impregnation solutions

Damp, wet
Damp
Highly aggressive

Liquid medium

Table 22
The moisture conditions of premises
___________________________
Moisture zone per SNiP RK 2.04-03-2002

Gas group
(per
Mandatory
Appendix 1)
B
C
D

Dry
Dry

B
C
D

Standard
Standard

B
C
D

Damp, wet
Damp

Aggressiveness of gaseous
mediums to brick structures (see
note to Table 2)
clay plasticsilica
molded bricks
Non
Non aggressive
aggressive
Same
Same
Same
Same
Non
Non aggressive
aggressive
Same
Same
Slightly aggressive
Same
Non
Non aggressive
aggressive Slightly aggressive
Same
Moderately
Same
aggressive

Table 23
The moisture conditions of premises
_______________________
Moisture zone
(per SNiP RK 2.04-03-2002 )
Dry
Dry
Standard
Standard

Solubility of solid
particles in water1;2
and their waterabsorbing capacity

Aggressiveness of solid media on


brick structures
clay plastic
molded

Easily dissolved, low Non aggressive


water absorbency
Easily dissolved,
Same
water absorbent
Easily dissolved, low Non aggressive
water absorbency
Easily dissolved,
Slightly
water absorbent
aggressive
26

silica
Non aggressive
Same
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

Damp, wet
Damp
1
2

Easily dissolved, low


water absorbency
Easily dissolved,
water absorbent

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Same

A list of the most common soluble salts, aerosols, dusts, and their characteristics are given in Reference Appendix 2.
See footnote 2 to Table 3.

4.3 The aggressiveness of liquid media on cement mortar should be taken from Tables 5, 6, and
8 (when using W4); for mortars with lime admixtures as a plasticiser, the aggressiveness should be
taken as one level higher than those shown in these tables.
It is not permitted to use mortars with clay and ash.
4.4 The aggressiveness of media on asbestos-cement structures should be taken as for concrete:
- gaseous: in Table 2;
- solid: in Table 3;
- solid: in Table 4;
- liquid: in Tables 5, 6, 8 as for concrete based on W4 water resistance grade portland cement.
4.5 Asbestos cement boxes used for the ventilation of buildings and facilities with a aggressive
environment, the aggressiveness of the environment inside the box should be taken as one level
higher than inside the building.
4.6 If there is periodic wetting with a aggressive medium and freezing the brickwork should be
from at least F50 frost resistance grade bricks.
4.7 Cement, sand and water for mortar should meet the requirements set out in section 2.
For acidic media with a Highly aggressive acid resistant mortars based on sodium silicate
(liquid glass) or polymer binders should be used.
All brickwork seams in premises subject to aggressive media should be pointed.
4.8 Asbestos-cement wall panels should not touch the ground. These structures should be laid
on the basement ceiling, having a moisture barrier to protect the asbestos-cement wall panels from
capillary rise of aggressive ground water.
4.9The surface of masonry and reinforced masonry structures should be painted (on plaster) or
coated with a high build (mastic) material (directly on the brickwork) to protect it from corrosion.
4.10 Steel elements in masonry work should be protected from corrosion in accordance with the
requirements of section 2.
4.11 The surface of asbestos-cement structures should be protected from moderately and highly
aggressive media with paintwork in accordance with the requirements in section 2.
4.12 The protection of asbestos-cement composite structures in which wood, metal, polymer
materials are used should be undertaken taking into account the impact of aggressive media on each
of the materials used.
5 METAL STRUCTURES
Aggressive impact rate
5.1 The aggressiveness of media on metal structures is given:
- for the outside air: in Tables 24, 25;
- for liquid inorganic media: in Table 26;
- liquid organic environments: in Table 27;
- for soils, on carbon steel structures: in Table 28.
5.2 When using Tables 24 and 25 to determine the aggressiveness of the medium on those parts of
constructions located inside heated buildings, one should use the characteristics of the moisture
conditions in the premises, and for the parts located inside unheated buildings, under coverings and in
the open, the moisture zone should be used. For heated building structures with premises in damp or
wet conditions the aggressiveness should be established as for unheated buildings designed for a
27

damp zone. Air, including inside buildings, polluted with salts, dust, or aerosols should be taken into
account if the average yearly concentration is 0.3 mg/(m2 per day) or more.
Requirements to materials and structures
5.3 In manufacturing and production buildings with moderately or highly aggressive
environments the spacing of steel columns and roof trusses should be 12 m or more. Steel structures
of production and manufacturing buildings with highly aggressive environments should be designed
with solid walls.
5.4 Steel structures of production and manufacturing buildings and facilities with aggressive
environments with elements from pipework or rectangular hollow sections should be designed with
full penetration welds and sealed ends. In this regard, corrosion protection of the internal surfaces
may be omitted. The use of closed sections in slightly aggressive environments for outside
structures is permitted provided the water drainage is provided in places where it may accumulate.
5.5 The use of metal structures from T-sections from two corner sections, or four-way sections
with open cross-sections from four right-angled corner sections , I -sections from channel sections
or from roll-formed sections in buildings and facilities with moderately aggressive and highly
aggressive environments is not permitted.
Table 24
The moisture conditions of
premises
______________________ Gas group
_
per
Mandatory
Moisture zone
Appendix 1
(per SNiP RK 2.04-032002)

Dry
Dry

inside heated
buildings

inside unheated
buildings or under
shelters

Outside

Non aggressive

Non aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Same

C
D
A

Standard
Standard

B
C
D

Damp or wet
Damp

Aggressiveness of the environment to metal structures

A
B
C

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Non aggressive
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same
Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Same
28

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

Highly aggressive

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

Same

Same

Same

Highly aggressive Highly aggressive


Moderately
Moderately
aggressive
aggressive
Same

Same

Highly aggressive Highly aggressive

Same

Same

Same

Notes:
1 When evaluating the aggressiveness of an environment it is not required to take into account the effect of carbon
dioxide.
2 When evaluating the aggressiveness of the environment on aluminium structures one should not take into account the
effect of sulphurous gas, hydrogen sulphide, nitrous oxides and ammonia within the concentrations given for groups A
and B; the aggressiveness in a damp zone when there are group A gases should be evaluated as slightly aggressive.

Table 25
The moisture
conditions of the
Characteristics
premises
of salts, aerosols
Moisture zone
and dusts
(per SNiP RK 2.0403-2002)
Semisoluble
Dry
Dry

Standard
Standard

Damp or wet
Damp

Easily dissolved,
low water
absorbency
Easily dissolved,
water absorbent
Semisoluble

Aggressiveness of the environment to metal structures1


inside heated
buildings

inside unheated
buildings or under
shelters

Outside

Non aggressive

Non aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Slightly aggressive

Same

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Non aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive
Slightly
aggressive

Easily dissolved,
low water
absorbency
Easily dissolved
water absorbent

Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

Same

Semisoluble

Non aggressive

Slightly aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Same

Highly
aggressive

Easily dissolved,
low water
absorbency
Easily dissolved
water absorbent

For aluminium structures the environment should be considered highly aggressive if there is an accumulation of
chlorides more than 25 mg/(m 2day), and moderately aggressive, if it is more than 5 mg/(m 2day). The aggressiveness
to aluminium of environments containing sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and other oxidizing salts should be
taken into account in accordance with the amounts given above, only if they are present together with chlorides .
Note - For the parts of enclosing structures located inside buildings, the aggressiveness of the environment should be
taken as for premises with damp or wet conditions.

Table 26
Inorganic liquid media

index **

Total
concentration
29

The aggressiveness of media to metal


structures being openly exposed to

Fresh natural water

Seawater
Industrial recirculated and
waste waters, untreated
Liquid waste from
livestock buildings
organic acid solutions
Alkaline solutions
Solutions of salts with
concentrations
> 50 g/l

> 3 - 11
Same
up to 3
> 6 - 8.5
> 3 - 11

of sulphates
and chlorides,
g/l
up to 5
>5
Any
> 20 - 50
up to 5
>5

>5-9

up to 5

up to 3
> 11

Any
Same
Same

oxygen within a temperature range


from 0 to 50 and flow velocity up to
1 m/s
Moderately aggressive
Highly aggressive
Same
Moderately aggressive
Same
Highly aggressive
Moderately aggressive
Highly aggressive
Moderately aggressive
Highly aggressive

> 3 - 11

Notes:
1 If there is chlorine or hydrogen sulfide saturated water then the aggressiveness is taken as one level higher.
2 When removing the oxygen from water and salt solutions (deaeration) one should take the aggressiveness to be one
level lower.
3 When increasing the water velocity from 1 to 10 m/s, and also if the surface of the structure is subject to periodic
wetting in the surf and tidal zone, or if the temperature of the water is increased from 50 to 100 in closed tanks
without deaeration one should take the aggressiveness to be one level higher.

Table 27
Inorganic liquid media

Aggressiveness of the environment to metal structures

Oils (mineral, vegetable, animal)


Hydrocarbons:
Solvents (benzol, acetone)
Organic acid solutions

Non aggressive
Slightly aggressive
Same
Highly aggressive

Note - The aggressiveness of oil and oil products, given in this table should be taken into account. The aggressiveness
of saline soils on brick structures should be taken from Table 32.

Table 28
Groundwater
Aggressiveness of soil above the groundwater
Aggressiveness
2
characteristics
level 3
Average
of soil below
annual air
the total
in the moisture
Unit
the
temperature,
concentration of groundwater
zone per SNiP
resistance of the soil, Ohm
pH
C1
sulphates and
RK
2.04-03level
up to 20
> 20
chlorides, g/l
2002
up to 0 up
Any
moderately
Damp
to
aggressive
moderately
moderately
5
aggressive
aggressive
>
up to 5
Slightly
Dry
Slightly
Slightly
5
aggressive
aggressive
aggressive
30

>0-6

>6

>
5
up
to
5
>
5
>
5
up
to
5
>
5
>
5

>5
Any

up to 1
>1
Any

up to 5
>5

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Standard

Slightly
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Dry

Damp

Standard
Damp

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Dry
Standard

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive
moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive
moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Highly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive
Moderately
aggressive

The average monthly air temperature is given in section SNiP RK 2.04-01-2001


The impact of geothermal waters is not considered.
3
For highly and moderately permeable soils and soils with a coefficient of permeability greater than 0.1 m/day.
Note - The aggressiveness of sandy sediments that do not contain silt, and also containing silt and hydrogen sulphide
less than 20 mg/l = slightly aggressive; containing hydrogen sulphide over 20 mg/l = moderately aggressive.
2

5.6 The load bearing structures of single-storey heated buildings with enclosing structures from
panels that contain shaped steel sheets, should be designed for non aggressive and slightly
aggressive environments. Such buildings maybe designed for moderately aggressive environments
providing the load bearing structures are protected from corrosion in accordance with provisions "a"
and "b" of the Recommended Appendix 14. Is not permitted to design buildings for production
operations involving highly aggressive media with panels containing shaped steel sheets.
5.7 It is not permitted to design steel structures for:
- buildings and facilities with moderately and highly aggressive environments, as well as for
buildings and facilities which are in slightly aggressive environments containing sulphur dioxide or
hydrogen sulphide in gas concentration group B, from steel grades 09G2 and 14G2;
- buildings and facilities with moderately and highly aggressive media containing sulphur
dioxide or hydrogen sulphide gas in concentration groups B, C or D, from the steel 18G2AFps.
5.8 The steel structures of buildings and facilities in which there are slightly aggressive media
containing sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide or hydrogen chloride gas in groups B and C, or with
moderately aggressive and highly aggressive media, as well as structures subject to moderately
aggressive and highly aggressive fluids or soils, maybe designed from steel grades 12GN2MFAYU,
12G2SMF and 14GSMFR with a yield strength of at least 588 MPa, or from higher strength steel,
only after researching the susceptibility of the steel and welded joints to stress corrosion in this
environment, in accordance with the requirements of GOST 9.903.
5.9 It is not permitted to use aluminium, galvanized steel or protective metal coatings in the
design of buildings and facilities that are subject to liquid media or soils with a pH of less than 3
and more than 11, to solutions of copper, mercury, tin, nickel, lead and other heavy metal salts, solid
caustic, calcified soda or other readily soluble hygroscopic salts with an alkaline reaction which
could be deposited on the structures in the form of dust, if the aggressiveness of the environment is
considered moderately aggressive or highly aggressive, without taking into account the
aggressiveness of the dust.
Note - When designing sites, during construction of which the surface of aluminium structures may come into
contact with the aforementioned dust, liquid media, and also mortars and uncured concrete, one should give instructions
on the need to remove them from the surface the structures.

31

5.10 It is not permitted to design aluminium structures for buildings and facilities subject to
moderately and highly aggressive media if the concentrations of chlorine, hydrogen chloride and
hydrogen fluoride gas fall into groups C and D. Aluminium alloy grades 1915, 1925, 1915T, 1925T,
1935T are not permitted for use in structures located in inorganic liquid environments.
5.11 When designing offshore oil and gas hydrotechnical structures (except for the deep
foundations of fixed platforms) the following are not permitted:
a) placement of coupling elements (struts, bracing, welds) in the zone of periodic wetting;
b) connection of couplings to supports with clamps;
c) the placement of spans in the zone of periodic wetting.
The following limitations for deepwater foundations of fixed platforms apply:
- for structures in the Caspian Sea - to a height of at least 1 m above the water edge;
- for structures in other waters - to the height of the tidal zones.
5.12 It is not permitted to design steel structures with connections using high-strength bolts
from 30HZMF "SELECT" grade steel and the rivets out of 09G2 grade steel for buildings and
structures in slightly aggressive environments containing sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide gas
in concentration group B, as well as buildings and facilities with with moderately and highly
aggressive media.
5.13 When designing the elements of structures from steel wire ropes for outdoor installations
one should take into account the requirements given in Mandatory Appendix 11, and for steel cables
inside buildings with Moderately aggressive media or within boxes (the aggressiveness of the
internal environment of which is evaluated per Table. 24 - as for unheated buildings) in accordance
with Mandatory Appendix 11 (as for both moderately aggressive and highly aggressive media
outdoors).
5.14 When designing structures from dissimilar metals for use in moderately aggressive
environments measures should be provided to prevent contact corrosion in the contact areas of the
dissimilar metals, and when designing welded structures, one should take into account the
requirements of Recommended Appendix 12.
5.15 The minimum thickness of sheet walling used without corrosion protection should be
determined according to the Mandatory Appendix 13.
Surface corrosion protection of steel and aluminium structures
5.16 Ways to protect against the corrosion of steel load-bearing structures and aluminium and
galvanized steel walling are given in the Recommended Appendix 14 and Table 29. Load bearing
structures of 10HNDP grade steel may not be protected against corrosion in slightly aggressive
open air environments, if made from 10HSND 15HSND grade steel - outdoors in a dry area when
the concentration of gases in the atmosphere falls in group A (slightly aggressive level of exposure).
Where the rolled steel is more than 5 mm thick the use of structural steel of these marks is permitted
without cleaning the surface from oxide scale and rust. Enclosing structures from 10HNDP grade
steel (for environments with gas concentrations corresponding to groups A and B) and 10HDP grade
steel (only for gas concentration group A) may be used without corrosion protection provided the
open air environment is only slightly aggressive. The parts of steel structures constructed from these
steel grades inside buildings with non aggressive or slightly aggressive environments must be
protected from corrosion using paint from groups II and III, applied to paint lines and metal profile
lines, or by means of protection prescribed for media subject to a slightly aggressive level of
exposure.
Enclosing structures of non-galvanized carbon steel with paintwork from group II or III paint
applied to the paint lines and metal profile lines may be used for non aggressive environments.
5.17 When designing load bearing structures from aluminium that are exposed to Moderately
aggressive environments (excluding the slightly aggressive impact from fluids containing chlorine,
hydrogen chloride or hydrogen fluoride in gas concentration group B), one should comply with the
same corrosion protection requirements as for enclosing structures from aluminium. For the media
32

indicated in brackets, load bearing structures made of aluminium of all types should be protected from
corrosion by electrochemical anodization (thickness t 15 microns). Structures, operating in water
with a total concentration of sulfates and chlorides more than 5 g/l, should be protected with
electrochemical anodization (t 15 microns) followed by painting with group IV waterproof paint
materials. The thickness of paintwork for enclosing and load bearing aluminium structures should not
be less than 70 microns.
The junctions of aluminium structures with structures made of brick or concrete is allowed only
after complete hardening of the mortar or concrete, regardless of the aggressiveness of the medium.
Junctions should be protected with paintwork. Concreting of aluminium structures is not allowed. The
junction of painted aluminium structures to wooden ones is permitted provided the latter has been
impregnated with creosote.
5.18 Surface cleaning of steel load bearing structures from oxides (mill scale, rust, slag
inclusions) before applying the protective coating must meet the requirements specified in Table 30.
The surfaces of load bearing structures, intended for use in non aggressive environments, with level
D oxidation in accordance with GOST 9.402, may be cleaned only from loose rust and scale. In
technically justified cases, the surface cleaning of a steel structure from scale and rust maybe
increase by one level. The surface of steel enclosing structures prior to painting should be cleaned
to level I.
The surface cleaning of aluminium structures from oxides prior to painting is not regulated.
5.19 Designs for steel load bearing structures should indicate that the quality of the paintwork must
comply with the following classes per GOST 9.032:
- IV or V: for media that are moderately or highly aggressive and for structures in slightly
aggressive and non aggressive environments, located in a workplace zone;
- from IV to V I: for other structures in the slightly aggressive environments;
- up to VII: in non aggressive environments.
Paints (primers, paints, enamel paints, varnishes) of the following groups are used for the
protection of steel and aluminium structures against corrosion:
- I - pentaphthalic, glyptal, epoxy ester, styrene-alkyd, oil based, oil-bitumen, urethane alkyd based,
nitrocellulose;
- II - phenol-formaldehyde, chlorinated rubber paints, perchlorovinyl and copolymers of vinyl
chloride based, polyvinyl butyral, polyacrylic, acrylic-silicone based, polyester-silicone based,
slate-vinyl based;
- III - epoxies, silicones, perchlorovinyl and vinylchloride copolymers, slate vinyl, polystyrene,
polyurethane, phenol-formaldehyde;
- IV - perchlorovinyl and vinyl chloride copolymers, epoxy.
Table 29

Paint groups for steel structures (roman numerals) and the coating ind
per Reference Appendix 15 (letter), the number of top layers (Arabic numera
thickness of the paint, including primer, microns (in parentheses)

ational Conditions of the Structure

nd

Aggressiveness

material of the structure

metal protective coat

carbon and low alloy


steel without metal
protective coatings 1

class I galvanized
steel per GOST
14918

zinc coatings (hot dip


galvanized)

zinc a
coat

Premises with the gases of gas


concentration group A, or semisoluble
salts and dust

Slightly aggressive

Ip-2 (55)2

IIp-2(40)3

Moderately
aggressive

IIa-4 (110)

Not required

Premises with groups B, C, D gas


concentrations or highly soluble (low
hydroscopicity and hygroscopic) salts,
aerosols and dust

Slightly aggressive

IIIh-2 (60)4

IIIh-2 (60)3

Moderately
aggressive

IIIh-4 (110)5

Not required

IIIh-4 (110)

II

Highly aggressive

IVh-7 (180)6

Not required

Not required

IV

Slightly aggressive

Ia-2 (55)

33

IIa-2 (40)

3,7

Not painted
IIa-2 (60)
Not painted

Not painted

Gas group A or semisoluble salts and


dust

Moderately
aggressive

IIa, IIIa-3 (80)5, 7

Not required

Gas groups B, C, D or highly soluble


(low hydroscopicity and hygroscopic)
salts, aerosols and dust

Slightly aggressive

IIa-2 (55)7

IIa-2 (40)3,7

Slightly aggressive

Highly aggressive
Slightly aggressive

In liquid environments8

IIIa-3 (80)

5, 6

IVh-5 (130)

II, III-3 (80)


6

Moderately
aggressive

IV-5 (130)

Highly aggressive

Not required

IIa, IIIa-2 (60)7

IIa,

Not painted

Not required

IIIa-2 (60)

II

Same

Not required

IV

Not required

II, III-2 (60)

Same

IV-3 (80)

Same

Not required

IV

II,

requirements in 5.16 for the protection of structural steel grades 10KhNDP, 10KhSND, and 15KhSND 10KhDP.
tive humidity of the air in the premises is above 80% at a temperature above 12 to 24C or if there is moisture condensation - IIa-2 (40).
nded Appendix 14.
oxy paints.
erchlorovinyl paints and materials based on vinyl chloride copolymers, the number of top layers should be increased by 1, and the total coating thickn
epoxy materials, and also high-build materials based on other compounds the number of top layers may be reduced provided the desired coati

ctures under shelter, the use of "an" index paints instead of "a" is permitted.
ld be resistant to certain media (see Reference Appendix 15).

Table 30
Level of surface cleaning for steel structures to remove oxides in accordance
with GOST 9.402 prior to coating
Aggressiveness
metal
paint
insulating
hot-dip galvanizing thermal spraying
and aluminizing
Non aggressive
3
3
Slightly aggressive
3
1
1
3
Moderately
At least 2
1
1
3
aggressive
Highly aggressive
Same
3
Note - The level of surface cleaning for steel structures when using electrochemical protection without additional
painting or applying insulating coatings is not regulated.

5.20 It is permitted to increase the thickness of the paint coatings shown in Table 29 but not
more than 20% without changing the number of layers. Structures should be primed with one layer,
provided all or some of the top layers are applied at the factory:
- when applying all the top layers at the installation site the primer should be:
1) for the structures of buildings and facilities to be operated in slightly aggressive
environments: two layers (one layer at least 20 microns thick applied at the factory, and a layer of
primer applied at the erection site, using primers from the groups listed in Table 29);
2) for the structures of buildings and facilities to be operated in moderately aggressive and
highly aggressive environments: two layers applied at the factory of primer in the groups shown in
table 29;
a) it is permitted to use GF-021 and SP-0119 (group I) primers under group II and III enamel
paints;
b) under group IV top coats it is permitted to specify factory priming with FL-OZK (groups IIIII), though a third application of primer FL-OZK must be applied at the installation site (tehnical
layer of half the thickness), followed by a fourth layer of perchlorovinyl primer (group IV) or a
primer based on the copolymers of vinyl chloride (group IV) and top layers according to the
34

instructions given in Table 29 (as the number of primers is increased to four, the number of top
layers should be no more than five).
5.21 When designing the corrosion protection of buildings and structures being built in areas
with a design outdoor temperature below minus 40C, one should take into account the
requirements of GOST 9.404 . In accordance with the instructions given in SNIP RK 2.04-01-2001
the outdoor temperature is taken to be the average temperature of the coldest five-day week.
5.22 Hot-dip galvanizing and hot dip aluminizing should be provided for the corrosion
protection of steel structures: bolted together using open steel sections with butt-welded and corner
seams, as well as bolts, washers and nuts.
This method of corrosion protection is permitted for lap welded steel structures if there is
continuous contour welding or a guaranteed gap between the welded elements of at least 1.5 mm.
Erection welds connections must be protected by thermal spraying of zinc or aluminium or by
using a group III or IV topcoat and a protective primer after the structure has been erected. The
interfacing planes of structures joined with high-strength bolts shall be shot blast treated prior to
installation to ensure a coefficient of friction of at least 0.37.
Instead of hot-dip galvanizing steel structures (where the layer is of 60-100 microns thick), for
small items (with a cut length 1 m or less), apart from bolts, nuts and washers, it is permitted to
provide electro galvanized zinc or cadmium plating (with a layer thickness of 42 microns) followed
by chromatizing.
This method of corrosion protection is permitted for bolts, nuts and washers with a layer
thickness of 21 microns (the thickness of the coating in threading must not exceed the positive
tolerances), followed by additional protection for the protruding parts of bolt connections using
group III or IV paint.
5.23 Thermal spraying of zinc and aluminium should be used to provide corrosion protection
for steel structures with welded, bolted and riveted joints. Thermal spraying is not used on erection
welds. After assembly, erection welds are protected by thermal spraying or with a protective primer
and group III or IV paint. Thermal spraying may be used to protect the structures referred to in 5.22,
if the hot dip galvanizing or aluminizing approach is not a proven technology in the given instance.
5.24 Cathodic protection must be provided for steel structures that are:
- structures in soils per GOST 9.602;
- partially or completely immersed in a liquid inorganic environment, as given in Table 26,
excluding for alkali solutions;
- the internal bottom surfaces of tanks used for oil and petroleum products, if there is (the
possibility of) water settlement in them.
Cathodic protection of structures in soils must be provided together with an insulating coating,
and for structures in a liquid environment cathodic protection may be provided together with group
III or IV paint. The cathodic protection of steel structures shall be designed by a special design
organization.
5.25 Chemical oxidation followed by painting or electrochemical anodization of the surface
should be provided for the corrosion protection of aluminum structures. Parts of structures where
the integrity of protective anodic film or paintwork has been breached during welding, riveting or
other works carried out during erection, must first be cleaned and then protected with paintwork,
using a cathodic primer per Reference Appendix 15.
5.26 Structures located in soil should provided with an insulation coating. Elements having a
circular or rectangular cross section including ropes, cables, and pipes, shall be protected as per
GOST 9.602 with standard, heavy seal, or very heavy seal polymer coatings consisting of polymer
adhesive tape, or tapes based on bituminous rubber, bituminous polymers etc. compositions with an
armour sheathing; steel platework and structures from steel profile, with bitumen, bitumen-polymer
and bitumen-rubber coatings with a layer thickness of at least 3 mm. Erection welds are protected
after welding. Prior to erection, the locations of erection welds may be primed with a single layer of
bituminous primer.

35

Chimneys, flues, ventilation ducts, drain pipes,


tank facilities and pipelines
5.27 The steel used for flues and the materials to protect their internal surfaces against corrosion
should be selected according to Table 31. Designs using unlined steel pipe should include
arrangements so that regular inspections may be undertaken of the inner surface of the stack, and for
"pipe in pipe" type pipes to also to explore the intertubular space. When designing pipe stacks from
separate elements, suspended from a steel frame, methods should be applied to protect the frame
from corrosion in accordance with the instructions given in the Recommended Appendix 14 and
Table 29, and the aggressiveness of the medium should be determined in Table 24 for group C gases.
5.28 Steel frames, designed from 10HNDP grade steel and intended for construction in a zone
of dry or normal humidity, where the outside air is slightly aggressive, may be used without
corrosion protection. The upper part a flue stack should be constructed from corrosion-resistant
steel in accordance with Table 31.
5.29 The aggressiveness of the medium on the internal surfaces of steel tanks for oil and
petroleum products should be taken from Table 32.
5.30 Corrosion protection measures for the external surfaces of overhead, buried, and internal
surfaced of tanks for the storage of cold water, oil and petroleum products, designed from carbon
and low alloy steel or aluminium, should be provided in accordance with the Recommended
Appendix 14 and Table 29, and in addition for the internal surfaces of tanks for oil and petroleum
products in accordance with the requirements of GOST 1510. When protecting the external surfaces
of steel tanks located outside with paint one should add aluminium powder to the paint materials
(per Reference Appendix 15). It is permitted to apply all top layers of paint to the surface of roll
form structures for bulky storage tanks, at the erection site .
5.31 The internal surfaces of tanks for hot water (the underwater part) should be protected by
cathodic protection, de-aeration of the water and by preventing the re-saturation of the water in the
tanks with oxygen by applying a film of AG-4 sealant to the surface of the water. The underwater part
of hot water tanks may be painted with V-ZhS-41 enamel paint to a thickness 200 microns (3 layers)
when applied to a clean degreased surface without primer.
5.32 When designing the protection for the internal surfaces of storage tanks to be constructed
from carbon steel for the storage of liquid mineral fertilizers, acids and alkalis one should provide a
non-metallic chemical resistant lining material, or cathodic protection for tanks to be used for the
storage of fertilizers and acids. In this case, the structure must be designed with consideration for
deformation of the lining materials due to thermal impacts. Weld seams to the body of such tanks
should be butt welded. The dynamic loads from process equipment should not be transferred to the
structural elements of reservoirs that are protected from corrosion with a lining. Pipes carrying hot
water or air inside such tanks should be placed at a distance of at least 50 mm from the surface of
the lining, and high-speed mixing devices (with speeds in excess of 300 rpm), at a distance of at
least 300 mm from the protective coating to the mixer arms.
5.33 Coating materials used for the corrosion protection of the internal surfaces of steel tanks for
the liquid media referred to in 5.32, should be adopted per Table 33 and Recommended Appendix 16.
Table 31
Gas
Relative Possibility of
temperature Composition
humidity,% condensation
,K

Steel grades

Corrosion protection
method

> 362 - 413

In groups A
and B

30

Not
regulated

VStZ sp5

Heat-resistant epoxy
coating1

> 413 - 523

SO2, SO3

> 10 - 15

Same

VSt3 SP5

Thermal spraying2 or

36

silicone coating1
> 342 - 433

Same

> 10 - 20

Formed

> 342 - 433

SO2, SO3
oxides of
nitrogen

> 10

Same

2Kh13, 3Kh13,
No protection required
12Kh18N10T
0Kh20N28MDT,
10Kh17N13M2T,
Same
12Kh18N10T

Per Reference Appendix15, and for epoxy materials - only for brief peaks in temperature above 373 K; the number of
layers and thickness of the coating should be adopted per Table 29 for moderately aggressive environments in areas
with gases from groups B, C, D.
2
With aluminium with a layer thickness of 200-250 microns.

Table 32
The structural
elements of tanks

Moderately aggressive impact on the steel structures of tanks


oil products
crude oil
fuel oil
diesel fuel
benzine
kerosene

The inner surface


of the bottom
Moderately
and the apron
aggressive
ring
Middle ring and
lower part of
Slightly
pontoons and
aggressive
floating roofs
The upper ring
Moderately
(zone of periodic
aggressive
wetting)
The roof and the
top of pontoons
Same
and floating
roofs

slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Slightly
aggressive

Same

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Same

Moderately
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

Moderately
aggressive

Notes:
1 The aggressiveness of fuel oil is given for a storage temperature up to 90C.
2 If the crude oil contains hydrogen sulphide in concentrations above 10 mg/l or hydrogen sulphide and carbon
dioxide in any ratio the aggressiveness to the inner bottom surface, the apron ring, the roof and top of pontoons and
floating roofs is increased by one level.

Table 33
Aggressiveness
Moderately aggressive
Highly aggressive
1

Coating materials
Thermal spraying of aluminium, paintwork, reinforced paint, liquid
rubber, mastic, lining1, rubberising
Thermal spraying of aluminium followed by painting, sheet cladding,
combined lining, rubberising

Provided on top of a paint or mastic coating if the medium is abrasive or, or if the surface is subject to impact loads

Attachment 1.
(mandatory)
37

Groups of moderately aggressive gases depending on their type and concentration


Concentration, mg/m3, for gas groups

Description

Carbon Dioxide

2,000

> 2,000

Ammonia

" 0.2

> 0.2 - 20

> 20

Sulfurous anhydride

" 0.5

" 0.5 " 10

> 10 - 200

> 250 - 1,000

Hydrogen fluoride

" 0.05

" 0.05 " 5

" 5 " 10

" 10 - 100

Hydrogen Sulphide

" 0.01

" 0.01 " 5

" 5 " 100

" 100

Oxides of nitrogen1

" 0.1

" 0.1 " 5

" 5 " 25

" 25 - 100

Chlorine

" 0.1

" 0.1 " 1

"1"5

" 5 - 10

Hydrogen chloride

" 0.05

" 0.05 " 5

" 5 " 10

" 10 - 100

Oxides of nitrogen that dissolve in water to form acid solutions.


Note - When the gas concentrations exceed the limits specified in column D of this table, the use of materials for
building structures is determined on the basis of experimental studies. If there are several gases present in the
environment the most aggressive group (from A to D) that corresponds to the concentration of one or more of those
gases is used.

Attachment 2.
(reference)
Characteristics of solid mediums (salts, aerosols and dust)
Solubility of the solid
medium in water and its The most common salts, aerosols, dusts
water absorbency
Semisoluble

Silicates, phosphates (secondary and tertiary), and carbonates of


magnesium, calcium, barium, lead; barium sulfate, lead; oxides and
hydroxides of iron, chromium, aluminium, silicon

Easily dissolved, low


water absorbency

Chlorides, sulphates of sodium, potassium, and ammonium; nitrates of


potassium, barium, lead, magnesium; carbonates of alkali metals

Easily dissolved, water


absorbent

Chlorides of calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron; sulphates of


magnesium, manganese, zinc, iron; nitrates and nitrites of sodium,
potassium, ammonium; all primary phosphates; disodium hydrogen
phosphate; oxides and hydroxides of sodium and potassium

Note - Semisoluble salts are those with a solubility of less than 2 g/l, highly soluble, those with a solubility more than
2 g/l. Low water absorbing salts are those whose balanced relative humidity is 60% or more at a temperature of 20C,
and water absorbent salts are those whose balanced relative humidity is less than 60% at the same temperature.

Attachment 3.
(reference)
Paint materials used for the corrosion protection of reinforced concrete structures

38

Characteristics of
the paint
Coating
according to the
group
type of film
formed

Alkyd based

Material grade

Standard

Conditions for use


Covering index, of the coating on
characterising reinforced
its durability
concrete
structures

Enamel paint
PF-115

GOST 6465

a, an, p

Applied on
lacquer primers
PF-170, PF-171

Enamel paint
PF-133

GOST 926

a, an, p, t

Same

Enamel paint
GF-820

OST 6-10431-80

Applied on
lacquer primer
GF-024

Mill base oil


and alkyd
GOST 8292
colour paints for
interior work

Applied to linseed
oil primer

a, an, p

Applied to natural
linseed oil primer,
Oxol drying oil;
priming coat
diluted with paint

Applied on
lacquer primer
NC-134

Oil based
I

Mill base oil


paint for the
exterior work

Enamel paint
NTs-132

Polymer cement
paint PVATs,
SVMTs, SVETs
based on
polyvinyl acetate
dispersion

Dispersion DB47/7S
GOST 18992
or DB-0/2S

Dispersion S135

Dispersion
SVED-10 VM

Organosilicate

OS-12-03
(formerly OSM
VN-30)

Paint E-VA-17

GOST 28196 an, p

Paint E-VA-27

GOST 28196 p

Primer diluted
with paint, latex
SKS-65GP, PVAD

Paint E-K4-26

GOST 28196 p

Same

Nitrocellulose

PVA
styrenebutadiene wateremulsion
Silicon - organic
liquids

GOST 8292

GOST 6631

Applied on
primers NGZh-10,
NGZh-11, PVAD;
the primer is
diluted with
dispersion, latex
SKS-65GP

GOST
5.2086

an, p

GKZh-10

GKZh-11

136-41

GOST 10834 a
39

Primer diluted
with paint

Deep (surface
impregnation)

Silicon - organic

Polyurethane

Enamel paint
KO-198

a, an, kh, t

Primer diluted
with paint

Enamel paint
KO-174

a, an, p

Same

III

Enamel paint
UR-175

a, an, p

Applied in lacquer
primer UR-19

III

Enamel paint
EP-773

III

Enamel paint
EP-56

III

Epoxy

Epoxy-phenol

Perchlorovinyl
and copolymers
of vinyl chloride

Chlorinated
rubber

GOST 23143 xsh, m, kh

Applied on
lacquer primer
EP-55 EP-741
Applied to lacquer
primer EP-55

III-IV

Enamel paint
EP-5116 (highbuild)

III-IV

Primer EP-0020 GOST 10277 kh, b

Same

III-IV

Underpaint
putty EP-0010

III-IV

Enamel paint
FL-777

a, an, p, v, kh

II

Enamel paint
KhV-16

a, an, p

II

Enamel KhV113

GOST 18374 a, an, p

II

Enamel paint
KhV-110

GOST 18374 a, an, p

II

Enamel KhV124 and KhV125

GOST 10144 a, an, p, kh

IV

Enamel paint
KhV-785

GOST 7313

khk, khsh, v

IV

Enamel paint
KhS-710

GOST 9355

khsh, khk, v

IV

Enamel KhS759

GOST 23494 khsh, khk, v

III

Enamel paint
KhV-1100

GOST 6993

III

Enamel paint
KhV-1120

III

Enamel KCh767

GOST 25366 v, kh

GOST 10277 kh, p, m, b

a, an, p, kh
a, an, p, kh

a, an, p, kh

40

Applied on
lacquer primers
EP-55, EP-741

Primer diluted
with paint

Applied on
lacquer primer
KhV-784, KhS-76
KhS-724

Applied on primer
KhS-724
Applied on
lacquer primers
KhV-784, KhS-76
and on PVATs
paint
Applied on
lacquer primer
KCh

III-IV
Chlorosulfonated
polyethylene

III-IV

chloroprene
rubber

III

Thiocol

Lacquer KhP734

a, an, p, kh, tr

Enamel paint
KhP-799

a, an, kh, tr

Enamel paint
KhP-5212

a, an, p, kh, tr

Lacquer KhN

kh, tr, b

NT
Polychloroprene
paint
compositions

Applied on
lacquer primer
KhP-734

kh, tr, b

Applied on
lacquer primer
KhN

p, kh, tr, b

Primer diluted
with thiokol
dispersion

III

Aqueous
dispersion of
thiocol T-50

III

Solution of
liquid thiokol
grades I and II

III

Sealant solution
GOST 13489 kh, tr, b
U-30M

Same

Same, U-30
MES-5

kh, tr, b

"

Same as U-30
MES-10

kh, tr, b

"

GOST 12812 kh, tr, b

Primer solution of
liquid Thiokol
grades I and II

Note - Meanings of the indices are as follows: a - coatings resistant in the open air; an - resistant under a covering, p resistant inside premises; kh, tr - chemically resistant, crack resistant; kh - chemically resistant; t - heat-resistant; m oil-resistant; v - waterproof; khk - acid resistant; khsh - alkali-resistant; b - petrol-resistant.

Attachment 4.
(Reference)
Protective coatings for the internal surfaces of the reinforced concrete structures
of tank facilities, operating in moderately aggressive liquid environments
Protective
coatings

Option Coating scheme


Coatin
numbe
Primer and reinforcing layers
g group
r

Reinforcing
paints (high- III, IV
build)

Top coat

Epoxy resin based fibreglass


ED-20 applied on an epoxy
compound primer

Fibreglass based on epoxy putty


EP-0010 on epoxy putty EPEpoxy coating EP-0010
0010 primer

41

Epoxy compound based on ED20 resin

III

Paint (high
build)

Epoxy putty EP-0010


Aqueous dispersion of thiocol
T-50
Epoxy thiocol primer

Epoxy-shale composition based


Epoxy-shale composition based
on epoxy resin ED-20 or EISon epoxy resin ED-20 or EIS-1
1or "Slamor" coking distillate
or "Slamor" coking distillate
with a filler

IV

III

Backlining
IV

II

With no primer

Sealant 51-G-10, based on


divinylstirol thermoplastic
elastomer

PVC compound based on 88-H


adhesive

Corrugated polyethylene

Sublayer of polyisobutylene
PSG based on 88-H adhesive

PVC compound based on 88-H


adhesive

Activated polyethylene based


on PVA ED glue

1-2 cm layer of shotcrete


cement-sand mortar

Ceramic tiling (acid-resistant or


for flooring) with binders2

Acid resistant brick based on


binders2

Acid-resistant ceramic cladding


materials (tiles - flat/moulded,
Sublayer (polyisobutylene PSG,
acid-resistant bricks)3
back-lining insulation, etc.)
chemically resistant bonding
materials2

Sublayer of paint material


reinforced with fiberglass

Sublayer (polyisobutylene PSG, Stone cast acid resistant tiles


etc.)
based on silicate putty

III

Cladding1
(Lining)

IV

Thiocol sealant U-30M

Slag ceramized tiling based on


epoxy binders2

Carbon-graphite materials
(ATM tiles, carbon and graphite
blocks) on putties base on
polymer materials

Same

The selection of protective coating, the thickness and the number of layers should be made with
consideration for the dimensions of the structure, the temperature, the Moderately aggressive
environment, with a mandatory check by undertaking a calculation of the static stability, and in
necessary cases a thermal engineering calculation as well.
2

The choice of binder is made in each specific case, taking into account the composition of the Moderately aggressive
environment.
3
The choice of acid-resistant cladding material is made with consideration for the Moderately aggressive environment
and mechanical loads.

42

Appendix 5
(Recommended)
Protection of the external surfaces of underground
concrete and reinforced concrete structures
Type of
structure

Option The protective coating relative to the aggressiveness


numbe coating
coating
coating
slight
moderate
high
r
group
group
group
1

2
Heavy
foundation
s greater
than 0.5 m
thick

Bitumen-latex
emulsion

II

Bitumen-latex1
coatings and
mastics

II

Bitumenpolymer
coatings and
mastics

II

Hot and cold


bituminous
coating

II

Bitumen-latex1
III
mastics

Same, based on
the
polyisocyanate
K

II

Bitumenpolymer
coatings and
mastics

Backlined
asphalt rolls
with a
protective
coating

III

III

Polymer coating
base on KhP734 lacquer

II

Hot/cold
bituminous
coating

III

Hot and cold


III
asphalt1 mastics

Polymer
solutions based
on
thermosetting
synthetic resins

II

Bitumen-latex1
mastic

III

Hot and cold


IV
asphalt1 mastics

Epoxy polymer
coating

III

Polymer
coating based
on KhP-734
lacquer

III

Backlined
asphalt rolls
with a
protective
coating

III

Same, based on
the
IV
polyisocyanate
K

Backlined
polymer roll
materials

III

Backlined
asphalt rolls
with a
protective
coating

2
Thinwalled
structures
and
foundation
s with a
thickness
less than
0.5 m

II

Hot bitumen
coating

II

Bitumenpolymer
coatings and
mastics

III

43

Polymer
solutions based
on
thermosetting
synthetic resins

IV

Polymer
coatings,
reinforced with
fibreglass

Driving
piles

Polymer
coating based
on KhP-734
lacquer

III

II

Hot and cold


bitumen
coatings

Same, based on
the
polyisocyanate
K

III
3
4
1

IV

Epoxy polymer
coating

IV

Impregnation to
a depth of at
least 5 mm:
Styrene-indene
resins

IV

Polyisocyanate
K

IV

pyroplast

When protecting vertical surfaces a protective coating is required

Note - The need for waterproofing underground concrete and reinforced concrete structures to protect them from the
moisture of non-Moderately aggressive water is determined by regulatory documents. Waterproof coatings can
simultaneously serve as a means of protecting structures from corrosion if they have the necessary chemical resistance
to Moderately aggressive environments.

Appendix 6
(Recommended)
Materials for the protection of floors that are intended
for use in areas with Moderately aggressive environments
Moderately
aggressive
environment

Mineral and
organic nonoxidizing
acids

Structural elements of the floor


Moderately
interlayer for
aggressiveness waterproofing or
sealing layer
cladding material
Slightly
aggressive

Asbestos based
asphalt felt, brizol

Moderately
aggressive

Asbestos based
asphalt felt, brizol,
polyisobutylene
based on 88-H
adhesive

Highly
aggressive

Polyisobutylene,
PVC linoleum or
polyethylene
laminate on
welding

Silicate putties
based on liquid
glass

Polymer-silicate
putty

Polymer-silicate
putty, polymer
putty

Oxidising
acids

From slightly Polyisobutylene


to highly
based on 88-H
aggressive
adhesive

Polymer-silicate
putty

Flourinated

Same

Bituminol or

Asbestos based
44

flooring
Acid-resistant ceramic
tiles or bricks.
Seamless flooring, based
on plasticized epoxy
resins
Acid-resistant bricks or
tiles, cast stone tiling,
tiles from slag glass
ceramics
Acid bricks or tiles,
stone cast tiles, tiles
from slag-glass cermics,
polymer concrete tiles or
blocks
Same

Graphite tiles such as

acids

asphalt felt, brizol

Alkalis and
bases

polymer solutions
with coke or
graphite

Cement mortar,
polymer mortar
Bituminol, polymer
The variable From slightly
solutions or putty
effects of acids to highly
Polyisobutylene
type "Ferganit",
and alkalis
aggressive
"Faizol" or
"Arzamit-5"
Polymer mortar
Combined antimix based on
Complex
Same
corrosion materials Arzamit-5 or on a
environments
(lined polyethylene) general purpose
one
"

Polyisobutylene

ATM tiles, tiles made


from polymer concrete
with the carboniferous
filler
Plasticized epoxy putty,
ceramic tiles or bricks
Plasticized epoxy putty,
slag glass-ceramic tiles,
stone cast tiles

Plasticized epoxy putty,


slag glass-ceramic tiles
with polymer mortar
grouting

Note - For acids and oxidizing environments putties, mastics, mortars and concretes should be made with acid-resistant fillers
(andesite, graphite, quartz).

Appendix 7
(Recommended)
Chemically resistant flooring materials
Chemical resistance flooring materials based on1
Environment

Alkalis:
caustic soda3

Concentration2,
%

acidresistant
ceramics

liquid
glass

>5

>1 - 5

up to 1

bitumen
thermoplastic thermosetting
and
s
plastics
pitch

Base:
lime, soda, basic
salts

Not regulated

Acids:
mineral

>5

organic

up to 5

not oxidising

up to 1

nitric, sulfuric,

>5

chromium,

>1 - 5

hypochloric

up to 1

Acids:

45

Solutions of sugar,
molasses, fats and
oils

Not regulated
+

Organic Solvents:
acetone, benzene,
etc.

The "+ " sign shows that it is possible to use the material to cover floors.
The concentration of moderately aggressive solutions should not exceed 20%. At high concentrations of moderately aggressive
solutions, the possible use of the material should be determined by the appropriate state standards.
3
Floors may be covered with cement concrete. The aggressiveness of media on floor coverings made from cement concrete should
be taken from Tables 5, 6 and 8.
2

Appendix 8
(Reference)
Paint materials for the protection of wood
Material

Pentaphtol

Urethane

Urethane - alkyd
Perchlorovinyl

Regulatory
document

Caoting index
covers1

Coating thickness
microns

Lacquer paints
PF-170 and PF171

GOST 15907

d, v

70-90

Enamel paint PF115

GOST 6465

a, v

90-120

Enamel paint PF133

GOST 926

a, v

90-120

Enamel paint UR49

a, v, kh

110-130

Lacquer paints
UR-293 or UR294

d, a, v

70-90

Enamel paint
URF-1128

a, v, kh

110-130

Material grade

Enamel paint
KhV-110

GOST 18374

a, v

90-120

Enamel KhV-124

GOST 10144

a, v

90-120

Enamel paint
KhV-1100

GOST 6993

a, v

100-120

Enamel paint
KhV-785

GOST 7313

kh, v

110-130

Enamel paint
KhS-710

GOST 9355

kh, v

110-130

Enamel KhS-759

GOST 23494

kh, v

130-150

kh, v

110-130

Enamel paint
KhS-717
46

Enamel paint
KhS-781

kh, v

110-130

Lacquer paint
KhV-784

GOST 7313

d, kh, v

110-130

Underpaint putty
EP-0010

GOST 10277

kh, v

250-350

Enamel paint EP773

GOST 23143

kh, v

130-150

Enamel paint EP57

a, v, kh

130-150

Enamel paint EP755

kh, v

130-150

Enamel paint EP56

kh, a

130-150

Enamel EP-793

kh, v

130-150

Epoxy-phenol

Enamel paint FL777

kh, v

130-150

Epoxy-fluorolon

Lacquer paint
LFE-32kh

a, v, kh

100-120

Epoxy

Coating index:
d - a decorative,
v - water-resistant,
a - weatherproof,
kh - chemically resistant.

Appendix 9
(reference)
Wood antispetics and preservatives
Aggressiveness of
environment per Protective material
Table 15
Moderately
aggressive

Composition

Coverage of
Protective
the protective
treatment method
material

Antiseptic
Sodium fluoride
Surface treatment

Technical sodium
fluoride
Technical ammonium
Ammonium
fluoroslilicate
fluorosilicate
Antiseptic paste
Sodium fluoride;
based on coal tar
coal tar varnish;
varnish or sodium
kaolin; water
fluoride varnish
(paste-concentrate)

47

Same
"

20 g/m2
45 g/m2
250-500 g/m2

KhMB-444 formula

Sodium or
Impregnation by
potassium
"preheat-cold bath"
dichromate; copper
method
sulphate; boric acid
KhMBB-3324
Sodium or
Impregnation by
formula
potassium
"preheat-cold bath"
dichromate; copper
method
sulphate; boric
acid; borax
KhMK formula
Sodium or
Same
potassium
dichromate; copper
sulphate, sodium
fluorosilicate
KhMF formula
Sodium or
"
potassium
dichromate; copper
sulphate; sodium
fluoride
Preparation of MB-1
Copper vitriol;
"
ammonium
carbonate, borax,
boric acid
KhM-11 formula
Sodium
Impregnation by
bichromate, copper "preheat-cold bath"
sulphate
method
Preservative
Coal tar oil
Coal tar oil
Soaking under
pressure in
cylinders after
preliminary drying
of the wood in
petrolatum, or
impregnation in
baths after preheating of the
wood
Highly aggressive
Anthracene oil
Anthracene oil
Same
Oil Compound
Oil Compound
"
Shale oil
Shale oil
"
"WALL" Donalite
Fluorides and
Impregnation by
arsenates of alkali "preheat-cold bath"
metals
or "vacuumpressure-vacuum"
method
Highly aggressive "WALL" Donalite Fluorides; arsenates;
Diffusion
paste formers
impregnation

48

5-7 kg/m3

5-7 kg/m3

5-7 kg/m3

5-7 kg/m3

5-7 kg/m3

7-9 kg/m3

75 kg/m3

110 kg/m3
75 kg/m3
110 kg/m3

8-15 kg/m3

6 kg/m3

KhMB-444
formula
KhMBB-3324
formula

KhMF formula

MB-1 formula

Sodium or potassium Impregnation by


bichromate; copper "preheat-cold bath"
vitriol; boric acid
method
Sodium or potassium
Same
bichromate; copper
sulphate; boric acid;
borax
Sodium or potassium
Same
bichromate; copper
sulphate; sodium
fluoride
Copper sulphate;
Same
ammonium
carbonate; borax;
boric acid

8-15 kg/m3

8-15 kg/m3

8-15 kg/m3

8-15 kg/m3

Appendix 10
(Reference)
Wood surface impregnation treatment solutions
Brand
TCEP
Phenol
alcohols

BK (lignite
composition)

TCEP-PT

Composition, %

Uptake

Trichloroethylphosphate

40

Tetrachloromethane

60
100

Phenol alcohols
Lignite wax

10

Oxol drying oil

70

Siccative

10

Borax

Water

Trichloroethylphosphate

50-70

Petrolatum

30-50

600 g/m2
250-300 kg/m3

Protective properties
Bio-resistant, flame
retardant
Water resistant, bio and
chemically resistant
water resitant, bio

30-40 kg/m3

resistant and flam


retardent
water resistant, bio

40-60 kg/m3

resistant and flame


retardant
Appendix 11
(Mandatory)

Protection of steel ropes used in open air conditions


Moisture zone
(per SNiP RK
2.04-03-2002)

Aggressiveness

Rope
Ultimate tensile
constructio strength of rope
n
wire, MPa
49

Zinc coating group


of the wire per
GOST 7372

Dry

Slightly aggressive Any

up to 1,764

Zh1 or OZh2

Standard

Same

Same

up to 1,764

OZh2

Dry, normal, wet

moderately
aggressive or
highly aggressive

OZh with extra


Closed
Outer ropes coils up
protective coats of
constructio to 1,372, internal
paint, lubricants or
n
coils up to 1,764
polymer films

If the state of the structure will not be continuously monitored during operation, extra protective coats of paint, lubricants or
polymer films should be provided.
2
The use of group Zh coating is permitted for the layers of wire from the first to the penultimate

Appendix 12
(Recommended)
Welding materials for steel structures operating in moderately aggressive
environments
suitable for low-alloy steel
Welding material grades
Aggressivenes
Steel grades
s

submerged arc
welding

10KhNDP,
10KhDP

Higher than
08Kh1DYu, higher
than10NMA,
Higher than 08KhM

carbon dioxide
gas metal arc
welding

Coated electrodes

PPV-5k2,
Higher than
08KhG2SDYu

OZS-18

10KhSND,
15KhSND

Higher than
10KhMA, Higher
than 08KhM

Higher than
08KhG2SDYu

OZS-24, ANKh7, VSN-3,


E138-45N, E13850N3

10KhSND,
15KhSND

Higher than
10KhMA, Higher
than 08KhM

Higher than
08KhG2SDYu

AN-Kh7, VSN-3,
E138-45N, OZS24, E138-50N3

10KhNDP,
10KhDP

Higher than
08Kh1DYu, Higher
than10NMA,
Higher than 08KhM

Higher than
08KhG2SDYu

OZS-18

09G2S, 10G2S1

Higher than 10G2,


Higher than 10G,
Higher than 08G

slightly
aggressive1

Moderate and
highly
aggressive

welding wire

18G2AFps, 16G2F 15G2FDps,


14G2F
12GN2MFAYu,
12G2SMF

Higher than
08KhGN2MYu
50

Higher than
08G2S, Higher
than 08G2STs
Higher than
08G2S,
Higher than
08G2STs
Higher than
10KhG2SMA

UONI 13/55
UONI 13/65
Any, E70 type

When designing structures without corrosion protection.


No additional protection.
3
Only for steel grade 10KhSND.
Note - The selection of covered electrodes for manual welding structures from steel grades 10KhSND and 15KhSND should be
made by agreement with the client and installation organisation.
2

Appendix 13
(mandatory)
The minimum thickness of sheet walling
without corrosion protection
Aggressiveness
of the
environment

Minimal thickness for sheet walling used without corrosion protection, mm


aluminium

class I galvanized
steel per GOST
14918

steel grades 10KhNDP,


10KhDP

Non aggressive

Not regulated

0.5

Determined by the
aggressiveness to the external
surface**

Slightly
aggressive

Same

0.8**

Moderately
aggressive

1.0*

* For aluminium grades AD1M, AMtsM, Amg2M (other aluminium grades without corrosion protection are not
permitted).
** provided the sheet surfaces are painted on the room side.

Appendix 14
(Recommended)
Corrosion protection methods for steel structures
Type of structure
Aggressiveness
of the
environment to
the structure

non-load bearing layer walling1

load bearing

aluminium

Painting with group I paint

No protection
required

No protection required2 on
the room side when painted
with bitumen or group II or
III paint on the insulation
side.

a) hot-dip galvanizing (t = 60 - 100


microns)4;
b) thermal spraying of zinc (t =
120-180 microns) or aluminium (t

Same

a) painting with OD-KhV221grade organic dispersant


paint (for structures located
inside the premises) or

Non aggressive

Slightly
aggressive

galvanized steel with class I


coating in accordance with
GOST 14918

carbon and low alloy steel

51

= 200-250 microns);
c) painting with group I, II and III
paints;
d) insulating coating (for
structures in soil)

Moderately
aggressive

Highly
aggressive

group II or III paint, applied


to the paint and metal
profile lines (the side of the
insulation may be painted
with bitumen);
b) painting with group II
and III paints (for structures
located inside the premises,
it is permitted to paint the
structures 8-10 years after
installation)

a) hot-dip galvanizing (t = 60-100


microns), followed by group II or
III paint5;
b) thermal spraying of zinc or
aluminium (t = 120-180 microns),
followed group II, III or IV paint;
c) painting with group II, III or IV
paints;
d) thermal spraying of zinc (t =
200-250 microns) or aluminium (t
= 250-300 mm);
d) insulating coating together with
cathodic protection (for structures
in the soil)3;
e) cathodic protection in liquids
and bottom sediments3;
g) chemically resistant cladding
with non-metallic materials

a) electrochemical
anodization (t =
15 microns);
b) no protection2;
c) chemical
oxidisation
followed by
painting with
group II or III
paints;
d) painting with
group IV paint;
d) the same, using
EP-057 protective
primer;

Not permitted for use

a) thermal diffusion zinc coating


with a diffusion layer thickness of
at least 100 microns, followed by
painting with group IV paints with
a layer thickness of at least t = 150
microns (for the construction of
offshore structures, in the zone of
periodic wetting and down to 1.5-2
m below the minimum sea level)6;
b) thermal spraying of zinc or
aluminium (t = 200-250 microns)
with subsequent painting with
group IV paint;
c) insulating coating in
conjunction with cathodic
protection (for structures in the
soil)3;
d) cathodic protection (in liquid
environments)3;
e) cladding with chemically
resistant non-metallic materials;

a) electrochemical
anodization (t =
15 microns)
followed by
painting with a
group IV paint;
b) painting with a
group IV paint
over EP-057
protective primer;
c) the same, with
preliminary
chemical
oxidation

Not permitted for use

52

e) painting with group IV paint


1

Does not apply to sheet walling from three-layer metal panels per GOST 23486 and GOST 24524.
In accordance with the requirements of Mandatory Appendix 13.
3
Cathodic protection is not provided for rope and cable elements of the construction .
4
Hot-dip aluminizing (t 50 microns) is permitted.
5
Hot-dip aluminizing (t 50 microns) is permitted without any additional painting.
6
Hot-dip aluminizing (t 80 microns) is permitted with additional painting with a group IV paint provided the layer
thickness is t 100 microns.
2

Notes:
1 The paint group and the thickness are given in Table 29, the materials, in the Reference Appendix 15. For non
aggressive environments the paint coat thickness should be as per industry specific regulatory documents.
2 In slightly, moderately and highly aggressive environments containing sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and
nitrogen oxides to gas groups B, C or D, when thermal spraying one should use aluminium grades A7 AD1, AMts;
when hot dip aluminizing, one should use aluminium grades A0, A5, A6; in other environments with thermal spraying
and hot dip galvanizing, one should use zinc grades U0, C1, C2, u3.
For the corrosion protection of steel structures exposed to liquids (that are moderately or highly aggressive), one should
use thermal spraying of zinc (t = 80 ... 120 mm), followed by spraying of aluminium (t = 120 ... 170 microns).
3 Insulating coatings for structures in the soil (bitumen, bitumen rubber, bitumen-polymer, bitumen-mineral, ethylene,
etc.) must meet the requirements of GOST 9.602.

Appendix 15
(reference)
Paints and coatings for the corrosion protection of steel and
aluminium structures
Coating
material group

Characteristics of the
paint according to the
type of film formed

Pentaphtol

Glyptal

Material grade

Standard

Covering index,
characterising its
durability

Conditions for using


coatings on structures built
from steel and aluminium

Lacquer paints PF-170 and


PF-171
with 10-15% aluminium
powder

GOST 15907
GOST 5494

a, an, p, t

Applied on top of primers


GF-021 GF-0119, GF-0163,
PF-020 or without a primer;
when used as heat-resistant
coating up to 300C it is
applied without a primer

Enamel paint PF-115

GOST 6465

a, an, p

Applied on group I primers

Enamel paint PF-133

GOST 926

a, an, p

Same

Enamel PF-1126 (quickdrying)

a, an, p

"

Enamel PF-1189 (quickdrying)

a, an, p

Applied without a primer

Primers PF-020

Under group I enamels and


paints

Primers PF-0142 (quickdrying)

Under weatherproof group I


and II paints

Primer GF-021

GOST 25129

Primer GF-0119

GOST 23343

Primer GF-0163

53

Under group I enamel


paints; may be used under
group II and III enamel
paints based on
perchlorovinyl and
copolymers of vinyl
chloride

Alkyd urethane

Styrene based alkyd

Epoxy-ether

Base paint GF-017

Same, for structures, erected


or operated at a design
temperature below minus
40C

Enamel paint URF-1128


(quick-drying)

a, an, p

Applied over group I


primers

MC-0141 Primer (quickdrying)

Under weatherproof group


I and II enamel paints

Primer MS-067 (quickdrying)

For inter-operational
conservation of rolled steel,
followed by coating with
enamel paint or primer and
enamel paint

Primer EF-0121 (quickdrying)

Same

Enamel paint EF-1219


(high-build)

a, an, p

Applied in 1-2 coats


without a primer

Non bio-resistant - not


recommended for
agricultural production
buildings

Oil based paints and alkyd


colour mill base paint for
interior work
I

Oil based

Oil-bitumen

Nitrocellulose

GOST 8292

Mill base oil paint for


exterior work

GOST 8292

a, an, p

Applied to oxol doped


drying oil and minium,
primers GF-021, PF-020,
GF-0119

Oxol doped drying oil and


minium mill base

GOST 8292

Under the oil-based paints,


non bio-resistant

Paint BT-177

a, an, p, t

Applied on GF-021, PF020 primers or on metal;


as a heat-resistant coating
when temperatures may
reach 300-350C
periodically and up to 200250C for prolonged
periods - it is applied
without a primer

Lacquer NTs-134

Applied on primers
GF-021

Enamel paint NTs-132

II

II

Phenol formaldehyde

Polyacrylic and acrylic


silicone

GOST 6631

a, an, p

FL-03K primer

GOST 9109

Primer FL-03Zh

GOST 9109

Enamel paint FL-62

Enamel paint AS-1115

a, an, p

Enamel paint AS-182

GOST 19024

Enamel paint AS-1166

a, an, p
a, an, p

54

GF-0163, PF-020, FL-03K


Under groups II and III
enamel paints based on
perchlorovinyl, copolymers
of vinyl chloride, chlorinated
rubbers
Same, for aluminium and
galvanized steel
Applied in five layers with no
primer on the internal surface
of tanks for oil and petroleum
products
Used on aluminium over
primers FL-03Zh, AK-070,
VL-02
Applied on primers
GF-021 GF-0163, PF-020,
FL-03K, the AK-070
Used on anodized aluminium

Primers AK-069 AK-070

II

II

II

II

Polyester silicone

GOST 25718

Primers AK-0138

Enamel paint AS-1171

a, an, p

Enamel paint ML-1202

a, an, p

Primer VL-02

GOST 12707

Primer VL-023

Same

Polyvinyl butyral

Chlorinated rubber

Enamel paint VL-515

v, b, m

Primer KCh-0189

Enamel paint KhV-16

a, an, p

Enamel paint KhV-113

GOST 18374

a, an, p

Perchlorovinyl and
Enamel paint KhV-110
copolymers of vinyl chloride

GOST 18374

a, an, p

Enamel paint KhS-119

GOST 21824

a, an, p

Enamel paints KhV-124


and KhV-125

GOST 10144

a, an, p, kh

II

Slate vinyl

Lacquer SP-795

a, an, p

III
III
III

Phenol formaldehyde
Polyurethane
Epoxy

FL-03K, FL-03Zh primers


Enamel paint UR-175

GOST 9109

a, an, p, kh

Enamel paint EP-773

GOST 23143

an, p, b, m, kh, khsh

Enamel paint EP-755


Enamel EP-140

an, p, b
GOST 24709

55

an, p, kh

For priming aluminum and


galvanized steel
Is applied to the thingalvanized steel sheeting on
the paint lines of roll metal
under OD-KhV-221 and
PL-KhV-122 top coat
Applied to thin galvanized
sheet steel on the paint lines
of roll metal on EP-0200
primer prior to the profiling
As phosphate conversion
coating followed by a primers
and enamel paints for steel;
as a primer in its own right
for the priming of aluminium
and an intermediate for
galvanized steel.
For the inter-operational
conservation of rolled steel,
followed by primer and
enamel coatings
As a waterproof coating
applied without a primer, as a
petrol-oil resistant coating, on
VL-02 primer
Applied to thin galvanized
sheet steel on the paint lines
of roll metal under the paints
- OD-KhV-221,
ML-KhV-714, PL-KhV-122
Applied on primers
GF-021
GF-0163, GF-0119, FL-03K,
PF-020 on
steel and primers FL-03Zh
and AK-070 on aluminium
and galvanized steel
Applied on primers
GF-021,
GF-0119, FL-03K, PF-020,
KhV-050, KhS-010 KhS-068,
KhS-059
Applied to steel without a
primer
Per group II
Applied to group III primers
Applied on underpaint putty
EP-0010 and on metal; as oilresistant coating - with no
primer
Applied on primers
VL-02 VL-023
Applied on primers
AK-070 AK-069, EP-09T; as
a heat-resistant coating - with
no primer

III

Enamel paint EP-575

kh

Enamel paint EP-56

Enamel paint EP-1155


(high-build)

a, an,v, kh

Enamel paint EP-5116


(high-build)

v, kh

Protective primer EP-057

Primer EP-0200

Epoxy

Underpaint putty EP-0010

III

kh, p, v, m, b

Primer EP-0140

Protective primer PS-0203

Enamel PS-1184,
PS-1186

a, v

Enamel KhV-1100

a, an, p, kh

Polystyrene

Enamel KhV-124 and


KhV-125

III

GOST 10277

Perchlorovinyl and
copolymers of vinyl
chloride

GOST 10144

a, an, p, kh

Enamel paint KhV-1120

a, an, p, kh

Primer KhV-050

Primer KhS-010

Primer KhS-068

Primer KhS-059

GOST 23494

56

Applied on primers
EP-057, AK-070 or without a
primer
Applied in 5 layers
on primer VL-02
Applied on primer EP-057,
EP-0010 underpaint putty or
on sandblasted surfaces
Same
It is applied to sandblasted
surfaces under expoxy
enamel primer and enamel
primers based on
perchlorvinyl and copolymers
of vinyl chloride
Applied under acrylic
silicone, polyester and
silicone enamel paints,
applied to galvanized steel
before profiling, on the paint
lines of the metal
Applied under epoxy enamel
paint, and also as a water, oil,
chemical and petrol-resistant
coating on its own
Applied to thin galvanized
sheet steel and nongalvanized steel coated with a
lacquer coating
EP-155
Applied to sand blasted
surfaces under polystyrene
and epoxy enamel paints
Groups III and IV
Applied without a primer or
on VL-02 primer, and as a
water-resistant coating - on
PS-0203 primer
Applied on primers
KhS-010
KhS-068, KhV-050, KhS059,
GF-021 GF-0163,
GF-0119, FL-03K, PF-020 on
steel and on the primers AK069 AK-070, FL-03Zh on
galvanized steel and
aluminum
Used under perchlorovinyl
enamel and enamels based on
vinyl chloride copolymers,
for coatings which are
resistant to environments
containing gas group
concentrations B-D, as well
as under coatings resistant to
liquid media. Applied to sand
blasted surfaces

III

Slate vinyl

Enamel paint KhS-717

m, b, v

Enamel paint KhS-5132

m, b, v

Enamel KhS-972

m, b

Lacquer SP-795

a, an, p, kh

Enamel paint KO-811

III

Organic Silicon

Enamel paint KO-813

GOST 23122

GOST 11066

Paint KO-042

IV

Perchlorovinyl and
copolymers of vinyl
chloride

GOST 7313

kh, khk, khsh, v

Lacquer paint KhV-784

Same

khk, khsh, v

Enamel paint KhS-710

khsh, khk, v

Lacquer KhS-76

khk, khsh, v

Enamel paint KhS-759

GOST 23494

Enamel paint KhS-717

Primer KhS-068
Primer KhS-059

GOST 23494

khsh, khk
-

GOST 23494

Primer KhV-050

Underpaint putty EP-0010

khsh, khk, v
b, m, v

Primer KhS-010

Epoxy

a, an, p, m, t

Enamel paint KhV-785

Lacquer KhS-724

IV

GOST 10277

57

kh, v, m, b, p

Applied on primers
KhS-010, VL-023 and
without a primer
Applied to the steel with no
primer or on primer EP-057
Same
Applied to steel without a
primer
Applied to phosphated or
sand blasted surfaces without
a primer. Heat resistant
resistant to 400C
Applied on primers
GF-021, FL-03K, GF-0163,
GF-0119, PF-020; as an oil
resistant and heat resistant
coating to 300C applied
without a primer
Applied in four layers with a
total thickness of 120-150
microns on the sandblasted
surfaces of drinking water
tanks
Applied on primers KhS-010
KhS-068, KhV-050
Is applied on enamel paint
KhV-785 to improve the
chemical resistance, as a
water-resistant coating on
primer KhS-010
Applied on primer KhS-010.
Resistant to alkali and acid
solutions with concentrations
up to 25%
Applied on KhS-010 primer
and on enamel paint KhS-710
Applied on primer KhS-059
Applied on primers KhS-010,
VL-023 or without a primer
It is applied on enamel paint
KhS-759 to increase the
chemical resistance
Used under perchlorovinyl
enamel and enamels based on
vinyl chloride copolymers,
for coatings which are
resistant to environments
containing gas group
concentrations B-D, as well
as under coatings resistant to
liquid media. Applied to sand
blasted surfaces
Applied under enamel paint
EP-773 and as a waterresistant, chemically
resistant, oil resistant, and
petrol-resistant coating

Enamel paint EP-773

GOST 23143

Applied on underpaint putty


EP-0010, as an oil resistant
coating without primer
Applied without a primer or
on primers EP-057 or AK070
It is applied to sandblasted
surfaces under expoxy
enamel primer and enamel
primers based on
perchlorvinyl and copolymers
of vinyl chloride
Applied on sandblasted
surfaces or on primer
EP-057, or on underpaint
putty
EP-0010

khsh, m, kh, an, p, b

Enamel paint EP-575

kh

Protective
primer EP-057

Enamel paint EP-5116


(high-build)

v, kh, p, b

Enamel EP-7105 (highbuild)

v, kh, khk, p

Same

Notes:
1 Primers that are not designed specifically for application on aluminium or galvanized steel structures, maybe permitted on such structures and on
top of metal coatings if applied on top of VL-02 phosphate conversion primer.
2 Explanation of the various indices: a - coatings resistant to the open air; an - the same, under a covering, p - the same, inside a premises; x chemically resistant; t - heat-resistant; m - oil-resistant; v - waterproof; xk - acid resistant; xsh - alkali-resistant; b - petrol-resistant.

Appendix 16
(Recommended)
Non-metallic protective coating options for steel tanks used for
for acids, alkalis and liquid fertilizer
Protective
coatings

Estimated thickness
of the coating, mm

Coating scheme

Group IV paint coatings with indices "kh", "khk", "khsh"


Paint materials per Reference Appendix 15, depending on the operating
conditions per Table 29.
Reinforced
paint
Liquid rubber
mixtures

Mastic
materials

Reinforced fiberglass epoxy coatings

0.080.15
1.0

Reinforced polypropylene fabric coating based on polyester


1.0
resins (such as "bisvolam-1")
Sealants U-30M on an epoxy primer

1.52.0

Sealant 51-G-10

1.52.0

Mastic based on FAED resin

1.02.0

Polymer putty EKR-22

1.02.0

Epoxy-shale compositions based on epoxy resin (ED-16


ED-20, ZIS-1)

1.0-1.5

Sheet materials Moulded polyethylene

2.03.0

PVC compound

3.05.0
58

Lining
materials1

PVC compound on a sublayer of polyisobutylene

10

Ceramic tiling (acid-resistant or for flooring) on a bonding


material2

2060

Acid resistant brick on bonding materials2

Acid-resistant ceramic cladding materials, tiles flat/moulded, acid-resistant bricks3 on a chemically


30270
resistant2 bonding material over a sublayer (polyisobutylene
PSG, bitumen roll insulation, etc.)
Slag ceramized tiling on epoxy bonding materials on a paint
1220
composite sublayer, reinforced with fiberglass
Cast stone acid resistant tiles on a silicate putty with a
sublayer (polyisobutylene PSG, etc.)

30

Carbon-graphite materials (ATM tiles, carbon and graphite


blocks) on putties base on polymer materials over a sublayer 20400
(polyisobutylene, etc.)
Rubber
finishing

Rubber and ebonite on adhesives, followed by vulcanization

312

The selection of protective coating, the thickness and the number of layers should be made with consideration for the
dimensions of the structure, the temperature, the charactersitics of the Moderately aggressive environment, with a
mandatory check by undertaking a calculatiion of the static stability, and in necessary cases a thermal engineering
calculation.
2
The choice of bonding material should be made with consideration for the composition of the Moderately aggressive
environment.
3
The choice of acid-resistant cladding material should be made depending on the nature of environment, the
mechanical loads and thermal calculations.

59