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:,KEE:\", r;nn:RX;\l1'~XT l'lUX'l'El{, CEYLON.

To I~, Pu,chaocd nL the Uu\' t:ks.,u-:sr Jtm.:oRP u1nm:, C11Lo11so, Pri,,e u~. ;-,;o.



JS, HY PEllMJ88IO:s',




llli< :X<'F.1.1.EXI"\'




G.C.!\I.G ..



THE 'l'R.\Nsr\TOH.


Contents of Chapt111,1
l,i11t of Kings

Chapters I. to XXXVIII.



..\.110.lytir.al Summary of Chnl'to111


Uhronological Table of Siyhr.loHe S0ve1ic,ig11~ f1,_,111 li:i11_va11:1 l.

('ontoxt: ve1-ses 80 to 114 of Chapte1 XX:XTHI.


tJ!mpte1:1 XXXIX. to C.

Profo,;.101 U.hyR Davids' 'l'ransluti(\11 of Chaptt,1~ XXXIX. ,11111



:\I-uda.liyar L. de Zoy1!11's T1an11latio11 of Clmpte1 LXVIH. ,m,I

part of LXXIX.


.l:i.tmcts from Bishop Cnldwell'11 Hii<to1")' of Ti1111Hl'lly"


Index of Princip,,l Name:1





.\:< Pl'.IH,l:<tn:11 II\"

,.a; UH en:


o PH. C.t~.s..



ft>it11 thttte .mb Cfmtnbafi1111s

BY I.. C'.

Wl.!EHl~H.\. :\ll't>Al,tY.\n.






1 ... to tak('


... to wnrm




... rn ...


tnmti11e (n:unE>d) tht1 (treatise named)






2~, . - .




Pa1,1CJuvii1md1h-a. ;

rt JK1t1Bi11,.

wherein the~ mig-ht tak(


pt-epal"'d gravfll : aud ol't~,: it





Author's Introduction-Tbe twenty-four Buddbas who preceded Gautamn
-Gautama Buddha's three visits to LagkiL-Mahiyaygana, Nagadipa, and
Genealogy of Buddha from Mahuammam-The ~ya kings, Bimbislr,1
and Siddh6rtba.
Buddba'11 Parinirvana-First Convocation for the settlement of the Buddhiat Canon.
King Ajltasattu'a sons-Susuniga--Becond ConTocation for the revision of
the Sacred Canon.


Schisms in the Buddhist Oburch-Aaolm'a inaug11ration-Nigr6dhll

Slmaoem-Oonversion of Aaoka to Buddhism-lloggaliputta Ti8811 Thc1-aThird Convocation.
Vijaya-His landing in Lnvki.
011,\PTER VII.
Conquest of Laukii b1 Vijaya-Hia inauglll'lltion-Embay to Southern
Madura soliciting a pnnceaa of Paq.<Ju-The arrival of the princeu and
deposition of Kuve9i.
Vijaya's death-Interregnum-Arrival of Vijaya'a nephew Pao<Juvaaude,"11
rom India-His inatallation in the aovereignty.
Pao<Juvuudeva's death and election of his son Abhaya to succeed him Birth of Pao4ukabhaya, grandaon of Pao4uvaaudeva.



Attempt& to deatroy Pao<Juklbhaya-His escapes and romanticadventuresBia revolt, and war with his unclea-Hia coronation-Great improvements
mad~ by him in Anuridhapura.


Reign of :Mupsiva, son of Pa9t).ukabhaya-Instal1ation of Devanampiy11

Tiaaa, hia son, in the aovereignty-Wonderful productiona in Layki at tJiat

period-His embaaay to Aaoka, who despatchea a deputation to anoint him a

aecond time aa king of Lauka.

Acoount of Buddhist :Miiona to varioua oountrie1-:Mahinda'1 nomination aa Miaaionary to La91d.





A brief account of Mahinda and his movements preparatory to his departu-e from India-Hie arrival in Lagki.



DevAnampiY.R Ti88&'!! first interview with llahinda at .A.mbattlwa-Hil

\'i11its to the city.


Mahinda's preaching-His acceptance of the king's pleasure garden:MarveJlous incidents in connection therewitb-Mahinda's account of the
visits of former BuddhaA to Laqka- Demarcation and consecration of the
"Sima"-Preaching and conversions-Buddhist edifices that were built at
thi11 period.
Building and dedication of the Cetiyagiri (Swiri) Vihara.


The acquisition of Relics-Enshrinement of them in the ThupAramalluilding of the Cctiya and Vihara of that name.


Mission to India for bringing over a branch of the great Bo-treeJncidents.

Arrival of SanghamittA with the Bo-branch-The planting of it-Building of nunneries.
.A. domestic incident in the life of A.soka-Enumeration of Buddhilt
c(lifices in the order they were built-The Alahlipali Almonry-Death of
Uevimampiya Tilll!& and succeMion of Uttiya, his brother-Death of Mahinda,
uf Sai1ghamitta, and of the other Theras.
Reigns of Mahaiiiva ; Suratissa ; Sena and Guttika ;


Duttha G6manr-His ancestry, bia-th, and childhood.
.A.n account of the ten strong men of Duttha Gamani.


Duttha Gitmani's flight from his father's Court-His assumption of

11nvereignty-War between him and Ti1111a, his brother-Their reconciliation
t.hrough the intervention of the priesthood.
Gamani'e preJ?Bratione to invade the North-Account of his campaign
n.l{ainst the Dam1!as-Defeat and death of E\ara-Defeat of Bhalluka, Ejara'e
Building of the MaricavaHi (Mirisv,tiya) Digoba.

Building of the LohapaeAda (Lod-mahapaya).


Discovery of materials and precious things prej>natory to the building of

the Ruvanv,li Dagoba.




Ceremony of the laying of the foundation stone of the Ruvanv,;li Dignba.



.breetion of the Rnvanvqli Dagoba-lncidents connected therewith-The

t(l'8&t 11tone coffer for the Relics-Description of the precious thingsdepottited


The procuring of the relics by Son11ttAra.-History of the Relics--The

-tmshrinement thereof with great ceremonio1.


Serious illn881 of Du~t}m GAmanl-Deathbed scene-Bia viriible departure

to heaven-Cremation of his body.


Jigns of SaddhA. TiRBa; Thullatthanaka.; Lajji Tiul\; Kha.llitanllga ;

.na 0-aman(-Defent of Vatta. Gamani by the Tamil,, and his flight-Buie
five Tamil usurpers-Incidents during Vatta. Gnmani's flight and exileIi11 reaumJ)tion of the 110vereignty, and subaequent aots-Sohisma in the
1uddhi11t Church-The Buddhist Canon reduced tn w1iting.
Reigns of )[ahielili llahatiaaa; Coranaga: and Ti&B&-Reign. of Queen
AnuJi and her paramours-Reigns of Kitlaka1,11,1i TiBBR; Bhitiya 1.; and
llnh6 Dithika.


Reign11 of Am.-i1,1~a Gimani ; Ka9ijinu Tilll!II ; Ctil:ibhaya ; Rivali :

IJaniga: Candamukha 8iva; Yualitlaka TiRM ; Sabha : V:uiabha ; Vadka
nbika TillMII ; Uaja Babu ; and Mahallaka Nltga.
CIIAl'Tl-!lt xx..-,:VI.
Reigns of Bh,tika Tiua; Ti!IM. II.; Culanflga; Ku,}4a Naga; Siri Nip;
Vcihlra Ti11sa; Ahhaya TiBl!IL; Riri Naga II.; Vijaya II. ; &dgl1ati1U111: Siri
l'mdghabodhi; Gothtibhaya,1mrnamed Meghavm.11,m. Abhnya; and JeUha Tiua.

Cn.,Pn:n XXXVII.
Reigns of l\lnhia i,ena: 8iri )feghava.1,11)8; The Toot.II-relic: JeUha TiBaa. ;
Buddhad6s.-i; Upatissa II.; and llahinima-Account of Buddhaghosa.
Reigns of SotthiseDa; Chattagihaka; )littasena PtwcJu, the Tamil usurpel' :
Five othel' Tamil usurpers ; and Dhitu Sena.

( iv )

Noticed in Part I., and Approximat,, Dates of their Reigns.







1 Vijaya
2 Upatiua (Regent)
3 Pa1,14ud11udeva or Paft-

4 Abhaya
~ l'a,;i4ukAbhaya
6 MutaaSva
7 D&vanainpiya Tiua or
Dev\!ni~ Tie


9 Maha Siva
10 Sura Tiua
11 Sena andGuttika( foreign
12 Aaela ...

13 E!ii.ra (a Tamil usurper)

14 Dunha Gamani or Dutu
15 Saddha Tiaea

16 Thullatthann or Tulunn.
17 Lajji Ti88& or Lad~-'fi1o1
18 Khallata Naga
19 Vana-Gamani Abhayaor





32 Sivali ...

35 YasalAlaka Ti888
3ti Subha Raja
37 Vasabha or Vahap
38 Vapka-nasika Tissa


VaUa-gamani-abhay11 or
Valagambah11 (resump-

tion of sovereignty) ..
Mahicula Mahiti1111a or
Mahasilu MahatiK

23 Cora Naga
24 Ti1111n or Ku4a Tissa
25 AnuJi\ . ,
2ti Makalay TiSllll or Knlukal}l}i Ti.il83

28 Mahli Dathiya Maha
Noga or Maha D\!liya


2\J Amal}l,la Gamani Abhaya

30 Kal}ijanu Ti88&
:11 C(1!ftbhaya Tissa or Kuq,i
AM, .

l to-









}blth;amil { 100





39 Ga1a Bahn I.
40 Mahallaka Naga or Mshalu Ni
41 Bhatiya or BhatikR II.. 141
42 Ka1,1ittha Ti88801 Ka,,itu
Tis ...





Interregnum of three yeara.

33 llaniga or Elnna
34 Candamnkha Siva or






52 GothAbhaya or ?rlegha-


,.. 2M

53 J cHha TillSll or Detu Tis

54 Maha Sena or Maha Sen


55 Kitti-s-Siri-MeghaVRJ.lt,111
or Kit Siri Mevan . 304
5G JeHha '.fissa 11. or Detu


57 Buddhadhsa or Bnjas .. , 341

58 U putisaa II.
59 Mahi.ni.ma
60 Sotthi Sena
61 Chatta-gahaka
62 Mitta Sena



Parinda -~ usurpets






Cilia Nhga or Sulu NA ..

Kn4qa Ni1ga
Siri N1iga I.
Vohiraka Tis11n
Abhaya Ti1111a

Siri Nl1ga II.

Vijnya., II. or Vijayiftdu
Sangha Tissa I.
Siri Sadghabodhi I. or
Daham Siri Sai'lgabo...




Pithiya J
l 463
Dhl1tusena or Dasenkeliya 463


['rho italillll arc intcmled to <lenote the fa.nlt,y wonl11 aml paKMgeii which J
have 1<nh1<tit11ted by othel'R in thr. foot-notes. In aom11lia.nee with the wishes of
Hovcmmant I have added thelltl mo11t!y to such pll,Sl<&l(llll 11,11 contain gr" rr or gln l'ill,!J
1rrol'l'. The only alterationi< mmfo in t.he text are in the b'1111Mlitemtion of Pilli
wonls nml the KUbiititution of the cmde form ,t for the c1111e tllrmination " ai<
n.doptcil by modern Pali 11cholani. The toxt Ktill admitK of great improvement.
throughont.-L.l'. 11'.)



Al)(IIIA"l"IOX to him, who iM the deified, the 111mctified, the omnii;cient,

KUJlreme Bud.Iha !
Having bowed down to the KUJ1reme Ruddha, imm"6ulatc in purity,
illustriou11 in lle11CCnt ; 1mil1m11t ""J1/J1't'11.,i,,n 111 r.ntfffl'Wr.1tio11, I celebrate the

MAii h"A~~A.

That which w1,K compoR<ld hy the ancient (hiKtoriam1) iK in 11omc rcspectK

too concise, iil othcn1 too diffnKC, abounding also in the defcct11 of tautology.
Attend ye to thiK (Alahi1vay11,"') which, 1woiding these impcrfcctio11H, 11ddreKNC11
it.Kelf to the hearer (in a 11tmi11) readily comprehended, e11.11ily remembered,'
and im1piring He11timent11 both of rlcaimre 1md of pain; giving riKe to eithe.r
pleaKing or painful emotion, according 1111 each incident may be agreeable m
Our ,1mquiHher (of the fhc deatlly 11in11) having, in a former existence,
seen the 1mpreme Unrldlm l>ir~"'1iknm. formed the reMolution to attain
hudilhnhood, in order that ho might reileom the world fl'f,m the miRerie11
(of 11i11).
Hnhscquently, 11.M in the ca11c of that impreme Bmldha, KO untn Kondaiiiin.
the icage l\faygalt,, 1-"innmua, the Huddha Rc"n.tn. nnd the eminent141ge KobhitK,
U1e 1mpi-cme Buddha .\.nnm<WfaK11i, P1Ldunm, N11md11 t.hc ,,mquiRher, the
~nprcmc Ilmldlm P1uhm111tt11m, and Kume<lha the deity of Mimiln.r mission;
!;ujita 1md Piyad11,1111i. the supreme ,\.tthnda11Ki, DhammadnKMi, Sidclhatthn., TiliNI.,
and, in like manner, the vanr1ui11her Phmss."', VipaSMi, the supreme Buddha
Sikl1i, the Ruprome Ru1ldh1, Ve11R11.bh{1, the supreme Buddhn. KakuMndha,
in like manner Km.1ngam11, anrl K''""sapa of felicitom1 advent,-1mto all
theKO twenty-four 11up1eme Bu1ldh111dikewi1.1e (in their re11pectivc existences),
'Thil! iK not thu Mcn"e of the com110und term 1uin,,111i11/i,ll,il11ir11ltnp. 11n11lifyinir
It ought to he remlcred thu": "I celebrate the Malu'lva1,1Ma, replete
with diver,, comprchcnMive chapti,r,i." Huch iM the ex11lanation given in the T11d :

tillt'k,f1i (l.(/ltifl1i1tfti jHl-l"ijllflJIJCirlf1ikiittit1,' fi t1ffl,t1.

The words s11fif11111 "Jl<i//11,fou, "cJme down by tfflllition." contained in the

text., h.nvc been omitted in thiM (.numeration of the characteri11tice of the
Original, T,ul11i911fu, Ht>re. ar. el"Cwhere throughout .the work, I have not
thought it neoes~Ary to notice the Euglillh renderb,g of the Pali cpithetR and of.
: wo1~1~ ap11crtaining tu B111l1ll1i.Mt. h-rmiuology,


the indefntigable struggler h:ning vouchR:1fod to supplicate, by them al80 his

admission into buddh:,hood wa." foretold.
The supreme G-otama Buddh:1 (thus in due order) fulfilled all the probationary. ooul'll8~, and attained the 1mprcrue omniscient buddhahood, that he
might redeem mankind from the ruiMerie11 (of Rin),
At the foot of the ho tree, at Uruv6la, in the kingdom of Magadha, on
the day of the full moon of the month of visakha, this gre11t divine 8111{8
11chieved the supreme all-perfect bucldhahood. This (clivine) 110journor, displaying the supreme bai.titude derived by thP, final cmancipati":a (from the
afflictions inherent in the state of trnn!lmigration), tarried in that neighbourhood :for seven times aovon days.
Proceeding from thence to Ufiri1,1asi, he proclaimed the 1JOvereign supremac;y
of his faith; and whik't yet 110journing the~ during the "v111111a," he procured
for sizty (converts) the mnctifi.cation of "aihat." Dispersing abroad these
disciples for the purpose of promulgating his doctrines, and thereafter
having himself converted thirty (princes) of the 1ilwpltrct.1,ly-allitd tribe of
Bhadda, the saviour, with the view to converting Ka.ssa11a n.nd the thousand
Jatilians, took up his abode at Uruvcla during the "hcmanta," devoting
him11elf to their instruction. WhcR the period had arrived for celebrating a
religious fO!ltival (in honour) of the ..-;,id Kassapa, of Uruviila, perceiving
that his absence from it was wished for, the vanqui11her, victorioUR over death,
taking with him his repast from Utbrakuru, and h1wing partaken thereof 11t
the lake of .A.notattn.(beforc mid-day) on that very afternoon, being the
ninth month of his buddhahood, at th<1 full moon of the conKtellation phu1111a,
unattended, visited La.yk11 for the 1mrpo11e of sanctifying Lagk&.
'It 1011,, lmmm (l,g i1111pimtion) b11 the r,wq11i11/m tlmt
Lt1uka, filled by
t/1Nl'fi,re tl,e 11ett/..11,e,it ,if t/111 !ftk!.:Tu,8,-tlmt in tlw ,mi,l La-tika
mould (11R-1"'-rlht;les11) be thi! pi.tic'- wl1t1'I! /1i11 reliyioi& 1ooultl bP. gl01iji.ed. In like
manner, knowing that in the centre of Lay.ka, on the delightful b:mk of a
rhor, on a spot three yoja.na11 in length and one in breadth, in tho agreeablo
Mahamiga garden, iu the 31&11sPml,li1111 plttce nf t/,,. 11<d.:ldm11, there wns a great
W111tm1bfage of the 11rincipal yakkhaH in La1,1kn; the dciiy of happy advent,
approaching that great congreg-.1tion of yakkhatS,-thcre, in the midst
of the I\IIKembly, immediately above their heads, hovei-ing in the air, over the
very 11ite of the (future) llahiyayguna tliigoba, 11truck terror into them, by
rains, tempests, and darkne1,111. 'fhe yakkhas, overwhelmed with awe, supplicated of the vanquisher to be rcloMod from thoia- terror. To the terrified
yakkhas the con1:10ling vanquishor thus replied : "I will release ye ya.kkhe.s
from thia your terror 1111d afflication: give ye unto me, here, by unanimou11
consent, a place for me to alight 011." All these yakkhas replied to the deity
of happy advent : "Lord, wu confer on thee tho whole of Lagkii, grant thou
comfort (in our affliction) to us." The vanquisher thereupon, dispelling
their terror and cold a!.ive1i11g, and s1>ro.'ld.ing his carpet of skin on the spot
bestowed on him,he there 11cat1.'<l himself. He then caused the aforesaid
carpet, refulgent with a fringe of flame11, tc:, extend itfie.lf on all aides ; they,
11COrched by the flu.mes (receding), 11tood !\round on the shores (of the island)
The saviour then caused the delightful isle of Giri to approach for them.



1 There ia nothing to indicate that they ware" inaeparably.allied."

" For it was known by the vanquiaher t!Jat La\lk& would lie the place when
bis religion would he m011t glorified, and that it was needful that the yakkhas by
whom La"'k' wsa inhabit.ed llhoul<I he removed therefrom,"
1 l'11Hlaa,-aatlgdma bHmiy,f, ,; In the battle-Jeld of the yakkhas.'' &ftgd.- is
war, battle, &c., quite distinot from ... . , - , which meana an 111111embly, &c.
and darkness,'' or "conf11,ii1111,"




A.a lj()()n as they transferred themaelves thereto (to escape the conflagration)
he restored it to its former JJ011ition. Immediately the redeemer folded up
his carpet a.nd the devn...'I a.ssembled. In that congregation the divine
teacher p1"0poundoJ hiK doctrines to. them. Innumerable kotia of living
orer~u1'811 received the hless.ing,i of hi11 doctrines: nsagkhyas of them attained
the lllllvation of that faith and the state of piety.
The chief of the devas, Sumana, of the Suma.nakuta mountain, ha.Ting
acquired the Mnctification of "BOtapatti," aupplicated of the deity worthy of
oll'et'iugs, 1 for cm o.lfrrinfl. Tho vanquisher, out of comp1&1111ion to living
beingi., pa.,sing hi11 hand over hi11 head, be11towed on him a handful of hia pure
hlue lock11 from the growing hair of hill head. Rec,.;ving and depoiting it in
ci HIIJ1e1b !lolcltn ,~1Hkt't 011 tl,,. HfJIJt v;I,,.,.,. tl,e clir.ine ticlier 1,ad, Htood, adorned.
(c111 if) ,ritl, tire Hplenclou1 of i11m,111,eml,le gM~. co11,preliendir&f/ (all) the Ber-e11
lreaa111eH, /18 mJ1ri111'fl eJ,,. for.I. in w, ,m,,.1-altl da!Jo1,a, mid bo,aea dornn in rcor111&i11.
The thcra Sarabh4, dillciple of the thura Rariputta, at the demille of the
11upreme Uuddha, l'eceiviug at hiM funeral pile the "givaUhi " (thorax bone
relic) of the va.11qui11her, attendet1 by hi11 retinue of 11rio11ts, by his miraculous
powen1, hrought aud deflOllited it in that identical dagoba. This inspired
Jllll'l!Ona.gu, cLusing II J~roba to he erected of cloud-coloured ston88, 3 twelve
cubits high, and em,hriuiug it therein, departed.
The prince Uddh11ch(1\abhay11, the younger brother of king .Dcv6na.mpiya
'l'illtlR, Ji11covering this nmrvcllous dagoha, con11tructed (another), enc1111ing it,
thirty cuhit11 in height.
'l'he king Duttlm <Um.ani, while residing there during his snhjug:Ltion of the
l\falaba1'11, t.'Onstructed a d{&goba enC1L11i11g that one, eighty cubits in height.
'rbi11 )fahiya1,1ga11a. rliii,roha wa11 thus completed.
I11 thi11 manner. the KUJ>reme ruler, indefatigable as well as invincible,
having rcncllred thiH laud hl\bitable fol' human beings, departed for Uruvula.
'l'he vh,it to )fabiya1,1g:ma eunuluded.
The vanqui!<her (of the fin, de1Lclly 11im~), the grt.'Rt compaSHionating divine
teacher, thu benefactor of the whole world, the ,mpreme Buddha, in the fifth
ymLr of hiH hudtlh:thuntl, whilu reKi1Iing at the garden of (the prince) .Tota,
oliel'ving lhl\t 011 account of a tli1<p11ted claim for a gem-HCt throne between
the unga Mnluidam and,,, ~i11,il111 Ct'1lo1l1Lm, " maternal uncle and nephew,
n. conllict w11,11 at hand hotween theil' reicpective itrmieK : on the la.~t day of
the h111t 11uarter of the m1K1n of the mouth citta, ;Lt daylight, taking with
him hiK sacred tli11h and robe", out of compal!ll!iou to the nagas, visited
At that tilnu. lhi11 l\Inlu..idar;L 11fore~"Lid wa11 a miga king in R n6ga kingdom
half 1L thom;;uul (live l11111drc'1) ynj;1mis m extent, hounded by the ocean; and
he wm, giftetl with ,mpe1'1111tul'al JH.nvcl's. Hh1 younger Mi11ter (Kidabhika)
had l>1.e11 giveu in mal'l'iage to a nag1L king of the Katn.111,acjdhamima mountain.
l:(1ludm~i w1111 hiM son. His gmmlmother having Le11towcd this invaluable
gcm-tlmmc on hi11 mother, that u~ga c1uccu thel'eafter died. From that
drctun!!tlLnce thi" coullict of the nephew with the uncle was on the eve of being
waged. 'J'hc,;e mountain nagn" ""ere moreover giftud with i,;upermitm'II.I
.. fur Mum1,t-hi111 worthy of wonship.'"
., Receiving it iu a 1<\IJ1t1rb golllen Wl!ket he t>laced iton I\ lte1111of ,Jivel'Mgeuts,
l!tlVen cuhjtio in cin:umfen,ncc. whel"!t-he Teacher had istood. and rai,md a l!t1iro110I
cmi,mJ,1 over it. Bnd bowed ,lown unto it in wol'l!lhip.''
Cloml-ooloured !ltone1<.'' The original iii ,1/,,da-rar,,i-p,i~4lltl., stones of thu
colour of f11f ' : white marhle !
1 tJit.1 DAl(B.' 1
, /J,f,-.


The deva Samiddhisumana instimtly, at the command of Buddha, taking

up the rajayatana tree which stood in the garden of Jcta, and which CODltituterl bis delightful residence, and holding it over the vanquisher's head like
an umbrella, accompanied him to the above-named place.

This deva (in a former existence) hlld been born II human beiJig in Ifipd(pa. On the spot where the raj,yatana tree then stood he had seen Pacceka
Buddha& ta.king refection. Having seen them he had rejoiced, and presented
them with leaves to cleanse their sacred dishes with. From that circumstance
he (in hie present exiatence) was born in that tree, which stood at the gate of
the delightfully agreeable garden of Jeta. Subaequently (when the Jeta
vibara was built) it stood without (it wu not built into the teJT&Ceon which
the temple W1lll constructed). '!'he deva of deVRII (Buddha), foreseeing that
this place (Nigadipa) would be of increasing advantage to this deva (Samiddhieumana), brought this tree to it.
The saviour and dispeller of the darkneu of sin, JJ()i11ing hiDlllelf in the air
over the centre of the 81111embly, caused a terrifying darkne1111 to those nigas.
Attending to the prayer of the dismayed n6gas, he again called forth the
light of day. They, overjoyed at having seen the deity of felicitous advent,
bowed down at the feet of the divine teacher. To them the vanquisher
preached a sermon on reconciliation. Both parties rejoicing thereat, made an
offering of the gem-throne to the divine sage. The divine teacher, alighting
on earth, seated himself on that throne, and was served by the nap kings
with celestial food and beverage. 'l'he lord of the universe procured for
eighty k6tis of nigas dwelling on land and in waters, the salvation of the
faith, and the state of piety.
The maternal uncle 'of .Mahlidara, Maniakkhika, the niga king of Kalyfu}i,
proceeded thither to engage in that war. Having, at the fir11t visit of Buddha
heard the sermon on hi11 doctrinCII preached, he had obtained the 11tate of
salva.tion and piety. There he thus supplicated the succeMROr of preceding
Buddha& : " Oh I divine teacher, such an act of mercy performed unto us it.<
indeed great. Hadst thou not vouchlll\fed to come, we should all have been
consumed to ashes. All compaesionating deity ! let thy protecting mercy
be individually extended towards myself : in thy future advent to thi11 land
visit thou the place of my residence.' The Kanctified deity, having by his
ailence consented to grant this prayer in his future visit, on that very spot he
cauaed the ritjiyatana. tree to be planted. 'l'he lord of the universe bestowec:I
the aforesaid inestimable r.ijayatana tree, and the gem-throne, on the n',a
kings, to be wonihipped by them. " Oh ! miga kings, wonihip tbi11 my 11anctifiod tree ; unto you, my beloved, it will be II comfort and conHOlation."
The deity of felicitous advent, the comforter of the world, having administered, especially this, together with all .:ither religious comfortll to the nagas,
departed to the garden of ,J uta.
The visit to N',adipa concluded.
In the third year from that period, the said nfiga king, Maniakkhika, repairing to the supreme Buddha., supplicated hisattendance (at KalyBJ,1i) together
with his disciples, In (this) eighth year of his buddhahood, the vanquieher
and saviour WM sojourning in the garden of Jeta with five hur.drcd of his
disciple11. On the 11ccond day, being the full moon of the delightful month
of ves,kh11, 011 iis l1ciug announced to him that it w1111 the hour of rcf.r.:cticon,
the vanquisher, lord of munis, at that instant, adjusting hie robes and taking
up hie s:1.Cred dish, departed for the kingdom . of Kal:,aoi, to the residence of
?tlaniakkhika. On the spot where the Kaly~ dagolia (Wllll subsequently ,
built) on a throne of inestimable value, erec1.edin a golden palace, he atationed
himself to~ether with his attendant diaciplPII. The overjoyed niga king and
his retinue provided the wnqui11her, the dootriaal lord and hill diaciples, with
1:ul.iKtial food 1L11d beverage. The comforter of the world, the divine teacher.,

tJHAl''l'l!lH II,

the 11up1-c111c lml. h,Lving th111c p1'0pounded the do.:t1i11u11 of his faith. rising
aloft (iuto the 11ir) dit1pl11yed the impl'Ol!Sion of biH foot on the D1ountain
i-;,,manakdtn (by impl'inting it there). 011 the Nido of that. mountain he,
with l,iiit diKCiplOH, having enjoyed the rust of 110011-tlay, departed for Dighavapi; nnd on the site of the tlagoba. (su~qucutly c1-ectcd) tho 1111vinu1,
,ittemled hy hiK disciples, seated himKelf ; und for the purpo11e of rundering
that spot colehmtl'cl, he tl1erc enjoyed the bliH11 of ' ><:umidhi." Ri11ing aloft
fn,m tlmt 11poL, thu gront divine 1111ge1 cognizant of tho plnceH (R1111ctificd by
former B11ddh11t1), dopnrtecl for the 11t11tion where tho 1\lcghnvnmi ustal,liHhment
,v111111ul1C11mmtly formed (nt Amnadhapum). 'fhe IIIL\'iour. together with hii.
1li11ciple11, alighting 011 the Kpot where the 1111cred bo-tl'ec wa11 (1.<uhl!Elquontly)
plllnted, enjoyed the bliss of the ;, 111uuadhi" meditation; thence, in like manner:
on the 11pot where the grent cl111,rob1L (wm1 1mbseq11e11tly built). Similarly, at
the 11ite of the dugoba Thup1irnrua, indulging in the Harne JJlC(litation ; from
thence ho repilil'ed tu the site of Silo. dagobrl, The lol'd of multitudinous di11ciplOK preached to the cong1egnted devns, and tl1ereafter the Huddlm, omniscient
of the present, the p1111t, and the future, depal'ted for the garden of Jeta.
1.'bus the lo1tl of Laykli, knowing by divine inspiration the inestimable
hle1111i111,'K vouchsafed to Layka, and foreseeing even at that time the futu,'8
pro11perity of the devaK, miga.'4, nnd others in Lavka, the all-hountiful lu1Dinary
vi1<it1."f] thiK most favourccl lnml of the world thrice. F1'0m this circu!Dlltance
Lhi11 111ln11cl bccamo vcnemtutl hy righteou11 men. Hence it shone forth the
light. ib1clf of religion.
rhe vi11it to Kalyiu,1i oonclurled.
':'lie li1'><t clmpt.e1 uf the l\fahavaui;u, untitled " The visi ls of the 1111ccesso1
,,r fo1111e1 Huddluuc,'' c11mpo1.<cd ul(ually for the rlelight and affliction of
l'ighkollK 111011,



//1'1',t/ ,l;,,;,,,, ~"II'. 1/,r ,1,,~,P.111l1wf

r!f' //,is "l.,1p1m,"


f/1(' J.i,,!J .l/11/11i,,111111t1/11, ,,, ,,,..

l,imse(( f/,r suiil 1.-ii,g 1111111r,/ .l/11l,rism1&,1111t11.

Roja, Vammja, in like manuer two Kaly111,11ls (Knlyi11,1a aml Vamkalyi1,111), C'pusathn, two )fantlh:itus, C1irak11. 1111d Up11cnrak1L, Cetiya, alKO
'.\[ucala, l\fahiunucala, l[ucalimfa. also 8agnra: m,cl Hligam'11ha, Bhamta,
Hl11igirn,111, Ruui, 8nrnd, Pat,ipa. 1\fah/ipatapa, and in likti manner two
P,mi1d:1", Sndassana aml Neru, likewi1:1u two of e:1ch n:m1c,-the!!e abovcuamed kinb~ WCl't' (in their "eYcn,I gcnor11tiom1) hi" (J\t:1l11iii;1mmat11'11) 11011>,
:111d lineal ,le>1eomla111s.
'l'he;;o twenty-eight l111ds of thu lane!, who111., cxi,.tcncc \,:tt1:111lcd lo 1LJ1
'l"llllkhya of years. 1-cignecl (in the t:npitals) l{nsarnli. Riij:1gnl111. MitJ1ih1.
'l'hc1enfte1 (in different ,apitals reigned) 11110 hundred. lifty-!lix, 11ixty,
eighty-four thou1<1111d, then Lhil't;rRix kin~; snh11ct1ucntly thcroto, thiity1wo, t11011ty-tJight, twenty-two : ,mh"011'IIJntly thereto, eighteen, sovc11tee11,
fifteen, and lourtccu : nine. !<c\'ell. twcl\'c. twentyfi\'c: again in t.hc 1111me
1111mbor (twenty-five), two twchcK nml uinu. 1\fakliadcva. the fil'llt of eighty.
four thoW111ncl ; K11Jlimjn11:ik.'l, the fi1'llt of oigty-fom thonAAnd kings ; ancl


'The enm of co11~tin1:tio11 here, though "light, i~ ~l!liouijly mi,1lcading.~ It. i,;
not Maicl here that Hmldha wa.!! horn I\M M1LhR1111mm11.tn. but thtl~ he was lle,wended
Crom that myLhfoal plr~onnge, The pa,1~age ought to be eo11>1true1l ihus :" Xow thi,i groat ,iago wu bol'Jl of the rllt.'8 of king llah.i:sa.minata. In the
hegi11ni11g of thi~ kalpn. f.hcrt w11 a king 11ame1l l\lahao1ammatA. A_nd thlllle were
hiN ~011>1 11nol g11t111l,111n>1." Tlwn folio\\ t,hl' jl't>nealn::r,.


the sixteen sons and lineal doscendantR terminating with Okkak.-t : these were
those (pri,nces) who separately. in distinct 11uccessio1111, reiguell. each in their
Nllpective c$pital.
Okkaka.11Nkhn, the eldest 110n of Okki,ha, became 110Yeroig11. Nipum,
Chandinu\, fJhandamukha, Sirisalijaya, the gro..'\t king VeHHantRm, Clmi,
Sfhavahana, imd Sihassaro., in like manner,-theRe were liis (Okkakamukha.'11)
sonsand linMl de11cendanta.
There were eight-two thou1111nd Mvereign11, the sons and lineal d011Cenda11ts
of king Sih:\s11.'11'a. The last of these was Jayascna. These were irelebrated
in the capital of Kapilavatthu 1\11 Snkya kings.
The great king Sihahann was the 110n of JayM6nn. The daughter of
Jayuena was named Y11,11udhara. In the cityof D0v;td1\hatherewns a Saky;L
ruler named DeYaclaha. Unto him two children. Aiij1ma, then Kncchami.
were bom. This Kacchlin/1 became the queen of king Sihahanu.
To the Sakya Afijana the aforesaid Y11.11c,dhari1 bcc.'\ml queen. To Aiijana
two daughtel'II were born, Maya nncl Pn:japati, and two 11ons of the Sakyit
race, Dandapini and Supp1,huddlm.
To Sihahanu .five 110n11 and two daughtel'!I wllrq bom, SuddMdana,
Dhot6dana, Sukkudana (Hhattit1;d:1.11a), and Amiti,dana; Amit.a and
Pamitfi. ;-those five, these two. To the lolakyn. Suppnbuddha, Amita became
queen. Subhadd1\kncchiinil and Demdatta were her two offHprings.

Maya and Pajapati both cquall.Y became the con~rti<1 of Suddbudaun.

Our vanquisher was the HOil of the l\l~Mriijh Sudclhudnnn. a.ml l\layli. Thus the
great divine sage wa11, in a direct line, de11ccnclcd from the l\fahrl.sa.mmnta race.
the pinnacle of all royal dyna.stieK. 'l'o this prince Siddhatth1\, n. hodhisa~ta..
the aforesaid SublmdtfakacehaniL ber.n.me 11ueen. R{1hulu. was his 1111n.
The princes BimbiMam and Siddbn.tthn were attachC1.l friends. The fathe1
of both thoao (princes) were also eqmdly devoted friends. The bodhisatta
was five years the scniot of Bimbi11arn. In the twonty-ninth yea1 of his age
the bodhillllttn clepn.rted (on his divine milli4ion ).
Having ~fo, ~ix !/l't11" f/Oltr. 1t,rm1yl1. tl," 1110/,11/io;m,11 t:1J11r11ex, 11ml /1aii119 i11
tl11e order of 1111('CeR11io11 ttfl1ti11t1l JJ11tl,l/mlwotl, ho repaired in the thirty-fifth
of hi11 age to BimbiRara.
The eminently wise Bimbisiim h.'\rl
. been imita.llccl himself in the fifteenth
year of his- age, by his father (Bh{1tiy11.), in the 1mvcrcignty of hiti re11lm.
In the Rixteenth year of hi11 reign tho dfrine teacher propoumltid his
doctrine!I (to him). He rule1l the kingdom for fifty-two yc:u"ll-iiftce11 yun.rH
of his reign had ela11scd before he united him11elf with the 0011g1egation of
the vanquisher ; '11/tc1 l,i11 cn11cr.l'sion, f!iil'f!J-Beve11 yews--d11l'i11y 11:hich J>el'iofl
this 1111cce.1J11m of.f01mu B1ulillwH 11till lfret.l.
The weak and pcrfidiom1 son of Ilimhi1dira, Ajatnsa~tu, hawing put him to
death, reigned for thirty-two yea1"H. Iu the eighth year of king Ajatasattu'11
reign the divine 11age died. '!'hereafter ho roignerl twenty-four years.
The succeB!lor of fonner Buddhas, who hacl attained the 11erfectio11 of
every virtue, 3" 1"1it-e1l rit flw fi,uil 1le(1tl1 (/1'01,1 11;1,it!lt t/1,.r6 is no rtgeneratio11
by trana111igratio11). Tlm11, from this exa.mplu, whosoever steadfastly
contemplates 4terror-i113pfri11g tleafli, 1111d lcadi,i a righteous life, 1/1e will be
transported (after death) beyond the 1-cahlltl of transmigmtory misery.
The second chapter In the Ma.havag1111, entitled, '' The MahU11an11lll\Lt.a.
genealogy," composed equally for the delight and afflietion of righteous 111011.

1""Having striven for six years arul ,tuly 11.t.t.ained Buddhahood."

"and he reigned thirty-seven years while )et the Buddha lived."
1 "and llllOOUmbed not to evil paasiom, did submit to the law of mutability. "
1 "the transitory nature of thing,,. "


The suprsw, inco1npambl11, the 1.'fJftql&uilllr of tM ji'H daa.dly ,;,.,, toho
IDa8 gif'M with Ji~ mean, of p,resption, having aojoumed for forty-five
years (u Buddha), and fulfilled in the utmoat perfection every object of
hi1 11''111!ion to thi1 world, in the city of K.ullinira, in the ucred arbour formed
by two eal" tree,, on the full moon day of the month c,f veu.kha,-thia
luminary of the world wu extinguiahed. On that 1pot innumerable prieata,
prinot's, brahmins, traders, and fUdras, aa well aa devaa, ~bled. 1.'here
were also ae;ven hundred thouaand priests, of whom the thera Ma.hi Kuaapa
was, at that timo, the chief,
This high priest having performed tb., funeral obsequies over the body and
aacred relics of the divine teacher ; and being desirous of perpetuating hi
doctrine for ever, on the seventh day after the lord of the universe, gifted
with the ten powers, had dell"ised; ucollecting the eilly declaration of the
prieRt Subhadda, who had been ordained in hia dotage ; and, moreover,
rer.olleoting the footing of equality on which he had been placed by the divine
aage, by couferring on him his own sacred robes, u well u the injunctions
given by him for the propagation of his doctrines ;-this all-accomplished
disciple of lluddha, for the purpose of holding a convocation on religion, convened five hundred 11rie1ts, who had overcdme the dominion of the paariona,
of great celebrity, versed in the nine department& of doctrinal knowledge,
1nd perfect in every religious attribute, On account of a disqualification
(however) attending the thera. A'nanda, there wae one deficient of that number.
Subsequently the theru. A'nanda. also, having been entreated by the other
priest& to take part in the convocation, wu likewiae included. That
<..>nvooation could not have taken pla.ce without him.
Theae universe-compaasiona.ting (disciples) having p111111ed h!llf a month,
-in celebrating the fune,ral obsequies seven days, and in the ~stival of relica
seven days,-and knowing what waa proper to be done, thus reaolved :
11 Keeping ' vassa ' in the city of Ra.jagaha, let us there hold the convocation
on religion-it cannot be permitted to other (prieet&) to 1 be pruent."
Theae diBCiples making their pilgrimage over J'ambudipa 8.11 mendicant&,
ad.ministering conoolation in their affliction (at the demise of Buddha) to the
vast population Rprca.d over the various portions thereof, in the month 1amla,
during the increase of the moon, b11ing the approJJriats bright uaaon, these
1 supports of the peo11k in tlwir faith reached Rijagaha, a llity perfect in every
aacerdotal requisite.
These therati, with Kas.'!11,pa for their chief, steadfast in their design, and
perfect masters of the doctrines of the supreme Buddha, having arrived at
the place aforesaid to hold their II va11SD.," caused, by an application to king
.Aja.tasu.ttu, repairs to be made to all the aaort3d buildings, during the first month
of "va.11sa." On the completion of the repairs of the sacred edifioos, they
thus addressed the monarch : "Now we will hold the convocation on religion."
To him (the king) who inquired II What iB requisite P" they replied: "A
118118ion hall." The monarch inquiring "Where P" in the place named by
them, by the side of the Vebhara mountain, at the entrance of the Sattapai,l)i
cave, he epeedily caused tQ be built a splendid hall, like unto that of the
"The incomparable (Buddha) who wu gifted wit'S. five kinda of 'riaion."
"take up their abode then, (durillg the ftllla),"


"men trho sought to ground themaelVIII on the truth." Th8ftl is a pla7 here
OD the woma n,UAa-.,,.Uu: in tl.P one place meaning the. II blighli Bide ; .. In
the other, truth or virtue, npzmmt.ed b)' brfslwlaa.




Jfa,.ing in all rc11peotR perfected this hall, he had invalm,ble carpets 11prcad
thore corresponding with tho number of the prie11tK. In order that, being
seated on the 1nortl& side, the 1,outl& might ho faced, the inelltimable, preeminent throne of the high priest wa11 placed there. In the centre of tha~
hall, facing the east, the exalted preaching pulpit, fit for the deity himsAlf of
felicitous advent, was erected.
The king thus re110rted to the thcras: "Our tn.sk iK performed." Those
thcras then addr011111lll A'mmda, the delight (of 1m audience): "A'nanda,
&o-morrow is the convoontion ; cm nccount of thy boing 11till under the
dominion of human paBlliom, thy pl'88ence there is irmrlmi11sihle. Exert
thyll81f without intermissic,n, and attain the requi,.ite c1ualific1,tion." The
thcra, who had been thus enjoined, havingezcrted a supenmtural effort, 3a11,l
,,,,,triooted l,imstJlf fi"0111 tl1e dominion of l,11111u.11 pa1111im111, attained the
11anctifico.tion of "arhat."
On the second day of the second month of "vaRM " thOKC dibCipleK
Rllllombled in 'this 11plcndid hnll.
Reserving for the th<-ra A'nanda .the 11eat appropriate to him alone, the
(other) 111mctificd pric11t11 took their pfaces according to their llllniority.
While 110me among them wore in the net of inquiring ",vhcrc is the th6rn
A'nanda i' "-in order that he might manife11t to the (aMIIDmhlcd} di11ciples that
he hnd attained the &'\notification of "arhat "-(at that instant) the said
thc'!ra made his appearance, tmUJ1ging from tl,e et.trtl,, and parsing tl,rm,gli tl,e
air (without touching the floor) ; and .took his seat in the pulpit spacially
reserved for him.
'All th11BO thcra11, accomplished supporters of the faith, al.lotted to the thera
Upali (the elucidation of the) "vinaya;" and to the there A'nanda tt l
whole of the othol' branche11 of" dhamma." The high priest (Mahaka.ssapa)
reserved to himself (the part) of inteITOgating on "vinaya," and the 1111cetic
thera Upa!i that of discoursing thereon. The one seated in the high priest's
pulpit interrogated him on " vinaya ; the other 1161\ted in the preaching
pulpit e:1:patiatod thereon. From tho manner in which the " vinnya was
propounded by this master of that branch of religion, all the11e th~raa, by
repeating (the discourse) in chants, became perfect masters in the knowledge
of " vinaya."
The 1111.id high priest (Mahikaasapa) imposing on himself (that task:),
interrogated on "dhamma" him (A'nanda) who, from among those who had
been 6his audiwr11, ,oa, tl~ ~lectt'd g11n.ivlian of tl111 doct1-im11 of the 111111re11111
ruler. In the same manner, the thcra A'nanda, allotting to himself that
(task), exalted in the preaching pulpit, expatiated without the iJ.ightest
omiaion on "dhamma," From the manner in which that 811agtJ ( A'nanda)

I "IOUtb..'1

"without being oonftned to any of the four uoetio poaturea," This refers to
his ha"ring attained arhatship while he was in the aot of laying down his head
on his pillow. Be. was neither waZii.llfl, 11ittillfl, ,t41fdi11g, or lyi11g tloroa. at the
4 "either emerging from the earth (after ainlr:ing int.o it) or j111111ing tbrough
the air." The sudden and unexpected appearance of A'nanilr. in hi11 seat im
preaaed them with the idea that he must have come there by a miraculous
exerciae of power such as arhats are uid to p0111e11.
"the constant anditon of the Gnat Sage was the arleoted guardian of his
"aooompliahed aage." v.,1&a...,.;, an epithet of A'nanda, has no refuenae
to the veclas. Ytldelt& here meam "wile," "perfeut," .to.



1C1r1;a111pfi11l1tt.l in flit H 1,:ed,o1"

propounded the II dhamma," aJl theae prieate,
repeating his discoul'IIO in chants, became perfect in "dhamma,"
ThuK thi11 convo&ltion, held by these benefactors of mankind for the beneJit
c,f the wht,le world, W"JS brought to a close in seven months ; and the religion
uf tl,u deity of felicitous advent was rendered effective for endUJ'UII five
thon11a11d y,!ar11, Ly the high priest MaMk38118pa
.\t the clo11e of thi11 convocation, in the excess of its exultation, the 118lfln1l:mcml great earth quaked 11ix times from I.he lowest abysa of the ocean,
'/,!I ,11rimM 111r11w1 i11 tl1iN 1ro1ltl, tlii-erN 111irqclt11 l1ate been Jl6"1for111ed. Becawse
this comocation w:is held exclu11ively by 1t/,e them11, (ii is called) /ro11,
y~11rr11liu1t '" r1n11w11tio11 tl1tJ " Tl,eritpi Cmnoctitio11.''
Having held thi11 fir11t convocation, and having conferred many benelta on
Uw wCJlld, and livl'd the full measure of human existence (of that period),
ali the11c di11ciples (in due cour11e of nature) died.
I II rliKpelling the darknelllJ of this world, these discipl811 became, by their
,n1pe111atural gifts, the luminarie!I who overca.me that darknCIIII. By (the
,~m1ges ot') death, like unto the de111>lation of a tempest, these great luminaries
were cxtinguiKhed. Prom this example, therefore, by u. piously wise man
( the <lesil-c for) thiM life should Lu o\ercomu.
The third chnpte1 hi the l\lahitvao1111., entitled "The first Convocation on
lttligiun," comput1t:tl e<iually t.u delight u.nd afllict righteous men.

the pe.rfidiously impious son of Ajat&Rattu, having put
(hi11 pu.rcnt) to 1l1mth, reigned 11ixtecn yelll"II.
A1111rudJlmk11, the 110n uf UclliyiLhaddaka, having put him to death ; and
the 110n of .\.nurutldlmka, muncd l\futuJa, having put bim to death ; these
perfidious, u11wi>1e (prinr.c11, in 1rnucess.ion) ruled. In the reigna of these two
(mouareh11) eight yeal"!I clap11ed.
'l'hc impious Nigadisnka, MOil of l\Iu9~a, having put his father to death,
reigned twenty-four ye;uK.
Tbe pop11l1.LCe of the e;1pital, infuriated (at suc11 conduct), designating thia
"a parricidicnl race," 11KSc1ubled, aud formally deposed Nagadiiaaka ; and
Je,.ironi< uf gri,tifyinq the whole nat.ion, tl1uy unanimously installed in the
m1vcruig11ty the emim,ntly wiHU minister bearing the (historically) distinguished appullation of Susuniga. He reigned eighteen years. His so11 K:Uuoka
reig1wd t,r.f'11t.i1 ye111"11. 'l'hus, in the tenth year of the reign of king Kal6swm,
a century had efapsed from the death of Buddha.
At that time a numerous community of priests, resident in the cit:, of
Veaitli, 11ative1 of Vajji, sbameleu ministen of religion, pronounced the

' Omit a.ccompliahed in the wcdo."

a.ml 1livers (other) wonders happened in the world in various forms."
' "{Arluit) thcra11 alone, it is called tho 1'/11!1-lgti Para.mpArti. (' the Tradition
or Collection of the Elden'),"
The t.:r>1cnc111t and beant1 of the original are ao completely lost in this puaphrase that I cannot refrain from rendering it anew, "Even those th6raa, who
ahone like gl"eat li1mJlll in diapelling, b.Y the light of their willdom, the darlmeN
of tho world, were them11ClveK ex~ingui11hud b.Y the fierau tempollt; of dth.
Hence. let the thuughtfnl 1mm Cll,l!t u.way (frow him) th1;1 pride of life.'
,; twenty-eight years.''



(following) ten indulgences to be allowable (to the prieathpGd) _: a,0 1aaZI

mtata, 11 two inchea," also in .,;ua~,, 11 fraternity," 8pnllll11 11'9Dlllple,"
" milk whey," "beverage," "cover& of seat.a," "gold, and other ooine,\
metalL" The thera Yasa having he&rd or this hereay, proceeded on a pilgrimage ever the Vajji country. This Yua, son of Kika9C,aka, the braJJnian,
versed in the six branchoa of doctrinal knowledge, and powerful in bis calling,
repaired te that place (V6sali), devoting bimaelf o.t the Ma.havana vihlll'll to
the suppreaaion of this heresy.
They (the acbiamatic priests) having pla.ced a golden dish filled with water
in the apartment in which the " uposatha" ceremony waa performed, said (to
the attendant congregation of laymen) : "Devotees, bestow on the priesthood
at lea,t a kahdpanan." The thera forba.de (the proceeding), exclaiming,
"Bestow it not: it is not allowable." They awarded to the thcra Ya.sa (for
this interference) the sentence of 5" pa\isaraniya." Having by entreaty
procured (from them) a messenger, he proceeded with him to the capital, and
propounded to the inhabitc&nt, of the city thti tenets of h.is ownfalth.
The (achiamatic) priests having learned thoae circumstances from the
mesaenger, proceeded thither, to award to the thera. the pena!Ly of
7" ukkbcpaniyam," and took up their station surrounding his dwelling. The
tbm (howeveJ") raising himself aloft, proceeded through the air to the city
of K6sa.mbi ; from thence, speedily despatching melll!engera to the priests
resident in Pivcyya and A vanti, and himself repa.iring to the Ah6ga:dga
mountain (mountain beyona the Ganges). reported all these particulars to the
them Sambhuta of Sal}a.
Sixty priests of Pft\'cyya and eighty of Avanti, all sanctified characters wh!)
had overcome the dominion of sin, descended at Ahugat\ga. The whole
number of priests who had usembled there, from various quarters, amounted
to uinety thousand. 1.'hese sanctified personages having deliberated together,
and acknowledged that the thora Rewa.ta, of Sorcyya, in profundity of
knowledge and sanctity of character, was at that period the most illustrious,
they departed thither for the purpose of appearing before him.
The said thera having attended to their statement, and being desirous (on
account of hia great age) of performing the journey by e&ay stages, departed
at that instant from thence, for the purpose of repairii:g to Vesali. 8 0n
account of thti i11iportancll of that 11ullsion, departing each nwr,ung ut (lawn, on
reaching ths places adapted for th11ir accon,modc&tion, thsy ,net together again
(for =on,ultation) in the wenings.
These are the opening words of the aentencea descriptive of the ten new
indulgenoes attempted to be introdur.ed into the discipline of the Buddhistioal
prillllthood, an uplanation of whicJ, would lead to details inconvenient in thia
1 "lllt preserved in horns."
"going Into villages."
1 11 OOllll8nt."
"bhi.pana11 and such like."

an act of censure involving the obligatlou of seeking forgiven.a fiom an

olfended layman by the olfcnding priest.
" (lnata.d. of seeking forgiV81l8111) juati!l.ed himaelf before the people of the


aupension from prhilegea of monkhood.

The tranalation i1 altogether wrong, There ill a lacuna to be ftlled up here
in older to make the aeme clear. " (And the other priests followed him on the
journey), and raohing every evening the place which the noble th6ra bad left
in the morning, theJ' overtook and aaw him at (a place called) Babajlti." B.6vata
being old and inlrm wiahed to journey quietly and by _.y atagea; 10 the prltlta
who had gone to fet.ch him willhed not to intrude OD hil priV11C7.



1.At a p~ (W&IN IMy 1iaw 80 GBHmblI), the tJih Yua, under the
directiona of the chlef pJ,iest Sambhdta, at the cloee of a aermon, addreuing
h 1maelf to i.he oelebrated thcra Rt1vata, inquired wlaat the ten (unorthodox)
indulgences 'r!lffil. 4 Hat1ing n:aminerl tliOH rule,, tli! thba pronouooI tliem
"inadmi111iblo," and ,aid, "Let UI lltlP.JJN!BB this (11chiam).
These sinners, with the view to aeducing the renowned th&a 8'vata to
their party, collecting a vast quantity of priestly oiterings, and quickly
embarking in a V81!sel, arrived at the .place where the principal priest& were
&11110,mblcd ; and at the hour of refection set- forth the chant of refection.
The th6ra &)ha, who was re11idcnt at that selected place, and bad overcome
the dominion of ein, reflecting whether the doctrine of the Patheya priests
was orthodox, it appeared to hlm to be IIO. The Mahi-Brahma (of the world
Suddhavasa) de11cending unt.o liim (Sail.ha) addl"CSflud him thue : '' Adhere to
that doctrine." Ho replied that his adherence to that faith would be

ThOIIO who bad brought the prie11tly offerings presented themselves to the
eminent thtira Revata. The thera declined accepting the offerings, and
dismissed the pupil of the sinful fraternity (who presented them).
These shameless charo.ctel'II departing thence for Vc116.li, and from thence
repairing to the capital Puppbapura, thus addreued their sovereign Kallsub: "We, the guardians of the dwelling of our divine i1111tructor, reaide
tbere, in the land of Vajji, in the l\lahavana vihara. The priest&
resident in the provincial villages are hastening hither, saying, 'Let us take
posstlKllion of tho vihara.' Oh, Maharaja, 1,revent them." 1.'bey having
(tl1.Us) deceived the long, returned to Vesali.
In the (aforesaid) 11electl.>d place where the (orthodox) prie11ta had halted,
unto the thera Rcvata, for tbe purpo,re of suppres11ing the schismatic indulgences, eleven hnndred and ninety thousand pric11tll cot1gregated. He had
decided (however) not to suppress the heresy at any place but that at which
it had originated. Consequently tho thcra11, and all these priests repaired to
Veai&li. 'fhe deluded monarch despatched his ministers thither. Misguided,
however, by the interposition of the god-1, they proceeded in a different
The sovereign having (thus) deputed these mini&ten (to the priesthood),
in the night, hy a dream, be saw that his soul was cast into the LcSbakumbhi
bell. The king was in the greatest cow.ternation. To allay that (terror)
his younger sister, the priesteSI Nandi, a sanctified character, who bad over-come the dominion of sin, arrived, travelling through the air : 11 The act thou
bast committed is of the most weighty import : 5make atonement to the
orthodox ministers of the faith : uniting thyself wiih their cause, uphold
true religion. By adopting tbie course pe~ of mind will be restored unto
thee." Having thue addressed him she departed.
At the very dawn of day the monarch departed to proceed to Vaili.
Having reached the MahAvana vibara, he assembled the prieathooc! ; and
having eumined the controveniy by listening to both parties, he decided in
favour of the cause of true religion. The sovereign having 'made aeonement
to all the ministers of true religion, and having avowed his adherence to ita
cause, he said : 11 Do ye aeconling to your own judgment provide for the due
Omit ltaliciaed words, and substitute "There."
Delete IOIIH.
"The th4ra rejeoted them a.a erron, and 11111d 'Let uhear theoue alld nppreu

. I II

beleeoh the forgi.Y8Jllllll Of.,,

obt&med the torglveneaa of."



maintenance of religion "; and having extended hia protection to them, he

departed for his capital (Pupphapura).
There.upon the priesthood assembled to inquire into theae indulgen08'1 :
there, in that convocation (however) endless and frivoloua dillcusaions arose.
The thera Rcvata himself then advancing into the midst of the 8.ll&dmbly,
and causing to be proclaimed 'the ubbcilril,ti roles, he made the requisite
arrangements for the purpose of 11uppl'81!Sing this heresy.
1By the ubbahika srukB he selected, for the suppreBSion of the aacerdotal
heresy, four priests of Pi,cina and four of Pbeyya, These were the
Picin:. priest.'! : Sabbakimi, SiJha, Khujjasobhita, and Viaabhagamika.
These were the four Paveyya priests: Rcvata, Sambhuta of Sina, Yaaa the
aon of Kakai:i<Jaka, and Sumana. For the purpose of examining into theae
(controverted) indulgences, these eight sanctified personages repaired to
Valukarama vihara, a situation so secluded (that not even the note of a bird
was heard), and free from the strife of men. 4 The high priest Revata, the
chief of the interrogating party, questioned the thcra Sabbakami in due
order on these ind1tlgencos, one by one, The principal tMra Sabbaktimi,
who had been thua interrogated by him (Reva.ta), declared : 11 By the
orthodox ordinances all these indulgences are inadmissible." There (at the
Vi.lukArama vihara), having in due form rejected this heresy, in the aame
msnner in the midst of the convocation at Mahavana vihara (to which they
returned), they again went through the interrogations and replies.
To the ten thousand sinful priests who put forth the ten indulgences,
these principal orthodox priests awarded the penalty of degradation.
Sabbakami was at that time high priest of the world, and had already
attained a at.anding of one hundred and twenty years in the ordination of

Sabbakimi, Salha, Revata, Khujjaa6bhita, Yaaa the son of Kikai;i<Jaka, and

Sambhuta, a native of 86.na,-these six thcraa were the disciples of the thcra
A.'nanda. Viaabhagimika and Sumana,-these two theraa were the diaeiples
of the thera Anuruddha. These eight pious priests, in aforetime, had seen
the deity who was the aucceaaor of former Buddha&.
The priests who had 8.11118mbled were twelve hundred thousand : of all
these priest& the thera Rcvata was at that time the leader.
Thereupon, for the purpose of securing the permanency of the true faith,
this Revata tMra, the leader of these priests, selected from thoile who were
gifted with the qualifications for aanctijiccdion, and were the depositories of
the doctrines contained in the three II pitakaa," seven hundred sanctified
dillciplea ( of Buddha, for the purpose of holding the convocation on religion).
A.II these theraa, having Revata for their chief, protected by king
KalAsoka, held the convocation on religion at the VilukArima vihua.
According to the form observed in interrogation and illustration on the
former occasion, conducting this meeting precisely in the aame manner, it
waa terminated in eight months.
Thus these theraa, who were indefatigable in their calling, and ablolved
from all human afflictions, having held the aecond convocation on religion,
in due course attained " nibbuti."
1 11

that matt.era in diapute should be aettled according to the Ub1*h!U rulllll

of procedure."
1 "J'or."

A. vene ia miaaing here: "A.nd the great elder Babbakimi, who knew the
mind of the gnat "'P, 1181\ted himaelf on a beautiful throne prepazed b7 a
JOIUII prieat."
" fcur kinda of hlgbeet knowledge."

DBAPTtll\ V.
Bence, bearing in mind the 1ubjection to dth of the diaciplea of the
saviour of the univerae, who were endowed with the 1111.11Ctification of
"arhat,"-who had attained the 1tate of ultimate beatitudo,-and had confe.Ted blellinp on the beinga of the three " bhava11," recollecting a1IO the
liabilitv of the Nllt of mankind to an interminable tranamigration, let (the
reader) 1teadfutly devote hi1Dl18lf (to a life of righteou1neu).
The fourth chapter in the llahbavaa, entitled '' Tbo Beoond Convocation
on Religion," compoaed equally to delight and afflict righteou1 men.

THE convocation which wu held in the fint instance by the principal
th6m, having 'Mah'kauapa for their chief, ii called the" Thfiriyf. Sadgfti."
During the ftrat century after the death of Buddha there wu but that one
1aehilm among the thel'III!.
It was 1ubsequent to that period that the other
11ehinna among the preceptora took place,
The whole of those 1inful priest., in number ten thousand, who had been
degraded by the th&Sl'IIII who had held the second convocation, originated the
achiam among the preceptors called the Habbadgiti heresy.
Thereafter arose the Gokulika and Ekabb6harika schiama.
From the G6kulika schilmatica the Pannatti aa well aa the Babnlika and
Citiya heresies proceeded.' Those priest.a, again, gave rise to 1e/&eo ar.hilms of
the Sabbatthi and the Dhammaguttika priesthood. TidtM t1110 (Mntsia)
aroH 11imultaMoualg.
Subsequently, from the Sabbatthi aehilmatica, the
KIWll&piya schism proceeded. Thereafter the Sadkantika priesthood gave
riae to the Sutta aehism. 6 Thert1 l.06rs t11.1elw ,chi1m11, in.eluding thtJ Tliiro.
,chiam 1ohi.ch u,a,9 11&pp1"U11ed at th11.fir11t convocation, in tl~fir11t year of t'/Nfir11&
century); togetMr witk Bi~ achi1111.a named ldreafar, ~ Wlffll eightun
inwtuate schi111111.

Thus, in the aecond century ( 11fter the death of Buddha), there aroae seventeen schisms. The rest of the schisJDB among the preceptors were engendered
subsequently thereto. These were the six aoceuiona which took place in
Jambudfpa (during the second century) :-The Hemavata, Rlr.jagiriyi, and
the Siddhatthika, a.a well as (that of) the Pubbaaeliya and Aparueliya priesthood, and the Vajiriya. The Dhammaruchiya and Sigaliya schiaJDII took
place in Lagki (in tho fifth and eighth centuriea after Buddba'a death).
1 I doubt muoh whether achism. among the therae" is the proper rendering of
"them-rid&." I llhould think it rather meam "the tradition of the eldem" or
"the sayings of the olden." This term f.lura.-'Cdtla, is uaed in contradistinction
to d.eari'lla-'l:lula, in the aame verse and subsequent plaoea, translated by Turn.our
as " aohisllll'I among the preoepton." but which I think should be "the aayings of
(the subsequent) falae teachers." The mbject, however, is one for detailed
The B~uvantu,Jlr.va-Suma\lgala ReceDBion put.a in two and a half ve~ here,
whioh are said to be found in the Cambodian copy and a Si\lbalese oopy which
were wied in the collation of tho printed text. Thuy run thua :-" These
belonged to the Maha 8a\lg1ti achooL Again, from among the Th6ra-v6das there
sprung two aeot.11, the Mahi\1&'8aka and the Vajji-putt.aka priest.a, And from
among the latter (the Vajji-put.takas) there aroee (four seat.a. namely,) the
Dha.mmuttariya, the Bhadra-ylr.nika, the Chanup.rika, and the Sam.miti, who
were all (denominat.ed) the "Vajji-puttaka prita.''
1 "two."
" Bo that, including the (origina.l) Th&a-rida IIChonl, there wue tweln ; and
thelle, topther with them afore-mentioned, formed eight.lea i.D all"


'l'RB .t.RJ.vA,sA.

The aohiamatic eecesaion11 of the precepton concluded.

K'1Wb bad ten aona: those brothen (conjointly) ruled the empire,
righteoullly, for twenty-two yean,. 1 Sub&eqUffltly there were nine 1 : they a.L,,
according to their seniority, righteously reigned for twenty-two years.
Thereafter the brahman Oanakb, in gratification of an implacable hatred
borne towards ihe ninth su"iving brother, called Dhana-nanda, having put
him to death, he installed in the aovereignty over the whole of Jambudi1111 a
descendant of the dynasty of Moriyan sovereigns, endowed with illustrious
and beneficent attributes, surnamed Oandagutta. He reigned thirty-four
His son Bindusara reigned twenty-eight years. The aons of BindWlira
were one hundred and one, the iSBue of (sixteen) different mothers.
Among them. Asuka, by his piety and supernatural wisdom, became
all-powerful. He having put to death one hundred brothers, minus one, born
of different mothers, reigned sole sovereign of all Jambudipa. Be it known,
that from the period of the death of Buddha, and antecedent to I his installation, two hundred and eighteen yean had elapsed. In the fourth year of his
acceuion to his sole sovereignty, this illustrioullly endowed ruler caused his
own inauguration to be solomniMld in the city of Piitaliputta. A.t the instant
of his inauguration, the establishment of his supremacy was (miraculously)
proclaimed, from y6jana to y6jana, throughout the air above and over the
surface of the earth.
The devas caused to be brought daily eight men's loads of water from the
lake A.nutatt&, from which (supplies) the devi1 of devas (the king) caused
the people also to be providocl. They also procured from the regions of
Himavanta, "nigala.t.a" teeth-cll'&nserR, 11ufficient for seveml thousand persons. From the aame quarter, the invaluable medicinal "amalaka "; the
precious medicinal " haritaka." ; from the aame regions the II amba" fruit,
1uperlatively excellent in its colour and flavour.
The deva.s (proc11rod) also cloths of five different colourB1 and cloths
for hand towels of the colour of gold, 1111 well 1111 the sacred beverage
from the wa.teni of Cha.ddanta lake. The elk, wild hog, and winged game,
slaaghterod in that city (for the king'11 houRehold), resorting to the royal
kitchen, of their own accord, there expire. Thero, tigers, having led forth
herds of cattle to graiie, reconduct them into their pen11. Elk and wild hog
watch over fields, g:udens, t11nks, &c. 'rho ni1ga.~ (brought) fine cloths of the
colour of the "sumana" flower, wove without seam11 ; the heavenly " uppala"
flower ; also ointment for the body ; and medicinal drugs from the n6ga
wilderneRS. Pa1TOtR brought nine hundred thousand load11 of hill paddy daily
from the marshes of Chaddantn.. l\licc, husking that hill paddy, without
breaking it, converted it into rice. 'l'hcrcfrom the rice dressed for the roy11l
houRChold was prepared. For him (the king), bees con~tantly deposited_
honey. In like manner, in hi11 arse11al11 bear11 worked with hammers, and
11inging birds of delightful mclorly, repairing to the monarch, sang sweet
The inaugurated sovereign Asoka then installed hi11 full younger brother,
prince Tis.'I.'\, in the dignity of 11ub-king.
The installation of Dhammils6ka concluded.
The father (of A.."6ka.) being of the Brahmanical faith, maintained (bestowing daily alm1) sixty thousand Brahmans. llc himsnlf in like manner
bestowed them for three years.

' After them."'

" Add brothers (the Xa.nW111)."'

.. i,i




AacSka, noticing from the upper pavilion of his palaoe the 1cw,piaabu proJlel"II01111, enjoined hi11 mini11ter1 to bestow alma with greater
discrimination. This wise (monarch) cauaed to be brought to him Ith
,miiiN".r of (ill rf.ligion,i separately ; and having seated tl1em1 and diac11118d
tl1eirtenet11, and given them alms, allowed them to depart. At a m01nen&
when he was enjoying the breeze in hill upatair pavilion, obRe"ing the 16.mancm Nigr6dha P""'llling the palace aquaro, he w1111 dulighted with his sanctified
deportment.. This royal youth was the son of princo Sumana., the eldest of
all the sons of Bindm1,m.
Ae'1k11, on hearing tlmt Billdu8'ni was 011 his deathbed, left the kingdom
of Ujjcni, which had been bestowed on him by his father, and proceeded to
Pupphapum. As mon 1111 hi11 11ire expired, seizing the capital for himaelf, and
putting to death his eldest brother (Sumana) in that <'.elebrated city, he
usurped the sovereignty.
The consort of prince SumaWL, hearing the same nA.me, who was then
prcgn.mt, proceeding out of tho eastern gate, departed and repaired to a
village of car.nJalnR (ontc.'\KteR). There, the dcva.t,, Nigr6dha, addl'etllled her
by name ; 1Lnd having caused an habitation to spring up, conferred it on her.
8he who wn.11 thu" protected by the duvata, giving birth on that very day to
her KOn, bestowed on the. child the name "Nigr6dha." The chief of the
ca1.a<):il1111 11eeing her (in this condition) and venerating her as his own mi11tress, ,mrved her f:iithfully seven yeal"s.
Tho tburn. l\fahiL Var111.1a, ijeeing this infant born with the attributea
reqniaite for the 11n.m,tification of "a1hat," applied to the mother for him,
and orrlained him a. prie11t. In the I\Ct of lihaving his head (for admiBBioa
i .. to the prie11thood) he attained arhathood. Thereafti,r, while on his way to
see his princC1111-mother, entering the capital by the southeni ga.te, at the
moment he Wl\S pa.Ming through the palace square on his road to the village
(of outcastm1), the 110voroign .itruck with the extreme propriety of his
deportment, ,,.H {( /,e 11ml bee11 p,uinuHIU i11ti11utft' with Mnl, 1111 u,.ff',ction aro,e in
1:l'f'di,!lflR of theBO

l,iH breaHl fm,11.nls l,i111.

7 In a fotmer exi11tence there were th,ee brothers, dealers in honey : one WM
the seller, two 11ere the provide1'!1. There was also a pac:c{!ka buddha, who
was afflicted with 11ores. Another pacccka buddha, on his account, was solirito1111 of procuring 11ome honey. In hi11 111\cerdotal character, begging his
,mhMistenoc f'lr the d11y, he entered the city (of Binll.nasi). At that moment.
a. young 11oman, ,vho WIIH proceeding to fetch water at the watering place of
tho city, obROrved him. lfaving m.'\dc inquiry, and ascertained tha.t he wu
solicitious of getting 110me honey, she Raid, pointing out the direction with
her hand, "Lord, here iM a honey h1ua.'\r1 repair thither." Tho dealer, well
pleased, filled the begging-di11h of the pacceka buddha who presented him
Helf the1'C, with honey to o,erffowing. Observing the filling, the overflowing,
and the streaming on the ground of the honey, he (the dealer) then formed
the following wiRhes : " By the virtue of ihiR offering may I establish an
undivided dominion over Jambud(pa: my authority (being recognised) from
yojana to ytijana through the air and over the earth." To the brothers, who

1 "vulgarity."
"o.t the distribution of food."
"divers ascctica of fal,ie creeda."
"One day."
("Now, the hi~tory of Nigr6clha. S1iman6ra. is in this wise.") .For tho 11&ke of
olea.rnees II pa,ro.gmph suoh 11B thi11 should be inserted here within braoketa.
"wa11 exceedingly ploa.MCd with Mm ; and by (the force of) &IIIIOOiation in a
forme%' birth there sprung a love towards him in his breast." .
' (''Now, the 11tory of the former birth is 1111 follows.'')

,..., ASIA

nc St>Clf'TV,

, - ~ ,"t '


.., (:"" 7
t) /_



(subsuquently) a.rri.Ted, he thu11 11poke : "To auch 11. peraonage (rle11cTibing

him) I have made otfering11 of honey. AccoTdiug to your 11hares in tlu,t
honey, participate ye in the benefits." The eldest brother incensed, thUA
replied : " Surely he muat be an outcute ; at all timea the outCl':8tea wear
yellow cloth&." The second aaid : " Send thai paoo6ka huddha. to the f .rther
11ide of the ocean." (Bubaequently) having liatened to the youngest brother11
disoourse on the benefit& deTived from offerings, they alllO acce11ted the promiaed bl8118ings. She who had pointed out the honey dealer's bazaar formecl
the wish of becoming hi11 (the honey dealer') he.-id queen (in his character of
sovereign), and that she should be endowed with a form so l'lxqui11itely
moulded, that the joints of her limbs should be (" &Fandlii ") imperceptibly
united. (Accordingly) the donor of the honey became A.soka. The young
wom&n became the queen A.aandhimitt,. He who blasphemously c11lled him
(Lhe pacceka buddha) "an outcaste," became :Yigrodha. The one who wished
him tranaported became Ti111& (D~wanamp;ya Tisaa). 1 1''ro11i 11:hatue, ch-cum11,ance (it luul bun the fc&te of) tl1e outc<ute bla8J1htJ1nt.1 to hr.tre be,m l1or11
i11 a tJillage of 01dca~l.t.,1, he neverthele!III formed the wish to attain
"mokkha," and accordingly in the seventh year of hia age acquit-ed
"mokkha" (by the a.notification of arhat).
The aaid monarch (A.sub), highly delighted, and conceiving the groate11t.
teem for him (Nigr6dha), thereupon caused him to be called in. He
approached with decorous aelf-po11118SBion. The sovereign 1111.id to him, c; My
child, place thJ1!9lf on a.ny sea.t auited to thee." He, seeing no other prieat
(present), proceeded towards the royal throne.
While he was in the act of approaching the royal throne, tho king th111
thought : " Thia s&manera will this very day become the muter of my palace."
Leaning on the arm of the soveTeign, he l\l!Cended and seated himself on the
royal throne under the white canopy (of dominion). The ruler As6ka,
gazing on the persona.ge who had thus taken his 11eat, influenced by tho merits
of hia own piety, he thereupon became exceedingly rejoiced. Having refreshed
him with food and beverage which had been p1opared for himself, ho interrogated the said sit.manera. on the docLrines propounded by Buddha. Tho
aamanera explained to him the " appamii.davagga" (section on non-procrw1tination). The sovereign having heard the same, he wa.s delighted with the
religion of the vanquisher. He said unto him: "Beloved, I will constautly
provide for you food for eight." "Sire,'' he replied, "that food I present to
the auperior prieat who ordaii1ed m,i." Ou another eight portions of rice
being provided, he gave them to his superior who had instructed him. On
the next eight portions being provided, he gave them to the priesthood. Or.
the next eight portions. being provided, the piously wi11c (Nigrudha) accepted
them himself.
1//e ,,:110 ,nu tliu11 m."int11i11,,<l b,11 Ike lhi!/ _1,urin!J propo,mclnl 111'1 cl<x:lri11eH qf
tlt,.faitl1 to the ,11om,rch, tJdltibli~kecl tl,e aote1ei!J11 Wl(l tl1tJ J1eo11le i11 tl1ose tenr.t~,
a11d tht. g,ci,r,e to obee11e tlie ~11.mP..
The history of Nigrodha concluded.
TheTOafter, this king, increa11i11g the number from day to day, gave n.lms
to sixty thouund Buddhist priestii, as formerly (to the Bmhman pTiests).
Having diamissed the sixty thousand heretic11, he constantly maintained iu

1 "He who had blasphemed by 1J&lling the sa.iut an outcasto' waii born in a
village of outca1te1 ; but."
" On the 118COUd day he went to the pn.lo.ce accompAJlied by thirty-two pri01ttit,
n.nd aft.er he had been Beffed with food by tne king himaelf he preaohod the l11w,
and 81t&bliahed him and his people in faith and piety."



hia palace aixty thouaand Buddhist prieata. He being deairoua that the aixty
thouaand prieata should (on a certain occaaion) be. aerved without delay,
.having prepared C01tly food and beverage, and having cauaed the city to be
d.ieorated, prc.ceeded thither, invited the prieathood, conducted them to the
palace. feasted them, and presenting them with many priestly o:f!eringa, he
thus inquired : 111 Wliat ia tlie doctri116 propounded by the divine teacherP "
Thereupon, the thera Tissa, son of Moggali, entered into that explanation.
H\'ving learned that there were eighty-four thousand 1cliieour868 on tA, lenBla
of that docM'l'IB, " I will dedicate," exclaimed the monarch, "a vihin. to
each." Then bestowing ninety-six thousand kotis of treasure on eighty-four
thouaand towna in Jambudfpa, at those placea he cauRed the construction of
temples to be commenced by the (local) r1\jahs; he himself undertook the
erection of the AsokArllma . in Pupphapura). He bestowed daily, from hia
regard for the religion, a lac separately to the " ratanattaya," to Nigr6dha,
and to infirm priests.
From the 6fferinga made on account of Buddha, in various ways, in various
cities. various festivals were conatl\ntly celebrated in honour of" thu.paa,"
From the olforinga made on account of the religion, the populace constantly bestowed the four prescribed offerings on the prieata, the repoaitori11
of true religion.
From the loads of water brought from the lake A.n6tatta, he beat.owed
daily four to the priesthood generally, one to the aixty accomplished maintainera of the " tcpitaka, " one to the queen Aaandhimitta, The great
monarch reserved for his own consumption twc>,
To the aixty thou111111d priests and sixteen thousand females of the palace
h,. gave the teeth-cleansers called" nDfll\latu.."
On a certain day, having by inquiry aacertainec! that the aupeniatunlly:
gifted l\Iahakh!a, nliga king, whose age extended to a kappa, had seen the
four Buddbas (of this kappa); for the purpose of bringing him, having ldnt
a golden chain and havill8' brought him, he I placed hi1n und41r tlia white ca1Wpy
of <lo1ai11io11, 11,ati!<l 011 11,,, l'O!Jttl tllt'one. :Making to him manyflower-o:ft:erioga,
and surrounded by the aixteen thousand women of the palace, he thaa
addrcsMUd him : " Beloved, exhibit to me the peraon of the omniscient being
of infinite will(lom, the chakkavatti of the doctrine, the mahesi." The
nftgu. king caust:d to appear a. moHt enchanting image of Buddha, gifted with
the tl,irty attributes of pel'MOnal beauty, and resplendent with the eighty
charms of _corporeal }Jerfection, surrounded by the halo of glory, and
surmounted by the lambent flame of sanctity.
Gazing on this (apparition), overjoyeJ. and 1111toniahed, he made offerings
thereto, and exclaimed, " Such is the im111,re created by this peraonage : what
must not the image have been of the deity himself of happy advent I "
(meditating thus) bis joy became greater and greater.
The illustrious and powerful monarch (A.aoka) then caused a great festival
to be solemnised for seven sncceHSive days, known aa the festival of "sight
offering" (the miraculons figure of Buddha being visible during that period).
Thus, 1 it was fort!11ten by tlie 11ai,its of ol,l ( who liad li,ld tlie IIBCOll(l convocation on f't!li(lion) that tMs /IOl.'tweign toould be aup,rlatii;elg eru:lotcl, and of
gl'eatfaith; anti that tlie 8011 of ;.l[oggali itoulcl become a tMl'a;
The converaion (o.f Ast\ka) to the religion (of Buddha) concluded.
Bow many (~ction11 of) the law have been,"
" sections of the law,"
caused him to be seated on the royal throue under the white ~PY of
" was this ruler of the land endued with great power and faith, (Fzom what
follows it will bf, seen al110 that) tI.e U1era Hoggaliputta wu foreaeeu. by the
11ainte of old."




The thliras who held the second convocation, meditating on the oventa of
futurity, foresaw that a calamity would befw.l their religion during the reign
of thi1 aovereign. Searching the whole world for him who would subdue
tbia calamity, they perceived that it was I the lon(J-li-cl Tissa, the brahman
(of the Brahma luka world).' Repairing to him, they thus supplicatnd tho
great sap : 11 Vouchllllfe to be born among men for the removal of this
calamity." He, willing to be made the instrument for the glorification of
religion, gave his consent unto them. These miniaters of religion then thus
add1"911118Cl Siggava and Char,uJavajji, two 1 urlult priests : "In eighteen plus one
hundred years hence, a calamity will befall our religion, which we shall not
ourselves witneaa. Ye (though) priests failed to attend on the occ:tRion (of
holding the aeoond convocation on religion): on that account it i11 meet to
award penalties unto you. Let. this be your penance. Tl1e brahm.'\n TiR!!:11
a great sage, for the glorification of our religion, will be conceived in a certain
womb in the houll8 t>f the bmhman Moggali. At tho proper age, one of you
must initiate that noble youth into the priesthood. (The other) mn11t fully
ibatruct him in the doctrines of the supreme Buddha."
The thlim Dhaka was the diaciple of Upali (the disciple of Buddha
himself). Suoaka was his disciple. The aforesa.id two p1iests (Siggava and
Cbao!Javajji) were the disciples of 869aka.
4 In aforetime (at the termination of the first convocation on religion), in
Ve8'.J.i, a brahman of the tribe of Sotthi, named D&saka, the superior of three
hundred pupils, dwelt with his preceptor. In the twelfth year of bis age,
having achieved the knowledge of the " vedas," and while he was making his
pilgrimage attended by his own pupils, he met with the tMrn Upali, who
bad held the first convocation, sojourning at the temple Valukaril.ma (:n
Veslili). Taking up bis residence near him, he examined him on the abstruse
paaaagea of the" v6daa." He (Upili) explained those passageR.
The th4ra, with a certain object in view, thus addrel!8Cd him (the brnhman):
111 TMre ia a b1'a11ch qf the doctrine auperiur to all otl1er bm11cl1ea, whi,:/1 JMrj'tct
IAe l:nowled911 of the u,hole doctril!tJ. U'l,at 1Jrmicl1 of the cloctrfoe is it .1 "
The brahman was ignorant of it, and inquired, "What doctrine is it P" He
replidd, 11 Buddha's doctrine." "Im1,art it to me," said the one. 11 Only to
him who baa been admitted intoourordur can I impart it,'' rejoined the other.
Thereupon, returning to his native laud, he applied for pcnnil!sion from
hia preceptor (to become a Buddhist priest), in order that he might acquire a
knowledge of that doctrine ; in like manner from fathel" and mothe.l".
'Xhis brahman, together with three hundred of his hmhman followers, waa
admitted into the Buddhisticu.1 priesthood in the fraternity of that th6ra :
and in due course was raised to the upaaampada onlcr.
The thera Upili 'propounJrcl the whole " pitakattaya" to his thousand
pupils, who had subdued in themselves the dominion of sin, of whom DAl!aka
wu the senior.
8 TM otMr p1it11l8 of lh1!frc1tl!-r11il!1 q/ the B1tid them, 1rlw hrul ,wt ((tfr1intcl tl1t!.
"who had not long to live there."
(Now the history of theae priests ie a.11 follows.)
This ill a. very difficult pUBa.go to render correotly and yet clearly in con1111quence of the uae therein of the term ;, dhamma" in different &enBell. The
literal rendering (without putting 11, Hell88 on the woi:d "cl.hamma ") would be:" Young man, there ia a dll.umflUZ which follow11 all tl/,a1111111M; and yet all
4 ~ dellcend into or follow that ,1,i,,n111111. What ill that dll"m111a ?"
"The th6ra said \his with reference to the Htim& (in. contradiHtinction to
the rwpu)."
. " Othen who noetved lmtr11otion in the Pit,akaa from the th&a,-thON wllo
W eatenld Ille pathll and thON who had not,-were beyond numbu."



aanctijicatio,i of ar1iat (,,,hich compriud inllpiration), and WN incapabki of

acqufring a lmo11:le,lge of the" 1ntakntw.ya," wn, innumerable.
In the land of Kasi, there Wlut a caravan ohief's 10n, by name 86oalra, who
ea.me to the mountain-girt city (Rajagaba) on trade, together with bia
paron~,11, attended by a retinue of fifty-five 1brakmanical devoteu who bad
accompaniod him thither. The chief of fifteen years of age repaired to
Vflnvann. vihira. Becoming acquainted there with the thera Dasaka as
well as with his disci11les, overjoyed, he aolicited to be admitted into the
priesthood. He replied thus : " Ask thy su~riors (first.)" The young
chieftn.in 809aka, having 1/aswl fol" th.1-ee cle1y,, und obtained the consent of
hi11 parents to enter into the priesthood, returned.1 Together with these
nol,le companic.ns, becoming a priest, then an "upaan.mpada," in the fraternity of the thura O;isaka, ho acquired II knowledge of "pitakattaya."
This S,i1,tak11 became the superior of II fraternity of a thou1111Dd theraa, who
had overcome the dominion of sin an.I acquired a perfect knowledge of the
'' pit:t.kattaya."
In the city of Patrui there wn.11 one Siggava aged eighteen years, the son of
the minister (SirivacJcJha), highly gifted ~ith wisdom. He had three pa.1aoea
for hi~ re11idcnce11, adapted for all the ~ns of the six ~ult111, Bringing with
him his friend Char;uJavajji, the BOD of a minister, and attended by a retinue
of five hundred men, having repaired to Kukkutar,ma vih6ra, they aaw there
the them S01,L1.ka, seuted absorbed in the " samlipatti " moditation, with the
action of hi11 senses 11u11pcnded. Perceiving that he w1111 silent .. hile he bowed
to him, hu qumitioned the priests on this point. The11e priests replied,
"Thoso absorbed in thu 1111,mopatti meditation do not speak." He then
a.ked of these informantR, "Under what circumstances does he rise (from
his meditation)?" Ro11lying, "He rises at the call of the divine teacher: at
tho call of the 1,rieKthood : at tho termination of the period previously
rcsolvtld 011 : at the approach of death :" and observing their predestined
conversion, they (the prie11ts) 511et /01tl,. tl,e cull of the priesthood. He
(861.mka) rii;ing, departed ~/iom hence. The young chief, addref!ling S69aka,
asked: "Lord, why wast thou silent P" "Because," replied he, "I 'u.,11
partaking of that which I ought to partake." He thereupon rejoined,
" .A.dmi11it1tor the same to me.'' " When thon hast become one of us, it will
be permitted thee to partake of it.'' Thereupon the chiefs Siggava and
Cha1.l()avajji and their retinue of five hundred, obtaining the consent of their
p.1.rcnts, repaired to the fraternity of the tht!ra Sor;iaka, and being admitted
into the prio11thood became u11asampad, priests. These two, residing with
the priest-superior who had ordained them, having acquired a perfect knowledge of the "pitakattaya," in due course attained the 111&11tery of the six
departments of doctrinal knowledge.
8 This thcra Siggava, perceiving (by inspiration) the conception of 1 Tiaaa ;
during 11evon year.:i from that date repaired (constantly for alms) to the
dwelling in which (he the brahman w111 conceived). For that period of aeven
years even the word " begone " had not been addressed to him. In the
eighth year, at length, he waa told (by a slave girl) "Depart hence."
The brahman Moggali, who was returning home, observing him departing,
inquired, "Hast thou received anything at onr house P" '' Yea," he replied.
Going to his house, and having ascertained (that nothing had been given),
on the second day, when the priest viaited the dwelling, he upbraided him for
his falllehood. Having heard the thera's explanation (that he only alluded

"Brahman youtha.''

I Uancl.,lt


" refused to take three




"_, unto him the meN11ge."


" Now."




to the alave's reproach, "Depart hence"), the brabman, pleased thereat, pve
alms to him constantly from the meal prepared for himaelf. By degrees all
the -inmates of that house became attached to him. The brahman himself,
having made him 1<elao an im111,tii of the house, constantly fed him. In th's
manner time paased away, and the youth Tiua attained his twentieth year,
and succeeded in traversing the ocean of the tivcda (of the brahmans).
'The thera (knowing by inspiration) that a discu811ion would be produced
thereby3 (bya miracle), rendered all the seats 'iii ,,.,. ho1111P. i11visib1o. reRerving
only the carpet of this young brahman devotee.
As he had desconded from the hrahma 16ka world, he Wl\8 scrupulously
rigid in preserving his personal purity. On thiM account he (always) folding
his carpet., hung it up. Not finding any other soot, while the them w1111
standing, the people in the house in great confusion 11proail for him that
carpet of his. '.rhe young bmhman, on returning from hiK preceptor, 11eeing
him ao seated, enrabred,addrcl!l8Cd him in opprob1ious lanbruage.
The thera repliecl, " Young br11hm:1n, 'tolm.t l.:,w,derlt/1! tl11Nt thoii J10s11ea111"
The youth instantly retorted the same question on the thcra. When the
thera 11ma in tl,e ttct of ,.,,pl9i11r1, "I do 7JKJ>11JeN1J k,w,,,lt!tlfJP," he interrogated
the said thera OD the abst1uae p!U!llllgeB of the " vcdas." The thcra instantly
explained them.
This them was 7thus, even ~,i:l,ile 11njo11r11i11r1 in tl,c ,lomhilP- qf 11 layman,
accomplished in the "vcda11." Having attained the perfoction of 11rtee1dotal s1111ctit11 (in the buddhiittical creed) 1011,l,g iih.oulll be not be able to
explain them P
11 11 An idea is conceived in the mind of aome (rahat saint) which doel4 not
vanish from it: (nevortheleHs) the idea of th11t inrliviclual will vanish (on his
attc.ining nibbuti), and will not oo regenerated. Again, the idea of some other
person shall vanish, shall not be regeneru.l.ed, and yet it does not vanish."
11 The thera qf JJl'-rject 11elf-JXJ11ar,1111ion CltllrAl 11n the !JOUllt for t/11'. solution of
this pciratlo.r.icrd q11e11tion 011 eh;i opemlio1111 of Ute 111i,ul.
He bec:1me, as it
were, involved in perfect darkneu, and inqi.ired (>f him, "Priest, what
npnrable is this ?" He replied, " Buddha's 11111'0.ble.'' On his exclaiming
"Impart it to us"; he rejoined, "Only to those do I impart it who have
aaaumed our garb." Obtaining the permi1111ion of his parents, he entered
into the priesthood for the sake of 11t/1i11 JJW"l.ible. The thum having initiated
him into the priesthood, ~he impoatcl 011 hi111, 11ccor,li,1r1 to the o,tlw<lo.c rule11,
tlte faslc of d11ly ,,,wlifyi119 l1i111Rt'.{f.
Thi11 pa&11&ge is interpreted in various way11 with the aid of circumlocution.
The above is only intendetl Ill! a literal tranl!lation, with the a1l1liti0D8 11anctio11ed
by the commentary.-[.\,,te 1,g .1/r. Tnrm111r.}
1 "llit iuaide."
" in the hOUIIC, ..
One day."
" repliutl."
"knowest thou the mantras (HCiellCl!II)!
1 Dt!le.
'"' 1,11. ,.
"diHCrimiuative Rnowlcdge."
'" "how much more."
11 This pa1111&ge ill u.n a:icio1n from the Yamaku.ppru.karaua of the Ahhidharma
Pi\aka, and cannot be madu intelligiblu by a ,simple tranMlu.t.ion to auoh aio hu.vf'
not maKtered the abatrullC subject of Buddhist p11ychology. A literal tran11latio11
would run thus: WhOl!e r.hought (citta11) i!I produ<.'Cd hut i" not de11troyed. hi"
thought will be destro,ud and will not be reproduced. Ou iho otht,r hand, who11e
thought will be deatroycd and will not be reproduced. hi, thought i11 produu.lJ anJ.
la not du5troyed."
' The thera, wboMe sulf po111e111ion w1111 groat, propounded this qu81!tion from
the Citta-yamaka' (of the Abhidhamma Pi!aka)."
11 "aciunce."
" ' learning this IIOience."
11 "gave him le1110D11 on the Kammatthba (subject and mode& of meditation)

beltted him."


'rhis su1ierlatively gifted pe1'80n hllving atf,r,i,i,,I fh,1t q1111lijkn.Uon in a

Hhort time, arrived at the sanctification of "aotipatti." The thera having
ascertained that fact, deapatched him, for the purpose of being instructed,
to. the thcra. Cha,,u,Javajji.
In ..:ue course the priest Siggavn, having made him an upasampad,, t.a.ught
him the ",;nayn. "; subsequently the other two branche11 of religion, There1ifter the youth TillRII., attaining the "vipassanll" aanctification, acquired the
mastery ot the six branche11 nf doctrinal knowledge, and 'ulamatr.111 IUJ 1rm1
r/~1-attd to a tli.ern.. He became a11 celebrated aa the sun and moon, 1 Who has
l,mrd his eloqu1mee 1,:1tlin11t co1111iderillg it th, eloqiirnce of the supreme Buddha
The 4inalterB co11cer11ing the thm Moggaliputtu. concluded.
The sub-king (Till8a) on n. certain day, at an elk hunt, f!.'\W in a forest a
herd of elk sporting. Observing this, ho thus meditated: "Ellca, browsing in
a forest, sport. Why should not priests lodged and foci comfort.Ably in
vihlrn.s also amm1e themselves?" Returning home he imparted this reflection to the king, who ~conferred tl1e sovereignty on him for 11e,en days 6to Holi-e
tl,is q11P,1tio11, addressing him thu11 : "Prince, admini11ter this empire for
H<Wtm days: at the termination of that period I shall put thee to death,"
At the end of tlie 11eventh day he inquired of him, "From what cause haat
thou become so .:maciatcd ?" when he o.nKwured, From the horror of
death." 'l'he monarch thereupon rejoined, "l\ly child, thou l1ast ceased to
fake r""'""ation, saying t< thyself,' in seven days I shall be put to death.'.
These mini1:1tel'II of religion ure inees.'lt\ntly meditating on death ; how can
t1''ly enter into frivolous diversion11 i"'
He who hatl been thu111Lrldre11.qod by hi~ brother became a convert to that
religion. After the 1:Lpl!C of some time, going to an olk hunt, he preceived,
seated at the foot of a tree, and fannutl by an clophant with the bough of a
Jsal tree, the thi!ra 1\fahadhamma1'ilkkhit;i, pp,rfect in piety, having overcome
the dominion t)f sin. Tho royal ym1th indulged in this reflection : "1Vhen
11hall I ILlso, like unto this thcra, be initiat1..>d into the priesthood, be a dweller
in the fore1:1t?
The them, to incline hiK he.lrt (to the faith), Kpringing alMt, and ueJmPiing,
through the air, alighted on the Hurface of thu tlmk of the A.l!Okarama temple,
nnd cau>1ing hi11 robe!! to remain poised in the air, he dhed into the tank and
b1Lthed bi11 limbs.
The superfath-ely wisP. >1ub-king upon seeing this mimcle, overjoyod
thereat, resolved within himself," This ve1y d1Ly will I be ordained o. priest."
Repairing tn the king, the 7.ealous convert supplica.t1..-d for 1iermi11Rion to
become a priest. Unwilli~g to obstruct hiK wi11h, the 110vereign, conducting
bim h1m11clf, with a 1,rrcn.t concourse of n.tt:mdantH, proceeded to the temple.
He (the under-king) WI.LI! ordained by tha them 1\-lalu\dhammarakkhit.,. On
the Ramo occa.Rion with himiilf, one hundred thou1111.nd persons (were
ordained). There i11 no ascert.,ining the mmber of those who oocame priests
from his example,
The renowned Aggibmhm& ,ra~ tl,e son-ill-11110 of the king, "bein9 the
huRband of 8111\ghamitt&, the ROvereign'11 duughter. 0 /ler 11ml Iii, so11, prh1c11
Su11&a11a, having obtained the sanction of the king, was ordained at the 111Lmo
time as the sub-king.
1 "devoted himself to meditation."
" acquired the position of a."
" And tht1 world regarded hi11 word,i n. 11 if they were the word,.,"

4 "advent of."
"in order to oonvince him (of the rea11tm ). "


1 Jli~


' "the nephew,"
named Sumana. Jical~o."


It waa in the fourth year of king Aaoka's reign that, for the spiritual
happin888 of the people, the ordination of the sub-king took place. In the
aame year this sub-king, gifted with wisdom, became up88ampad6 ; and
exerting himself, by virtue of his former piety, became 1,aartiji,&l with tile
aix supreme attributes.
1 ..4. lZ tlie,s indivicluala in differe1,t to10118, c0111111tll1cil1g the r.oastr11cti01& '!,(
s1Jlendid ,;ihdrc1J1, co11&J1leted the11, in time yertrs. B!J tl,e naeiit '!,f tlie tMm
]ndagutta, mul qf thcd of the 11ndertak,.,. of tl,l' 11ork, the vihira called .Asokitrima was 3al!JO complt.ted in tlird ti111e. .At thn places at which the vanquisher
of the five deadly sins had worked the works of l1is mis&ion, the sovereign
caused splendid digobas to be constructed.
From eighty-four thous:md
cities (of which Pupphapura was the centre), despatches were brought on the
11,me day, announcing that the vih(iras wore completed. Having heard these despatches read, the glorions, the superlatively gifted, the victorious ROvereign
having resolved on having a great fe11tiVI\I of offerings at all the temple11 at
the aame 4 inoment, caused to be puhlishcd by h9at of drums through the
capital : " On the seventh day from hence, throughout all the kingdoms in
the empire let there be a great festival of offerings bold on the same day.
Throughout the empire, at the distance of ooob y6jana, lot there be 'oitut
o.fferingd beato,i,IJCl. Lot there be decorating of the road11 to villages M well
as temples. In all vihnl'RII lot almsgiviug to the prie~thood be kept ur in
every res11ect, RB long a.a practicable, and liberally as means will allow. At
those places, decorated with festoons of lamps aml garlands of flowers in
. various ways, and joyous with every description of music, let a great
proc&Mion be celebrated. And lot all person~ 6rlul!J 111'l'J)(ll"ttl blJ a l~fe '!.f
rlghteou,mP.11s, listen to the doctrines of tbo faith ; and let innumcra-.,le
olferings be made on that day."
.-' 11COrdingly, in all places, all personM, in 7t1ll reaperta, r,~ ff tlit/J 1rfrP. tlui
Jeliclf,0N& J)e,aldLa htar,ms, f!(lcl, Hlll"JJflHBii1n tl,e otl,er, bl!Rtm,.td o.:f!l'1-i11n11.
On that day the king, decorated with all tl1e insignia of royalty, ,mrl
,urrouncled b11 his miniHters 111111111tl'd on tl,plia11t11 mid hm"RllH, wit/1 (l[l tl,e
11011111 and 1101ctr qf statt, proceeded, a11 if cleaving the earth, to the temple
built by himself. Bowing down to the chief prio~t, he took up his 11tation in
the midst of the priesthood.
In th"t congregation there wore eighty kotis of priest.'4. Among them
there were one humlred thousand mini11ters of religion who bad ovoroome
the dominion of 11in. 'rhere wero alim ninety lae11 of p1ioste11scs, of ,vhom a
thou11and prie11t811SOB had overcome the dominion of sin. 9 Tht'~P. smi.ctifie,l
peraon,, for the J1Urpo11e '!,( gralift1big ki11g Dh11111111d116h1, 11,1for11wl miracle
for lhe mnnifeat,rtion to the ,co,l,I of tl1t trutl, qf tl,ei, 1"eligion.
On aoconntof his 1"fm"111tr sinful conduct (in having murdereii his brothers),
he Wllll known11 by the name of 11..-lsuL-a. Ruhl!equently, on account of his

"an Arha.t gifted."

"And all.the beautiful vihiras, the building wht>reof had been duly commenced
were completed within three years, By the aupernatural power of the th6ra
Indagutta, who superintended the WQrk."
1 "11peedily completed."
"aI11111 given in observance thereof,
1 "taking upon themselves the vows of observing the precepts."
"in every JJOllllible manner, made offerings. plea,iing aa those of the Deva
lokaa, and exceeding even the commands of the King."
1 " with hill women of the palaoe and his mini11ten, attended by a military
"and these saint.a wrought a miracle call"Cl the Loka Vivara1.1a (' a panorama
'of the world') that ao they might make king Dhammlaoka rejoice in the faith."
11 " formerlJ'.''
te Omlt..
"Canr,luoka (' the wicked Aaoka. ')."



piouK chal"IICter, ho was distinguished by the name of DhammWka. 1 (By the

power of 'a miracle) he s.'lw all the viharas situated in every direction throughout the ocean-bound Jambudipa resplendent with these offerings. Having
t:iuK beheld these viharM, exceedingly overjoyed, he inquired of the pri86thood .:. "Lords! in the religion of the deity of felicitous advent, whose act of
pious bounty hllB been the greatest ?" The them, the son of Moggali,
the deity of
answered the sovereign's inquiry: Even in the lifetime
happyadvenr., a donor of offerings equal to thee did not exist." Hearing this
announcement, the king, greatly pleased, again thus inquired of him : 1 " Can
a perao11 cin:um1Jtu11re,l '18 l u111 b~come a relation of the religion of BuddhaP"
The th6m perceiving the perfection in pioty of Mahinda the son, and of
Sal\ghamitta the daughter. of the king, and foreseeing also that it would be a
circuml'tanco tending to the advancement of the faith, this supporter of the
cawse of religion thereupon thus Bddres11ed the monarch : "Ruler of men I a
greater donc,1 and benefoctor to the faith even than thou art can be called
only a benefactor; but he who caullO!I a son or daughter to be ordained a
minister of our religion, that person will become not' a I benefactor,' bat a
'relation' of the faith''"
Thereupon tho Roveroign, dosirous of becoming the " relation of the faith,"
thus inquired of l\fahinda and Sal\glmmitta, who were present : "My children!
it is declared th.'\t admission into the priesthood is an act of great mmt;.
Wh1,t (do yo decide), will ye he ,ml1,ined '!" Hearing this appeal of their
father, they thus ml,ln.>ssud their parent : " Lord, if thou desirest it, this very
day will we he oy1fai11od. 'fhe act of or,linatinn is 0110 profitable equally to u11
and to thee." E,en from the pe1-iod of tho ordination of the sub-king and
o~ the .Aggihrahma, he a111l Hhe had been dosin>UK of entering tho priesthood.
The king, who had ro,iolvcd t,> confer the office of sub-king on Mahinda,
attached still more importance to his admi1111ion into the prillf!thood. Ho with
the utmost pomp celehmt01l the ordination of his lmloved 110n llahinda,
di11tinguiKhed by hi11 wisrlom and his pensonal beauty, and of his daughter
Sanghamitta. At th:,t periorl this !\lahinda, the 1Iclight of the monareh,
W&I! twenty, and the royal daughter Kanghamitti wa11 eighteen years old. Bia
6twdiliutiu11 wul (eluulio11 to) tl,r. llJHMttmp111l1~ took place on the same day.
Her 7m'flimuio11 ,,,,,z ,,u11l(lic"litm (fol' t1JH1St1111J""ld 11ot brin9 eligible thereto
,it /1r.1 tifJt.) also took place on the same d..'ly. The thcra named Moggali
was the preceptor, " upajjhi1y11,'' of the prince. The them MahadEva ;nmaled
him 'into t/,e fir11t orclP.r <!t' p,irl/10,,tl. The thtirn l\fajjhnntika performed
the "kammavaca."
In that very hall of up111111mpadi ordination thi11
Mu.bin~ who had attained the requisites for the priesthood, acquired
the Ranctificat.iou of " arb:at." The p1ieste1111 Dhammap6la became the
upajjhayit, and pri1,11to~ A'yupali the iu~truct1u11K, of S1u\ghamitta. In d~e
COUl'88 sho overc:imo thu tlumiuion of Hin l l,y 1"t/,r cttlfti1111t'-IU of arhat).
Both these iJluminators of the religion were ord1&inetl in the 11ixth year of the
reign of Dhamm1i1tuka, the benefactor of Lagka. The great Mahinda, the
illuminator of this land, in three ye&l'II learnt from l1is preceptor the
Aa the moon and sun at all times illumine the firmament, so the prieateM
(Salighamitti) and Mahinda shone forth the light of the religion of Buddha.
Previously to this period a certain pilgrim, departing from Pa\aliputta, and
w hue wandering in a wilderness, formed a connection with a 81J01U1f1 female


the righteous As6b.')

the aforetraid,"
1 11 only."
Can one like me be regarded as,"
11 also.'"
11 robing aud ordination."
"robiDg and traiuing (for llhewu not
admilBl.ble to or<linat.ion, bein,; under age)."'
11 robl.'d.''
11 Omit.,"
"beonm.iDK an."'
1 ('

'' 11




kunt.akinnari (a f11.bulouR animal). By her oonnection with him 11he brought

forth twoohildreu: the elderWlltl called Ti.asn. 11.nd the younger Sumitta. In due
counie of time, these two having entered into the priesthood under the tuition
of the tMra Maha Varur.m,, and having acquired the six perfections of
religious knowledge, attiLined the 11anctification of "arhat." TiM&, th< elder,
was suffering from an ulcer in his foot, occo.sioned by the 1ziunct11re qf "
tlwm. The younger h.wing inquired (what would alleviat.e him), he replied,
"A. palm-full of clarified butter, to b6 Hlletl &11 medicine"; but he (Til!II&)
interdicted hie want being D13d.l' known to the king; 3itlJ being BUJ11.dietlfron,
tM allomancf.11 gra11fNl b.11 tlt8 killtJ t,o infirm priests ; or that for the sake of
clarified butter he should proceed in soarch of it (at an unorthodox time) in
the afternoon. "If in thy (orthodox forenoon) pilgrimage to beg the (daily)
alms thou 11houldst receive some clarified butter, that thou mayst bring."
Thus the exalted them Ti883 instructed the thl!ra Sumitta. A. palm-full of
clarified butter not being procurable by him in his alms-pilgrimage, a dise1111e
w1111 e_ngendered which could not be subdued by a hundred caldrons of
clarified butter. By this very diHeasu the thera WI\R brought to the close of
his existence. Preaching to othel'II on "non-procrastination," he prepared
his mind for " nibhuti." ~eat.ad, l10i11ed in tho air, pul'lluant to hill own wi11h,
he consumed hiR corporeal aubstimce by the power of flames engendered
within hillll!elf, and attained "nihhuti." Prout l/,,, COl'Jlllt ,if fhr tlt.err1, jla11t1111
i1111uing, it tl7tll c0111e1t.1!1l into jl,,.,/,.lr11x (IRhP.11 ; brtl f/u,g did ,wt co11111'11Ul ang ,if tllll
bonl'R ill tl1e 11;l10l11 '!f /1h1 1:0111111',
The sovereign, hearing of the demise of this thera Til!IIIL, attended by his
royal retinue, repaired to the temple built by himself. The king, cn.u11ing
these relics to he collected, and pfacing them 011 hi11 11t11.te elephant, and
having celebrated n. fei<tiv1,l of relic11, he inquired of wlmt malady he died.
Having heard the pa'l'ticulars, ':/1'()11 tl,f'. ,~flliclion
in l,il/6, he canKed to
be com1tructed 1,t (each of tho four) gate11 of the city a l'Cllervoir made of
white chunam, and filled it with 6 111l'rlirim1l b"""-l'ttf/1', 11.'Lying, "Let there not
be a scarcity of medici11e11 to be provided daily for the prieKthood."
Tho thcra. Rumitta attainod "nibbuti " while ;i11 tl,r m,t f!( pr1;formin9
"1'111111/.,11u111," (takiuu 1,;,, w"/1., '!f 111l'tlitt1tio11) in the 'cmnkam.'\na" h11ll. The
worlll at large, in 001111equence of thh, event, hi;ci,me g1eutly devoted to the
religion of Buddha. The11e two th(,ra11, deKCencled from the knntikinnari,
attained "nil.ibuti" in the eighth year of the reign of A11,'ika.
Thenceforward, the '<1drm1ft1!Jr11 accruing to the prie11thtK11l wore (!:rC.'Lt. 9 Rg
every [IOJJHible m11m111 t/,,. ,l,,,ote,/ pop11l,,ce l.f'pt 1111 f/,r,,,. ,,,J,,111f,1!/t'H,
The heretics who had been .teprivucl of the m1Lintonancc (formerly bestowed
on them by the king), in order tlmt they might obtain tho11e mh,mtages,
&S"uming the yellow mh011 (without ordination), wer,, living in the community
of 'f;he prie1thood, These per1101111, "'11:/1,11uer (t/1P.!J xrt 11p) a doc:tri11r. of'
tl&e,r o,mi t/i,.g pm110111uleil it to be tl,e tlm:t1int1 f!( JJ1ul,IIICl. If tltere ,r.us any
ttct of th,-ir 011m (to lie puformrd). tluw J1t'1fo111te1.l it accm-d.;110 to tl1eil 011m
,oi11/,1JS (1oilhout ,-,fermce to the orthmla;e 1ul1111).


1 "poiaon of a worm."
"even though it WM permiMible to do RO for."
" FlamllK i11~ued from the body of the thern. and conaumed all hill flesh without
leaving any ashes; but the bones they oonaumed not."
1 "he wu tl.lled with amazement and,"
7 "walking in meditation."
"drup and medicament,,."
"by reason of the people who rejoiced after thell8 events having maintained
charitable gifta."
11 " aet up their own doctrinCll! ae tho dOl.-triue of Buddha, and performed other
rites and oeremoniec1 (11uch 1111 brahmanioal B&Crill-, &c.) ae it pleaaed them.''



Thereupon the tMra, 110n of .i\loggali, of increasing piety and faith,

observing this dreadful excrescence on religion, like unto a boil, and having,
by enmining into futurity, ascertained by hiH profound. foresight the period
at which the excision of this (excrescence would take place); transferring
bis fl'l't.ernity of numerous dis.:ipfos to the charge of the thcra :Mahi111la, he
sojourned for seven years in 110litude, indulging in piomi medit11tion, at tl1e
Ahogadga mountain (beyond the Ganges), towards tl11~ 1:1ouroo of the rive1.
In consequence of the 11ume1ical prcpondemnce and tho 1s1/1iH111H of these
heretics, the Buddhist prie11ts wore inca1~1hle 11f rc9ulcctin9 thf.ir co,1ducl
accordii1g to tl1e 1ule11 f?.( t/ie 01tl,otlnz fi1itl,. From this vory cause, in all
the Buddhistical temples in Jambudipa, the prim1ts were incap,Lhlc of
oh.ierving the rites of " upuKatha and " pa,1it-a1.1a" for 11 period of seven
year11 (IUI none lint orthodox ministers could lie admitted to thol'le ritos).
The 11uperlatively-gifte1l great king Dhamm1isuk:1, hearing of thi11 (11u11pt1n11ion of r(,ligiouK olnic1,:1nce11 for scveu yua.r"), ,fu,.patohed a. minister to t!.e
chief temple A,;11k1ir:ima, with t.he110 ,mlel"ll : lfaviug ropnil'ld thither, dt.
thou, adjusting tbi" matter, cau110 the coremouy of '' upus:itha to he
performe<l by the p1iesthood at my tom11lo,
'.l'hi11 ig11omnt 111i11iKte1 luiviug 1epaircd thither and 111111cJmhlod the pril"Mtii,
thus 3/t0t1ln/ ,mt the con1111,'l.111ls of tho Ko,oruigu : " Pcrfmru ye the coromony
of upusatba." Tho 1)1'icMthood tbm1 t"Uplie,l to the imlKcilo 111ini11tm: " \\'e
will nut pmforru tlm cernmnu.v of 'upu,i:ith:L with the horctic11." The
minister, exclaiming ''] will harn the up,,,1atha perforrnotl,"' with his own
aword docapit:Lted 1111vcml uf the tht!m" in tho or,ler in whioh they &'l.t. Thll
thera Tilll!a, the youuger hrotlu:r of the king. poreeiviug this proceeding,
t"wlhi11g clOH'- ti him (tJ,,. 111i11is/,11), placuil hitnijulf on the Heat '(of II,~ tl,fm
1,iat ,ilm1glit1werl). Tho minister rt>c11gni>1ing that tMra., repai1ing -(to the
palace,) rcportctl the wholo of the ocourronce to Ulll king. ".fll'ltl'illg t/1i1
11ve11t, t/111 l.iu.9, del"pl!J r~/lfictr,l, a111l i11 t/1r. ut11wt ,~1/1lllxiti?11, i11st,111tl9
NI/Htiri119 (to t/11! f.P.111p/,.), inquired of the prieRthood : By the deed thus
done, on whom will tlrn ~in fall?" Among them, IL portion of the ill-informed
declared, ' Thu 11in is thi1rn ": another portion announced, " Both of you":
the well informed pronounood, '' Unto time there i!I none."
This great king having heard th01:e (conflicting) opinions (exclaimed)," la
there, or i11 there not, any priest of sufficient authority (among you) who,
alleviating my doubt, can restore me to th.~ comforts of religion P" The
priesthood replied to the sovel'eign : '' 0, wai1ior king! the thu1-a Ti11&a, the
son of l\foggali, is Huch a. pcnmn."' The king in~tantly cu11coive1l a gr:iat
vener.1tion for him. On tl.at very day, in order that the thcra might be
brought on hiK invitation, he deapa.tch1nl four tlicras, ea.eh attended Ly one
thou11and p1icsts ; in like manner, four miniKtul'II, each attended by 11 thouM1111d
followers. On the message being delive1ed by these persons, (the tbc1-a) did
not accept the invit.,.tiou.
Hearing this result to the mission, he despatched eight theras and eight
mini11ters, each with a l'etiuuo of ono thoui,and followers. As in tho former
instance, he a.gain declined coming. The king inquired, '" W!,at cwt tl&e
caud be that tlie tlu1.ra tlUl'H ,wt ,011&ef' Thu priests informed him what
could procure the attendance of that them, thu11 : '" Illustrious monarch, on

"restraining them according to law."

"me.de a~te a.ntl."
nearllllt to him (the mini~ter)."
"When the king heard the whole sroiy he WIMI aeized with gn,at eontt'rnation, and in great angui,ih of mind haatened to the temple. nd.''
' ,; How can the th(:ra be illlhiced to come I "



aending him this naessage, Lord ! voucl11111fe to 1

f':t'lf"llll thy f1.id It> ,.,.,.loH 11,,.
to fAe/aitA,' the th6ra will come."
Again, another timl! the king, adopting that very message, 11ent sixteen
theras and sixteen ministers, each with a retinue of :, thousand perBOns. he
thus instructed (the milltlion): "The thArn 3t>n flrr.011111 of M11 gl"l!at a~ will
not be dispo11ed to mount a conveyance ; do ye therefore transport the th&a
in a ve38el by the river." They l11wi11g repaired thither, delivered their
mellllllg8. 11,., iu tlt6 1,,.11 ,wt '!f lu:u,-i11(J t/,,. 111~~""!/l', mJJe, They conveyed
the thera in a ves11el. 'l'he king (011 hie approach) went out to meet him.
The monarch (proceeding into the rher) till the water rea.ched his knees,
With the profoundest respect, offered the IIUpport of his rig}1t Rhou}der to- the
dise1nbarking them. 1'he benevolent tMra, worthy of every offerinK, out of
oompa111ion, accepting the proffered right arm of the sovereign, disembarked
from the vessel. The king, conducting the them to the pleasure garden
B-ativaddhana, bathing his feet and anointing them, camce,1 him to be seated.
The sovereign, with the view of trying the supernatural power of the thc!ra,
said to him: '' Lord, I 11m clesirom; of witne1111ing 1L mime.le." On being
asked" What (miracle) i'" He roplierl, "An cartb11uakc." ('l'he them) again
asked, " The earthquake thou wiKlmst to se.:: ; i11 it to be of the whole earth or
of a limited space?" ln<tuiring which is the most miruculous, and learning
that " an earthquake confined to 1L limited space WnM the most miraculous,'"
he declared that lie Willi clesfrou11 of witnc,.~ing that.
The them-within a boundary the four J';idl>II of which were a _yiijana in
extent - having placed (on each side) a cl11Lriot1 a horHC, a mau, and a vmsel
tilled with water, by his supernatural power he cammtl U1e half of thoac
thin1r1, together with the ground within the boundary, to quake (the other
half, placed beyoml the boundary, not being affected). He manifested this
miracle to him who WBS there seated.
The king inquired of the tl1Pm whether a sin hacl or had not Abtt>ii committ~rl,
on account of the 111\Crilegious murder of the prie11tM, by hh1 6011m minister.
The thera propounding to the king the jatak11 callccl " tittira, '' 7,io11HOltd hi111 bg
declaring, " E:ec,11ti11g there be wilful intention, there can be no sin."
Sojourning in that delightful royal pleat1ure garden f1>r seven day1 1 ho made the
10vereign conve1'11D.nt with the inestimable doctrines of the supreme Buddha.
The king within thosq seven days having sent twu yakkbas, caused all the
priests in Jambudipa to be M11embled. On the 11cve11th day, going to the
splendid temple built by himself, he directed the whole prie11thood 1 without
any omission, to assemble. Seated together with the tbcra within the
curtain, and calling up to him, nne by one, the heretic priei.ts : Lord,"
inquired the sovereign, "Of what relibriuu w:111 the Jcityof felicitom; mlvcnt !'"
Each, according to hi11 own faith, pl"Opoundcd the "8.'l.Sll,'lta," and other creeds
(as the religion of Buddha). The king cnm1cd all those heretic priests to be
expelltid from the priesthomi. 1'he wlmlc of the priests thus dobrradcd were
mty thousand. He then a,oked the urtlwdux pric11bc, " Of what religion i11
t.be deity of happy advent P They replied, "'l'he religion of 8im:estigalecl
help me to defend the faith."
although well tricken in yean." A aick or infirm pri011t is permitted to
travel in a conveyance. hut the king thought that the great elder, who waa a
1trict disciplinarian, would not take wlvantagc of this privilege.
"No aooner did ho hc11or the m-ge than he roll8."
"' aotl'Ued to him a.b,o."
' "made him to undiiristand that excPpt."
1 I would render it ;analy11i11.''
I do not think the question put by the king to
the heretics is correctly rendered, " What did Buddha tea.eh ? '' or What wu he
a teacher of 1" would convey the meaning of the question more clearly.
1 "

1 '

CHAP'.l'Ell VJ,


(truth)." The sovereign then addre8118d the thera : "Lord r waB the supreme
Buddha himself of that ' vibhajja ' faith P" The thira having replied
"Yes," and the king having heard that answer, overjoyed. "Lord," he
exclaimed, 1 " if bp any act the. priesthood t:w1 ier.oter thtir men purity, by that
act le' tlu: priext/111(}(l (now) pn:fo1'1n thf' '11prixatha.'" Having thus addr81111ed
the thcra, and conferrmg the royal protection on the priesthood, he re-entered
the celebrated capital. The prie11thood, restored to uwinimity of communion,
then held the " up6,,atha."
The tMra, from many as.'\nkhya of 1,riests, selected a thoulllrnd priests of
sanctified character-pnAAes.~ing- the 11ix perfections of religious knowledge,
and venied in the " tepitaka, anrl perfect in the four sacerdotal qualifications-for the purpose of holding a convocation. By them the convocation 011 religion
was held. According as the theras Mah{,kassapa and Yasa had performed the
convocations (in their timu), in like manner the them 'rissa (performed) this
one. In that hall of convocation the them 'l'iMsa 'prrarJ,e,l t/. di1Jc,mr11f'
illuHtmtire of tl,,,, mrans of suppre!llling doubt11 on point!I of faith.
Thu11, under the auspices of king Asuka, thiM r.onvocation on religion WRS
brought to a clo11c in nine month11 by these priest.'!.
In the seventeenth year of the reign of this king, this all-perfect minister
of religion, aged Keventy-two yeani, ,,omlllcte,l i11 thP utmost J."'1:fection thh1
great convocation on religion, and the "JHtrtirttnctn.''
At the conclusion of the convocation, on account of the re-estn.bli11hment
of religion, t.he great earth, aH if 1<houting its "Si,dhu ! "quakod,
The instrument of thi~ mi11>1in11 having left his !<Up1eme residence in the
bralun.'l Mka world, and descended to thiR impure human world for the
aovancemont of religion,-who, capable of advancing the cause of religion,
would demur ?
The fifth chapter in the )bhf\vapsa, entitled "The Third Convor.ation on
Religion," composed alike to ,lelight and afflict religious men.


h the fand of Viuii,'ll, in the capital of VatllP', there wa." formerly a

certain V111\ga king. The daughter of the king of Kalinga was the principal
queen of that monal'ch,
That sovereign hail a rlanghter (named Suppaclcvi} by his said queen.
Fortune-telleni predicte1I th,Lt she would connect hcMlelf with the king of
animals (the lion). She grnw up lovely in JICl'Kt.111, 1111d wa." ardently inflamed
with u.morou11 pa!lsions. ''B!J bo/11 t!,e l.:i,,!J wul q11fm a tler,radi119 senRe of
shame was folt.
This (princess) "while taking a l!Olitury w:1lk, 71111a-teMclttl ancl 1liar1uistd,

1 " in11,11much a,i the priet1thood has recovered its purity let it now perform the
recited a treatise (named) Katha-vatthu-p-pakaru.r.ia,' with a view.'' TbiH
treatise now forms the thinl book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
;, at the end of the great Pavara.r.ia.' The Pardra')a id the confe111ion of the
priesthood u.t the conclu~ion of the v111111 sea,;on."
"But she w11.1t looked upon with disgu~~ by both the king and queen, who felt
a degrading l!en;ie of shame {on her a.,count),"
who longed for the pfoasure of an independent life (one day).''
fled under disguise and joined a caravan that."


Jccam11&l u11d111" the Jlr"tection of t1 carai,an ,ilii";f u:/10 wu proceeding to the

Magaclha count.ry.
In a wilderness in the ln.11d of Lala, a lion 1c1iullffl away tl,r. etirar,,n chi~f;
t.he re11t fled in 'oppo11ito directions: 311/1e (adim1ct-tl) in that in which tLa
lion approachod.
The lion, 'JJ1'01cli11g for J"'t!/, ohllorving her :.,,111nYH.&cl1i11g from a distance,
in[famed with pa.11Sion, Wilgging his tail a.nd lowering his ears, ap1>roached her.
~he ol111c1l'cd him ; and recollecting the prediction 11hc h1,d hen.rd of the
f01tu11e-telltirs, freed from 1111 fear, exciting him, cares11Cd him. By her
having thus fondled him, hi1:1 passion being roused, the lion placed her on his
Lu.ck, anti cunveying her t.o hi" den, he lived with her. In due course of time,
by her cu1111ection with him thiK pri11ce11>1 g11ve birth l.o twins-a son and a
d11ught.c1. ,;7'/1111 pa1tuok of the nature of the lion in the formation of 7tliefr
lmmltt 11ml foet. Hbc con,wquontly called him 1,y the 11a1ue of Sihabihu, and
the- d11ughtcr 'S(blL..i,ali.
'l'hi11 ,11111, in hiM t1ixteenth yc,1r, inquiring of hi11 mother rcbrardiug n. doubt
mi11od in his min,1-" lly mother,'' 111,i,l he, from wlU1t circumstance is it
that hetwocu thy,mlf, 0111 f,Lther, aml 011rselvc11 there i111L di11Kimilmity? ''-she
diHcluHC<l all to him. "\Vhy then do wu not dup11rt ? ropliml ho. "'J'hy
fathur," 11he rojomed, '"clo,.e11 111, the muuth of the dtn with a ,.;tone."
He. taking ''t/,at which cloKrnl tho mouth of the great den 011 hi11 Khoultlera,
proceeded 1111d rcturued a tliistance of fifty y,,ja11a11 011 the 111Lme d:iy. When
the lion hatl gono to prowl for pr,.;y, placing hi11 mothe1 011 hi11 right Khoulder
:md his si11tor on the left, 110 quickly tlep11rted.
Covering their 1111ked1mKH with luaveK, they proce;,ded to o. provincial village. At th1it time (princo Anuru.), the 11011 of the .11rince"1,1'11 n111brmil unc:.3,
WIIH thm-c. 'l'hi11 minister, Kt:mtlard-bcaror of the king of Vmlga, was present
at this provincial vill:i.ge, supe1intemli11g cultivation, 110:ited undtir u. '' vatn."
tree. Thu roy11l Ktaudard-bearor Keuing theh condition, made inquiries.
They replied, ",ve are the iulnibitautK of the wilder11u><t1." Uc he11towt.>d
clothing on them, which (clotl10,;) hy the vhtuc of their piety became of the
greatest value. lie g:1ve 1lre1111etl rice in leavo,i, which hocamo vessels of gold.
The mi11i11tcr, a1,1toni11htid 1,y thiH (miracle), iru1uirt.><l of them," \Vho are yo?"
The pri11ce1111 na.rmted to him her birth and linm,ge. 'J'hi11 roy:,1 standa1dbearcr, t.'lking with him thi11 tbughter of hi11 father'14 (youngor) Kister, oonductt,d lmr to the city of Vari.ga, a.nd m.'Ldo hur his wife.
The lion soon returning to h:11 den, and mi>111ing tl1el!e three individuals,
afflicted with grief at the ln111,1 of hi11 offspring, neither ate nor drank.
Heeking the..e chiltlren, he cntc1-c'1 the provincial villn.gcs ; and whatever
vill'Lges he visited ho chm1cd away U10 people. 'fhe i11ha.bitu.11ts of the
vilfagtlll, repairing to (the eapitail), thuK implored of the king: "A lion is
laying w1111te thy country: sovcrnign lord, arrest this (calamity)." Not being
able to find any person to 11l11y him. pL'Lcing a thoummd piece11 (of money) on
the back of an elephant, he procl:1imed through the city, "Let it be given
to the eaptor of the lion." In the so.me manner, the king succeuivcly
(olfered) two thousand aml throe thous.'Lnd pieces. The mother on two of
these occasions prevented the lion-born youth (frow undertaking the enterprise). On the third occasion, without consulting his mother, he accepted
the offer; and a reward of three thousand pieces wa.s (thus) bestowed on
him to put his own father to death. (The pJpulace) 11reMmted this prince
to the king. The monarch thus addrell88d him : 11 On the lion being

1 "rushed at the caravan."

"ret.urniag from hill prey."


" while she (ran).

1 '' The IOU.''
,; the stone.."



destroyed I bestow on thee that country." He having proceeded to the door

of the den, and seeing at a distance the lion approaching, impel!ed by hill
affection for his child,-to transfix him, he (Sihabahu) let fly hi1 arrow at
bun. On account of the merit of the lion's good intentiorui, the arrow,
recoil'ng in the air, fell on the ground at the feet of the prince. Even until
the third e:ffort it wa.'I the 1111me, Then the king of animal1, lOlling bi1 selfpoll8tlllllion (by which the charm that. preaerved his life was destroyed), tho
impelled arrow, transpiorcing bis body, pMRed through him. (Sihabahu)
returned to the city, taking the head of the lion with the mane attached
thereto. This occurred on the seventh day after the death of the Iring of
The monarch having left 110 110ns, and his virtuous mini11ters exulting in
this exploit (of the prince), having ascertained th11t he Wll8 the grandson of
the king, and recogniael\ his mother (to bo the king's daughter) they
assembled, and with one accord entreated of the prince Sibababu, "Be thou
Iring." He having accepted the 110vereignty, and conferred it on (Anura)
the buaband of hi11 mother, taking with him SihaRivali, he hi1Delf departed
for the land of his Mtivity. There he founded a city, which was callfld
Sihapura. In a wilderne1111 a hundred y6jamu, in extent, he formed villages
(in favourable aituationR for irrigation). In that capital of the land of L61a,
making Sihallivali his queen-consort, the monarch Sihabahu administered
the llOVereignty. Thi11 queen in due ooul'l\e gave birth on 11ixteen occaaiona
to twin children, 'l'he elde,:it w111< m,mcd Vijayn, the 11eeond waa named
Sumitt.a ;-nltogethcr thirty-two children. At the proper age the sovereign
installed Vijaya in the office of anl,-king.
Vija.va bec.1.me a mwles,i charnctor, and hi,i retinue were the 1111me : they
committed n11ml,erle11.1 ootR of fmud and violence. The nation at large,
incensed 11t this proceeding, repre,iented the matte!,' to the king. He censured
them (the prince's foll011el'I\), and hi11 aon he Mevercly reprimanded. In all
reapects the 1111.me o<:curred n 11ecoml timo. On the tbird occasion, the nation
enraged, thuR clamoured : "Execute thy 11011." The king, compelling Vijaya
and hiR retinue, 110ven hundretl in number, to h11vo tbo half of their bcadR
shaved, and having them emoorked in a. vcKROI, 11ent them adrift on the
ocean. In the 11ame manner (in 1\ KCComt vOK11t1l) their. wivc11. In like
m1mner their children (in a third). ThcRO men, women, and children, drifting in different direutions, landed and 11cttled in different co11ntrie11. Be it
known, that tho land in which the children settled i11 Naggru:lipa. The land
in whicb the wives settled iii l\lahinda. Vijayn him11elf landed at the port
of SuppAraka (in Jambudipa), but (dreading the hoMtility of the natives) on
account of the lawle11s ch1uacter of his band, be re-embarked in his ve1111el.
This prince named Vijaya, who had then attained the wiadom of experience,
landed in the division Tambapa.1.u;ai of thiK fand Lagki, on the day that the
succeuor (of former BuddhaM) reclined in the arbour of the two delightful
l!&l treea, to attain" nibbina."
The aixth chapter in the Mahavag1111, entitled "The Arrival of Vijaya,"
composed equally to delight and to afflict rightooua men.

Tiu: ruler of the world, having conferred bleaainga on the whole world, and
attained I the uallt.d, 1111Changeable nibbd11a; seated on IM tl&l'OJIIJ on which
the moat eulted 1tate of reat."

; I.ring


the bed.''



nibbina 1;, achieved, in the midst of a great U,IOmbly of devatu, the great
divine !13ge addrellSCd this celebrated injun~tion to Sakka, who stood near
him : "One Vijaya, the Mn of Hilu1htihu, king of the land of Lala, together
with seven hundred officel'l!I of state, has landed on Layka. Lord of dcvw !
my religion will be esti1bli11hed in Laykli. On that 1LCCOunt thoroughly rrotect,
together with his retinue, him and La.gka,"
The .devoted king of devas having heard these injunctions of the BUCllellllOr
(of former Buddhns), alllligned the protection of Lagka to the deva Uppalavai;11,1a (Vi11h9u). He, in conformity to the command of &kka, inatantly
repaired to LagkA, and in the charu.eter of a " paribhajaka " (devotee) took hia
atation at the foot of a tree.
With Vija.ya at their head, tho whole party approaching him, inquired,
"Pray, devotee, what land is this l'" He replied, "The land Lagk'-." Having
thus spoken, ho blelllled them by sprinkling water on them out of hia jug ; and
having tied (charmed) thro11cls on their arms, departed through the air.
A menial yakkhii.,.i (named Kali) assuming a canine form, presented heraelf.
One (of the retinue), though interdicted by the prince, followed her, saying
'" In an i11habited ,illtlge (a.lo11f'.) m-e th,.;-e <logH." There (near a tank) her
miatrcBS, a yakkhii;ii named Kuvc1.1i, was seated at the foot of a tree spinning
thread, ~i11 the ch,u,wt~, of a. devotee.
Seeing this tl\nk and the devotee 11C11.tcd near it, he bathed and drank there ;
and while he was taking some (edible) rootll and water from that tank, she
atarted up and thus addrelVlOd him: "Stop! thou art myi prey." The man,
as if he Wl\11 spellbound, Htood without the powllr of moving. By the virtue
of the charmed th:-ead she wa11 not able to devour bim ; and though entreated
by the yakkhir,i, he would not deliver up the thread. The yakkhir_ti then wat
him bi,llomi11g into a subterraneous abode. In like manner, the seven
hundred followers also she one by one lodged in the same place.
All those persons not returning, Vijaya becoming alarmed, equipping him11elf with the five wo.1.po1111 of war, procuedcd after them; and examining the
delightful pond, he could perceive footatep11 leading down only into the tank ;
and he there mw the devotee, It occurred to him : "My retinue must surely
halve been seized by her." "" l'1t11J, 1r.J,g ,lost tlmu ,wt 1n'Otl111r, mtJ miniNteJ'R P"
laid he. "Prince," she replied, 6'Jiom '"ini~terH m/,at pl'-C/,/IUl"f'& cmJJCt tl1ou
derive!' Do drink and bathe (ere) thou departeNt.'' Saying to himself,
"even my lineage, this yakkhii;ii is i\ClfU:linted with it," 7r1111i,llg proclaiming
hill title, and "b,mdillf/ his bow, ho rm1hed :Lt her. Securing the yakkhi,;ii by
the throat with a 9 '' n{Lracana1" ring, with his left h1md 11eizing her by the
hair, and ra.iHing his sword with his right hand, he exdaimed, "Slave I restore
me my followurs, (or) I will put thee to death." The yakkhi1.1i, terrified,
im11lorcd that her life might be spared. " L01-d ! spa.re my life ; on thee I
will confer this sovereignty ; unto thee I will render the favours of my 11ex,
and every othur service according to thy desire." In order that 10lle might not
ha im,oli:ed i11 a similar d{ffic1,ft9 again, he made the yakkhiio,i take an oa.th.


"When there is a village there are dog~ in it " ; meaning, that the appear
ance of dogs denote the existence of a village close by.

"as though ahe we10."



"Woman, hast thou 1eeu my attenda.nte I "

u What need hut thou of at.tendanta l "


""quickly 1eizing."

The woid rulrdt!t1t:alt&!Jt1 appnra to mean a noo1e or .-fng attached t.o an arrow.
h arrow tipped with hook, or IIODle similar weapon hi probabl 1 meant.
,. "alut might not prove hetMelf treaoheruu ... ".



(Thereafter), while he was in the act of saying, "Iu11tantly produce my

followen," she brought thcqi. forth. Declaring "These men mu11t be
famished," ahe distributed ri~ and a vaat variety of other articles (procured)
frum the wrecked ships of mariners who had fallen a. prey to her.
The followers having dreHSed the rice and victual,, and having &erved them
to the prince, the whole of them also feuted tbereon. 1She likewise having
partaken of the residue of the meal bestowed on her by the prince, excited
to the utmost pitch of delight, tranBformed hel'Belf (into a girl) of 11ixteen
years of age; and decorating her person with innumerable ornaments, 'lOtlely
a, Mtiranga herself, and approaching him, quickly inflamed the puaion of the
chief. Thereupon, she cauBOd a splendid bed, curtait1ed u with a wall, and
fragrant with incense, to spring up u.t the foot of a certain tree. Seeing thia
procedure, and foreseeing all the futul'fl advantages that were to result to
him, he passed the night with her. There, bis seven hundred followers on
that night slept, outside the curtain, surrounding their IIC'varcign. Thi,
(destined) ruler of the land, while reposing there with the yakkhivi, hearing
the sounda of song and music, inquired of the yakkhi1}i regarding the aame.
Thereupon, she being desirous of conferring the whole sovereignty on her
lord, 3 replied, "l will render this Lagka habitable for men.' "In the city Sirivattha, in thill island, there is a yakkha sovereign (Ki\las6na), and in the
yakkha city (Lagkapura) there is (another) sovereign. Having conducted
his daughter (Pusamitta) thither, ht.'l" mother (Ko1;11Janamika) is DOW bestowing that daughter o.t a marria.f{e festival Oil the 10vereign there (at Sirivatt.ha.).
From that circumstance there is a grand festival in an oaaembly of yakkhas.
That great a1111Cmhlago will keep up that revel, without intermiasion, for
ae. en days. This revel of fBlltivity is in that quarter. Such an assemblage
will not ol'cur again: Lord! this very day extirpate. the yakkhu." Hearing
this advice of hers, the monarch replied to her : " Charmer of my a.Jfections,
how can I destroy yakkhaa, who arc invisible P" "Prince," replied she,
" placing myself in tho midst of those yakkh:ui, I will give & shout. Guided
by the direction of that signal dca.l out thy blows ; by my supernatural
power they shall take effect on their bodies." This prince proceeding to act
aooordingly, destroyed the yakkh1111. The king having put (K6.laisena), tho
chief of tbe yakkha.11, to death, D.llllumcd his (court) dress. 'Ebe J'Ollt of his
retinue dre!llltld themHelves in tho ve11trnents of the other yakkhas. After
the la1111e of aome clays, departir:J from the capit.-il of tho yakkhaa, and
founding the city called "Tamb:1paQQi," (Vijo.ya) settled there,
At the spot where the 11even hundred men, with the king at their head,
exhausted by (sea) 11ickness, and faint from weakne1J11, had landed out of the
V01118l, supporting themselves Oil the palms of their hands pressed on the
ground, thoy 11&t themselves down. Hence 610 them the name qf " Tdmbawannapanaya" (COPJHlr-palmed, from tlie colour of tlv. soil). From thi1
ciroumatance that wildeme1111 obtained the name of " Tamba.pa99i." From
the same cause also this renowned laud boco.me celebrated (under that name).
By 8 whatei>er 11uia11, the mono.re!, Sil,abdhu 1le10 the "aiha" ( lion), j,"Om

1 From hero &11 far as vcne 68 r.hens arc two readings of the text.
They do
not, however, differ m.ateriall7. Tumour baa followed the reading found in mOBt
of the Sivhalese oopiea; the printed t.axt, that.of the Cambodian recemionand one
or two SivJiale.ie HSS. The latter reading agrees with the T(ki. The former i1
alllo prefixed to the printed text..
1 "the bewitching woman."
I would read e11rc&lig1&11ci wtead of _,..,,.,..,,
t.e e qd m being almost alike in Siohaleae wriung,
"and tbiDking within him110lf."
"replied." ._
11 tMr palma became oopper-ooloured (' Tambap&1,1ay6').
11 nMOD. of li1le king Sfhab6hu having lllain the lion (' tilba ')'"




Um& fMt, his aona and deacendanta l\l'e called "Sihali," (tbe lion alayera),
This Lavki having been conquered by a SiJ:i,.la, from the circumstance aJao
of iti having been colonised by a S1ha1a, it obtained the name of "Slhala."
Thereafter the followen c,f the prince formed an establishment, each ior
himself, all over Sihala. On the bank of the Kadamba river, the oebbrated
village na.lled (after one of his followers) Anuradha. To the north thereof,
near that deep river, wu the village of the brahmanical Upatiasa, called
Upati11a. Then the extensive settlements of Uruvela and Vijita; (each)
aubaequently a city.
Thus theee followers, having formed many settlements, giving to them
their own names ; thereafter having held a conaultation, they solicited their
ruler to 88Bume the office of aovereign. The king, on account of hia not
having a queen-conaort of equal rank to hiJJlll81f, was indifl'erent at that time
to hie i.nauguration.
All tl1eee chiefs, incited to exertion by their anxiety for the installation of
the "prince, sent to the aouthern Madhura (a deputation with) gems and other
These individuala 1having repaired thither, obtained an audience of (king)
Pa1;11Java, and delivoring the presents they announced their mission, thus
addrel!ling him: 1111, i11 for a royal ,iirgin. The BOD of Sihabihu, named
Vijaya, baa conquered Lavki : to admit of his installation, beetow thy
daughter on us."
The king Pal}fJav" having consulted with his ministers, (decided that) he
should aend to him (Vijaya) his owa daughter Vijayi; and for the retinue
of that (king) one leas than seven hundred daughters of his nobility.
11 Those" (Mid he) "among you who are willing to send your daughi.eN
to renowned Sihaln., BOnd them. Let them he quickly ranged before their
doors decorated in their best attire." Having bestowed many presents on tht1ir
fathers, he, with tbeir concurrence, 11118Cmb!ed the maidens (at the palace)
and causing hi11 own daughter to be decorated with every de11cription of gold
ornaments befitting her 11ex and exalted rank, he bestowed on her, as dowry,
elophanta, borse11, chariots, and slaves. With eighteen officllfll of state,
together with 3se.cr.nty-five menial servant11 '(beinf/ lwr111J-l.:fl'Jlllr11, el,.pl,a11tkuptr11, ancl cl1arioteer11), the monarch dispatched thesc (nmiJcn11), l,estowing
presents on them. All theKe pel'HOns having embarked in a ves11el, from the
circumstance of great concourses of people landing there, the port (at which
they debarked) obtained the name l\Ia.hltittha.
Thi11 daughter of Pal}c).'1Va arrived when the yakkhi1Ji, by her connection
with Vijayn, had borne him two children,-. BOD (Jivahatta) and a daughter
The prince receiving the announcement of the arrival of this royal maiden,
and considering it imp011Sible that the princess could live with hiln at the
llllme time with the y-.ikkhi1}i, ho thus explained himself to Kuvc'i~1i : "A
daughter of royalty ia a timid being; on that account, leaving the children
with me, depart from my house." She replied : "On thy account, having
murdered yakkhaa, I dread theBO yakkhas : now I am diBCBrded by both
parties; whither can I betake myself?" "Within my dominions (aaid he) to
any place thou pleasest which is unconnected with the yakkhas ; -and I will
maintain thee with a thousand bali ofl'erings." She who had been thus
interdicted (from reuniting herself with thfl yakkhas) with clamourous
lamentation, taking her children with her, in the character of an inhuman
being, wandered to that very city (Lagkapura) of inhuman inhabitants.
1 "in search of a royal virgin."
2 D,l.,.
4 Omit this.
The other reading gives "one tho11SAnd artiaana

from the eighteen

ol- (or cutee)."


She left her children outside the yakkha city, 1A ,aklrlla toAo dtitulJ Aer,
recognising 1,,;. in 1Nr ,-rcAJorp dreuling, .,.,.,.,p ,a Aer. 7'Mreupon anol'Aer
,tw,w ,aHAa among th ,11ragI ,aHlta (aiW): "I it for CM purz,oa, of
again and agai11 apying oul CM pM:tJ to "fiog IAaC ,A. i come 1" In hifu'71 A
l&illI ~'la 1J0kkl,i1}l toitl& a blato of hi op,n Aand. Her uncle, a yakkha (named
Kumflra), happening t.o proceed out of the yakkha city, aeeing thue children
outside the t.own, "Whose children are yeP" aid be, Bei11g informed
"Kuvcvi's," he said, "Your mother ia murdered: if ye should be aeen here,
they would murder you alto : fty quickly." Instantly departing thence, they
repaired t.o the (neighbourhood of the) Sumanakuta (A.da.m's Peak). The elder
b.1Ving grown up, mnrried hia siRt.er, and aettlcd there. Becoming numerou1
by their sons 11nd daughter11, under the protection of the king, they resided in
that MnbyA di11trict. 1 Thi11 Jlt!riron ( Jl,,,ahattu) t-ettiiMtl th attrilmtu of tM.
The amhlllamdora of king Pav<J!I.V11 preaented t.o prince Vijaya the princ818
and other 11reaenta.
V1jayn paid t.o the ambuaadon every mark of reapeet and attention.
According to their gmdea or Clllte& he beat.owed the virgina on hi& ministen
and his people.
All the nobles having auembled, in due form inaugurated Vijaya into the
aovereignty and ROlemnised a great festival of rejoicing.
Thereafter the monarch Vij11ya inveeted with great pomp the daughter
of king ParJ<)li with the dignity of quoen-conBOrt,
On his nobles he 1ro,,jmwl riclw,: n his father-in-Jaw (king Pav,Java)
ho bestowed annually chllnks and pearls, in value two lacka
.i'hi1 110vereign Vijaya, relinquishing hil former vicious course of conduct
and ruling wit.h perfect justice 11nd righteousnea over the whole of Lagki,
reigned uninterruptedly for thirty-eight years in the city of Tambapao1,1i.
The seventh chapter iu the Mahivavaa, entitled " The Iuaugumtion of
Vijayn," eompo~ed equally to delight and to afflict righteou1 men.



Tms great moll&1'Cb, Vijaya, when be arrived at the last year of his uiatence, th11R meditated : I am advanced in years, and no son ii bom unto me.
Shall the dominion acquired by my exertions perish with my demiae P For
the preaervation of the dynasty I ought to 1end for my biother Bamitta."
Thereupon, conaulting with his ministen, he despatched a letter ,of invitation
thither ; and Bhortly aft.er having aent that letter, he went t.o the world of
On his demise, these ministen, waiting for the arrival of the royal per10nage (lfho had been invited by the late king), righteoualy governed the
kingdom, residing at Upatiua.
From the death of king Vijayn, and prior t.o the arrival of that royal
peraonap, this land of LavkA was kingle&1 for one year.
In the city of Sfhapura, by the demiae of king SihabAhu. hi& aon Sumitta
1 "The yakkhu, on 1eeing her enter the city, quiokl7 smroandecl her, C1'1i.ng
out : ' It ii for the purpoae of 11pying ua that she hu come back.' .And when ,he
yakkha1 were thu excit.ed, one of them, whoae &Jl&'8r wu greatl7 kindled, pa$
an end to the life of the yalrkhf11,1{ by :. blow of hi11 hand,"
"This ii the origin of the Pulindaai (bill-men),"

"beltowecl wealth."



wu the reigning aovereign. By the daughter of the king of M:adda he had

thNMt aona. The ambaslladors (of Vijaya) having reached Sihapura, deliTered their letter to the king, The monarch having heard the contents of
the letter (read), thua addrellB8d hia three sona, 1premiBing many tlainga in
pmi of Lal}J:d: "My children, I am advanced in years ; 'go 01111 J/ you
to tie land qf my elder brother. On his demise, rule there over that splendid
kingdom, 3as tla1Jfourt1& n,onarcl& (o/tlae Sflaala d1111asty/ou11dtd 'by me)."
The youngest prince Pa9(Juvbad6va, f6ret1eeing that it would be a prosperous miaaion, decided within himself, "I will go." Receiving the approval
of his parent, and taking with him thirty-two noble youths (disguiaed) in
the character of paribbijaka (devotees), he embarked in a vessel. They
landed (in LaQki, at Gunag:tmaka-tittha) at the mouth of the M:ahakandara
river. The inhabitant.a of that place seeing these devotees, they rendered
them every aaaistance. These travellers, here inquiring_f.or tbe capital, protected by the d6vatas, in due course reached upatiaaa.
By the desire of the ministers (regents) a chief (not UBOCiated in the
regency) 41,ad prt,Jiou11ly con11ulted a fortune-teller, who announced to him
the arrival of a royal per!IOnage from abroad, and his lineage ; and, moreover, (thus prophesied:) "On the seventh day from hence the royal
personage will reach the capital ; and a descendant of bis will eatablish the
religion of Buddha (in this iRland.)" .Accordingly on the aeventb day the
devotee& arrived there. The regents having seen them, made due inquiries,
and identified them ; they invested the Mid Pa9c}uvba.deva with the sovereignty of L&Qki. So long as he wu without a royal consort, be abstained
from l!(>lemnising his inauguration.
1 The Sakya prince Amit6dana (the paternal uncle of Buddha) bad a son,
the Sakya Pa9<Ju : on account of the wal'II of prince Vi<J6<Jhabha, tllking bis
own people with him, 81,ut alleging 11on,e other 1,/ea (t/,an thttt o/yitltli11g to the
pou,er of hia emn,y), he (Pn.9<Ju) retired7 beyond the rivor (Ganges). There
founding 'I settlement, ho ruled over that country.
He bad i;oven sons and a daughter named Bhaddakacchana, the youngest of
the family : her complexion had the tint of gold, and her pereon was endowed
with female charms of irresistible fascination, On her account lleven killl,'8
sent valuable presents to this sovereign, who, becoming, alarmed at (the
oompetition of) "tbeae royal suit.ors, and having aacertained (by consulting
fortune-tellers) that the miilKion would be a propitious one, as well as that an
investiture of royalty would ensue, embarked his daughter with thirty-two
attendant females in a vesscl. Proclaiming, "Let him who is able to take
my daughter take her," be launched her into the river (Ganges). They
(the suit.ors) failed in the attempt. The vessel being swift, they reached the
port of Gunagimaka on the twelfth day, and all these femalea landed
there in the disguise of devoteea. There, inquiring for the Cll.pital, these
travellers in due course, protected by the dcvat.,a, l't'&ebed Upatiasa.
The miniat8J'B having already colllulted the fortune-teller (K6.lavela), and
having waited on the females who bad arrived (at Vijita) in fulfilment of
that prediction, having also made inquiries (there) regarding them and
identified them, they presented them to the king (at Upatiasa).
These ministers, in the plenitude of their wisdom, installed in the
aovereignty this Par,i(Juvuadeva, who had thoroughly realised every wish of
hia heart.

"go 01111 of yon to that excellent and ohrming land of Lav~ pc111elllllld by'."
I Omit.
'"in dllruue-"


Thill aovereign of the land having elevated the lovely BbaddaboohlnA

queen-consort, and beetowed her followera on hia followera,
reigned in pr011perity (at Vijitapura).
The eighth chapter in the Mahavaoaa, entitled " The Inauguration of
Pao!Ji:.16sacleva.," composed both to delight and afflict righteous men.

to the station of

queen gave birth to ten BOns and one daughter. The eldest of them
all was A.bhaya ; the youngeat, their sister Citt&.
Certain bmhmans, accomplished in the "mant.a.s," and eudowed with the
gift of divination, having scrutinised her, thus predicted : 11 Her (Oitti's)
son will destroy his maternal uncles for the purpose of usurping the
Her brothers proposed, in reply, '' Let us put aur sister to death." But
A.bhaya (doubting the truth of the pred'.ction) prevented them.
In due course (when she attained nubile years) they confined her in an
apartment built on a single pillar : the entrance to that room they made
through the royal dormitory of the king, and placed a female slave attendant
within, and (a guard of) one hundred men without. Frc:- her exquisite
beauty, the in11tant she was aeen she captivated the affectioi.s of men by her
fascination. From that circuDlllt.ance she obtained the appropriate appellation
of Ummada-Oitti (' Citti the charmer').
The sons of (the Sakya. Pal}lju) having fully informed themselves of the
nature of the miBBion of the princeBB Bhaddnkacchini to LaykA, and being
11pecially commiBBioned by their mother (Susimi), they repaired hither,
leaving one brother (Gimal.)i with their parenta).
Those who had thus arrived, having been presented to Pa\lcJuvisadcva.,
the BOvercign of Layka, they commingled their tears of joy with hen on
their meeting with their sister.
Maintained in all respects by the king, under the royal protection, they
(travelled) over Lagka, Rclecting settlements for themselves according to
their own wishes. 1 The 11ettkment calkrl Rdmaglma waa occupied by tl&e print:fl
( ,oAo thereby acqu.i red tl111 ttppellation of) Rdma. l'!I like manner, the aettlemmt/1
of Urauwla and .11"u.rddha (by princes who thereby acquired thoBe fl0.me1).
Si1nila1ly the TJil/a!Jll Vijita, Dlgluiyu, and RolwJJ.a lw.ving bun selected for
118Ulle111entB, coeferred appellationa 01& Vijita, Diglui11u, and Rol&aJJO,.

1 Tlua


PaJJ.t/U1:d111.Uleva formJ a tank at Anurtidha.

To tl&e

BOutl&ward tliereof l&e built a palaa. In due course he inatalled Ai, eldest ,on
Abl&aya ;,a tl&e tlignity of ,ub-king, and e1tabli11ied Aim tMf'IJ.
Dighagimani, the son of prince Digha:,u, huing heard of (the traDBOendent
beauty of) Ummida-Citta, and conceiving an ardent passion for her,
proceeded (attended by two slavea, Gopabcitta and KiUavela) to 1Upatiaa,
and presented himself before the sovereign. He (the king) usigned to him,
conjointly with the sub-king, the charge of the royal household.
1 "The place where (the princo) R;ima dwelt wu called ~ ; ., alao
were thoae of Uruvela and Anuridha : likewiae the aettlementll of Vijlta,
DfgWyu, and Rohava, were aeverally called Vijit.a-guna, Dfg~711, and BoJiava."
11 Thill Anuddha formed a t.anll: on the B011thern aide, and afterwuda built a
palaoe and dwelt there. The -harajA PaiiJ4ariade.a, l.n du coune ot t.une,

iut.alled hie eldat; son Abhr,ya in the olllce of Rb-lwlg."

I H the rillage. H

The aforeaid Oittl, who WIii in the habit of taking up her nation near
the door (of her pillared prison) which faoecl the royal dormitory, having
watched thia Gimani, inquired of her alave att.endant, 11 Who ii that peraon P"
She replied, "The aon of th7 maternal uncle." Having ucertained thia
point, she employed the alave in carrying on an intrigue (by aendi,.g the
prinoe pn!BeDtll of betel leavea, and receiving from him fragrant dowen and
other gifla).
Bnbeeqnently, :having made hia lllllignation, desiring that the entranoe
facing the royal dormitory should be cloaed ; in the night, IIIIClending by an
irms laddtir, and 'tmlarg;ng a ~nliloling apwture, by that paPOge A, oblainl
admiuion into the apartment. Having paued the night with her, at the
Tel')' da'WD of da7 he departed. In thia manner he conatantly reaorted
thither. 1 TAe aperture in the wall 4Nmaiud undetected. By thia (interOODl'N) 1be became pregnant.
Thereupon her womb onlarging, the slave
dilcloeed the circumstance to the mother. The mother 1111.tiaB.ed herself of
the fact from her own daughter, and announoed the event to the king. The
king oonaalting hia BODI, aaid : " He (Glamani) ia a person to be protected by
na. Let ua beatow her on himself, Should it (the child .in the womb)
prove to be a aon. we will put him to death." They (orJ thia compact)
beatowed her OD him.
When the time for her delivery arrived, abe retired to the apartment
prepared for her conlnement.
The princea doubting whether the alaVIIII G6pabcitta. and K&vEJa, who
were the adherent. of Gunani, could be truated in thia matter, and would
gift information (aa to the aex of the infant), put them to death.
Theae two peraona, tranaforming themaelvea into yakkhaa, watched oTer
the deatiny of the unborn pnnce.
Oitt6. had (pre'rioualy) by the meana of her alave, IIIIUOhed out a woman
who WIii near her oonlnement. She pve birth to a aon, and that woman to
a daughter. Oitt&, entrusting her O'WII aon and a thonaand (pieces) to her
(sent her away) ; and oanaiug her daughter to be brought, w nared Aer in
, _ 010n /aily.
The prince& 'ioen informed that a daughter WIii bom7 ;
but the mother and the mat.ernal grandmother both (knew) that the infant
wu a prince ; and uniting the titlea of hi1 grandfather and eldeilt maternal
uncle, they pve him the name of PavcJuklbhaya.
The protector of Lagld, Pai),J.uvuadeva, reigned thirty yean, dying at
the period of the birth of Pa9cJuldbbaya.
At the demise of thia BC>Tereign, the ao1111 of that monarch 1Aal,ing tUNJrlbled,
11,y iulalled la,r (Cit"i') brolA,r .UAaya, umo had 1Mffl Aer ,,.,,.,,.,., ;.,. llti
The.ninth cbap&er in the Mabbavaa, entitled " The InatalJation of A.bha:,a,"
aompoaed both to delight and to aflliot right.eon1 men.


1 It; la clilloult; to aa7 what; fa meant b7 tibe t.erm

or (u
101118 ooplea ba'"9 it;) l11H111a-,alll11.la. l"1111tua ia a m.eohanlaal appllance ;
1411.la,.. la a crab ; lt1Ht1,.. ia a cock. There ia notbmg ID the word& that
IDdicat.e " an iron ladder."
"caulu.g a window to be out open, thereby ant.eNcl."

"Then being DO."

"&he hl.t;rigae wu."
laicl ber by her Biele.

I "

'bavinar bem."

"were glad."
... -blecl tlutmeelftB toptber, aacl with peat pomp illlltaUed their
00Dlllf901111 bJOUutr .A.bha,a In the 10venlpt7 of tibe tbagdom. n



AT the desire of Umm~itt,, the slave girl (Kumbokata), taking the
infant and placing it in a buket.-cradle, departed for the village DviramaQ
The princes who were elk hunting, meeting the slave at I Tuniba1.:andura
mountain atna1n, inquired of her, "Whither art thou going? What is thia?
"I am going to Dva.rama,;tdalaka," she replied, " with aomo cakea for m1
daughter." "Bet it down," said the princes. At that critical moment
Citta and K&lavela, who had attended her for the protection of the prince,
presented to the (prinoea') view the form of a great wild boar. They eagerly
gave chase to the animal. She, taking the infant and the thouaand piecea,
proceeded to the deatined place of concealment, and secretly gave them to
the peraon intended to have the charge of them.
On that very day the wife of thi11 herdsman brought forth a son. Giving
it out, "My wife has given birth to twin aom," he took charge of him (the
prince) also.
W"nen he attained hi11 aeventh year his uncles, having ascertained his
existence, 01-dered the boys who reaorted to a certain marsh (in hia vicinity)
for amusement, to he destroyed.
There wu a hollow tree growing in the waters (of that marsh), having an
aperture under water. He was in the habit of diving and entering by this
aperture, and of t,iking up hi, Hfluion /requmtJ,g t/,,el't!-.
And when this
young prince emerged from thence, on being accosted a11d questioned by the
other boys, he, artfully concealing the deception practised, accounted in Mme
other manner for his (absence).
rhe people (aent by the princes) having come to that place, surrounded
the marsh. The young prince, :\t the instant these men came, putting on hi11
r.lothea, and diving umler water, placed him11Clf in the hollow of the tree.
10>unting the n111nber o.f tltll cZ,,the11 (left on tl,e /,fmk), and putting to rleatl,
the ,ut qf tM boy~, retu.r1&i119 tlwg l'l!Jlol'f,ed to (hr. u1iclr,11, " All the boys
are destroyed." When they had departed, he (the prince) returned to his
1 lt0111e, tlu1 house qf the confoleiilial laerds111an, and living under his protection
attained his twelfth year.
At a subsequent period, hearing that the prince w1111 in existence, his uncles
again gave orders to destroy all the herdsmen in the village (Dva.rnma~uJala).
On the day (appointed f\lr the massacre) the herdsmen having succeeded in
killing a wild quadruped, sent this prince to the village to bring some fire.
He, going home and complaining, " I am leg-wearied," and saying, " Taku
some fire to the herdsmen, there thou wilt eat roasted meat," sent the 1confo.kd herdam:m's own son. That youth, on being told this story, carried the
fire to the place where the herdsmen wore. At that instant, the men who had
been sent, surrounding them, put them to death. Having deatroyod all the
herdsmen, they reported tho same to the uncleH.
Thereafter the uncles l\g&in obtained information regarding him in his
sixteent.h year.
The mother sent one thousand p\e~ (of money) for his use, with written
directions (regarding her son), The con.fib;d herdsman having e~plained to

1 "the mountain atrea.m Tumbara.

1 "1emaining there for a long while."
1 "Having put to death the rest of the boys and counted the number of the
olothea (left on the bank, in order to satillfy themaelvea that none had eaoaped),
they ret.urned and reported to the unuleg, sa7in1,"

"gnardian'a h011118."




him the contents of his mother's letter, and 11ndting him in J10B868Bion of tl,e
thowantl 11it1t:t1B antl qf the 111rit'611 imtructio1111, (picrsuant to these instructions)
conaignI ltim to the guardia1111hip of Pap,Jicla.
1 T/1.t1 sai<l Pti11,J11la, who waa a wealthy brahman, and a proficient in t:ie
" vedas," reside1l to the southward, in the village Pa1;11Jola. The yrince
having proceeded thithe!", pre11ented himself to 3thtd brahman P&l}Jula: he
inquired, 11 Child, art thou Pa9Jnkabhaya ? " On being answered (in the
affirmative), receiving him with every mark of attention, he thus predicted
(his fate) : 11 Thou wilt be king. Thou wilt reign full seventy yeara " ;
and adding, "My child, thou shouldest acquire every accompli11hment," he
taught him those (his acquirements) simultaneously with his (the brahman's) son Canda, and he rapidly perfected his education.
For the purpose of enli11tmg warriors, he (the brahman) bestowed on him
(the prince) one hundred thousand pieces. When five hundred HOldiers had
been enlisted by the latter, he (the brahman) having thu11 addre11SBd him:
"Should the leaves touched by any woman be converted in~ gold, make hur
thy queen consort, and my son Canda your ' 11uruhita' miniater "; and having
bestowed this treasure upon him, sent him forth with hie warriors. Thereupon this fortunate prince, causing his name to be proclaimed, departed from
At a town near the KAIia mountain, the prince having been reinforced by
aeven hundred men, to all of whom (he issued) 11rovision11 and oth~r ne0088&riee,
from thence, attended by his army of one thousand two hundred men, he
advanced to the Girika1.11:ja. mountain. Girikn9<Jasiva, the uncle of Par.ac}ukabhaya, WBB governing that territory, having obtained it from Pai;11Juva11adeva.
At that time this prince waa superintending the reaping of a. harvest of 1..ne
hundred " ka.risa" of land : hia daughter, named Pali, Wlll!! a. lovely prince1111.
She, radiant in beauty, attended by a great retinue, a.nd reclining in a palanquin,
WBB on her way, taking a prepared rep&11t for her father and the reapers.
The followers of the prince having discovered this princesa reported it to
the prince. The prince, quickly approaching her 'JKirti11,g her retinue in tw<',
carU!llcl hie palanquin to be conveyod close to her'e. 6 /ll'J inquired of her,
"Where art thou going, 'togr.t.lui1 1nith Oag rlltimMi 1 " While she wa.s briving a
detailed account of herself, the prince became extremely enamoured of her ;
and in order to eatisfy himself (in regard to the prediction), he begged for
aome of the prepared repast. The princeBII, desc.,nding from her palanquin at
the foot of a nigr6dha tree, presented the prince with rica in a golden ciiah.
To serve refreshment to the rest of the people she took the leavBB of that
nignidha tree. Those leaves instantly beaame golden vessels. The royal
youth seeing thBl!O things, and recollecting the prediction of the brahman,
thue exulted: "A. damsel has been found worthy of being a queen consort
to me."
She feasted the whole party : the refreshment BC&rcely diminished in
quantity. It appeared 1111 if the repast of one person only had been taken
Thua this prinC8881 a pure virgin, endowed with supernatural good fortune
and merit, from henceforth obtained the name of SuV111>9apili (the golden

11 giving him the thou1111nd pieces and a slave, llBDt him t.o P&'1\1Dla."
"Now this Pa1,11Jula."


1ihe 1

" with hil follllWer& JBff,1111."

"and oauaing.''
1>,,z,, t.oget.hur with the prooeding full 11t.op.

' D1.Zt.



The prince, powerful by the strength of his army, taking this prinoess
with him, and ascending his palanquin, departed undaunted. Her father
having hlard of this event dispatched all his men (after them). They went,
e'lgaged, and being defeated by them (the prince's army), that place waa
afterwards called Kalahanagara (the town of conflict). Her five brothers
hearing of this (defen.t) departed to mako war. All these persons Canda,
the son of Pa\14ula, himself Blew. 1'he field of battlo obtained tho name
Luhiiaviihakha.1.14a (tbu fielcl of bloodshed).
This prince Pa91jukabhay11, together with his great force, or<>B11ing the
river (Mahavvli-pftga), advanced to the Dola mountain. He kept his position
there for four years. His uncles obtaining information of this circumstance,
leaving the king (in the capital), repaired thither for the purpose of
attacking him.
Throwing up fortifications near the Dh(amarakkha mountain, the uncle11
made war against the nephew. The nephew expelling the uncles therefrom,
chased them across the river. Taking possession o:l their fortification, he
held that position for two years.
They, repairing to Upatiua, reported the result (of their campaign) to the
king. The monarch secretly sent a letter to the prince, saying, "Rule over
the country beyond the river; advance not beyond the opposite bank."
"The nine brothers having heard of this overture, and being highly incensed
against the king, thus upbraided him : " It is thyielf who hast at all times
been a protector of this man : now thou art about to give up the country to
him. On this account it' is thee (not him) whom we should put to death."
He thereupon abdica.ted the sovereignty to them. They, with one accord,
cc tferred the government of the kingdom on their brother Ti1111&.
The monarch Abbaya, tho dispellcr of fear (in reference to his having
J'ellcuod his sister from the horrors of a predicted death), reigned there, in
the capital of Upatissa, for twenty years.
A certain yakkhi1,1i named Cetiya 1(ths widow of Ju.tindhara, a yakklm,
wlw wa,, kilud in a battlB fought at Si,ivatUmpma) lar-'ing th6 fo,.,,, and
counu11t,11e11 qf a man, dwelt near t/uJ nia,ah of Tumba1i9a1igana, at th6 Dlni.mrtrakklUJ mountain. A certain person in the prince's retinue having seen this
beautiful (creature), white with red lega, announced the circu11111tanee to the
prince, 811ying " There is a mare of such a description." 'l'he prince 11et out.
with a rope to aecure her.
She, seeing him approach from behind, losing her presence of mind from
fear, under the influence of his imposing appearance, fled, without (being
able to exert the power she pouessed of) rendering herself invisible. He
gave chase to the fugitive. She, persevering in her flight, made the circuit
of that manh seven times. 1 She made three more circuits of the marsh, and
then plunged into the river at the Kacchaka ferry. He did the same; and
(in the river) seized her by the tail, and (at the 1111me time grasped) the leaf
of a palmfra tree which the stream was carrying down.
By his supernatural good fortune this (loaf) became an enormous 11word.
Exclaiming, "I put thee to death," he flourished the sword over her.
"Lord!" replied ahe to him," subduing this kingdom for thee, I will confer
it on thee: spare me my life." Seizing her by the throat, and with the point
of the sword boring her nostril, he secured her with his rope : she (instantly)
became tractable.
1 "who dwelt at. the Dhlimarakkha. mountain wu wont to walk about the m&rllh
of Tnmbariyai\gana in the shape of a mare."
1 A vane is inaert.ed here in a few copi, whioh doeR not appear in moat Gf t.he
HBS.: "Then, plunging into the gr.iat rivor and landing on tho ot.her side of
it, she 1an round the Dhlimamkkha. mountain 11even time1."


.... ~


Conducting her to th9 Dhdmarakkha mountain, he obtained a great

acce11ion of warlike power by making her hia ba.ttle-ateed. There, at the
Dh6maiakkha mountain, he maintained hia position for four yeara. Depart.
hag from thence with his forces, be repaired to the mountain AriUba. Thea e,
preparing for the impending war, he remained seven years.
Leaving two uncles (A.bhaya and Girikar,u)aka), the other eight unclea,
uniting in hostility against him, approached that mountain Arittha. Throwing up a fortification at Nagaraka,1 and conferring the command (on the
peraon selected), they surrounded the AriUha mountain on all aides.
The prince having consulted with the yakkhir;ai, in conformity with her
advice he sent forward a strong party (in tho character of a deputation),
placing in their charge his insignia of royalty, aa well aa the usual
offerings made aa tribute and his martial accoutrements ; and enjoined them
tu deliver this m.euage (from him): "Take all these things: I will come to
uk. your forgiveneu."
Wl&en thi, pang luul rllaCW ita destination, shouting,-" I toiH captul"I! them,
forcing tl&eir cainp," mounting his yakk:ha mare, and surrounded by hia whole
army, Ae (IM pr;nc,J threw himaelf into the midat of the fight. The
yak:khiv.i aet up a loud shout. His (the prince's) army without, aa well aa
(the deputation) within (the enemy' camp) answered with a tremendous
roar. The whole of the prince's army having alaughtered many of the
enemy' men, 38 well aa"the eight uncles, they made a heap of their
(decapita) head&. The commander (of the enemy' army) having fled,
and concealed himself in a foreat, from that circUJD11tance that fol'Bllt is called
the Senapati (commander's) forest.
Observing the skulls of his eight uncles surmounting the heap of heads, !1e
remarked: "It is like a hoap of libu (fruit)." From this oiroumstanee
(that place) waa (from Nagaraka) called Labugima.
Thua, this Pai.i4ukabhaya, the victorious warrior, from thence proceeded
to the capital of his maternal great uncle A.nurlidha.
The 1111id maternal great uncle, giving up his palace to him, conatructed
another residence for himself, and dwelt thP.rein.
Having consulted a fortune-teller 4 1,erwl in the ad.:ant.age, (11Jhich a to,m,
ougl,t to po1Hlla), according to 6/u/J directions, he founded an 'ute1111ive city
mthat very village. On account of its having been the 1ettlement of 7Anurridha (botl, tlitJ 1aini11ter of Wijtiya, and the brot1i.er of Bar.ldal.:acclulna), and
beeaWIB it was founded under t.he coMtellation A.nuradha, it waa called
Cauaing his uncle's canopy of dominion to be brought (from Upati8111)
and having 8purifod it in the ,oater, ~f a naturally forme,d marah-1oieh the
flNIUr of U&at t18ry 11i.ar11/, tl,ia Pu,Jukcibliaga an.ointlxl l,i111,11elf at his inaug1'ratwn.
lie raised the princess Suvannapali to the dignity of queen-consort. He con-.
erred on Canda the office of " purohita" in due form ; on the rest of his
officers (he bestowed) appointments according to their claims.
Sparing the life of his oldest uncle A.bha.ya, who bad befriended hia mother
and himaelf, the monarch &11Bigncd to him the 110vereignty over the city.
Aaga,ra,lt,11, may al110 mean a llm&ll city.
"And t.hcy (the enemy) were lulled to aeourity, t.hinking 'We will ll8ize him
when he enters our camp'; t.hen.the prince."
4 "and also an expert in the science of sites."
"' the Anundhaa (one, t.he minister of Vijaya, and the othM the brother of
Bbaddalraoob4m\ ),"
" Wllllhed It in the natural tank that was here, this Pao,Juka.bhaya oa.Wled
bimialf to be anointed king wit.h the water of that very tank."
.J.U, "at nigh1.."



Be (thereby) became a "Napraguttika," CODll8l'fltor of the city.


that time there have been Nagaraguttikaa in the capital.

Sparing alBo tb,e life of bis ~it.her' COUBin Girika,;11Ju[Ta, be conferred on
't1uzt maternal uncle the territory Girika,;iljaka.
H&1ing deepened the above-mentioned mar11h, be made it contain a great
body of wat'31". By hia having been anointed with that water, as a conqueror
(Jaya), it obtained the name of the Jaya tank. He eatabliBbed the yakkba
K'1ave!a in the eastern quarter of the city ; &nd the chief of the yakkhaa,
Citta, he established on tbo lower aide of the A.bhaya tank.
He (the king) who knew bow to accord bi11 protection with diBorimination,
established the Bla.ve, born of the yakkha. tribe, who had formerly rendered
him great service, at the 1eaatwn gate of the city. He established within the4
royal palace 6 itMlf the mare-faced yakkhi9i, and provided annually demon
offerings 'and etery otl,er ,r,q11i11itefor tlieaefour (yakkhaH),
In the days of public festivity, this monarch, seated on a throne of equal
eminence with the yakkba chief Citta, caused joyous 11pect.acle1, representing
the actions of the devas as well aa Cf mortals, to be exhibited ; 'and delighting
in the l1<tJ111intB8 and fe11tit:Uie11 ( of 1ti9 p>ple) he 11.-a, ~ingly grntiji,t,tl.
He formed the four suburbs of the city and the A.bhaya tanks, 8and to the
1oest1aard of th.e pufare the great cemetery, and the place of execution and
torture. He provided a nigrodha tree for the (devati) Veseavana, and a
10 ttimJ>l.e fort.he Vyndha.-deva; 11 a gilt l1allfor hi11 010,i use, a, ,aell aa a palace
di11t1ibuttd iuto 711(tny aptut111ents. These be constructed near the western
gate. He employed a boay of five hundred c&94ilas (low-caate people) to be
scavengers of the city, and two hundred cal)ljilM to be night men ; one hundred and fifty cand6las to be carriera of corpses, and the aame number
of ca9(J'1aa11 at the cemetery.
He formed a village fr,r them on the north-west of the cemetery, and they
constantly performed every work according to 13tl,e directions 140/ the king.
To the north~east of this cal)f)ila village he establi11hed a 15 village of Nll:hicha,tJaiu.a, to aene aB ct1M.tuy-mm1 trJ the lu10-cc1.Htt1J. To the northward of that
cemetery, and between it and the Pasana mountain, a range of buildings
wu. at iho ,ame time constructed for 19the king's buntRmen. To the northward of these ' 7(heformed) the Gamini ta11l.. lle al,o constructed a dwelling
for the various claase1 of devotees. To the eastward of that. 18( Nichicha,tlala)
cemetery the king built a residence for the "brt1hn1a1, Jotiya 111 (the eAir..f
engineer). In the l'IUDe quarter, a Ni~tha devotee, named Giri, and many
Pi~4aka devotees11 dwelt. In the same quarter the king built a temple
for the Nighal)tba Kumbha.1_14&, which was called by bis name. To the westward of that temple, and the eastward of the huntsmen's "buildinga, be
provided a residence for five hundred persons of various foreign religious
faiths. Above the dwelling of J utiya, and below the Gimani tank, he built
a residence for the Paribbajaka devotees. 11ln the ,ame quart.er, b1lt on ,epa,ale
"wife' father."
'" aouthem."
Ianrt, "gaiden of the." Dr.le.
" to them as well as to othen."
'" and enjo7ed himself mcceedingl7 in aexu"'l pleasure."
the weatern IUjini (!' palace 7) "
"(as an altar)" ' "tila tree."
11 The original words thus translated are of very doubtful meaning : they are
, _ , M61idga-e11ttAap and pa611.t:d11-gha1"11p.
11 AU, "to be watcher11."
11 Dele.
" " given."
.. " a cemeter,y called, Nfoa-audna (' low-cute cemetery') for the UH of the

" " u far u the Gunai,I tank, he"
11 "N(gha9t)la. "
Ixrert, "row of,"

,. Del11.
II .. Nf0&41Jlllma...


11 Atl4, "and ljlrama9u."

"ID like manner, ID df-nn plaoel."



Rita, he constructed a residence for the A'jiwkllll, a hall for 1thi! 1oorsh;.pper11
of Brahma, (anothi!r j'or those) of Sim, aa 1aell as a hoapital.

This Pao!Jukibhaya, the aovereign of Layka, in the twelfth year of his

reign, fixed the boundaries of the villages in all parts of Lagki.

This monaroh befriending the interests of the yakkas, with the co-uperation of Ka.lav~laand Citta, who had the power (though yakkhas) of rendering
themselves visible (in the human world), conjointly with them, enjoyed his
Between the reigns of Pa9!Jukd.bhaya and .A.bhaya there was an interregnum of seventeen years.
This wise ruler, Par;icJukfi.bhaya, who had entered upon his royal state in
the thirty-seventh year of his age, reigned in the delightful and well-provided
capital of Anurfi.dhapura, over his firmly established kingdom, for seventy
The tenth chapter in the Mahawgsa, entitled "The Installation of Pa94ukabhaya," composed equally for the delight aud affliction of righteous men.

AT hill (Par,(Jukai.bhaya's) demise, his and Suvar,1].11.pfui's son, known by the

title of Muiasiva, succeeded to the sovereignty, which was in a i.tate of

perfect peace.

This king formed the delightful royal garden Mahfuncgha, which was
provided, in tbe utm011t perfection, with every requisite, and adorned with
fruit and flower-bearing trellB of every description.
At the time this royal garden was being hid out, an unseasonable heavy
fall of rain (Mahamegha) took place. From this circumstance the garden wu
called Mahiimcgha.
In the celebrated capital Anuradhapura, in the delightful Lag~, king
Muiasiva reigned sixty years.
He had ten BOns, living in amity with each other ; and two daugh~rs, both
equally beautiful and worthy of their illustrious descent.
Among all these brothers, 'b11 tl1e virt1ui '!f l1i11 pidy ( in his f ornHr e:r.istllne'in the cl1aracte1 o/ a lw11ey 111e7cl1ant), aiul /Jy hi11 1ai11do111, tlie 11econd son IDCU
the most ,liaunguishe,l;
became celebrated by the name of D~vanampiya


Tiasa (Til!Sll-the-dolight-of-the-devas).
On the demill8 of his father, the said Dcvil.nampiya Til!IIII. was inatalled king
-At his inauguration (on the day of the now moon of Magasira) many miraculous phenomena took place throughout Lagki, : the riches and the precious
metals and gems buried in the earth emerging, rose to the S\Jrface. The
treasures sunk (in the sea) from ships wrecked in_ the neighbourhood of
Lavka, and those naturally engendered there (in t.he ocean), also rose to the
shores of the land,
On the ChAta mountain (situated two yojanas to the aouthward of A.nuridhapura) three bamboo polos were produced, in size equal to a chariot pole.
The first, called the creeper pole, 3i!ntminell with a crMper, shone like silver.
The creeper itad/, glittering 1nost brilliantly, wa, refulgent lib gold. The
second was the pole of flowers. 5 Tht1 many deacriptiona of flower which
house and a &,ttki-11,iltJ hall."
the second aon excelled in virtue and wisdom, and.'~
1 Ih!le.

"BrahamaDII, a Slrlkd

t "

"The beautiful creepers thereof were of a golden oolour, and looked 1D011t
Many flowe111 of divers hues, full blown, clutered thereon."



clmt~ ther,on 1c~re rP.11plenclent by tht b,-illianry of their colours, as wll a,

perfut in all the three qualities (111l1ichjlower, ought to possesa). The third was
the pole of animals. 1 The various qu,ldn,peds and birds of every iaried Aue
(rq>reB1intt,d) thereon, appeared a11 if they were endowed with life.

The ..ight desoriptions of pearls, viz., haya (horse,) gaja (elephant), ratha
(chariot wheel), imalaki (nelli fruit), (valaya bracelet.), angulive\haka (ring),
kakudhaphala (" kuitabuk" fruit), pakatika (ordinary), rising up from the
ocean, stood in a ridge on the sea-shore. All this was produced by the virtue
of the 1piety of Dcvanampiya TiSBB.
3 Witl1in a period of se1Jen days tl,e follo1r.i11g gems, viz., sapphires, lapis lazuli,
and rubies, the aforesaid treasureR of the miraculou~ poles, as well as the
aforesaid pearl11, presented themselvCH unto the king. The 6bene,:olent
monarch on observing these (supernaturnl tributt>s), thus mtlditated: "My
friend Dhamm/lsoka, and no one else, is worthy of these invaluable treasureR:
to him I will make presents thereof."
These two monarchs, Devanampiya Ti88a and Dhammllsoka, though they
were not personally known to each other, were united by the ties of friendship from a long period (preceding).
The king (of Layka) dispatched, as his ambassadors, these four individuals:
viz., his maternal nephew Maha Arittha-as the chief of the mi88ion-the
brahman (of the Hali mountain), the minister of state (Malla), and the
accountant ('l'issa), attended by a powerful retinue, and entrusted with these
invaluable treasures: viz., the three kinds of ge,:ns, the three royal 1pnlanquin
poles, a 8 right-hm1,l chunk, and the eight descriptions of pearls.
Embarking on board u. veS11el at Jambukola and in seven days prosperously
reaching their port of debarkation, and thereafter departing from thence
and in seven days having reached Pataliputta, they delivered these presents
to king Dhamm:isuka. That monarch, on seeing these persons and these
articles, rejoiced ; and thus reflecting within himself-" There are no
treasures in these parts to be compared to thi,se "-he conferred the office of
"senapati" on Arittha ; he also conferred on the brahman the office of
"purohita," on the other minister the office of "da1;u)anayaka," and on the
accountant the office of" seH~i_." Having bestowed presents of no trifling
value, and (provided) dwellings for them, he consulted with his own
miniswrs, and settled what the proper pre11ents were to be sent in return : viz.,
a chowrie .(the royal Ry flapper), a diadem, a sword of state, a royal parasol
(golden) slipp_ers, a head ornament 9 { c1own), a golden anointing vase, =golden
aa,ulalwood, 11and costly hand towels, 11 which to tlie last moment they are uud
( are cleansed bg being past though the fire) without being washed; ointments
for the body, obtained from the nagll.8, and 13the clay"/ Aru(la; water from
the Anotatta lake, a right-lUl,ul clUlnk, containing the water (used at the
inauguration of the king) from the stream of the Ganges, and a royal virgin
of great personal charms ; sundry golden vessels, and a costly howda ; the
1'precious aromatic medicinal drng11, "haritaka" and "amalaka16 ;" and one
' " Many and varied forms of birds aml beasts of divers colours appeared
' Delr
1 "(sprung up from the earth): these and."
' Add, "w~thin seven days (of hie inauguration)."
1 "delighted."
' chariot.''
"a ohank wit.h t.he whorls to t.he right,"
"sandalwood of t.he Harl mountain."
" a crore of cloths t.hat require no washing.,.
" Arui,ia-ooloured clay"; A.noa is J. bright red oolour reaembling the streaks
of light at sunrise.
" "medicinal fruits.
'" "ud exoeedi118'l7 pzeoioua medicinal draga,"


hundred a11d 11ixty lood11 of hill pn.ddy which had been brought by parrot.sbeing the articles requisite for his immgumtion--and a complete suite of
roy1Ll attemlants.
In due course, this monarch di!lpatchcd his mi1111ion to his ally (D(ivanampiya Ti1111o"l), entn111ting them with the afore~o.i.i Jll"ellentA, and the ft.;lowing
gift.'I of pil)lu1 advice: "l have t:iken refuge in Umldho., his religion, and his
pric11thooc.l : I have avowed myself a devotee in the religion of the de11Cl8ndant
of Sakya. Ruler of men, imLuiug thy mind \\ith the conviction of the
ti;uth of tl11i11e supreme ble1<...ing11. with unfeigned faith do thou also take
refuge in thili 11alvn.tion."' 'l'hiH attached nlly ( of D6vimam11iya TiSllll) having
addre111JCd thi11 additional injunction to the (8i11hale11e) amba1111."1dora, "Solemnilffl ye the inauguration of my ally"; n.llowed them to depart hither (to
Layka), vest.ell with every royal favour. TheHC b.ighly-f:woured mi11i11tera
(of Duv,nn.mpiya 'l'i11ea.) h1wing re11ided there, at 1,tnlip11tta, for five months,
on the first dn.y of the bright ho.If of the month of " ,esii.kha " took their
departure. Emoorking a.t. the port of Tii.malittiya., and landing at Jamb(1k0Ia,
they prelltlnted themselves beforo their sovereign on the twelfth day.
The (Jambudipo.) ambassadors delivered these giftll to the rulE.-r of Lagk6:
on them the sovereign of Layk6 conferred great favours.
These envo)'II 1rere1i11r, l,i," '"' if l11J hml br.e" tl,,.h- 011m aor.ereign, having
delivered to the monarch of Lagki-who had already been inaugurated
on the first day of the inorea.11ing moon of the month of '' maggasira" Dbammils6ka.'a me111111ge, '1,is own rlrwoterl ,mf/j,.ctd ;~ Reoond time eolemniaed
the inauguration of him, who was 3/uiloie.rl by the people of Laykl.
This dispenser of hllppincs11 to his own ,mhjocta, bearing the pl'Ofoundly
lignificant title of Dcv6nampiya (the delight of 1,ho devas), o.x:orting his
powers to the utmost, and making Lagk6 ovcrftow with rejoicings, held his
reinveatiture on the full moon day of the month" veslikba."
The eleventh chapter in the Mahivaysa., entitled " The Inauguration of
Dt'iYinampiya Tissa.," composed equally for the delight and affliction of
righteous men.
illumine.tor of the religion of the vanquisher, the there., son of
Moggali, hning terminated the third convocation was. reftecting on futurity.
Perceiving (that the time had arrived) for the establishment of the religion
of Buddha in foreign countrie11, he despatched 11everally, in the month of
"ka.ttika," the following theras to those foreign Jlarta.
He deputed the there. M:ajjhantika to 4 Kasmira a,ul Gandluira, and the
th~ra Mabideva to ]4-ab~!Jala. He deputed the th~~ Rakkhita to
Vanavui, and similarly the there. Yuna-Dhn.mmarakkbita to .Apaftaka.
He deputed the thcra Maha-Dhammarakkhita to MaharaUha; the thera
llrlah4.rakkhita to the 6 Yu11a country. He deputed the tMra Majjhima to the
Himavanta country ; and to Suvw.11.iabhlimi, the two thcras 86na and Uttara.
Be deputed the tb6ra Mahi-Mahinda, together with his (M:oggali'11) dilldiples,
I\thiya, Uttiya, Sambala, Bhaddaula (to this ialand), saying unto theae five
th&u, "Establish ye in the delightful land of La;ki the delightful religion
of the vanquisher."


I " faithful to their 111111,ter."

' "being devoted to the cause of their master."
"himself devoted to the welfan, and happintlllB of."
Orig.: Ka1111iro-6a,ull&t.lrap, u if to de,ignate one country.
1 Orig.: l'ollalaka.
The use of Zola,' world,' instt'llll of rall'lla, oeantry,' ill
uggeative, I think, of diat&noe andlutenaivenesa.



At that time, a aavage niga king named A.'nvlla, who waa endowed with
supernatural powera, causing a furious deluge to de&cend, 'l1t'II.II sub~ 1erging
all the ripened cropa in Kaamira and Gandhira. The Raid thlira Majjhantib,
imutly repairing thither through the air and alig~ting on the Jake A'rarila,
walked. 111.bllorbed in JJt'Ojound 1Mtlikdion, on the surface of the water. The
nigu aeeing him, enraged (at hi11 presumption), announced it to their king.
The infuriated niga monarch endeaYoured in various waya to terrify him :
a furious storm howled, and a deluge of nun poured down, accompanied by
thunder; lightning ftuhod in 11treama; thunderbolt, (deaoended) carrying
de11truction in all direction& ; and high-peaked mountains tottered from their
very fuundations.
The nigaa, 11Muming the more terrific forms and surrounding him, endeavomed to intimidate him. He himaelf (the n6ga king) reviling him in
nriou1 waya, 1pit 1moke and fire at him. The thera, by hi~ supernatural
power, averted all theu attempt to terrify him; and diaplaying hiB omnipotence, thua addroaaed the uga monarch : "O, n6ga ruler I even if the
devaa were to unite with the (human) world to atrike terror into me, their
effort.II would prove nugatory. Nay, if uplifting ~he whole earth, together
with ita ocean and ita mountain&, thou weri to ~e11 them on my head, even
. then thou wouldst fail to ereate in me an appalling terror. 10, naga &onardt,
ie, Uig dutruction of the Cl'OJ1s be a1"1'fist,d."
To him who had been 1ubdued on hearing this reply, the th6ra propounded
hia doctrines. Whereupon the niga king attained the salvation and atate
of piety of that faith.
In like manner, in the Himavanta (or 11nowy) region&, eighty-fourthouaand
.ni('IB, and many gandhabbas, yakkhaa, and kumbhandakall (wore converwd).
A. certain yakkha called Paficaka, together with his wife Harita and five
hundred youths, attained 4w1ocm (tht .first ekige of 1anctificatio11 ). He then
thua addrealled them : " Do not hereafter, 1111 formerly, give way to pride of
power and vindictive anger ; but evincing your solicitude for the happineaa
of living creature,, abstain from the det1truction of crops : 'extend your
bonevolenco towards all living creatures : li,e, protecth,g 111,111'1,ilUI.'' They
who had boon thus exhorted by him reglated their conduct accordingly.
Thereupon the naga king, placing the th6ra on a gem-set throne, reapeotfully stood by' fanning him.
On that day the inhabitant& of Kaamira &Dll GandhAra, who had come with
offerings to the naga king (to appease his wrath and arrest the deaolation of
the crop11), 'learning the 1111iemat11ral tharacter of the tl,ira, bowing down to
him (inatead of the n6ga king), atood reverentially at hi11 aide.
The them preached to them the "uiviBUpama." dia!l()urse (of Buddha).
Eighty thouaa.nd peraona attained su?,rior gmrle, of religiou., bli.,: one
hundred thouaand poraom were ordained priest.II by the thera.
From that period to the preBent day the people of Kaamira and Oandlwa
have been fervently devoted to the three branch1111 of the faith, and (the land)
h1111 glittered with the yellow robes (of the prieata).
The thtra Mahadeva repairing to the Mu.hiaamao4ala country, in the midat
of the population preached to them the "deva.ddta" discourse (of Buddha).

"to and fro,"

uonly, 0 naga king, thou wouldat weary thy11olf t.horeby."
" t;he ftnt stage of fruition."
r-rt, .. all beiup denre happiD.e118; therefore."
" wishing that all men m.y live happily."
" went up to the tlwra wh080 supe1:&1&tural powor w1111 gniat., awl.

'" the knowledge of the Law,"



Forty thou1111nd perBOns became converts to the faitla 1of "'1VtJttiig11 11u.pl'tl11UI.C1J ;
and by him forty thouMnd (more) were ordained priests.
Thereafter, the thera Bo.kkhita, repairing to the Vanavm country, poising
himself in the air, in the midst of the populace preached the " anamato.gca"
discounea (of Buddha). Sixty thousand persons attained the 2,c,nctijication
of tA11 faith; and by him thirty-seven thousand were ordained priests. The
said thera constructed five hundred vilw-as in that land, and there he also
established the religion of the vanquisher.
The thcra YcSnaka Dhammarakkhita repairing to the A.parantaka country,
in the midst of the populace preached the" aggikkhandopama" discourae (of
Buddha). This (disci11le), who thoroughly understood how to discriminate
true from false doctrines, poured out to the seventy thouaand who had
&S11embled before him the delicious (dr.i.ught of the) true faith. A. thousand.
males and a still greater number of females, descendants exclusively of
Khattiya families, 3in&JJf.lled by tl,eir relioioua ardour, entered into the priesthood.
The !18,nctifi.ed disciple MabA-Dhammarakkhita repairing to Maharattha,
there preached the" maMnaradakassapa Jfi.taka" (of Buddha). Eighty-four
thousand pel'IIOns atto.ined the 41anctijication qf ",nagua," and thirteen
thousand were ordained priests by him.
The sanctified disciple Mahirakkhita repairing to the Y6na country, in the
midst of the popuh~ce preached the "kilakurima" diacoul'lle (of Buddha).
One hundred and aeventy thousand living beings attained the 411anctijication
of" mauu,,," and ten thousand were ordained.
The sanctified disciple Hajjhima, with four other thcraa (Ka1111apa,
Mulak6dcva, Dhandh:1binnaM11, and Saha11adcva), repairing to the lanil of
Himavanta, preached there the "dhammacakka" di11COurae (of Buddha).
Eighty koii of living beings attained the 4,mnctification of tl1e "m.auua."
These five theras separately converted the five divisions (of Himavanta).
In the fraternity of each of the11e thcras, one hundred tholll!&od pel'IIOns,
impolle11 by t.he fervour of their devotion to the religion of the omniscient
supreme Buddha, entered into the order of the prie&thood.
Accompanied by the thcra Uttara the disciple Sona repaired to Suvaol}abhumi.
In those days, as 11000 as an infant was born,'' a marine monster emerging
from the ocean devoured it and disappeared. A.t the particular period (of
this mission), a prince W311 born in r'a certain pal1we. 'rhe inhabitants seeing
the priests, and taking them to be the 1e11&isaa1itis of this rakkha11f, arming
themselves, surrounded them for the purpoae of destroying them_. The thcras
having ascertained what their object wa.11, thus addrelllled them : "We are
pious ministen1 of religion, and not the 1en,iuaries of the rakkl1&1i," The
monster with her train at thia insto.nt emerged from the ocean. 8Hea.ring of
this (visito.tion), 9lM11 co11cour1U1 qf z,eople gave a great 11houtof horror. The
thfra causing (by his power of working miracles) 18a11otlier band of terrifying
monstel'II to spring up, 110/ duublti tl1at numerical 110UH1r, 1awunded the
rakkbaaf and her train on all aides. She, concluding " Thill iand baa been
appropriated by thel!8," terrified, fled. Establishing the protection of Uie
true faith over that land in all quartel'II, in that 1111118mbly the th,ra preached
the "brahmajila" discourae (of Buddha). A great multitua of people
attained the aalvation and the 11tate of piety of that faith.
renounced the world and."
.Adtl, "in the palace of the king,"
' "aceomplioea."
1"'tlouble that number,"
1 "

'"knowledge of the Law."

'"fruition of the pat.ha,"
11 t h e ~ of the king,"


' " the multJ.~




Sixty 1l,,c11 became eminently endowed with the knowledge

ita doctrine11.
Two thouEand five hundred 1 men bec.'\me prie11tll, and one thousand five
hundred women, of 3m11iollH custeH, were admitted into the priesthood.
:J'rom that period, the priuce11 horn in that palace obtained (from Soqa and
Uttam~ the name of So1,1Uttam.
TheRe (di11ciples, following the example) of the all-compa&Bioliating
vanquisher'11 l"Clligna.tion (of his supreme beatitude), laying aside the exalted
Ktatc of happine11s 1Ltt1Lincd by them, for the benefit of mankind undertook
these mi1111ion11 to v-,1.riouK countries, Who is there who would demur (when)
the s.'\lva.tion of the world (i11 at stake)?
The twelfth chapte:r in the lfaho.vai;i;a, entitled " The Convel'llion of the
11l!t't'l'al Foreign Countrie~," composed both to delight and to afflict righteou11

.A:r that period the profoundly sapient great Mahinda wa.11 a. thcra of
twelve yeal'II' 11tandi11g. Having been enjoined by his preceptor (the son of
Moggali) and by the priesthood to convert the land Ln.yka; while meditati11g
as to its being a p1opitious period (to nudcrtnkc the mil!Sion) ho cam'3 to thill
conclusion: "The monarch Mut,asiva i11 far advanced in ycal'I!, Let bis aon
sticoeed to the kingdom."
Having formed an earnest deNire to visit bis relations during this interval ;
reverentially ta.king bit1 leave of hiM p1eceptor and uf tho priesthood, and
having alllO obtainerl tbe co1111ent of the king (hiK father l)ha.mm:i11oka}, taking
witJi him four tlu!l'ILH an<l thu 11ii111,1i;ic1~1 Hmn:11.u1. tho 11011 of Hm\gba.mitti,, who
WI.LI! p1'Ct'.ll'l1:Lt11mll,v giffo,1, :rnd the mastur of tlu, Hix bmnches of rulib,jous
knowledge, depmteil for U:1kkhi1,1iigili fo1 the purp111:10 o( admi11ist(lri11g the
comforts (of religion) to hi11 (matemal) 1ulatio11>1.
There thi1:1 pilgrim p:LKsed 1:1ix mo11th1:1 in thi1:1 :ivoc:1tiou.
H1wing rea.chetl 'Crli!J1&fJi1i, the capit:Ll uf his l'OJ:11 moilmr, ho 11ppeared
before her. 'l'he queen wm1 overjoyL-d at 111ioing her l,cloved 11011. After
serving rcfrcNhments to him :uul hiK n.,tinuc, 11hc ci;t:1blio1hed the thci-J. in the
superb "Cilitf" ,i/,rim whfoh h:ul heen oreetud by hmself.
1While 1,iinco A,s,jk,1 wa11 1uli11g ovc1 t.110 Avauti country by the appointment of his own fathur, in 1L journey to Ujj,,ui he arrived 1Lt hC,iti,1Jtt; and
while tarrying thero, luLVing gai11e1l the affuction11 of the lovely princc1111 Dcvi,
the d11ughtc1 of a HcHhi. he lived with her. Becoming pregnant by that
t.'Onnection, 1diu giLvc IJirth ''to tlm ,ml,lr. (t,,_i11-) prim:f'11 Uj_je,lio mut l\lahindu,
:md at the terminatio_n of twu yoa1s to a. d1Lughter 8,uighamitti..
At this purio1l (of lLLhind:L'H vi11it) Rho (the queen) W-d.11 residing there, in
'"Ct!ti!J<t1utfJ"-r,1. ,Vhilc tho them was sojourning thel'e, he 11 tlm medilttlc,l:
"" 1'/1~ priml l11u wri,,,,l for 111ulP1l1tl.i119 t/,r 11,iH,.irm ,.,,doille,l f1JJ "'!I fttll1rr.
May the '"11ui1l /Jet1in11111pi11ri 1'igHa, l111d119 111,r,ulu JKJl,:11&11ige,l /,iH i111111y11mtio11
will, t/1e ul#lost Jl""'l', l,r, r.,,jo9i,1y liis 1r11cl 11t,,1,. )lay he, after having



" good families."'

" youths of good familillll."


The revised tc:ii:t reads "VediRagiri."

""Vedillllgiri vihara."
' 11 Now it. l!O happened that."
11 VcdiMa."
0 at Ujjc.'ni t.o the noble prince."
11 11 lmo,ving that the time for hi1 dcpGrture WIii nigh,
made the following
upiration, namely,"
" great king Dcvimampi.)'a. 'ri- cnju.)' the great fca,it of hi11 i11augurat.io1'
... dinoted b.)' my fathu1.''

RIC8rtaiued from my f11tlu,1'11 ;,mlia1111:,d111 the moritti of th1:1 three blOllllccl

treasures (sent by my father), acquire a right undP.rstanding of them (the
doctrines of Buddha). )fay he on the full moon clay on the month of "jettha"
visit the Mi1!811. mountain (llihi11tal,:), for on that very d11y 11hall I m)'l,;llf
repair to renownod La11kn."
l'rfahinda (S11kka, the dlm of dcvm1) appearing unto the illustrious thcra
Ma.hinda., thus adcl1"81!l!e1l him : " D1:1part on thy mi11sion for the counrsion of
Lavka : it is the fulfillllent of the prediction of the supreme -Buddha
(pronounced at the foot of the lllifa-trce). ,ve al!lO will there render our
Bha1.1<Ju, the sou of the queen'11 youi1ger 11i11tcr's daughter, from merely
listening to the sermon preached by the them to thu 11uee11, attaining the
ea"netificatlon of "anag:imi," 1bri.w,,,. 11. tli,:ipfr i11 ,,,,. fr11/1m1il!/ '!!" the t/,em.
Tarrying there a month longer, on the full moon day of " jcttha,'' the
11upernaturally gifted tlu!m, together with four other thcms, as well a~
Suma1.u (a samai;icm), attended al110 hy the aforesai11 Bhat_l(Ju, who, 'tl1m1y/1
still a layman, 3/,m/ lui1l "itle 1lome11tic nlfectiom,, rose aloft into the air 11t
that very vihilm ; and in~t:mt:mconsly alighting on this lnml, at the superb
Missa. mountain, 11tationed himself 011 the rocky penk of the delightful and
celebrated Ambattlmla.
According to the injunction of the divine t1nge, pmnouncml at the moment
of his composing himself to attain final emnncipntion, in hi11 desire to hen1:1fit
Lavka by the advantages attemlnnt on its convm'Hion (to hill creed) ; and in
order that in the acco1npli11hment of hi11 lienc,olcnt clc:<ign there might ln:
employed an agent compnrablo to the divine 11agc him1mlf, thu predictecl
(Mahinda), to whom L."liJkil. was offerc1l up as 1m offering by tlie dcvns, iJok
up his station there (at .Ambatthnla).
The thirteenth eh:111wr in the }fahnrnvs."\,: c11titlcd ' 'l'hc AdYcnt of
Mahinda," composed equally for the llclight :mcl allliction of rightuou~ men.

l:H..A.P'l'lm XlV.
'1'm,: king Dcvnnam11iya Ti;i....,, ,r/p/,r111;11!/" .. Nt1/i(t1 Ji~,;,.,tf for the I\IIIIISCmeut of the inh."1bita11t11 of thu cnpital, '/,,- himsdf departed for 1111 olk_hu11t,
taking with him a rotinuu of forty thou><a111l 111011 : aml in the cour11u of the
pursuit ofhi11 game on foot he c:mw to tlto Mi><s,, 111111111tai11.
A certain dcn1 of tl1:1t mount~iin lming clc11iro11>< of exhiL:ting the thcms,
having a1:11.mmed the fmm of 1111 t:lk. ~t:1tin11cd himself thc1e (in tl111t ncigJ,_
liourhood) grnxing. The 1;ovo1"tJign de11urying bim, 1111d. s."lying, '' It i1:1 not
fair to shoot him 'tamli11y," 111ounded hii; howHtting : the elk Heil tCt tlm
mountain. The king gnve chnsu to thu fleeing animal. On reaching tlw
spot where tho priests were, the them 1ca11w i,1 sig/,t <if tl,e ,1w11arc/1, b111 l,r
(tl,e 11&tlm11orplmaetl 1Urn) 1:1111i~lml.
The them conceiving that he (the king) might be alarmed if many perHoll!1
(of the mission) presented themselves", rendered himself nlono visible. The
IIOvereign on Beeing him Wl\8 surprised. The them Baid to him, '' Come
hither, Tissa." From his calling him simply "l'illBII," the monarch thought
he must be a yakklu,. "We are the miniisters and diijciplOII of the lord of the

' remained wfth tbe them 1111 hi,s (lay) dilllliple.''

" w&11."
'' lingering not on account of."
' having provided aquatiu ,sport.I.''
"'at unawares. 11
' was perceived b1 the monaruh, arul theu he (the 1.ltim) hi1111:11.lf v1111i~huu,''
,1,/tl-, at oni.-e."



true faith : in comp11B11io11 toWfrds thee, Mah6rljll, we have repaired hither

from Jambudipa." The thera having thus addreaaed him, and the king
hearing the declaration, WIii! relieved of his terron ; and recollecting the
communication he had received from hi1 ally (Dhammllsuka), was convinced
that t:.ey were the ministcn of the faith. Laying aside hia bow and lll'l'OW,
and a11proaching this" 1iHi,'' and oonvel'lling gmcioWlly with the said th6ra;
he (the king) 80&tcd himMelf near him. At that moment, hia retinue arriving
11tood arouml tl1om : ft the mme time the thcra. produced the other io.embel'I
of the mi1111io11. Seeing them, "When came tbe11e ? " demanded the king.
Being aD11wercd by the tMm, "With me"; be made this inquiry : "In
,TrLmbudipa 111"C there other priCRtR like unto these ? " The thcra replied,
"Jambudipa itself glittcrM with yellow robes : there the diaciplell of Buddha,
who have fully acquired the tl1ree aaeerdotal AA11ctifieatiom1, who are perfect
Dlilllters of the knowledge which p"Ocurea the "arhnt" bliss, the 11&inta who
havo the gift of prophecy and divination, 'are numerous, (The king)
inquired by what mc:ms he hnd come. (Mahind:1) replied, 1& / can.e not
l'itl,er by lm11l ni ,cr,tl!r." The inquirer learnt (thereby) that '(the tlt~m) had
come througla tho air. Thi11 gifted personage, for tlae purpoae of ueertaining the capacity of the gifted (sovoreign), interrogated him. As he "a,W
f/f.fff'I/ ofa.1 'l""''!I, tl1e monarch 1"t!}llittl ltJ 1,im. que,,limi c~ftt'r quutim,.
0 king! what is this tree called !'
It is called the l\mba. tree.
Darides this one, i11 there Any other amllA tree !'
There arc many ambn. trees.
&itii,tes thi11 amba. and thOMO other amhu, are there any other tree11 on earth'.'
J..ord ! there are many tl'ce11, but thcy a1-e not ambo. trec11.
Beside11 the other aml," trceK l\nd the t1-ee11 tlmt are not amba.. i11 there any
Omnious Lord I this" amba. tree.
Ruler of men I thou art wi11e.
King ! have you rolatiom; !'
Lord! I have many.
King ! are there any persons not thy relationN !
There are many who arc not my relations.
Besidet1 thy relatio1111 and thOIIO who not are thy rell\tion11, i11 there. or i11
there not, any other (human being in exiatonoo ) !'
Lord ! there iM myaelf.
Knier of men " aadhu !" thou art wiRe.
Tbu eminently wille them. thu11 mti11fied that he was capable of comprehending the 11a.me, '11ro1,ou11,l,.d t.o the niler of the land the "cd!ahatthipadcipamll" ,fiacourRe (of Bnd,lha). At the conch1sion of that di11C01il'l8, together
with hia forty tho1111and followel'll, he obtained the s.'llvation of t~at faith.
.-1 I 1/mt im,1111,t. ii [,,.;,,,, i1t 11,,, a,l1f'r110011, they l,nmght the king his repast.
1a 8&int or 1111ge, 1Jii1hi.
"'l'heKo reudt,rinp or the tenn11 ua in Bqdtlhi11t terminology do not euct.ly
convey their meaning an1l application. For aa explanation of these tel'IIIII the
Buddhist 11tudent h.'M'.I liettt'r refer to Cbilclel"II' Dfotionary nndAr thn wonla<

T,,r.ijjd, /ddlli, ,.,.,.,,,,,,.;!l,,_fl,inn, ,11,1,iniid.

'" \\'e came not by la111l, nor y1,t by water."'
-'" 1ropoun,led qlll'!Otion ofhr 11111'f<tion."


'M ..,qionmlroel.'"


by nm.,.''

In th nrhnu"n nr 1h:11 \lny.'~


The monarch knowing that these penionageii did not take refreshment at that
hour, considered that it was proper to inquire (before refreshments were
&tiered): he (accordingly) inquired of these 11.-inetified pel'IIOnn.ges regarding
. their _taking refection. On hcing answered, " We do not partake of refreshments at this hour"; the king inquired when that hour was. 01. being
informed of it, he thu11 rcplic,1 : "Let us, then, repair to tho capital.'' "Do
thou go, mahli1njA; we (Raid the them) will tarry heJe." "Jn tl1at C8118,
allow this young prince (Bhm.11Ju) to accompnny us." , "Rnj:'1, thiR (prince)
having attained the ~nnetification, 1md acquired a knowledge of the religion
(of Buddha), is living in my fmtcrnity, deYmttly looking forward to the
appointed time fo1 hiM ordiu:1t-~011 : we are now about to onlain him, Lord of
the land, do thou return (to the capit:il)." " In the momiug (rejoiued the
king) I will scnd my 1arriage: repair ye (then) to the c:1pii:tl, sl'att.>cl in it."'
Having, thereupon, reverentially taken hit< IeaYo of the th~mM, uu<l called
~~ide Bh:u.1111, lw made i11quiric>1 r1g:1rding the thernM priudp:illy (11>1 wull n11
other mattel"!I),
He c,q,lai11crl all thini.,..,.. to the nwnarch. Having
n.scertained that the them (waK the son of hi>< ally Dham111:"1><uka) he became
exceedingly rujoiced, and tlrnl< thought : "Thi11 i>1 indeed a benefit ( conferred)
on 1ne. 11
1 T/iP- 111mm1"1, ( wl1r11) J,r flx"rrl,1i11r1l


la!J ,oll(/ili,m qt' Rl,11~1(111, r11fl"l'f11i11II la111um1 /,r mif//,t bf' sttlucr,l

illg c1pp1,,/1e11sio11x tlmt "" '"!I ''" /ir ,m1/i1111r,l

from/,;., Jl1tl'jKJHe, lfctid, "Let


i11iti11fr /1i111 info l/1r. Jlrirxtlmod (flt oner.)."

At th11t very in>1t:111t in that " gnma~imi" i( yru1111tl ,1,,111 ,m1srr,ut,il

,,,if/1 /a,ul liun't") the them performed the cerumony of 3 mdiimti,111, anti of
elcv;\tion to the order of npa~ampadi\, oC prince Rh:11.11Jn ; and im1tanta.11eou~ly
he (Hha1.1~11) attainctl tho 1<1\netilination of "arhat.''
Thorcnpon tho thera. :111<lre~~'"l him><1M to the ~t1m111.1i-m Sumn1_1a: " Jt is
1hr /11111.1 of Jll"tl!Jf'I': 111111.t t/11 ,,,II." _Ho i11'111ire,l, "Lord, in 111mnding the
call, over what portion of tht world i<honld .-. "my voice ~ f1P. hean:l? '' On
being told hy the them "over the wholt of Tamhnpn1,11,1i (only)"; cnlling
out, hy hill supematural powor, hi,. !!hout (resounded) all ovcr La11ka.
Tho king :111'lll"i11y 1/,,, ,,tll '!l f/,r.,r. pio,,,. /N't"Xt111., 11,/,ill' 11101111/nl 011 /,ix .,tulef'l,plmut uear Soiu./ipa,.,.,;( iu t/11 m.,frm quttrlrr <!t' 11,r tuw11 ). diJH.1l,:l,Prla(1wr~o11)
lo tf1" irxidr11r1 '!t' t/,,, t/,,;,.,,, i11r111iri1111, 1r/1rll1P, "'""~ 1t1la111il!/ /1(1,l o, /,m/ ttot
b~f,1/ln, tl1Pm ! He hrnught back word, "lt is not nny calamity, hut the call
announcing that it i,i the hour ~o atto111I to the word11 of the 1111preme
Burldha." He:\ring the c:\ll of thu 1<Amn1){,m, the lerrest1ial devas ~l10uted
in re11ponso, aml the s:\i,1 (nnitml) i<houtK al'lccmlOll 'to the Bmhm,i. world.
ln consequence oC that call, a !{reat eonr,,Tl,g:1tion of d~vas a,;.~emhled. In
that assembly the thl!m 9propm11ul,rl the i<.-imacitta 1<utt11," (or the
1li11couTKe of Buddha "on concord in faith"). 10 1'0 m1 u-stinkh11<t of de,u,

1 "The monarch knl'W lhEi l11y condition of Dba~i)u. hi,i doubts having ~n
removed by rea,i"u of th,, ho11~ehol<ll'r11 itnrli that Bhn1.11)u wore. 'fhe them.
the.refore, proprn1t'(l to roLc him at ,,ncl' (lc~t ht 1,e <li-.mu.de<l from his purpose
by the kinb").''
"'' (villngt bo11ntlaiy1...
'' iuit-iat-ion.''
'"Sound the call for hearing the preaching of the Law."
> l11Hrrt " l make:
'" who was taking hi r1p11Rt siu.tell in the 1\oira-cntukku. (llall) hu.nl by the
Mtone spout (Ron,)i). hearing tht cull. sent an <,Hice1 to inquire whetht>r any
evil hail befallen them."
h111,,1t " in suc1.,'tll!aion.''
.. l'Xpoun<led."
'" ' An n1<R1',khyn of il(,vas obtainl.'tl a lll'tfrct knowlerlge of the Law:



,up,rior gro,tk qf bluaing qf the nligitm tllffll obtained. Innumerable nApa

and llllplll)\188 1attainI tM aal'IJl.ditm qf the /aitA. As on the OOCMion of the
preaching of the th6ra Bmputta, ao on that of the th&a Mahinda, there wu
a great congregatiQn of d6vaa.
In tl..e morning the king sent his chariot. The charioteer, who repaired
(to Mihintalc), mid unto them (the thfru), " .Ascend the carriage. that we
may proceed to the town." "We will not" (replied the priBBta) "uae the
chariot; do thou return, we 11hall go hereafter." Having sent away the
charioteer with this me&ll&p, these truly pious peraonages, who were endowed
with the power of working mimcles, riling aloft into the air, alighted in the
eaatern quarter of the city, on the site where the flrat ddgoba ('l'hdplruna)
was built. From this event, to this day the spot on which the tMraa alighted
is called the flrat cetiya '(rltigo/Ja).
1From.101iate1-er cau1111 it mi9ht /,.are blln tlmt the ladies of the king's palace,
on having learnt from the monarch the piety of the thcra, became desirous of
being pi{-sented to the said tluira ; 3/1'01a tl,r. 11<1me 111oti1;1! the aovereign caused
a 11p!endicl ball to ho constructed within the precincts of the (llllace, canopied
witl. white cloths and decorated with ftowera.
Having learnt from the them (at the sermon of the preceding day) that an
exalted aeat was forbidden, he entertained doubts aa to whether the th&a
would or would not place bimaelf on an elevated throne. In this interval
of doubt, the charioteer (who was pllRBing the i;pot where the first dligoba
waa aubaequently built) observing the thcru (whom ho left at Mihintal6
already) there, in the act of robing themaelve111 overwhelmed with aatonishment (at this miracle), repairing to the king informed him thereof. The
monarch having listened to all he had to 11&y, came to the conclnP.ion '(aa they
would not ride in a chariot), They will not seat themaelve11 on cha.in." ..An,!I
having given directio1111, "Spread sumptuous carpets," proceeding to meet
the thcl'RB (in their progreH}, be bowed down to them with profound
reverence. Receiving from the bands of the tbcra Mahl-llahinda his sacerdotal alms-dish, and ( obaerving) the due forms of reverence and offerinp,
he introduced the thcra into the city.
6 Fortune-teller seeing the preparations of
the aeata, thus predicted :
" '1'1ie lana will be uaurped by the111 per1JOns. They will become the Jorda of
this ialand."
The sovereign making offerings to the thcraa, conducted them within the
palace. There they &eated themaelveB in due order on 1chairt1 covered with
cloths. The monarch him11elf aerved them with rice-broth, oakes, and
dreaaed rice. At the conclusion of the repast, seating himaelf near them, he
sent for Anul&, the consort of his younger brother :Mahiniga, the sub-king,
who waa an inmate of the palace.
The B&id prinC81B AnuJ& proceeding thither, together with five hundred
women, and having bowed down and made offerings to the thcru, pJaoed
herself reapectfully by the aide of them.
The thera preached to them8 the "pl!tavatthu," the" vimAna," and the
" aacoaaafiiiutta " diBCOuraea. These females attained the flrat stage of
The inhabitants of the town hearing of the pre-eminent piety of the th.Sra
from thoao who had seen him the clay previous, and becoming impatient to
'" were grounded in the faith." Bo mould the term 111ra11en, pati#ltali 1111
renrlered everywhere, although I have not thought it neoelll!ll?'1 to notice thia

"ln:u.m.uch 1111."

1 ('

P a ~ cetiya. ')


" T~ey have taki,n poHRellaion of the land,

r,,.n, "(from),"

"" F019tellen."
' " ~eat,,,


aee him, &1118mbled and clamoured at the palace gate. Their 11>vign hearing this commotion inquired :respecting it ; and learning the caaie thereof,
desirous of gratifying them, thus addreased them : "For all of you (to
aaemble in) this place is insufficient ; prepare the great stables of the atateelephants: there the inhabitanta of the capital may see these .h&a,."
Having purified the elephant stables, and quickly ornamented the aame with
cloths and other decorations, they prepared 81l8.t11 in due order,
Repairing thither with the other th(,ra11, this all-eloquent chief tMra aeating himself there, 1proJ1ou,1tktl the "devadt\ta" diacourse (of Buddha).
Hearing that diRCOurse, the people of the capital, who had thus 8.1188mbled,
were overjoyed. Among them a. thousand attained the fil'llt stage of
1 Tl,i11 thira, by having JlroJKIUnt.cl the doctrine11 (of B1ldhi11m) ;n the lan,-ge of tl~ land, at hoo of the pl,aua ( remltired 11acrNl by tJ,e p1t!llt!nct of B,ldl&a) 1
i1uurlfor tAe inhabitant11 of La:'}kd (tllfl rdlllim11mt of the terminatitln tif tranatn.;gmtitm) 1r,ithin a 1:ieriod of 11e1en ku1,pa11 (by cl,eir haring arrir-ed thm-at the
jlr,t 1tage of ,ulmtion ). T/11JR lie became the luminary 11JhicA llhI tlu! light of
rt1ligion on tlii11 land.

The fourteenth chapter in tbo Mahbayllll, entitled "The Introduction

into the Capital," composed both to delight and to afflict right.eoua men,
TUE people who had llllll8mbled there, impelled by the fervour of their
devotion, declaring " the elephant stables also are too confined," ere.ited
pulpits for the th~l'ILII in the royal plol\llure garden Nandana, aituated without the &0uthern gate in a delightful forest, cool from its deep shade and
10ft green turf.
The th6ra, departing through one of the &0uthern ga, took hi, aeat
there. Innumerable females of the first rank reaorted thither, crowding the
royal garden, and ranged iaemsclvea near the thcra. The thcra aJwopounded
to them the" b6lapa,;a<Jita" discour11tt (of Buddha). From among them a thou_ . women attained the first 11tage of llllnctification, In this occupatn in
that pleaaure garden the evening WRR clo11ing ; and the thcru aaying; '' Let ua
return to the mountain" (Mil!lll&ka) departed. (The people) made this
departure) known to the king, and the monarch quickly overtook them.
Approaching the th~ra, he thus "poke : " It is late ; the mountain also is
distant ; it will bo expedient to tarry here, in this very Nandana pleaaure
garden." On his replying, " On account of its immediate proximity to the
city it is not convenient," (the king) rejoined, "The pleasure garden ~ahllmcgha (formed by my father) is neither very distant nor very near; it is a
delightful spot, well provided with Bhade and water; it iaworthy, lord I of
being the place of thy l'88idence; vouch1111fe to tarry there." There the
thera tarried. On the spot 4(iiircrtti) where he tarried on the bank of the
Kadamba river a digoba lVIIII built, which (consequently) obtained the name
of" Nimtti." 1 The royal owner of the chariot himaelf conducted the th.Sra
' t>xpounded."
"Thus this incomparable th6ra. who wu like unto the Teacher himaelf in the
advancement of La9ka. having pn>ached the Law at tTo placert in the language
of the island, diffU&ll the good ln.w tamong it11 inhabitant&) like uto a light of

the land."

n,.i,. (nivat.ti).
> .1,1,1,

ci'tiya (' the eetiya of Mjourn ')."

('11.APTKR XV.

out of the southern gate of the Nandan& pleuore garden into the Xah1mgha phuare garden by ita aouth-weatern gate. There (on the wast.era
aide of. the spot where the ho-tree WIii subsequently planted), furniabing
dc4ightfol royal palace with splendid beds, chain, and other couvenienoea in
the me. Jt oomplete manner, he mid, " Do thou sojourn here in comfort."
The monarch having respectfully taken his leave of the theraa, attended by
his olficen of state, returned td the town. Theae theraa remained that
night there.
At the.flnt dawn of day, this reigning monarch, taking flowera with him,
visited the th6ru : bowing down reverentially to them, and making o:fferinp
of those flowers, he inquired after their welfare. On asking, 1" I 1M
pleanre garrltm a con11tJnielll place of f"lllliclllPICll 1 " this &&notified th&a thaa
replied to the inquirer of his welfare : " :M&hAraja, 1the pleaanre garden ia
convenient."1 . He then asked, " Lord I is a garden an offering meet f~
aooeptance unto the priesthood P" He who w111 perfect master in the
knowledge of acceptable and un&ceeptable thinga, having thna replied, "It
is aoceptable,"-prooeeded to explain how the Ve.luvana pleaaure garden had
been accepted (by Buddha himself from king Bimbiaara). Hearing thia,
the king becaaae exceedingly delighted, and the popula.ce &lao were equally

The prinoesa A.nuJa, who had come attended by five hundred femalea for
the purpose of doing reverence to the thwa, attained the ll800nd stap of
The aid princet111 A.nula, with her five hundred femalea, thus addreaaed
the monarch: "Liege, permit us to enter the order of prieathood." The
BO'lfereign said to the them, "Vouch&'lfe to ordain these femalea." The
th&a replied to the monarch, " Haharaji, it is not allowable to us to ordain
females. In the city of Piiin.J.iputta there is a prieateaa. BIie is my younger
sister, ~nowned under the namo of Sanghamitta, and profoundly learned.
Despatch, roler, (a letter) to our royal father, begging that be may 118Jld her,
bringing also the right branch of. the bo-troe of the Lord of 1111int.a,-itaelf the
monarch of the forests ; RB aJso eminent pt.esaes. When that then
(SanghamittA) arrives, sho will ordain these fomn.J.ea."
'.Phe king, having expre11!18d hill BS11ent (to this advice}, taking up an
exquisitely beautiful jug, and vowing, " I dedic.'lte this Mahiunegha pleaaore
garden to the priesthood," poured the water of donation on the hand of the
th&a Mahind&. On that water falling on the b'l'OUnd there, the earth
quaked. The ruler of the land inquired, "From what cause does the earth
quake P" He replied, on account of the establishment of (Buddha's)
religion in the land. He, (the mona.rch} of illustrious deaeent, then preaented
j8111a1D.ine flowers to the thtira. Tile thcra (thereafter) proceeded towards
the king's palace, and 411tood ,m t/,,, BOuth 8itk q.f it unrlP.r a "picl1r1 " tr66 anrl
,prinkll eight lu&rull!ful q.f jlo,c~rs. On that occasior,i also the earth quaked.
Being asked the cause thereof, ho replied, " Ruler of mon, even in the time
of the three (preceding} Buddhas, on this spot the 'Miilaka' 1had atood :
now also it will become to the priesthood the place where their rites and
oeremoniea will be performed."
The thera, proceeding to a delightfol pond on the north aide of the king's
111 How now, have yon fared well 7"
Iur1-t, "we have fared well."
.Ailil, "for reel-."
4 "and at.anding on the southern 11ide thereof 11prinlded t'!ight handeful of thOIMI
llowen under a 'pioula' tree." Pit!Hl.: ill a 11peoitlll of the cotton tree.
A apace oomeorated for wonhip, or ,for performing the fanctiom of the
Baddlllat pnaUaood. I\ i generally a t e ~ area.

palace, 11prinkled there alao the aame number of handaful of flowers. On

this OCC1111ion also the earth quaked. On being uked the cause thereof,
11 Liege," he replied, 11 thia pond will become attached to the 1peramb11lation
liall {of the priesthood)."
Proceeding cloae to the portal of the king's palace, the II iii " on th ~t spot
also made an offering of the ame q1111,ntity of flower&. There likewise the
earth quaked. The king, his hair standing on end with the delight of his
utoniahment, inquired the cause thereof. To him thetMra (thus) explained
the cause: " :Monarch, on this spot have the right branchea procured. from
the bo-tree of (all) the three Buddha& in thia kappa been planted. On this
very spot, 0 ruler, will the right branch of the bo-tree of our (deity) the
succeBBOr of former Buddhaa be planted."
Thereafter the great thcra repairing to the 1,11ot called "Hahflmucbala,"
on that apot alao he sprinkled the same quantity of flowers. There also the
earth quaked. Being aaked the cause thereof, he replied, " Ruler of men,
thia spot will become the up6a&ba hall of B&Cerdotal rites to the priesthood."
The monarch thence proceeded to the Paiibamhllmila. The keeper of the
royal garden produced to the king a superb full ripe mango of superlative
ucellenee in colour, fragrance, and flavour. The king presented this delicioWI
fruit to the thk (A.a no priest can partake of food without being seated)
the thera, who (at all times) was desirous of gratifying the wishes of the
people, pointed out to the neceBBity of his being 11e11.ted, and the rija on that
apot bad a splendid carpet spread out. To the thcra there seated the
monarch presented the mango. The thcra, having vouchsafed to eat the same,
gave the stone to the king that it might ho sown. The sr>vereign himself
planted the atone on that spot. In order that it might sprout 1 (inttantlg)
the thera washed his hands, pouring wate:r (on them) over it. Cfn illf! ordt!r
ofnatuf'I, (but) in tlutt lltlry inatant,fmm tluit nmn11n Htonl! ci 1tprout shooting forth

became a stately tree, laden with loaves and fruit.

Witne1111ing this miracle, the multitude, including the king, _with their hair
standing on end (with astoniahment and delight), continued repeatedly bowing
down to the thAras.
At that moment the thora sprinkled on thn.t spot eight handsful of flowers.
On that occaaion also the earth quaked. Being asked the cause thereof, he
replied, " Ruler of men, this will become the spot at which the various
offering& made to the priesthood collectively will be divided by the 111110mbled
Proceeding thereafter to the site where the OatussiJ(a (quadrangular hall
was subsequently built), he there sprinkled the Mme quantity of flowers. In
like manner the earth quaked. The l!Overeign inquiring the C.'\088 of this
earthquake; the tMra thu11 explained himself to the king: "(This is) the
pleaaure garden, which, by its h.'1Ving been accepted by the three preceding
Buddha.a, {became consecrated). Ou this 11pot ~e treasures of offerings
brought from all quarters by the inhabitants having been: collected, the three
preced.ing deities of felicitous advent vouchsafed to partake thereof. In this
instance, also, 0 ruler of men, on the very same site the Catuml.a will be
erected, which will be the refectory of the'priesthood."
From thence, the chief th~ra Mahinda, the lumiDR.ry of the la:id, who, by
inspiration could distinguish the places cousecratcd (by the presence of
1 "1-.th." Ja,llt<igkara, or aggiaaltl is II ho1111e or h1oll intended for prieata to
take II hot bath, or to warm their bodiee near a fire.
I " At t.bat; ..,_, Ulllt.ant II 11prout. 11praug from thu 11t.une ; aod in duu UcJllritU it."



former Buddhu) from those which wen, not oomecrated, repaired to the
apot when, the great dagoba (Ruvanytli waa aubaequently built). At that
time the amaller Xakudba tank 1tood within the boundary of the royal
pleaaure garden. At the upper end of it, near the edge of the water, then,
wu a .IJPOt of elevated ground adapted for the 1ite of a d6goba. On the
1higA p1i,.11t reaching that apot (the keepers of the garden) presented to the
king eight ba1kew of cbampaka ftowen. The king' 1prinkled thOBe obampaka
ftowers on. the -aaid elevated 1pot. In thiB inRtance alao the earth quaked.
The king inquired the cauBO of that earthquake, and the thera explained the
cauae in due order. '' .Mah,raji, this place hu been consecrated by the
presence of four Buddha&; it ia befitting for (the site of) a di\goba for the
proBperity and comfort of living being1. At the commencement of tbiB
kappa, the first in order wu the vanquisher KakuaancJba, a divine sage, perfeo~
maater of all the doctrine& of the iaith and a comforter of the whole world.
Thi& Mahamogba pleasure garden WU then called MahRtittba. The city,
11ituated to the lllllltward on the farther aide of the Kadamba river, wu called
'A.bbayapura.' The ruling sovereign there was' A..bbaya,' and at that time
thia ialand wu called 'Ojadipa.' In thi land, by the instrumentality of the
Rakkhll8&8 (especially Punnakha) a febrile epidemic afflicted ita inhabitant&.
Xakuu.ndha3 impelled by motives of beneficence for the purpose of6
e~ecting the convel'llion of ita inhabitants and the oatabliahment of hie faith,
8 ( aft,el'} h,tri,,g a11b<lul thi!l r.rtlwaitg, accompanied by forty thoUlllllld of biB
sanctified disciples, rcp1'iring to thi11 land through the air, at.ationed hiDlll8lf
on the summit of Dcvak1'1~a (A.da1n'11 Peak}, Instantly, by the 1upernatural
power of tlu,t supreme Bmldha, the febrile epidemic over the whole of this
lari waa subdued. 0 ruler, thti muni, lord of divine sages, rem aining thena
(on Dt$vakl'1t11) thua resolved within himself: 'Let all the inhabitant& in this
land Ojadipa, this very day soe me manif01Jted. Let also aJl persona, who
are desirous o{ re1111.iring to rue, repair instantly (hither) without any exertion
on their part. Tho king and inhabitants of the capital, observing this divine
sa.ge, effulgent by the rays of hi11 halo, as well as the mountain illuminated
by his pr011Cnce, inMtantly repaired thither. The people, having hutened
thither for the purpose of m~king ' bali' oft!eringa to the dcvatis, conceived
that the rulel' of the world aml his sacerdotal rotinne were duvatlul. This
king (Abhaya) exceedingly ove1joye,l, bowing down to this lord of munis,
amd inviting him to t.'lko t'Cfection, r.omlucted him to thu capital. . The
monarch, com1ide1"i11g thi11 celelnmed an<l delightful 11pot both befitting and
convenient for the muni 1111d his f1'1\ternity, caused on thi1 very site to be
constructed, in a halJ erecter! by him, 11ple11did pulpitii for the 11upreme
l3uddha and the (attenrlant) priesk. The inhabiinntll of the island, aeeing
this lord of the nniverKC 11,~ated here (where H.uv,mvi;li '1,goba Wl\K 1subee<1uently built), together with thiK sacerdot.\l retinuo, brought offerings from
nil quarten1. Tbc king f1~11n biM own provisionM and bcvemge, u well aa
from the oft'eringK brought from other 11uarters. presented refreahmuntll to
the lord of the univel'Be add his disciples. In the afternoon that monarch
bestowed on the v1mqui11her, who wa~ thus seated on this very spot, the
plllllllure garclen l\labii.tittha,-n. worthy dedication. At the instant this
Mahitittha garden, embellished with (even) un110a11onable flowers, waa
accept.ad of by the Buddha, the earth quaked. The aaid (divine) ruler
taking his aeat here, 1pro110u10.l his doctrine&. Forty thound inhabitants
attained the 8H11nctijicatian 1/1 ' 11u.,gg1,plu&lmi.'
The vanquiaher, having


l1111ert "aeeing thid calamity WM,"

I-,t "averting it and,"


'"pret!l:nted them to the thura., who."

' ,,,,,.,,,, "and."
' .. the iit&g""

or ,..nc.'tiftuatiou."


enjoyed hia forenoon rest in the lfahAtittha garden, in the afternoon

repaired to 1thi spot worthy of the reception of his bo-tree.
aeated, that sur,reme Buddha indulged in the aamadhi meditation. Rising
there-from he thua resolved : 'For the spiritual welfare of the inhabitants
of this land, let the chief tMri 1 Rtijcmandd, toguther with her reti-lue of
prieateaaes, repair hither, bringing with her the right branch of my siri1111
bo-tree, (obtaining it from Khcma-riji at Khemavatinagara in Jambudipa).'
The tMri becoming (by inspiration) acquainted with thiR resolve, thereupon
accompanied by the monarch (Khema), approached that tree. That supernaturally gifted king with a vermillion pencil having mn.de a streak on the
right branch, she (the thuri) taking posrse1111ion of that ho branch, which had
severed itself from the tree and planted itfielf in a goldun vase, brought it
hither, by miraculous means, attended by her retinue of' prieste81les. and
.eurrounded by dovatas, and placed the golden va.'18 in the extended right
hand of the supreme Buddha. This 1ucce880r of former Buddhas receiving
the same beBtowed it on king Abhaya, for the purpose of being planted in
the pleasure garden Mahatittha. The monarch planted it accordingly. '.fhi11
Buddha, a divine 11ucce1sor of former Buddha!!, departing from thence to the
northward thereof, and taking his seat in the court yard of ' Sirisa,' "Jnopounded hia doctrines to the populace. There (also), 0 king (continued
Mahindo.), twenty thousand persons obtained the blessings of the f11itb.
Proceeding thence further northwanl, the v11nquisher, taking his seat at (the
site of th<i) ThupArama dilgoba, and having indulged in the 'Mmiidhi '
meditation there, rousing himself from th'\t 11b11trnction, the supreme Buddha
8propou1ulul his doctrines to the attendant congregation ; on that occasion
also ten thousand hum111 beings attainod tho 1~,,,11/ifi,:,,tio,1 qt'' 11t''fl!Jl'J>h,,lt 11.'
Hning bestowed his own 'dh,unm1k,,mk,' (<Ii-inking ve1111el) as an object
for wordhip on th:i pnple, au l o~t,bli,ihing th:i prie!lt0>1.'! with her retinue
here; lewing also hero his di.i:}iplo l\hh'"l,:v.,, t1.1JJthJr with his thonHand
sacerdotal brethren, (he rep:,ircl) to the south-omit thm'eof; an<l 11t:mding on
the site of the R ,tan,mii.l;, 111p.1:11"0, the 11,iid v1m<llli8her, having preached
to the peoplo, tJgethcr with hi11 1ctiuue, d,Jp,,rted through the air to
.Jam budipa.
"The 11econd divine to:,oher, tho comforter of the whole world, the 0111ni11Cient 1mpreme duity in this ka1,p:1, w,1>1 n,unml K(,1_1:igam,u1:1. The capital,
then called VaC,cJhamima, w11s situ:,tod tu tho 11outhw:1rd. and thi11 l\fahlUilcgha
pleasure g:,rden wn~ called then llfahim:im,,. The reigning 110vercibrr: there,
that period, wa11 kn1wn hy the 111m<:i of 8 ,mi<I lh'I, and this Jami wo.11 Lhon
designated V11radipa.
"Here, in this iK\i\nd, 11 c,l:,'Dity ari.,iing fr nu 11 .lron~ht then prevailed. The
M'lid vanquisher Ku1.1>igama111, olJ.~orving thh1 vi11itatio11, impelled by motiv811
of compassion, for the purposo of' effecting the eomeniion of its inhabitants and the C11tn.blishmcnt of hiK flliLh in this land 111 ( ,iftl'.r) lmrinr1 ,u1Jd1,M tl,i11 c,tl,,11,il!J, accom11anied by thirty th,)llsand of hiR sanctified disciples,
having ropllired hither, stiltioncd hhmolf on tlll summit of Sumanakuia
(Adi~m B Peak).
" By the providuncu of th:1h11prume Bmltlh:1 tlmt drought im1t.mtly ceMed ;
and during the whole poriod of the prevalcuco of his religion aeasonable
raillB fell.




' "atag11>1 of BD,nctifiun.ti,111,"
ltNort "aTOrting it and.

' 'l'h.,rt.''

' I11rrt "five humlroi)."

" expounded."
" IJWtrl (Ruvn.nV\lli diagoba).'
.. /),:/r.,


"Baler of men" ( continued llahinda addreaaing himself to D~vlnampiya

Tilaa), "the lord of muni1, himaelf the maU-mani, 1tationing bimulf there,
thu1 reaolved : ' Lei all the inhabitanta of thil land Varadlpa thil very day
aee me manifeated. Let alao all pel'IOna who are deairoua of repairing to me
repaiJ im1tantly (hither) without encountering any impediment.' The
110vereign and the inhabitanta of the capital, obaerving thia diTine age,
re1plendent by the raya of hi1 hal<?, wt1ll aa the mountain illuminated (by hil
preaence), inatantly repaired thither. The people having reaorted there for the
purpoae of making ' bali ' offerings, they imagined that the ruler of the
univene and his Mcerdotal retinue were devatu.
" The king ( Samiddha) exceedingly rejoiced, bowing down to this lord of
munia and inviting him to take (refreshment), oonducted him to the capital;
and the monarch, 0011sidering thi11 celebrated SJJOt both befitting as an oifering
and convenient 1111 a residence for the muni and his fraternity, causecl to be
coustructed, in a h1dl erected by him, superb pulpit for the aupreme Buddha
and his attendant prie11ts.
" The inbabitanta of the land, aeeing this lord of the univene seated here
with his sacerdotal retinue, brought offering& from all quarten. The king
from his own 11rovisions and beverage, as well as from the offerings brought
from all quarters, presented refreshments to the lord of the univene and his
"In the o.fternooon he bestowed on the vanquisher, who was aeated on tbia
very spot, the pleasure garden (then called) M!'hidma,- worthy dedication.
At the iDRtant that this Mahanima garden, embellished by (even) Howen out
of seaaon, was accepted of, the earth quaked. Here, the aaid dirine ruler
tuing hiM Reo.t. expounded his doctrines : and thirty thousand inhabitantil
attained the 1sa11ctijicatim1 of' 11Mtggr1pl,,da11.'
" The vanquisher, having enjoyed his forenoon rest in the Malwiima garden,
in the afternoon repairing to this spot where the preceding ho-tree had been
planted, indulged the 'aamadhi meditation. Rising therefrom, the supreme
Buddha thua J'fllOlved : 'For the spiritual welfare of the inhabitanta of this
land let the chief theri Kai;iakadatta, together with her retinue of' prieateaaee,
repair hither, bringing with her the right branch of the Udumbara ho-tree
(obtaining it from king S6bhavati, at S6bhavatinagara in Jambudipa).'
"Thetheri becoming (by inspiration) acquainted with this resolve, thereupon
accompanied by the monarch (S6bhavati) approached that tree. That supernaturally gifted king, with a vermillion pencil having made a streak on the
right bmnch, she (the theri) taking pollll88aion ,,f that bo branch, which had
aeparated itaelf (from the main tree) and planted itaelf in a golden "fllll8,
brought it hither by miraculous means, attended by her retinue ofl prieate111e11,
and aurrounded by devat&II ; and placed the golden veuel on the extended
right hand of the supreme Buddha. This 1ucce&1or of former Buddhu
receiving the 1111me, bestowed it on king Samiddha, for the purpose of being
planted there, in th11 pleaaure garden Mahinima. The monarch planted it
there (accordingly).
" The supreme Buddha repairing thither, to the northward of the 8iril&JDI..
Jab, and stationing himaelf at NigamAJaka (where subaequently Th6lathanab,
prior to his &CC881ion, built a digoba, including the Si1iaobbhaka94&lra cfii,a),
expounded the doctrines of his faith to the people. HATing heard tbat
diaooune, 0 king (continued :Mahinda), twenty thouand liring beinga
obtained the bl881ings of religion. Repairing to the norLhward thereof, to
the place (ThupAr6ma) where the preeeding Buddha bad stationed himself,


'11laget1 of B&llOWlcation."
It1M1rl "

Irw:rt "flye hlllldnd."'

flve hundrell."

thrre aeating himlelf, and baring indulged in -the '11amAdhi ' meditation,
riling therefrom, the supreme Buddha expounded his doctrines; From the
uaembled congregation ten thou11and living beings attained the 11,li,a of
'maggapl,alan.' Bestowing hia belt u a relic to be worshipped by the
people;and leaving there the priestess with her retinue, and also Jeavinir there
hia diaciple MahisumJDA, together with his thou11and priests, the supreme
Buddha tan-ying for a while 1cd the Rat.anam:iJaka, 11k1M1fttr at the
SudullanamlJaka, and havn.g preached to the people, together with hill
sacerdotal retinue, the vanquisher departed through the air for Jambudlpa.
"The third divine teacher, the comforter of the whole world, the omnillcienf:
1upreme deity in this kappa, was named 'Kana pa ' from hit1 descent. The
capital then called VisalAnagara was situated to the westward ; and thill
Mabamegba pleasure garden was called then l\iahb(1gam. The reigning
10vereign there, at that period was known by the name of 'Jayant.a,' and
this land wu then designated 'M'a1.14adipa.'
"At that period, between the said king Jayanta and his younger brother
(SamidJha) an awful conflict w1111 on the eve of being wa1,red, moat terrifying
to the inhabit.ants. The all-merciful 'muni' K1111111.pa, perceivii1g that in
oonaequence of that civil war a dreadful 11acrifice of lives would ensue,
impelled by motivea of compa1111ion, ~ mll c1Hjol' tl,e 1111rpmt of tjfttting ~he
conversion of its inhabitants and the establishment of hi11 faith in this land
1(~r) M'f1iflg aMtI t/1i1 calamity, accompanied by twenty thou1111nd of his
811DCtifted diaciplea, having repaired hither, statione,1 himself on the aummit
of Subbaku\a.
"Ruler of men" (continued M'ahinda addres11ing himself to Devailampiya.
Tiaa), "the lord of munis, himself the mahii-muni, 11tationing himself there
thu1 resolved : 1 Let all the inhabitant& of this land Ma94idipa this very
day 11811 me manifeated. Let also all persons 1'"ho are de11irou1 of repairing to
me repair instantly (hither) without encountering any impediment.' The
aovereign and the inhabitant& of the capital observing this divine sage,
eifulgent by the ray1 of his halo, a11 well as the mountain illuminated (by his
preaence), i1111t.antly repaired thither. .A great coucoune of people of either
party, in order that they might ensure victory to their cauae, having proceeded
to the mountain for the purpoae of making offering11 to the dcvatis, imagined
the ruler of the universe and bis di11ciple11 were di-vatis. The king and the
prince astonillbed (at the presence of the Buddlm KaS8Apa) relinquished their
(impending) conflict.
"The king (Jayanta) ell:ceedingly rejoiced, bowing 1low11 to this lord of
munis, and inviting him to take refreshment, conducted him to the capital ;
and the monarch considering this celebrated apot both befitting as an offering
and convenient aa a residence for the muni and his fratemity, caused to be
conatruoted, in a hall erected by him, 11uperb pulpits for the supk'eme Buddha

and hia (attendant) priests.

"The inhabitants of the land, seeing this lord of the universe aeated here
with his 1acerdot&l retinue, brought offeringi1 fmm all quarters. The king
from his own provisions and beV8l'&IJ8, Rl1 well as from the offerinp brought
from every direction, prosontod refreshmen~ to the lord of the univel'Be and
hi1 diBoiplea.
"In the afternoon he bestowed on the vanquisher, who was aeated on thia
very apot, the pleasure garden (then called) Mahi111agara,-a worthy dedication.
At the inst.ant that this Maha111igara garden, embellished by (even) ftower11

"at&gea of notification."
' "on this aide of."

" in order that ho might avert it and etrect."



out of season, 'Wllll accepted of, the earth quaked. Here the said dirine
ruler taking hill seat, expounded his doctrines ; and twenty thouaand inbabitanta attained the 1sanctijic..-ation nf tl,e ' 1111.1ggaphalan.'

"The vanquisher, having enjoyed his forenoon reat in the MahWgara

garden; in the afternoon repaired to this spot, wl1ere the preceding bo-treea
bad been planted, and indulged tho '11.'\mndhi ' meditation. Rising therefrom,
the supreme Buddha thus resohed: For the 1epiritua l welfare of the inhabitant.a
of this land let the chief U1{,ri Sudharumii, togi,ither with her retinue of
prieste81le8, repair hither; b1iugiug with her the right bmnch of tho nigrodhu.
bo-tree (obtaining it from kii1g KiRi\ at Barim:1Ri11agam in Jambudipa).'
"The th.Sri becoming (by in~r,iration) acquainted with this resolve, thereupon
accompanied by the monarch (Ki"11), 1Lpproachc<l that tree. That supernatumlly gifted king. with a vem1ilion pencil having made a streak on the
right branch, she (the thcri) taking pus>1cK~io11 of that ho branch, which had
separated itself (from tho main tree) 1111<1 planted -it.~clf in a golden vase,
brought it hither hy mimc:ilouR mea11H, 11ttc11dcd by herretinue 02 priestessea
and 11urrounde<l by Jcvati1s; nncl placud the gol,lcn veRNel on the extended
right hand of the 1mp1"0mc Bud.Jim. Thi~ f!ucces1mr of former Buddbas,
receiving the same, be,itowctl it on king ,T11yant1L, f01 the purpose of being
planted thero in the plcaKUl'O ganlcn l\faha~agara. The monarch planted it
there (accordingly).
" The supreme Bmldha repairing thither, to the nmthward of the Nagaml&laka, and stationing hin111elf at A.Hoka (where Asoka, one of the younger brothers
of D6v{mampiya Tissa, ,mbi,equontly built ;\ dngoba) expounded the doctrinea
of his faith to the peoph,. lfaving beard that discourse,'" (continued Mahinda,
adcil'8811ing himself to D6vi,un.mpiyn Till&!L), ' 0 king, to four thousand living
beings the blessings of religion wore insured. Repairing to the northward
thereof, to the place (Thupimima dagoba) whe1e the preceding Buddhas had
11tationed themselves, the1"C seating himself, and having indulged in the
' samadhi' meditation, ri11ing thorcfrom, the ,mpromo Buddha expounded bis
doctrines. From tho assembled congregation ten thousand human beings
attained the 3Lli~H q( 1111t!Jfl"J1lmlw1.' Bestowing his 'ablution robe' as a
relic to be worshipped by the people, and leaving there the priest6SB with her
retinue, and also leaving there his disciple Ha.bbanandi together with his
thousand priest11, the 1111prema Buddha, at the 8omanama!aka (where Uttiya
subsequently built a di,goba), p1eviously called the Sudassananui!aka, having
preached to the people, dc1~utcd through the air for Jambudfpa.
"The fourth divine sage, the comforter of the world, the ominiscient
doctrinal lord, the vanquisher of the five deadly 11im1, iu this kappa' was

" In his first advent to this land he reduced the yakkhas to subjection ; and
then, in his second advent, he established his power ove1 the nagas. A.gain,
upon the third occasion, at the entreaty of the niig11 king Ma1}iakkhi, repairing
to KalyiQi, he there, together with his attendant disciples, partook of
refreshment. Having tan-ied, and intlulgod in (the 'sam6.patti 'meditation)
at the spot where the former ho-trees had been placed; as well aa on this
very site of the (Ruvanvi:li) dagoLa" (where Mahinda was making these
revelations to D6vanampiya Tilllll1), "and having repaired to the spot where
the relics used (by the Budllhas themselves, viz., the drinking vess9l, the belt,
and the ablution robe had been enshrinetl); as well as to the several plaeea
where preceding Buddhas had tarried, the vanquisher of the five deadly sins,
the great mnni, the luminary of Lagka, as at that period there were no

"at.ages of 11&11otiftcation."
ln11..rt "five hundred."
" Bta&'811 of aanctiftcation."


human beinp in the land, having a:poandecl hil dootrinee to the oongrept.ecl
d6vu and the mpa, departed through the air toJambadipa.
" Thai, 0 king, this ii a spot oo11118crat.ecl by the f.,ur preceding Buddhu.
On this spot, mahir,j,, there will hereafter stand a d,goba to 118l'Ve u the
shrine tor a "dooa" ohacred relics (obtained) from Buddha's body, height
one hundred and twenty cubits, renowned under the name of 'Hemam4li '
The ruler of the land tllns replied: "I myself must erect it." '' 0 king,
unto thee there are many other acta to be performed, do thou execute them.
A ducendant of thine will accomplish this work. Yatlilatil!III, theBOn of thy
younger brother, the aub-king Mahlinliga, will hereafter become a ruling
sovereign ; hia BOD named GothabMya will alBO be a king. Ria BOn will be
called Kibva9oa. Maharaja I the BOn of that sovereign, named Abbaya, will'
be a great monarch, gifted with supernatural powers and wisdom,-a oor,qaeror renowned under the title of 'Duitha Gamani.' He will construct the
dligoba here."
The thera thua prophesied ; and the monarch having caused that prophecy
to be engraTI'n (on stone) 1in the vny u:0rt.l1 of the thera, raised a atone
monument (in commilmoration thereof).
The B1U1ctified and supernaturally gifted chief thl!ra Maha Mahinda accepted
the dedication made to him of the delightful Maham6gha pleasure garden
and TiuArima (where the vihara of that name waa subsequently built).
Thia peraonage, who had thoroughly subdued hill pa11aion11, after having
caused the earth to quakf, at the eiglit 11&cred 11pota, entered, for the purpose
of making hia alms-pilgrimage, the city (in expam1e) like unto the great ocean.
Taking hia repa11t at the ki:rig's palace, and departing from the royal reaidonce,
and seating himaelf in the Nandana garden, be expounded the "aggikkhandha"
diaooU1'118 (of Buddha) to ,the people; and procuring the 111anr.tifictitio11 of
.' maggapludan ' for a thousand peraons he tarried in the Mahlimegha garden.
On the third day, the thera, after taking his reput at the king's palace,
stationing himself in the Nandana pleaaure garden, and having expoundt:d
the "ufvia6pama" diaoourae (of Buddha), and established a thou11&nd persona
in the superior irradea of bleaainga of the faith ; and tb8l'tlllfter the thera
having at the Tiae&rama expounded a diaoourse to the king, he (the
moll&l'Cb) approaching the th6ra, and seating himself near him, inquired :
"Lord I ii the religion of the vanquisher eatabliabed or not ? " " Ruler of
meu, no, not yet. 0 king I when, for the purpose of performing the up6aatha and other rites, ground hu been duly conaecrated here, according to
the rules preacribed by the vanquisher, (then) religion will have been
Thua spoke the MaMthera, and thua replied the monarch to the chief of
IA, tiit:"'1'1 Olllr ,;n : " I will steadfastly continue within tbeo pale of the
religion of Buddha: include therefore within it the capital itself : quickly
define the boundaries of the oonaecrated ground." The mahllrijl having
thua spoken, the tbera replied t.o him : '' Ruler of the land, such being thy
pI-..ure, do thou personally point out the direction the boundary line should
take : we will onnaecrate (the gronnd).'' The king replying "Moat willingly," departing from bis garden M:ab,megha, like unto the king of the
d6vu allying forth from his own garden Nlndana, entered hia royal
On the fourth day, the tbJra having been entertained at the king' palace,
and having taken hia seat in the Nandana pleuure garden, expounded the


1 11

by the direotion."

"a tainment of the atagea of -.notHloatlon.

I H 1Jelt1


CHAl''l'Kl' XV,

'&IUllll&tlga" diaooune (of Buddha); and having poured out the sweet
draught ( of his dilaourae) to tho11111111ds of penou, this Mahith&a departed
for the Mahim'trha pleaaure pea.
la themoming, notice having been (previoualy) given by beat of drums, the
celebraed capit.al, the road to the th'ra's residence, aud the reaideoce itulf
oa all aides, having been. decorated, the lord of chariot., decked in all the
inaignia of royalty, 1811ted in hill chariot, attended by his mioiat.ers 1mounfed,
and eacorted by the martial array of his realm, :t9paired to the temple coa1tracted by himaelf, accompanied by this great proceeaion.
There having approached the thEraa worthy of veneration, and bowed
down to them, p ~ a g together with the th~ to the upper ferry of the
river, he made hill progreae, plou.,hing the around with a golden plough (to
mark the limita for the CODlleCl'lltion). The 1uperb 1tate elephant. Mahlipaduma and Kulijara 11,.oing bun harneaaed to the golden plough, 'commencing
from the4 K.untamilab, thi1 moll&l'!Cb, sole ruler of the people, accompanied
by the theraa, and attended by the four coD-ltituent bolt.a of hill military
array, himself 'holding tie 1,lough ,haft, d,fo,Ml tt.e line qf boundary.
Surrounded byuquiaitely painted vuee (carried in proceuion), and gorgeoua flap 'tinl,;li,ig ,cilh ,,., bt!llil atw.herl to U&en; '(1prinktJ) u,ith reel
~dal duat; '(gll-l'flNl) 1,.,, go&l m11l 1i/r....,, t1laN1; (Ute ~Nian d:oraled
,r.ith) mirror nf glilfuing !JI""" mu/. 1~,,"0111, and buket.e borne down by the
weight of ilowen ; tiiumph,d :uehCK made of plantain troea, and femalea
holding up umbrell118 and other (docoratiou1); excited by the l)'Dlphony of
every description of mu,io ; encompaued by the martial might of his empire;
overwhelmed by the ahouta of gratitude and felltivity, which welcomed him
fro;.1 the four quarten of the earth ;-this lord of the land made his pJ'081'811,
plo1.ghing10 amidst enthu,iutic aoclamationa, hundredll of waving handkerchiefs, and the uultatiom 1,roduced by the presentation of superb o1!erinp,
Having perambulated the vih&ra (precinct.) u well u tho city, and (apin)
reached the river, he completed the demarkation of the conaeorated around.
If ye be deAirou of aacertaiuing by what particular marb the demarbtion
ill traced, thu1 learn the boundary of the co111eCrated ground.
It went from the Pasana ferry of thtt river to the PWnaku,JdavApka
(leaer ,tone well) ; from thence to the Kumba.lavip ; and from theooe to
the Mahadipa; from thenoo prooeodi11g to the Kakudhapali; from thence
to the llahia1igana ; from thence to the Khujjamadhula ; from thence to
the Marotta reaervoir, and ,kirt.ing the northern gate of the VijayArama
pleuure garden, to the GajakumbhabpWr.ia ; then proceeding from the
centre of ThuvaUhi to the .A.bhayabaWcapuina ; hence through the
centre of the Mahuuuna (great cemetery) to the Dighapuba, and turning
to the left of the 11 &1'lifa"-1't1' quarkr-, and proceeding to the equare of the
nigrudha tree 11 n&r the lli.11frg11Ua, turning to the 10t1th-ea,,I at the temple of
tt.e brahman Diyavha, 11 nm fro111. thence to Telumapjli; from thence to th11
Tilaeatukb and to the loft of ..blama1J!Jnla to Suavf.na ; from thence to

"and the women of the pa1-.''

T1111t1rl full stop for newfllllt.elloe, "Commencing."
"held the shaft of the plough."
"tr&yll containing."
"lllirron with gold and llilYer banclles.
IIU/ff't "pendant.II of flowen ;" 1,,,....,_,,11;,11
.. Iuert "and u:hibiting the farrow,."
II &I pottery of. Ka,m.mndeva. tt
12 " _ , b7 tbeaoath--t of Hi:,aplla t.o.
.. Dtlltt.

0 were:'
I111trrt "Ant."




the llarumba ferry, and p1'0cocding up the atream of the river ran to the
aouth-eut of the flrat d6goba 1(Thupdrdma) to the two kadamba tree&.
In the reign of 0 Senindagutta, the damilaa (to enaure) the cleanlineu
which attenda bathing, considering the river to be too remote for that purpose, forming an embankm~mt across it, brought its stream near the t-0wn.
'Having bro11gl1t tl,e line of tle1m1rl.ation BO 1u, to i11cl11,le tl1e. livii1g kada111l,a
t1ee and t;rclud, the tleatl l.adambu tn, ou tlu: bt111l., it 1iro,et-tletl UJJ tlie ritJ1J1,
reaching the Siha1d1111 fttry; J>assing ulo11g tl1e 1,a11l.! of thr. 1it-er 111,d arrh:ing
again at tl,e Pdsdnaftr111, tl,e " isi " 1111ited tl,e tti;o e111l11 nj tl,t li11e of dema,1.:u.tion. At the in1tant of the junction of tbc11e two ends, dcvas and men
Bhouted their siidhus " at the establil!hment of the reli1:,,ion ( of Budllha).
The eminent 111\int, the Mahathcro., diatinctly fixed the points defining the
boundary I pre1JC1ibetl bg the l.ili!J, Having fixed tht1 position for the erection.,
of the thirty-two 4(f11ture) Havred edifices, as well RB of tho Thuparimo.
dlgobn, and haYing, according to the forms already ol1t1erved, defined ~tl1B tndllr
l,ounda,y line o.1l!o 8(nf the ro1111tcrtttrd !Jl'f)l/11tl), thia (llllnctified) '11ojourner 011
that llU1e day completed the definition of all the boumlary lines. At the
completion of the junction of the llallred boundary lino the earth quaked.
. On the fifth day, the U1cra having heen entertained a.t the king's plllaee,
taking his 1eat in the Nanda.n.'\ pleasure garden, expounded the "khajjaniyab" diBCOune (of Buddha) to tho people; and having poured forth the
delicioua ~raugbt to thousands ofpenom, tarried in the l\lahttmcgha garden.
On the sixth day, the thcra, the profound expounder of the doctrine
haYing been entortainetl at tho king's palace, taking his Meat in the Nandana
garden, and expounding tlao "gomn.yapi1,11Jika." discouI'll8 (of Buddha), and
proc1uing for a thousand persom1 who attended to the discourse the sa.~ctiflcation of the faith, tn.nied in the }fabimu'igha ga.rdun.
On the aoventh d:1.y, the tb(>ra baving l,cen enttirtai1101I at the king's palace,
taking his soo.t in t.110 N:mdan.'\ garden, and having expounded the " dhammacakka-p-pavatta1111. '' di11court10 (of Buddha), and procuring for 11. thousand
pel'll0m1 the sanctification of the faith, tanied in the l\fahamegha pleuure
The ~IIJll'l'!IIII! 1111.int having tl1m,, in the COUl'>IU of Kl'\'ell ,fayt<, )ll'ocurud for
11ine thousand 1111111111;,., nncl fh-e hun,h"Crl per,,0111<, the ~:u1ctilic11tinn of the
faith, sojourned in the ::\falai11111'.glm garclen ; ;11111 frnm tlm ci1-c111m1t:mco of
its having been the place wlll'rc ruligion ha,I lirsl 1'(j,;1;; 1,hon'l forth, the.
Nandana pleasure garden 11L~n ol,tainc,I tl1c name 111' ",l,,lirnna:
The king c11uscrl in the lilKt iu~tanco an e<lilire to be expmlitirnu,ly euuMtructed fu1 the them'~ acc1111111101fation, """ ,,,,. Hi/, 11/' 1/,r ( f,1/11,,) Tlw111irumu ,lugo/111, "1ritl1011t 11xi11t1 ( ,,.,,,,,/ ), w,,l 1,y ,lrJi11g ihc mud (wall,1) with filc.
~ ' Tht mini~t<'r-p1oh'\:tccl ~u,,1,.i:;-11."
lu i,.i,,1hahH l\[itt1i-~111n. d1>JK1,11id in
,\.D. IS3 by tho llnlo.lml'M, by whom thi~ :1\tc1a!ion wn, mnile i11 the com110 of the
river, bvtwccn thn.t ye11r uml A.II. -I :rn. wlll'n nii~(ukuliyn. 1<mJueccletl in expelling
the invnders. It wo.11 during hiH reign. which termino.tecl in A.D. 47i, that the
first portion of the l\fo.havai,,.n. w11.11 L-ompilt,d.-[.Yi,t, b9 ,1/r. 1'urnC1111',]
1 "Pathama cetiyu."
"The living kadamba tree wns included within the boundary which J)ll,8Bed
above the bank on which the tlend kadamba trco stood. The t.h6ra then oroaaed
the Sfha11inana filrry, am\ palllling along the \,auk thereof arrivod again at the
PWna ferry, and thns conncoted the two ends of the boundary line,"
"u marked by the furrow~ made by the king'11 plough."

' " .lldlalu11,."

"the inner boundariCII thereof."'
II "



'" " at TillBiraLma."

; h


'" lhle.




The eclitloe erected there, from the oircumatance (of tire ha'fing been
black (kAta). That incident proound for
it the appellation " K61apu6da pariveva."
Thereafter, 1in du ortltJr, he erected the edifice attaohed to the IP'Nt
bo-tra, tl1'J LuhapWda, the Salakagga, and Bbattu6li halls. Be oonatructed alao many pariv6l)all, excellent reservoirs, and appropriate buildinp
both for the night and for the day (for the priesthood), The parivfva,
which 'Wll8 built for this sanctified (thora) in the bathing naervoir (by
raising a bank of earth in the centre of it), obtained the name of "Sunhita"
1 (,arlh embanh<l) pariv~oa.
The 1plac al v:hich the perambulatory meditatiom of this moat excellent luminary of the land were performed obtained
the name of Dighacadkamana pariv6911. Wherever he may AatHI indulpd the
inestimable bliss (" phalagga ") of " BBmipatti " meditation, 3/rom eAa, circum11lance that place obtained the name II Phalagga pariveoa."
IMra may ha11t ( apa,Riya) appllarl unto those who flocked to see him, .that
1p.;t obtained the name of Theripauiya parive911. 'W,.erewr many_ (maru)
diva, .may haw approached him for the pur1")B of beholding him, IAat plal:,
from tlud circtcn11ta11ce obtained tA11 name" Maruga\16 parivooa."
Dighuandaka, the (Bt'inipati) minister of this king, erected for the thua
tho OdjapWda on eight lofty pillars. 80/ all the pari"'1Ja, both in on:ler qf
lime and in .lltmce qf aoork11ia1111Mp, lhi pari1'ir,a called Ike " 0 Dfg1Ja,andamadpati "
the jii-,t,
Thus this king of superior wisdom, bearing the profoundly aignliloant
appellation of 9 Dii:dnampiya Tiua, patronising the thiia Maha-Malunda qf
profound wi,dom, built/or him 1,ere .Vahdi:ihdra in the (Maladn'ghapleann
ga,tlin), thi,jir,t tihtira (con,tn,cted) in Lupka.
The fifteenth chapter in the l\lahavayaa, entitled " The A.oceptance of the
Kahivihira," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteou1

c1rJ it a~tioualy), 'WIIII stained



made his alm11-pilgrimage through the city, conferring the blessings of the faith on the inhnbitanta ; and having been entertained at the
palace, and bestowed benedictions on the king also ; the thira, who had
tarried twenty-six days in the Mahi\megha pleasure garden, on the thirteenth
day of the increasing moon of "Asijhi," having (again) taken hisrepuf; at
the palace and expounded to the monarch the " mahAppamida" disooUl'lle
(of Ilud~ha); 18lhe1e11po11 being intent on the construotionof thevih4ra at the
Cetiya mountain-departing out of the eastern gate repaired to the laid
C6tiya mountain.

At which this history was compiled, by its incumbent Mahmama thin,

between A.D, 469 and77.-[Xflt11 by .1/1, :t'unwur.]
" well purified."
; parive1,1a built at the place when."
" The parivt!9a built at the palace where he."
" Where the them appea.red." This pn.~sugo is omitted in the Bumavp,la
Baiuvantucjave RcceD11ion : no reason ill given for the omiu.ion.
" Where multitudes of dcvaa appzoached and miniatered unto him, by reason
thereof w11.11 that place called,"
" There (at the establishment ol the Mahavihara) it waa called DfghlllBDdaBen,pati-parivlf~a. (' the college of the chief ca.11tain D[ghaaanda'). n became a
1rea.t seat of learning and the home of great men."
"D6v6.nampiya (' beloved of the dliv1111'), patroni!Mld the ,reat tha Hahinda
of uoellent wildom. and spotlOIB mind, and built for him thla lnt peat. vihila
in Lavli (the Mahivihua')."
,. "and aftenvanlai."



Bearing that the th,ra had departed thither, the aovereign, mounting hia
abario\ and taking the two princeuea (.A.nuli and Sihalf) with \hiqi, followed
tbe track of the th4ra. The tberae, after having bathed in the 1NdgacatuW:a
ta.u, were atanding in the order of their aeniority on the bank of the pond
preparatory to 118C8nding the mountain. The king inatantly alight..d from
hie caniage and bowed down to the eight th61-u. They add1'811118d him :
11 Bljt I what baa brought thee in thia exhauating heat P "
On replying, "I
aame afllioted at your departure," they rejoined, "We came here to hold the


Tu tAira, ,-,;feet flla/JNI' q/ tl&e II l:Tiandl,a,," u:po11nd,tl to tAe king llie "t:allMpandyiloa "dilCOUf'N (o/ Buddha). Having liatened 3to t1iia di,courn (on tAe
~ of" tlt.lfffl "J the great atateaman Ha.Mrittha, the maternal nephew
of the 10vereign, who was then atanding near thtJ king, together with hie
8fty-8ve elder and younger brothen, 4( tlUJ aaid brotTieta only) having obtained
hie DDotion, on that very day were 501-daiJNtl priest, by the t,h6ra. All theae
penona who were endowed with wiadom attained, in the apartment where
they were ahaved '(Of'clainI), the aan.-:ti&cation of "arbat."
On that aame day, the king, 7e11clo,ing the ai:1ace 11,AicA aca, to contain (IM
,-,..) ltlCNt.l edijiclla ( at Mihintale ), and commenced thu execution of hie
anderta.king for the oonatruction of aixty-eight rock cella,8 ret111'1led to the

Theae benevolent th6raa continued to reaide there, viaitins the city at the
faoan of alma-pilgrimage (inatructing the populace).
On the completion of tbeae cella, on the full moon day of the month
11 IBijhi repairins thither, in due form, the king conferred the vihira on the
prieat.a, 1 TAe tAffllw w,,ed ;,. tu cm11ecralion qf 6oundariu, lw.t!ing defint,a thl5
lirnila qf 1M lhi,.,,,.,w aacrl liji,ce,, cu t1Jell qf the t:iTiam a/oruaid, on that
wry day oon/errI tu upaaampuda ordination on all IAON (lld,nar,ira priuu)
toAo r.oenr oandit.latu /or 1M aame, at the Ii.fee (called) Buddhetttni6aru, tolucA
IOfll lu firat oceaaion on rolaicla (it toas ao ual). All theae aixty-two 18Aoly
penon,, holdins their " '91811&" at the Cetiya mountain, 11inllOW blelainp on
the king.
11 TAe laoat qf tliria, and 111en, having tnith all tlie /tno11r qf dolion /1,oehd
lo dis cltiv of aainta, the joyful tidings of rrt.011e 1uetg had ,pread far and
wuJ,, a, toell a, to hia J,-aternity, acqufretl /or tlie1111tl'l:ea pre-emirient r,irrarda
The aixteenth chapter in the MaUvqaa, entitled " The Acceptance of the
Dedication of the Cetiya Mountain Vihara," oompoaed equally for the delight
and affliction of righteous men.


"1*nk at the N.-tukka."

"The th&a, who WIii a perfect mut.er of the Kbandhakaa (' aectiom of the
Vma,a '), u:.pounded to the king the aection relating to the obeenalaoe of the


admitted to the prieathood.."
I Delr..
Ium II around the 1ite of the {future) KaJ.t~ amt."
" ' The th6ra, who had ol'Olled the boundary (of ainful deme), aet up the
boUllda.l7 of that TiMra aml of the thirtJ"-two llalalra1, and on the aelfaame day
eanferrecl the rite of ordination on all of them who were looking forwald theret.o,
lnt of all M the Tmnbaru lll'1aka which had bean Nt; up bJ' himaelf."
11 11 oonferrecl."
11 arhata."
11 " And bollta of cYftl anc1 men CA'lllf' nnto thil chief of th6ru anc1 to hia
dilclpl, whoae fame for pietJ' had 1pnad abroad, and miDUtered nnto them ; anc1
. thu laid up for tbemaelT heapa of inerit."
I Cl




"11011a" 1oliu:l& l&atl bun l&eld, 1,a.,ing lerminatetl on the full moon day
of the month of II kattib," this great thera of profound wisdom thua 1poke :
"Jlah6.r6j,, our divine teacher, the supreme Buddha, baa long been out of oar
sight : we are sojourning here unbledlled by Ai, 11n!ft11M. In this land, 0 ruler
of men I we have no object to which offerings can be made." (The king)
replied, " Lord, 1nwa, u11w-edly it has been ,tatlld to me, that our supreme
Buddha had attained 'nibbuti,' '(ci,ul that a lock of Ai, lair and the 'gloallAi'
relic Aav, bun 111&8l&ri1wl at Mahiyapga11a)." 111 Wliffilwr his aacred relica are
seen our vanquiaher hi111881f ia seen," (rejoined lllahinda). " I understand
your meaning" (Raid the monarch), "a tht\pa is to be constructed by me. I
will erect the thupa: do ye procure the relica." The thera replied to the
king, " Ooneult with Bumi)&." The sovereign then addreBBed that 8'mar}era:
"From whence can we procure relica P" "Ruler of men (eaid he), having
decorated the city and the highway, 1attendod by 8a reUmie of defJolfU,
mount.ed on thy state elephant, bearing the canopy of dominion, and cla,end
by th ,n.usic of tl&II ' taldvacara ' baml, repair in the evening to the
Jlah4n4ga pleuure garden. There, 0 king I wilt thou find 18..elic,." Thua
11to tAe piously devoted monarcl& ,poke Sumatia, wAo fully knew Aow tA, relic, qf
Bu.ddAa Aatl been rU,tribuwl.
11 Tl&II cklightl tl,Jra p1'0Cllding from the palace to the Oetiya mountain,
1'comulted with UtAe eq_ually deligAtlld Suma\111 1imaJJ6ra, ~to .liom tAi, im
portant nii,aion ,oae to be confakcl. 1"' llitlier, tAou piously .,;,.,_, Suma(la
procuding to the celobrated city Pupphapara, 11deliver unto the aovereign
(DbammAsoka), 18th, l&ead qf tAy fa,aily, thia my injunction. ' Mah4r6.j', thy
ally the Mahlraja surnamed Maruppiya ( 19 Tia,a-the-delight-of the dt'ivae),
converted to the faith of Buddha, ia anxious to build a dagoba. Thou poue118811t
many corporeal relice of the ' muni ' ; bestow aome of those relics, and the
diah UBed at hie meala by the divine teacher.' 'Taking (continued Ma.hind&
addreaaing himsolf to 8uma9a)' that dish filled with relica, and repairing to
the celebrated capital of the devae, thus deliver my mosu.ge to Sakka, tJae
deva of dcvaa : ' King of dcvaa, thou pc>ll88BII08t the0 right canine-tooth relio,
aa well aa the right collar-bone relic, of the deity worthily wonhipped by
the three worlde : continue to worship that tooth-relic, but beetow the
collar-bone of the divine teacher. Lord of devae I demur not in matten
(involving the aalvation) of the land of LaQU.' "
Replying, " Lord, moat willingly,'' thie supernaturally gifted uma9.Sra
instantly departed to the court of Dhamm4B6ka. There he bad hia audienoe
of (the king), who waa in the midst of the celebration of the festival of

Tranaferred from Dantapura to Ceylon in A..D. 810; and now enshrined ill
the Dalada-maligava temple in Kandy.-[Not' 6y .Mr. Ttfr1M111r.]
1 "Having obllerved the'-, and terminated it by holding the pavil:raoa."
4 Dok.
1 "didat not thou tell."
1 "without our maater."
" Whenever.
"aee to."
I"'6t't "and taken the vows of abetinence (' JJOltlllii ')."
"thy retinue."
"acoomia,nied by m111io and danoing,"
11 "the relica (' c!Mtu ') of him ('Buddha') who knew how to diatinguuh the
elements of thinga (' dMtu '),"
11 "apa,ke the Rmao6ra BIUDIIO& to the king, who was well pl-.d."
11 Iuert "and."
11 "Then the thera proceeded."
11 " whole mind wuwell diapoaed (to the work thatwuto be oon1lded tohim)."
"Come hither, tboa aood BUlll&O&; plOCllll!d."
" r...re ":and."
" thy ,rraadaire."
'" Drlr.


"lrattika," after having effected the trallllfer of (the right branch of) the
1upreme bo-tree to the foot of the aal-tree. Delivering the meaage of the
th&a, and taking with him the relica and the aaored dish obtained from the
king, (Suma1Ja) departed for (the mountain in the oonflnea of Himavanta.
Depositing the sacred .dish together with the reliOB at the Hi1ravanta
(mountaiM), and repairing to the court of the deva. of deftB, be delivered
the meuage of the them. Sakka, the ruler of deftB, taking the right collarbone from tho Cu!amal}i dagoba, pl'ellented it to the umlU}era. The disciple
Sumava thereupon bringing that relic, as well as the sacred dish and (other)
reliCB, and reaching tho Outiya mountain, presented them to the th.Sra
A..coording to the injunction given (by Suma!)&) bofore his departure, in
the afternoon, the king, attended hy his state retinue, repaired to the
Hahanaga pleasure garden.
The thora deposited all theae 1(uliya) relica
there, on that mountain : from that circumstance the " M:iBBalra " mountain
obtained the name of the "Octiya." Leaving the ucred dish and the
relics (it contained) at the ucred mountain, the thera attended by hi,
diacipl1111 repaired to the appointed place, taking the collar-bone re'.u with
" If this be a rolic of the divine mge, may my canopy of state of itself
bow down-may my state elephant of hi, own accord (go down) on bis
own knees-may the relic oa.Bket, together with the relic, alight on my head."
Thu, inwardly the king wi11hed : those wishes were accordingly fulfilled.
The monarch, as if he had boen overpowered by the delicious draught (of
nibbuti), exumng with joy and taking it from his head, placed it on the
back of the state elephant. The delighted elephant roared, and the errth
quaked. 1 TIM r,lep'lumt, as 1oell as tl,e thira, together with t!M atate pageant,
having halted mcl,il,i, the the,a, ,nt,ri11g the ,11agnijke11t city by the eaatern
gate, and pa,11ing th,vmgk it (iii procea11io11) by the aout!uirn gate; t!Mreafte,
repairirig in the directio,i of the Thupartima Celiya to a11 edifice nf n&any apart- , , (built for the yLkkha named Pm,1ojjd), halted at the apot where the
branch of the ho-tree {wall afterwarda planted).
TM multitude 1tatio1aed tlie1rn,el1.1ts near ths spot ,,,hiire tl1e Thupdrdma (was
nbuquently con,tructed); u,kich at that J:ieriod ,ea, ot-errun 1oitk the tlwrn.g
creeper called k11damba.
TM dha of men (Devanampiya Ti1111&) causing that spot, which was guarded

by deva1, to bo instantly cleared 11nd decorated in the utmost perfection,

prepared to take the relic down himself from the back of the elephant. The
elephant (however) not colll8nting therei<>, the monarch inquired the reason
thereof from the thera. (Mahinda) replied, "(The elephant) i1 delighted in
Aaving ii ezalted 011 t!M au111mit of his l,ack: 011 th,u accou11t he is u111oilling
that the relic ahould be taken down (and placod in a lower position)." The
king oauaing to bo brought instantly, from the dried up A..bbaya tank, dried
lam.pa of mud, bad them heaped up to the elephant's own height ; and having
1 "(' dhitWI')." It is b7 reuon of thia roil11rti1111 of relics having beendepoaited
in it that themeuntobtained the 1U11Deof "CetiJ&." Clltig11from ci, to eellsctor
heap up.
1 "After that the elephant wmed back with the th6ra and ~e military array,
and eat.end the aplendid oit7 bJ the -tern pte ; p11111ing out again from the
olt, by it.a aouthern gate he proceeded to the temple Pamoja-"Vatthu, which wu
bailt behind the Bite of the (future) Cetiya at the Thupinma, and halted," b.
"Now at that time the eite of that th11pa wu overrun with lhe oreepera
of the llllh ,p,,ppA, and dddri ; but the d6w. of men," &c.
" clelirou that it lhould be plaaed on a nmmit u high u hu own back ; he




that 1celllbratecl placa decorated in various waya, lifting the relir. from the
elephant' back, deposited it there.
'&alioning the el91lianl tliere for tlie protection of tlill relic, the monarch in
hi extreme anxiety to embark in the undertaking of constn1cting the di\goba
for th, relic, having engaged a groat number of men to manufacture bricks,
re-entered the town with his state retinue, 3/o z,r,1,,,re for the relic festival
The chief thi!m 1\lahinda, repairing, together with his fmternity, to the
delightful Mahamilgha garden, tarried there.
Thia state elephant 4flurill!J the ni9ht 11xltthe,l 1oitlw11t i11tf!rmi811inn over tJ,i1
plice, t&B tcell w1 mr.1 tl1c 1elic. During tl,c da11ti1n1J l,e rcuiuiiir.rl with the relic
in the hall in which the bo branch was (1mbseqaently) planted.
The sovereign pursuing the directions of the them, (incased it in a
dAgoba,) on the summit of which {RaCred edifice) having excavated (a receptacle) aa deep as the knee, and having proclaimed that in a few days the
relic would be enshrined there, he repaired thither. The populace, congregating from all quarters, al'l!embled there. In that assemblage, the relic
rising UJJ from the back of the elephant, to the height of seven palmyra
trees, and remaining self-poised in the air, displayed itself; and, like unto
Buddha at the foot of the g:iol}n.mba tree, aetonished the populace, till their
hair stood on end, by performing a 511,:o-falcl miracle. From it proceeded, at
one and the 1111me time, ffames of fire and streams of water. The whole of
Lagk6. was illuminated by its effulgence, and Wl\8 llllturnted by its moisture.
1 Whik tted on tl1e tlironll on tcliich 1ill attai1'6d "pct1i11ibbdna" these five
resolutions were formed by the vanquisher endowed with five means of
'' Let the right brunch of the great botree, when A.soka is in the act of
removing it, 11evoring itself from the main tree, become planted in the vase
(prepared for it).
" Lot the sa.id branch so planted, delighting by its fruit and foliage, glitter
with its six variegated colours in every direction.
'' Let tbu enchanting branch, together with itR golden VaRe, rising up in the
air, remain invisible for seven days in the womb of the snowy region of the
7 " Let ri t,1:o-/01cl 111ir11cle l,e 1ie~'for11i,ecl at Tl111J"Jdl'dimtyr, (ut 1;/iicl1) my l'ight
collu1-bm11J i~ to bi! l'11~l,ri11erl.
" In the Hcm:11nalika. dagob:\ (Ruv:um;li), the jewel which decorates
LagkA, there will he en,.hriucf1 a 'du1,1:, full of my relics. Let them,
Bll!luming my form as lladdhn., and rising up and re111aining poised in the air,
pcrforDI a 't11:o-foltl miracle.''

1 11


"Having ma,le urrangc:ment,! for the 1m,tec:tion of the relic and stationed the

elephant tht1rc.''
"pondering ovor the tbingi< nc,:es.ary."
wont dudug tbo nigliL to walk rounrl about the. place iD which the
reliown., pln<.'Ctl. :iml d11ri11g tbo da) to romnin,"
"bifonn." The mimclo Kn.i,l to havo been Jicrformml by Du11dha nt the
foot of tho gn1)1):unhn-tre" i" rei:canlo,1 RM the grmtCllt feat of 11UJ>Crnatura.l
phenomen11 ho mur ,li,.playtrl before n. mnltitmlr.. It wn~ a nmnife11t.a.tion of a
llllries of multiform 11hc11omcno. iu ~imulta.ncom; 11airs of oppo;;itc forms, suoh 1111
l!tl'eamf! of fir1, nml water, kc,
" \\'bilo be laid him~clf ,lmvn 011 hi"' hod of ffnal om::ill'~ipatir>n.''
' "Let my right i:ollAr-bou~. while heing enahriuctl n.~ the Thupirim&,ya, rile
upt,o the sky IUld dieplAy a biform mil'IICle."






The 1uOC811110r of former Buddhu (silently) willed these five reaolvea: on

"-at account, in this inatance, this relic performed this miracle of two
opposite results.

Deilcending from the. akies (the collar-bone relic) placed itaelf on the
crown of the monarch's head. Tht1 delighted sovereign deposited :~ in the
ahrine. At the enshrining of the relic in the digoba (on the full moon day
of the month of kattika) a teJTific oarthquake wu produced making the hair
(of the spectators) to stand on end.
Thus the Buddh811 !11"8 incomprehensible ; their doctrines are incomprehensible; and 1(tlU! '"ag11it111le qf) tl1efr11its qf.fuith, to fltn11e 11,1,,, hao,jaitl,,
in these incomprohensibleK, is aLio incomprchensiblo."
Witn8118ing this miracle the pco1>le wct'O converted to the faith of the
vanquisher. The younger bl'Otber of the king, tho l'OY'Jl pl'inoo Matt6bbaya,.
being alao a convert to the faith of the 11ml of'' nmni11 "; "cnti-eating of the
lord of men (the king) for penni1111io11, together with a thousand pcrBOna, waa
ordained a minister of that 1-cligion,
In like manner, five hundred youths from cm:h of the villa.gos Cetipi,
Dvaramao<Ja)a, Vihirabija, Gallakapitlm, and U"patiSS1\, impelled by the fervour
of their devotion and faith, entered iuto tho priesthood of the religion of the
succ8110r of former Buddhas.
Thua the whole number of 110r10D11 who cntcr<.-d into the ministry of the
religion of the vanquisher at tha.t period wc1-c thirty thousaml priests.
The ruler of the lll.nd having complot<.-d tbo colebmtetl '1lii11<1b, Th1111li.1-a11UJ,
oonatantly made many offoring.i i11 gold and other articles. The 1i1ifel'ior
consort, of the 11wnarch, tho members of the :.:oyal family, the mini11tera of
at.ate and the inhabitants of the city, aa well a11 of tho pro\'i11ce11,-ru.l tbae,
Nparately, made offerings.
Having in the first instance completed the dngoba (' Thtipa '), the king
erected a vihha (arima) there. From tbit1 circumstance the vihara waa
diatiliglliahed by tho appellation Thup1irama.
Thus, the 111.viour of the world, even aftor he had attained '' parinibbana,"
by means of a corporoal relic, {JOrformed infinite actN to the utmost
perfection, for tho Bpiritual comfort and mundane prosperity of mankind.
While the vanqui11her yot livocl, what mu11t he not have done!'
The aeventccnth chapter in the Uala/avay11a, entitled ' 'rho Arriv-.\l of the
Relica," compelled equally for the dulight and affliction of righteous men.

THE ruler of the land, meditating "i11 l,iH ,,.~11 pttf,,,:e, on tho propo!llition of
the thera, of bringing ovor the grc:\t ho-tree as wdl as the thuri til\1igl1111nittl\ ;
on a certain day, within the term of that vaSJ!I\," 1(lte,l I,!/ tl,r. tl,fr11, ,mcl
liaoing consulted his minh1tcl'!I, /1r himself sent for and advised witb hia
maternal nephew tho miniKtcr A1ittha.. H11vi11g Keluctcd him for that
mission, the king '"'dressed this que11tion to him, " l\[y child, art thou

This is a quotation from a oommentary on n }Jadengu of thu '' pitakattnyn. [ .Vote by .Vr. 1'urn,11,.]
11 the reward of them that trl1llt,"
' f,.s,,t "and.''
al10 became."
"cUgobu. at Thupii.nlma."
" women of the ki11;('11 polncc."
' ,; ancl.'"
I H le&ted iD hil palace by t.he llillll Of thll theta.'"



1,cilling, repairing to the court of DhammAstSka, to escort hither the great

bo-tree and the th6ri Sanghamittli? '' " Gracious lord, I am willing to bring
these from thence hither ; provided, on my return to this land, I am permitted to entor into the priesthood." The monarch replying, "Be it 10 " depute.., him thither. He, 3t01iftm11i11g to tl,e i11j11nctio11 both of the tbera and
of the sovereign, respectfully took his leave. ~ Tl1e imlivi,lual ,o delegaltld,
departing on the second day of the increasing moon of the month "81188.yuja,"
embarked at Jumbokola pnttana.
51Iuii11g tlrJKtrled, 11111le1 tl,e. (tlfrine) i11j1111ction of the the1a, 8traversingthe
ocean, ho reached the delightful city of Puppliapura on the very day of lua
deJ>arture. 7
i j " Tho princess Anu}h, together with five hundred virgins, and also with
five hundrecl of the women of the pnlaco, liaving conformed to the pioua
obsenancot1 of the 'daSl\llflu.' order, cll\cl in yellow garments, and strenuoualy
endeavouriug to attain the Ruporior gl'ades of ennctification, 9ia looking
forward to the arrival of the thcri to enter into the priesthood ; 10leading a
devotional lifn of piety in a delightful sacerdotal l'Cflidenco previded (for
them) by the king in a certain quarter of the city (which had previously been
the domicile of the minister D61,1n). The residence occupied by 11 such piou1
(up6.sika) devotee11 l!/ms become, from that circumstance, celebrated in LagU
by the name of 13 "Upcisil.,i." 11 T/11ropoke:Maburittl111, the nephew (of D6v6nampiya Tissa), announcing the melll!age of the king as well as of the th6ra
to Dhammasokn; 1''mul utlcled, "Sovereign of elephant11 I tho consort of the
brother of thy ally, the king (of Lagka), im11elled by the desire of devoting
herself to the ministry of Iluddhn, is unl"cmittiugly leading the life of a piou1
devotee. For tho purpose of ordaining her a p1icste~R, dt>puting thither the
theri Saligbamitta, send also with her the right hrnuch of the great bo-tree."
He next explRined to the thcri herself tho intent of the mC!lllage of the
thera (her brother l\lnhinda). The said thcri obtaining an audience of her
father (Dhammiisuka), communicated to him the message of the them. The
monarch replied (addro!llling her at once reverontiaJly and affectionately) :
"My mother ! be1-eavocl of thee, and separated from my children and grand. children, what consolation will there be left wherewith to alleviate my
She rejoined, "l\fahiirnjli, tho injunction of my brother
(Mahinda) il1 impemtiYe; and thmm who are to be ordained are many; on
that account it is meet that I i;hould repair tbither."
The king (thereupon) thus meditated: 16 " T/1e great bo-tree is ,ooted to Ike
em/11: it c11111wl IH, 111r.-t lo lu11 ii will, w1111ce,11io11, by what means then can I
obtain a l,much th1Jrcof? Thi,i lord of tho la11d, by the advice of the
minister ::\lahad.::,a, haYing invited the pries,ithoocl to a rep1Lst, thus inquired
(of the high J>riest) : "Lo1ll ! iH it, or i1:1 it not, meet to tnmsmit(a branch of)
the great L,i-trec to Layke?" 'l'ho chief Jll'iei<t, the son of Moggali, replied,
"It is fitting that it i;hould be 8cnt ''; mul expounded to the monarch the
five important 1cHoh-cs of (llmlclh:i) the deity gifted with five meana of
perception. The lord of the l:lnrl, hearing thi11 reply, rejoicing thereat, ordered
tho road to tho bo-ti-eo, cli11tant (from Patnliputta) seven yojanas, to be 1wept,
and perfectl~ decomte1l, in evory ret.pcct : and for the purpoRO of having the

1 "able."

"taking charge of the mC11Rage,"

'A,l,Z, "by the power of the thl'im's will,"
Ir.11ert "At that time."
11 "these."
11 "became."
" "lTpMik,1 vihfim."
11 "And."
"" thuM spoke:"
11 " It It not meet to lop with any weapon the wreat bodhi tree."





Yue made collected gold. ViBMkamma himself, BllBUming the character of

a jeweller and repairing thither, inquired '' Of what size shall I construct the
ftB8?" On being told "Hake it, deciding on the size thyself," receiving the
gold, he moulded it (exclusively) with his own hand, and instantly perfecting
that vase, nine cubits in circumference, five cubits in depth, three <.t1bits in
diameter, eight inches in thickness, and in the rim of the mouth of the thickDCM of tl10 trunk of a full-grown elephant, he departed.
The monarch causing that vase, reKplendent like the meridio.n sun, to be
brought ; attended by the four conHtituent hosts of his military array,and by
the great body of the priesthood, which extended evor a spaoo of seven
yojanas in length and threo in breadth, repafred to the great ho-tree ; which
was docoru.ted with every variety of ornament ; glittering with the variegated
splendour of gems ; decked with row11 of streaming lm1111e1s ; In.den with
offerings of flowers of every hue ; and surrounded by the sound of every
deacription of music. l<}ncircling it with this concourse of people, he screened
(the ho-tree) with a curtain. 1.A. b'IU of a tl1ousa11tl 11l'ir.11tB, with thd chief
th~ra (11011 of ,llogy11li) at tl1eir head, und a bocfg of te thousu11d i11u119umted
11umaicl1s, 11:itl, tlda e111J1eror ( Dl1111111111i11clku} ut tl1tir 1,e.ml, lu,i-int/ ( by JormiPlg
an i1111t1r circle) e11cfosed the Bote1eig11 lti11111t{f us well as tl1e g1t1tt bo-t,ee most
co111pletely, 1,;it/1 11plifte1l cluBJHl<l liu11ds ( Dliu111111dsdka) yazed 011 tl1e great
Wl,ilt! tl1W1 gttzing (on tl,e bo-tru} a portio11 tlm-rof, being four czcbits of tl,e
bra,ich, ,emai11.fd ,,isible, aml tl,e otl1t1r bra11clw~ m11in/1e1l. Seeing this miracle,
the ruler of the world, overjoyed, exclaimed, " I make un offering of my
empire to the great ho-tree." The lord of the hmd (thereupon) invested tbe
great ho-tree with the empire. )faking flower and other offerings to the
great ho-tree, he walked round it. Having Lowed down with uplifted hands
at eight places, aud placed that p1ccio11s v11.11e on a golden chair, stmlrled
with various gems, of such a height that the branch could ho easily reached,
he ascended it himself for the purpose of obtaining the supremo branch.
Using vermilion in II golden pencil, and therewith making 11 11treak on the
branch, he 'pru11011nctcl tl1ii confr.11sio11 of l1iH f,.1itl1: a If this 1<uprcme right
ho-branch lclrtucl1t1l from tl1is bo-troo is du1.1ti11cd to depmtfron1 hence to the
land of Lapka,4 let it, Relf-severed, instantly tmnsplant it1SClf into "tlw ,mise;
tl1m im/p,efl I sl111ll l1r11t implicit /!lillt i11 llui rdiyirm of Bmlcl/1r1."
'The ho-branch, severing it.'lclf at the place where tlm 1o1tr1mk was made,
'l10vered 01e1 the 1111111tl1 of tho vaRO (which was) fillc1l with sccntl-d 1,oil.
The momLrch then encircled the bmnch with b(f1roJ 11tre:,ks above the
original streak, at intervals of three iucbcs: from the original streak the
principal, and from thu otber stronk11 minor root~, ten from each, 11hooting
forth 1ua,,d bl'illic111tfrom tl1ei,fre,d111f'1111, dollce111lecl (intn tho soil in the vase).
The. sovereign, on witneMing thill 1Uiraclc, (with uplifted hant.111) sot up a.
about, while yet standing 011 tho golden chair, which WaK echoed by the


"Surrounding himself and the great bodhi tl'ce mo11t com11lctely with n.
body of a thousand prieHtilwhowero the bends of fratornitili:a, and with more Oum
a thOUBllllll of kings who had reoeivod anointment, ho gazCt.1 on the great bodhi
with cluped hands. 'rhen the (Blllall) brunches of ita1 right b1'1lllch vanished,
leaving only }lOrt.ions of about four cuuitij u.ud the atcm thc1'tlof (~lhcring to
the main trunk).""
s" made this HOlemn decln.ra.tion and invocation": the BuddhiHt.ic 8u1eu.1'iJoiyo
partakes of the nature of both.
Inwrt "and if my faith in tho religion of Buddha be unshaken, then."
" thia golden vase."
'"(Ami lo!)"
" rested on the top."

"like a network.''




IUl'l'Ounding spectaton. The delighted priesthood u:pneaed their joy by

shouts of " sldhu," and the crowding multitude, waving thousands of cloths
over their hA&ds, cheued.
Thus this (branch of the) great ho-tree established itself in the fragrant
aoil (iL the vase) with a hundred roots, filling with delight the whole attendant multituda. The stem theroof was ten cubits high : there were five
branches, each four cubits long, adorned with five fruits each. From the
(five main) branches ma11y latp,ml branches, amounting to a thousand, were
formed. 18uch 1ca, thi11 11'iraculmui and deli9ht-cre11til19 bo-t1~e.
Tho instant the great bo branch was planted in the vnse, the earth quaked,
and numerous miracles were '1~1'formed. By the din of the separately heard
sound of various musical inatruments-by the " udhus " shouted, aa well b:,
d6vaai and men of the human world, as by the host of d6va11 and brahmaa of
the heavens-by the howling of the element&, the roar of animals, the
acreeches of birds, and the yells of the yakkha~ as well as other fierce spirits,
together with the crashing concu111ions of the earthquake, they constituted
0110 unive1'80.l chaotic n11roar.3
1''rom the fruit and leaves of the bo branch, brilliant rays of the six
primitive colours issuing forth, illuminated the whole '" r.alckavala." Then
the great ho branch, together with its vase springing up into the air (from
the golden chair), romainud invisiblo for seven days in the snowy regions of
the skies.
The monarch, deHCending from the chair, and tarrying on that spot for
thoao seven day~, unremittingly kept up, in 6tliefelleatfo111uility, a festival of
otferingii to the bo branch. .H tl,e te1'mi11t1.tio11 qf tlte se1:e11tl, 1l11g, tlUJ apirits
,uhivh 11rcijitle oier eleme11tH (1li11J.1tlli11r1 tlte rnntV!J clo11d8), tl1a beama qf the moon
mwelo1:,ed tlie 9ret1t bo bra11el1.
Tl,e e1icl1w1ti119 gre,it bo Lrw1cli, togetlter 1oith tl,e t'ltBe, re111ainin9 z10i11erl in
ths cloudltB8 firma111ent, 1lis11lage1l itJJe/j to tlir. 11/10/e m11ltitude, Jlaii119 asto1111ded
the cong1egation by tlte z,erfu,mwu:e qf 111w1g 111irocles, 11,e great bo branch
1l.ucende1Z tu tl,e eurtl,.
This great monarch, overjoyed at thcKe various miracles, a second time
mado n.n offering of the empire to tbe gren.t 7bo. llaving thus invested the
great 7bu with I.be whole empire, making i1111uiner.ible offerings, ho tarried
there for 110von d11.y11 longer.
On the fifteenth, being the full moon day of the bright half of the month
"assayuja," (the king) t<,ok po11SC11Sion of the great uo branch. At the end
of two weeks from that date, being tho fourteenth d:1y of the dark half of thu
month "assayuja.," the lor1I of chariots, h:1ving had his cnpital fully omamentcd, and a superb h.,ll built, placing the b'l'eat bo br.mch in a chariot, 011
that very day brought it in n proce1111ion of offcringii (to the capit.'11).
On the first day of the bright half of the month "k.,ttika," having deposited
the great ho branch under the great sal-trco in the sa11tl1-ea~t quarter (of
Pataliputta), he daily malle innumeraulc otferings thereto.
On the seventeenth day after he had n.>eeivcd charge of it, its new leaves
Lit. "Thm WIii this great bodhi tree endued with a fullneH11 of beauty that
entranced the mind."
The rendering of this pasuge is rather highly ornamented,
>"divers way11.''
" At the end of the 10ven days all the now-cloud11, together with the 111:s:
coloured rays, were absorbed into the great bodhi branuh, which, resting on the
ftl8 and poiaed in the cloudleu firmament, displayed itlelf unto all the people ;
and while divers miracles were yet being manifeBt.ed, the great bodhi branch
cleaoeDded to the earth, utoniehing the pooplo greatly.''
1 H bod.hi."'
II e&Ktenl.'"


tpft)llted forth aimaltaneoualy. From that c.ircamatanoa a1ao the monuoh,
O'Yerjoyecl, a third time dedicated the empire to the pat ho-tree.
The ruler of men, having thua &nally inveated the pat bo branoh wUh
the whole empira, made ffrioua otrerinp to the aaid tree.
(It wu during the celebrationa of theae festivals that Bumqa. entered
P,ta)iputta to apply to D ~ for the relim).1
1 Tlau, wa, ,:el,brattd in t1&e capital (appropriately oalll) 11 1M cily-q/-lMlakd of jlmJJ,r1," mclaanling t1&e ,nind, qf dha, a, tHll a, men, U&i1 lllpdrb,pre1111inent, gmml, bo branch proeu,ional-futiml, grucstl by innunlfflJble 11prb
llnaming banner, (qf goltJ and ,ilt,er, and other pagJntry).
The eighteenth chapter in the Mahbagaa, entitled II The obtaining the
great Bodhi Branch (b:t DhammWka )," oompoaed equally for the delight and
affliction of righteoua men.

THE lord of chariota uaigned for the custody of the pat bo branch
eighteen personages of royal blood, eighteen members of noble families, eight
of the brahman cute, and eight of the 'aeglc;cuto. In like manner, eight of
each of tthe agricul&ural and donte.Uc cada, as well u of weavers and potten;
and of all other cutes ; aa alao nagu and yakkhas. This delighter in donatiou, bestowing V8lell of gold and silver, eiglit of each (to water the bo
branch 'llrith), embarking the 11'911t bo branch in a superbly decorated T81881 on
the river(Gangea); and embarking likewise the high priest.ea Sa1ighamitt6. with
hereleTen priesteuea, and the ambuaador AriUhaat the head (of his miaaion);
(the monarch), departing out of his capital, and preoeding (the river procession with his army) through the wilderne1111 of VifijhA, reached Tmuwtta on
the 119'Y9nth day. The d6vu, nagu, and men (during his land progresa) kept
up splendid festivals of offerings (on the river), and they alao reached (the
port of embarkation) on the seventh day.
The aovereign, disembarking the 11'911t bo branch on the ahore of the main
ocean, again made an offering of bis empire. This delighter in good works
having thus finally invested the great bo branch with the whole empire on
the flnt day of the bright half of the moon in the month of " magguira,"
11/&erevpon he (gave dinction),ahat the gr,at bo bra1icl,, 111/iich IIJaltlllpollited (at
U..Joot qf the ,al-tree), 1lcould be lifted up by tlce aJo~,aidfourhiglcca,tetri'IJu,
(aui1ted) by the other eight jNJf"IOm, of eaclc of the otlcer cw,tu. Tlie elevation
qf t1&e bo branch 1.ai,ing been effect.I by the;r nieans, (the nt0111Jrch) lcimMV
dncending there (into the sea) till the water reached his neck, 1DOBt carefally
deposited it in the vCll881.
Having thus completed the embarkation of it, u well u of the chief th6ri
with her priesteaaea, and the illustrious ambasaador MahuiUha, he made this

1 This mUBt have been meant for a. note made by the learned tranalator.
"Thu this ezcellea.t and plelllling (proceuional) festival of the great bodhi
llraa.oh, radiut with the mingling of dinira streaming bamum, oelebm.t.ed in
Pn.pphapan (' the city of flowers '), became the means of upu.ding the hearta
of d6Yu and men (u the aa.n doth the lot111Nn)."
1 Bome M88. read ~eua - 1:ai'11
In the original, goz.,au, hezdamea.'; taracclla, workers in preciOUI metale ';



in order that it might be removed flODI tbenoe ~to the ship), railed the
gnat bod.hi, uaiated by the (companies of) eight pel'BODB bom the high cute
families uadgned for it.a aervioe at the foot of the 116Ja.tne (in Pataliputta), and

him11elf lfOillJI' down."


addNla to them : "I have on three oocaeiona dedicated my empire to thil

bo branch; in like manner, let my ally, your aovereirn, 111 fally make (to it)
an inveatitare of his empire."
The llahir4jl. having thm apoke, stood on the shore of the ocean with uplifted hnda ; and, guing oil the departing ho branch, shed tears in the
bitterneaa of hia grief. In the agony of parting with the bo branch, the
diaoonaolate DhammAB6ka, weeping and lamenting in loud aoba, departed for
hia own capital.
The veaael in which the ho-tree was embarked briskly dashed through the
water ; and in the great ocean, within the circumference of a yojana, the
W&Yell were stilled: 1flowers of the five different colours bl0880med around it,
and Yarioua melodiea of music rung in the air. lllnumerable offerings were
kept up by innumerable d&vas ; (but) the nigaa had recourae to their magical
art.a to obtain p0811818ion of the ho-tree. The chief prieate111 Badghamittl,
who had attained the 1aaMtijication of II abbiiifH," auuming the form of the
"supavl)a," tenified thoae nigaa (from their purpose). These subdued n6pa,
reapectfully imploring of the chief priesteH, (with her consent) conveyed the
ho-tree to the settlement of the nigaa : and for seven days innumerable
offerings having been made by the nlga king, they themaelvea, bringing
it back, replaced it in the v8111181, On the same day that the ho-tree reached
this land at the port of Jambukola, the uniwraallg b,lov,cl monarch IMdnampiya Tiua.4 having, by his communications with Suma,;i.l 8Ullfl]ha,
aacertained the (approaching) advent (of the bo branch); and from the first
day of the month of II maggasim," in his anxiety to prepare for its reception,
having, with the greatest zeal, applied himself to the decoration of the high
roac: from the northern rate (of .A.nuridhapura) to Jambuk6la, bad (already)
repaired thither.

While aeated in a hall on the aea-beaoh, by the miraculoua powers of the

th6ra (MAhinda), he waa enabled to discern (though still out of sight) the
ho branch which was appTOaObing over the great ocean. In order that. the
hall built on that spot might perpetuate the frame of that miracle, it became
celebrated there by tho name of tile "SamuddAaanna-llila. Under the
aaapicea of. the chief 1.hcra, attended by the other t.heraa, aa well as the imperial
ll!Ta)' of his kingdom, on that very day, the nobly formed mahluiji, chanting
forth in his zeal and fervour, "Tbis is the ho from the ho-tree (at which
Buddha attained buddhahood)," rushing into the waves up to his neck, and
oaming the great ho branch to be lifted up collectively by the sixteen oaatea
of persona on their heads, and lowering it down, deposited it in the superb
ball built on the be:ich. The sovereign of Lagki invested it with the
kingdom of Lagkl ; and unto these sixteen oaatea, surrendering his aoTitreign
authority, this ruler of men, taking on himself the office of sentinel at the gato
(of the hall) for three entire days, in the discharge of this duty, made
innumerable offerings.
On the tenth day of the month, elevating and placing the bo branch in a
superb oar, this sovereign, who h.'Ml by inquiry ascertained the consecrated
places, escorting the monarch of the forest, deposited it at the7 Paoina lvihlra ;
and entertained the priesthood, as well aa the peoplo, with their morning
meal. There (at the spot visited at Buddha's second advent) the chief th6ra
Kahinda narrated, without the slightest omiuion, to this monarch,. the triumph
obtained over the niga!I (during the voyage of the ho branch) by the deity
gifted with the ten powers. Having l\8Certa.ined from the thera tl1e particular
'l1tUrt 11 lot1111."
I_,rt "whOBe heart waa 11t on the welfare ol hl11 pooplo.
"near -t.o." IMa:rt (' t.ho _..ide h1'11. ')
' IMlltlrt " Bite of the."



1pota on which the divine teacher had rested or taken refreahment, thoae
BeV&ral 1pota he markod with monument..
The 10vereign stopping tho progre11 of the bo,branch at the entrance of
the village of the bra.hmn.n Tivakka, as well as at the several aforeaa.id places,
1(eac1& of u,AicAJ W1Ul sprinkled with white sand, and decoratod wit'i every
variety of ftowers, 1 1citl, the roarl (cipz1rorichin9 to eu,eh) lined with banners
and garlands of ftowers ;-1.nd keeping up offerings, by night and by day
uninterruptedly, on the fourteenth day he conducted it to the vicinity of
Anuradhapura. At the hour that shadows are most extended, ho entered the
superbly decorated capita.I by the northern gate, 3i,a tlui ru:t ,if making othrings ; and passing in procession out of the southern go.to: r,nd entering the
Mahim6gha garden hallowed by the presence of the four Buddhu (of this
kappa) ; and arriving, under the direction11 of Suma.9a himself, at tho.
delightful and decorated 11pot at which the former ho-trees had been
planted ;-by means of tho sixteen castes, who were adorned with all the
insignia of royalty (which they assumod on the king surrendering the
aoveroignty to them), raising up the bo branch, ho contributed his personal
exertion to deposit it there.
The instant it extricated itself from the hand of m'\n, springing eighty
cubits up into the air, self-JJoised and resplendent, it emit forth a halo of raya
of six colours. Those enchanting rays illumin.'\ting the land, ascended to the
brahma heavens, and continued (visible) till the setting of the sun. Ten
thouilnd men, stimulated by the sight of those mirn.cle11, increasing in
aanctiflcation, and attaining the state of " arhat," conl!Oqnently entered into
the priesthood.
Afterward11, at the setting of the sun, the bo branch deRCending, under the
constellation "rohi~1i," placed itself on the ground ; and the earth thereupon
quaked. Those roots (before described) rising up out of the mouth of the
't'ISO, and-shooting downwards, descended (foruing down) the VIUIC it1mlf into
the earth. The whole R.Membled popuface made flower and other offering& to
the planted ho. A heavy deluge of rain fell aronnd, and dense cold clouds
completely enveloped the great bo in its snowy womb, For 110vcn d11y11 the
ho-tree remained there, invi,1iblo in the snowy womb, occasioning (renewod)
delight in the popuL'\ce. At the termination of the 11eventh day nil the11e
clouds di11persed, and diKpln.yod the ho-tree and itR halo of Rix-coloured rays.
The chief tMm ?lfahinda a111t 8:uighamitU., each together with their
retinue, as well 1111 his majesty v:;U1 his suite, a.Rscmbled i.hore. The princes
from Kace&l'lt!J,'f<illv,, the princC!I from C:mdanaggarn.'\, the brahman
Ti~kka, as alllo the whole popnfation of tho Ian,t, by the intcq1011itio11 of the
devas, exerting thomRClves to Jtcrform n. groat festival of offerings (in honour)
of the ho-tree, lll!llombled there ; an<l at this groat 0011grog:1tion they were
astounded at the miracles which wore performed.
on the aouth-etJ11te11i 1,,-a,acl& a fl"uit ,,,,,11ifc11te<l it11elf, mlfl ,-ipe11trl i11 tl1e 1it1110Bt
j16,:/ticUon. TkB then, tuJ.:inr, up thttt /ritit !&a if .fell, gave it to the king to
plant it. The mo"!lll.rch planted it in a golden vase, filled with odoriferous
soil, which was prepared at the MahaMna. While they were all still gazing
at it, eight sprouting shoots were produced, and bec11me vigorous plants, fl'ur
cubits high each. The king, soeing theso vigorou11 ho-trees, delighted with
astonishment, made an offering of, and invested them with, hie white canopy
(of eovereignty).

1 11

he carried it along tho road, which."


Klijarr.giuna :

" and."'
11 l\"hile the people were looking on, a ripe fruit from the eastern branuh
fell, ud the tlllfra took it up and."



Of theae eight, he planted (one) at Jambuk6lapatiana, on tho spot where

the ho-tree was deposited on its disembarkation ; one at the village of the
brahman Tivakka ; at the ThupArima ; at the Issaraeamru,.aka viMra ; at
the Patharna C~tiya ; likewise at tho Cctiya mountain vihira ; and at Kajaragima, I'll also at Candanagima (both villages in the R6ba9a division); one
bo plant at each. 1Thcse bearing Jou, fruits, two each (produced) thirty
bti plants, whic/1 plm1ted thenu1efres, at tlte sete111l places, each diRtant a yojana
in cil'cwnferenCIJ fro11~ the so1111ei,qn bo-tree, b!J the 1,ro1:idential interposition of
the Buprem,e Buddha., for the spiritual happiness of the inhabitants of the land.
The aforesaid AnuJA, together with her retinue (of five hundred virgins,
and five hundred women of the plWl,co), entering into the order of prieathood, in the community of the thcri Sadgbamitta, attained the sanctification
of "arbat." AriHba, together with a rctinne of five hund1ed personages of
royal extraction, obtaining priestly ordination in the fraternity of the th.sra,
also aitaincd "arlmtship." Whoever the eight persons of the setthi e&11tc
were, who escorted the ho-tree hither, they, from that circumstance,
obtained the name of bodha.hara. (bi-bearerll).
The theri Sai\ghamittil., together with her community of prieste8808,
sojourned in the quarters of the priesteSBCs, which obtained the name of the
"upasikit vib/ira."
There (at the rC!1idence of AnnJii., before she cntere,l int-0 the priesthood)
(the king) formed twelve apartmu1ts, thl'Ce of which were the principal
ones. In one of these grc1>.t apartm,mts (called the Ciil.1.1igana) he depoaited
the (kupayaHhika) m,\st of the Ycssel which transported the great ho ; in
another (ca.llcd Mahaai\gana) an oar (piya): in the third (called the
Sir;val)rjha) the aritta rudder. From these (appurtenances of the ship)
these (apa.rtment8) wore known (u.s the Kupay1\HhithapanigP.ra). Even
during the various schisms (which prevailed at ,;ubsequcnt periods) the
Hatthft!haka priostcst1es uninterruptedly mn.lntaincd their position at this
establishment of twelve apartments.
The before-mentioned st:,te elephant of the king, roaming n.t his will,
placed himself at a cool stream in a certain quarter of the city, in a grove of
kadamha trcei,, and remained browsing there ;-ascertaining the preference
given by the elephant to the t<pot, "tllf'!/ yaa it //,,x nwtt6 q/" II<1ttlui{l1alca,"
On a certain day, thiK elephant 1ofu11cd hi,; food : the king inquired the
cause thereof of the them, ''Liu: dix11r:11,r, '!f l,al'l1i11r ..s in 11,e land. The chief
thcra, replying to the monarch, thus 11poke: ' (The elephant) is desirous
that 'the t111lp,t should Lo I.milt iu the ka<lamha grove." The Rovereign, who
always gratified the tluKircs of his ,.,u!Jjocts, without Joss of time, built there a
thupa, en11hri11ing a relic therein, ;tnd !milt an cililicc over the thupa.
The chief thcri l':l:11\ghamitt{i, being de~ironos of leading a life of devotional
seclusion, and the situation of her ~accrdotal residence not being sufficiently
retired for the' advancement of the cim8c of 1cligion, and ':fol' the Hpiritual
comfort of t11c priestcsseH, wa11 '.<erl:i11y another nunnery. Actuated by these
pious motives, repairing to the aforo,.,,1id lclightful and charmingly secluded
thupa edifice, this personage, sanctified in mind and exalted by her ~doctri11al
k1UJwledge, enjoyed there th\l reHt of noonday.
1 "Thirty-two bodhi plant~, pl'O(luce,1 from four other fruits, planted themselves in the several viha.ms th1'0ughout the islo.nd n.t a cli11tanoo of a y6jana each,
by virtue of the glory of Buddha inherent in the bodhi tree."
" they planted there a post (' a.lhaka.') (to eccurc the elephant ' ha.tthl,' thereto
at night),"
" who had effect.eel the conversion of the island."
" a thupa."
I-rt "purpose ; -king also the. '
'"anxious to ol>t.ain,"
""knowledge of thehigherlife."

The mg repaired to the iemple of the prieateuea to pay hia reepeota to
the thm, and learning whither ahe had gone, he alao proceeded thither, l;ID,d
l'ff81'entially bowed down to her, The mahirij6 Dlvbampiya Tiaa, who
ooald diatinctly divine the thought& of othen, having gracio118ly 1con,ultI her,
inquired the object of her coming there, and having fully ucertaiJted her

wiahei, erected around the thdpa a charming relidence for the prieateaaea.
Thia nunnery being conatructed near the HattMlhaka hall, hence became
known aa the" Halthalhab vih6ra." The chief theri S&Jighamitta, aurnamed
8umitt6, from her being the benefaotreu of the world, endowed with 1tlitiine
wiadom, aojourned there in that delightful reaidence of prieat881188.
Thua thia (ho-tree), monarch of the forest, endowed with many miraculous
powen, haa0 atood for agea in the delightful Mah4rm1gha garden in Lagli,
promoting the spiritual welfare of the inhabit.ante of Lagka, and the propagation of the true religion.
The nineteenth chapter in the MahA.vavaa, entitled " The Arrival of the Bo'Iree," aompoaed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


IN the eighteenth year of the reign ofDbammAl6b, the ho-tree WIIII planted
in the Kahim6ghavana pleaaure garden. In the twelfth :,ear from that period
the beloved wife of that monarch, Aaandhimitti, who had identified heraelf
with the faith of Buddha, died. In the fourth year from (her demi11e) the
r&ji Dhamm4a61ra, under the influenoo of carnal pauiona raiaed1 to ~e
dignity of queen-oonaort 4an allendant of hi, (/ormAJr inif,). In the third
year from the date tliia 6maliciou, and vain creature, who thought only of the
oharma of her own peraon, aaying, " Thla king, neglecting me, lavishea bia
devotion e:icclusiYely on the bo-tree,"-in her rage (attempted to) deatroy the
IJl'9&t bo with the 1poiaoned fang of a toad, In the fourth year from that
occurrence, thia highly gifted monarch DbammAa6ka fulfilled the lot of
mortality. Theae yeara collectively amount to thirty-aeYen.
The monarch D6vanampiya Tiasa, impelled by bis ardour in the cal188 of
religion, haring completed hia undertaking at the M:ablvihara, aJao at the
Thliplrluna, aa well aa at the Oiitiya mountain, in tho most perfect manner ;
-thus inquired of the thera, the dispenaer of joy to the land, who waa
endowed with the faculty of anawcring all inquirieB : " Lord, 'I al&all build
many vihiraa in thia land : 81chenc, ma I to obt~iin the reliCR to be deposit.ad
in the thupaa P " He waa thus answerel1 by the them : " 0 king, the relica
brought hither by Sumar,a, filling tho refection dish of the supreme Buddha,
and depoaited at the Cetiya mountain, are sufficient ; tranafor them hither on
the back of a state elephant." Accordingly he brought the relica, and con1tructing vihiraa at the diatance of one yojana from each other, at thoae
placea be enahrined the relics in thdpaa, in due form ; and depositing the
refection dish of the supreme Buddha. in a superb apartment of the royal
residence, constantly preaented every deacription of offerings (thereto).
1n referenoe to the period at which the fl.nt portion of the llla.halva.v w
aompoeed, between A.D. '59 and 478,-[Nuto 1171 Mr. Turll01fr.]

"OODT91118d with,"
I 1! gn&t, n
11 th, p:rinceu
The oligi.m.l word ""'ffNNIJIAl may allo man the " thorn of the 111qp
tzee." Then are aeveral plantt t.bat bear the name of
or -ff/,wk.
'" I am a.bout to build."
" how oan I obtain."






Tbe pJace at which the five bllDCbed (laar6) 1"""""'1y p;o,,, ,,.,..,,,.,, wllo
bad been ordained by the chief thha, ao;jolll'Df!d, obtainecl the name of

Tbe place at which

the five hundred (-vellM) 1braAmau, who had been

ordainw. by the chief thera, aojourned, obt.ained the name of" Vllllllgiri."
Wherever were the rock cella, 1 wMIA,r ae eAe Citi,a mountain or eZaetoAln,
at which the th6ra :Mahinda aojourned, those4 obt.ained the name of II Mabindaguhi."
In the following order (he executed thoae worb): in the 6rat place, the
Mahivihlra ; aeoondly, the one called Cetiya ; thirdly, oompleting previoud7
the splendid Thdpa, Mio ThdpArAma vihha; fourthly, the planting of
the great ho; fifthly, the designation of the aitea of (future) d6gobu, by
(an inaoription on) a atone pillar erected on the site of tbe Xahlth6pa (BuYanvtli), a1 well a1 (the identification) of the abrine of tbe "GivaUhi" relio
of tbe aupreme Buddha (at Mahiyadgana); ai::a:thly, the Iaaaraaama,va;
aeventhly, tbe Tiaaa tank; oighthly, tbe Pathamathdpa; ninthly, VeBllliri
vihlra; lutly, the delightful Uplaib vihara and the Hatth!lbaka vihira,
'both theae at the quarters of tbe prieateaaea, for their accommodation.
A, th,i p1ieata ialw asHmbll at I/ill Hattlullhaka at.ablilllu,-ient of tJ,,,i priutaaa
lo partaka qf eAe royal aim, (di1tributlld at '1aat pl,a.N), at:qv.ir,i,J a habit qf
loitllring tlillre; (1" con,wucwl) a av.perb and completely /urni,W ref,ction 7tall,
caUI tAll Maluipdli, pnn,idl al,o 111itA an llltabli,Ammt qf rmntl; -..., ,,.,,..
annually (he boatowed) on a thousand prioata tbe aaoerdotal requiaitea offered
unto them at the termination of "pav6.n.\ll,." (Be erected alao) a Tilwa u
the port of Jambuk61a in Nagadipa; likewise the Tiaaarnah' vilwa and the
Piuina vihlra '(botA at .Anuraciliapv.ra).
Thus thia ruler of Lagka, D6vinampiya Tiaaa, bleaaed for hia piety in
former eutencea, and whi.t (in the adminhitration of human affain), for tbe
apiritual benefit of the people of Lqki eucuted theae andertakinga in the
&rat year of hia reign ; and delighting in the eii:erciae of hia benevolence,
during the whole of hia life, 8rllali81ld/or Ai11&81ll{'flUIJli/old bluainga.
Thi, land bllcam,i unto thi, monarch an ,i1tabli,Alllllnt (Jlflt"/llt:4 in ""71 nligiou
r,quiaitll). TAi, IOVllrllign rllignl/orty para.
At the demise of thia king, his younger brother, known by the name of
prince Uttiya, righteously reigned over thia monarchy, to which there wu no
fllial aaoceaaor.
Tbe chief th6ra Mahinda, having propagated over Lagki the supreme
religion of the vanquiaber, hia doctrines, hia churob discipline (u contained
in the whole "pita)mttaya "), and especially the means by which the fraita of
the at.ate of aanctiflcation are to bo obtained in the maat perfect manner,
(which ia the Navavidhal6kuttara dhamma ;) moreover thia lord of multitadino1ll diaciplea,--a luminary likti unto the divine teacher hirnlelf, in
diapelling the darkne11 of ain in Layka,-having performed manitoldaalill for
I "




Iuwt, "ael1a in the zock vihuaa."

The 118DN of thia paaage haa been eminly mlalllld8ntoocL It la ay,ontfnu.
ation of the preoediDg pararraph, and abould 'be semlezecl tbua :-" And ao that
the prieakllael might uaemble at the Jlatthilhalra oonftllt and go topther with
the prieata fo~ the partakiug of food at the cUatrlbution of abqa. Ila balll tbe
refdon hall oalled the MabfpQf, well aupplfal wftla all tJablp IUle4fal u4
witb plenty of eerrifion."
1 "Amlaally."
"at the B&11U1 pict (of ,Tambuk61a),"
",.,_ lalu4 ,... plenteoaa da1'1q tbla Ida&" nip ; and Ila
it for





the. epiritual welfare of Laukt.; in the eighth year of the reign of Uttiya,
while observing his si:r.titth " ,1111~a" since his ordination, and on the eighth
day of the bright moiety of the month" aMayuja," he at~ained" parinibbina "
at the C6tiya mountain. 1PiotJi tl1C1t cfrctn11,t1mce tlmt 1l"1J obtained that 1111me,
(and was commemomted as the anniversary of tho "theraparinibbam." day).
King Uttiya hearing of thi11 event, over11owered withgriof and irrepreuible
lamentation, re1,airing thither, and bowing down to the them, bitterly wept
over the many virtues ( of the tlcccascd), Embalming the corpse of the th&a
in scented oil, and cii:pt:ditiously depositing it in a golden coffin (also filled
with spices and scented oils), nnd placing this 111111ierb coffin iu a bigbly ornamented broldcu hearse, he rcmoYcd thu beal'IIC iu a magnificent proceaaion.
'By the crowds of 311rople who wcro flocking in from all directions, 41,s ctlflbrattr.l 11 fe,,thul <{ oj/e1"i119~, wl,iiI, ll'tt~ ( i11 du" form) krpt 1111 Ii// tl,at gl'eat aaae,n-
blage of tl,e 1111ti011, llaviug lll'ought ( tl10 corp~e) through the decomted high
way to the highly omamcntm.1 capital; and marching in procc11sion through
the principal streets of tho city, lt.ni11gconvoyed the coffin to the MahAvihira,
this sovereign depositod it on the '~111Jt, ,,:!,id, receil"rI t!,e. 71a111e of "Aniba,11{1laAu.''

Dy the comnmmls of thu king, the viMra and thu spuco for three y6janas
round it wore ornamcntud with triumphal arches, b..'l.nner11, and flowel'B, (and
perfumed) with ,:u1c11 of frn1,'lant flowul'II. By the interposition of the devas,
the whole island w1111 11imilurly 1.locorated. For &oven days this monarch kept
up a festival of offcrillb'S, On the c.u,tel'll sido, nt tl10 6.<l111ba11uilakc, of the
tMma, having formed a funcml 1,ilo of odoriferous tlrugs, and marched in
procouion round tho great th,ipa ; aml the splcmlid cofliu having been
brought there, and placed on tho funeral pilo, he completed tho perfol'JIWlce
of the last ceremony (by apJllying the torch to thut Jlilc). Collecting the
relics of the them on that spot, tl1c king built a dagoba there.
The monarch, taking the half of those relics, at the C6tiya mountain, and
at all the vih&fflll, built d:igo}llL,.'I. The l!}>ot at which the corpse of thie
1111Dctified 11el'BOnage was consumed, being held in great veneration, obtained
the name of Isibhumailgana.1 From that time, tbe corpse of every 8" rakal '
priest (who died) witbiu a di11tnnce of three yujanas, being brought to that
spot, is there consumed.
The chief th6ri Saughamitt6, who had attaini,d the perfection of doctrinal
knowledge, and was briftcd with infiuitc wisdom, 1111.ving fulfilled every object
of her llllCl'ed mission, and 1icrformod manifold acts for thi, spiritual welfare
of the land, while sojourning in the Hatthi1Jhaka establishment ; in the
,i:i:ty-ninth year of her ordination, and in tho ninth year of the reign of king
Uttiya, achieved "parinibblma."
Por her, in the aamo manner a11 for tho thlira, tho monarch caused offerings
and funeral obeequiea to ho kept up with the utmost pomp for seven days.
Al in the case of tho tbura, the whole of Layka was decorated (in veneration
of this event).
At the termination of the seventh day, removing the corpae of the tlwrf,
which had been provioutdy deposited in the funeral hall, out of the city, to
the weetward of the Thupllrima dagooo, to the vicinity of the bo-tree near

1 11 l!'rom the OU011JD11tance that the thEra Mahinda attained llibbutl.' OD the
eighth da7 (of the walting moon), that day obtained the name of the (tiMn'a)
111 well-oloaed."
1 " the common people and IIUID lu 111'1111."
"he oaUllld a feet.ival of olleringa to be celebrated (in due form)."
" Baddham'1ab."
''hol7 ground' 'or the Saints' ground.' "eaintl;y."
11 11.ft;y,"


CBA"1!JB x:iu.

the 1CIUya hall; 'on ,,,, ,poc tluignated br tM theri A,r111V, (the ld:ag)
performed the funeral obeequieR of conauming the body . with flro. Thia
monarch Uttiya erected a thdpa there also.
The 'ive principal th6raa (who had accompanied Mahinda from Jambud[pa),
u well aa tboae, of whom Arittha wu the principal ; and in like manner the
thouaands of sanctified prieats (also natives of Laukl); and inclusive of
Sadgbamitt6, the twelve theriR (who mme from Jambudipa) ; and the many
thousands of pio111 prieatesses (natives of Laglr:6): all tbeae profoundly
learned, and infinitely wise personagea, having spread abroad the light of the
"vinaya" and other branchea of the faith, in due COIU'lle of nature, (at sabeequent period&) submitted to the lot of mortality.
This monarch Uttiya reigned ten yean. Thus this mortality 11ubjecta alJ
mankind to death.
U mortal man would but comprehend the relentlellS, the all-powerful,
irreaiatible principle of mortality ; 3.i"t!linquiBAing (t/M hopelu, pur8Uil of
" ra,adra " ( elff'flily ), 11, woultl, thus re,wl t/,,,.,from, neitl- adliere to a ri,iful
courBll of life, nor abstain f1'0m lew.ling a plouR on4!. Thi, (principle of mortality
aforuaid) on Jim.ling his (man',) lia't'ing attaine<l this (state of aanclity) HlfparalysI, it, pow,r ( over him) ,oill become uttlrly t:rtingui,htd.
The twentietl1 chapter in the Mahavavsa, entitled " The .Attainment of
ParinibMna by the Th~ras," oompo&ed equally for thedelightandaftlictionof
righteous men.
ON his demiae, Mah6Riva, the patron of righteou1 men, the younger brother
of Uttiya, reigned ten years. Thi1 monarch, ~ro,nplying wilh (~ dinctior,a
qf) IM tlillra Blcafldaadla, con,truclttl a t"il,dra iii tl1t eu,tem qf'art,r ,if 1h11
eil1J, v,hich 1D(JII itulf beauteous a11 .Arigana (the gotlflw1 of btau'1J).
On hi1 demiae, Suratissa, the delighter in actll of piety, the younger brother
of Mahwva, reigned ten years. 6 This mo11a1ch, luyin!J up for liimnlf an
in,stimabl6 at01-a of t"Aards, built BUpib TJihdras at many places, (vis.)1 to the
eastward of the capital (near Dv6rama1:HJala), the Hatthikkhandha; and in
the same direction, the Go,;il)l.giri vihara: 7 (alao vihdras) at the Valigutlara
mountain; at the mountain culled Pdcb1a; tind at t1UJ RaMraka moumuin ; in like man"6r at K6lamba, the Kdlaka t;il,.dra; and at the foot of the .A.riHba
mountain, the Layka vih6ra. (Still further) to the eastward of A.nur6dhapura, near Rabagallab ( di:t!erent however from the vihara of the same name
I " Citta."
' This may alao be rendered "at the plaoe where the th6ri dwelt.." It depeDda
upon which of the two reading i1 oo:rnot, n1tt11 or 1"1ttth11; the former would
"deaignated," the latter "dwelt.."
" would he not be dillguated with the (wearying> ooune of renewed uietenoe f
Thm diaguated, would he not avoid that which is evil and cleue to that whioh
II good P But nen knowing (the truth), still would he be led utza.y. Bow
ezoeeding great ia the atrength of hia ignorance and deluion I"

" being much pleaaed with the th&a of Bbaddaaala, built for him the beautiful
rih6ra, Nagamilgana, on the . .tern aide of the oit7,"
1 This puuge II omitt.ed in the text of the Sumailgala-Batuvantu4'n, B.eceD
"on the eouthern Bide the Nagarailpnavihm." Omitted in Tumour' tat.
There appean to h&ve been another 'rilara of this name ou .the eMtem eide,
built by Hahaln.
' at the Vailpttam mountain, the P"=fna-pabbata Tihua ; near the Ba1ma
tlam, the Xolaail-.Wlaka vlbua."




~ t by D6rinampiya Tila) the Accliagallab vihira; to the north of the

ail)', the Girin6lapanakqcJa vilwa. Thu ruler of the land, a llinoere worlhipper of th11 "ratana.ttaya," during a period of mty years, both before and
after.ma acceuion, b11ilt in great perfection, and without oommittf'18 any
opprellion, these, together with otJrrs, ftve hundred delightful vihlraa, in
-.arioua parts of the illand, both on this and on the other aide of the river
Thill king wu formerly called 8uvarniapio4a Tiua. From the time of lwi
IIOIMIIBion to the aovereignty, he acquired the appellation of 811ra Tilla.
Two damiJa (malabar) youths, powerful in their cavalry and navy, named
Mu and Guttika, putting to death thia protector of the land, righteoualy
reigned for twenty-two yea.re.
At the termination of that period, Aiwla, aon of lt:utaai-va, and the ninth"
of the (tea) brothers (bom of the l!&ID.e mother) putting them (the umrpen)
to death, reigned at A.nuridhapnra for ten :,ean.
A dami}a named EIAra 1o/ t1,e illvatriONB " Uju" tribe, in-vading thia ialand
from the Cola country, for the purpoJe of usurping the aovereignty, and
patting to death the reigning king .A.aela, ruled the kingdom for forty-four
yean,--administering justice with impartiality to friends and to foes.
At the head of his bed, a bell, with a long rope, Wllll suspended, in order
that it might be rung by those who aought l'tldress. The 11&id monarch had
a 10n and a daughter. This royal prince, on an excursion to the TiaBa tank
in hia chariot, unintentionally killed a full-grown calf, which WU on the road
with ita dam, by the wheel of the carriage paaaing over its neck. The cow
repairing to the aaid bell (rope), threw heraelf agaimt it. The conaeque.ioe
of that peal of the bell w1111, that the king atr11ck off the head of his son with
that very ~eel. A. ael'pent devoured a ;yp11ng 1 crmr. on a palmyra tree.
The mother of the young bird, repairing to the bell (rope), flew against it.
Tbe king causing the aaid (serpent) to be brought, had its entrails opened;
and extracting the young bird therefrom, hung the serpent ap on the
palmyra tree.

Although this king w1111 ignorant of the " ratanattaya " as well u of its
iDe1timable importance and immutable yirlues, protecting the institutions
(of the land), he repaired to the Cetiya mountain ; and 4ojflml Iii protection
to the priesthood. On his way back in his chariot, a comer of a buddhiatical
6edijice wu fractured by the yoke bar of his carriage. The ministers (in
attendance) thus rt.proacl,ed him:-" Lord! 'i m,r t.1,uJJa to be demolished
by thee ? " Although the act was unintentional, this monarch, descending
from his carriage, and prostrating himself in the street, replied, " Do ye strike
off my head with the-wheel of my carriage?" "Maharaji," (responded the
suite,) "our divine teacher delights llot in torture : seek forgiveneu by
repairing the thdpa." For the purpo11e of replacing the fifteen atones which
bad been displaced, he be,towed fifteen thollRILnd kahipa1,1111.
A certain old woman had laid out aome paddy to dry. MThe di1,-a ( UJlao
pruidu our elemmta) earning an unseaaonable 11hou:er to fall, wetted her
paddy. Taking the paddy with her, she went and rang the bell. Satisfying
himself ""-t the shower wu unl!eUOnable, sending the old woman away and
~ The names of nine of these brothe1:11 are given in the oomment.&17: A.bh&Ja,
JJ6rinampiya Tilaa, Uttiya, lllahfisena, Jrlablomga, Jrlatt&bhaya, Sdza Ti--, Kinum&ka, and Aa61a; omitting Uddhaflc.U&bha,a, who is mentioned. in the flnt

ohapt;er.-(Note ir Yr, 7\crn111r.]

"a llDIIII. of upl'itrht character,"
IIUl'rl. "wild with anger." .
Dija. may mean any bird.
" thdpa.''
'" oar thdpa ball ~ - "
"aa.bmlttied to."
An u ~ b l e llltower of rain fell 111111,"



1111ying to him11elf : " While a king rule11 righteously the rain ought to u.q.at
aeuonable periods "; in order that he might be inspired with the mean of
giving judgment in the cue, he consigned himaelf to the penance of
abstinence. 1By th, 11Upernalural msrit, of th, king, the tutelRr d.Sva, who
accepted of hia ball offerings, im,ed ~ilk compaasion, repairing to the four
kinga of devaa (of the Oltummah6raja world) imparted this oircumatauce to
them. They, taking him along with them, aubmitted the oua to Sakb.
Sa.kb (the supreme dc1va) sending for the 1apirit wlio pNsidu oioer thl
eleme,its, enjoined the fall of showers at aeaaonable hours only.
The tutelar deva of the king impart.od this (behest) to the monarch.
From that period, during his reign, no shower fell in the daytime : it only
rained, at tA, rerminaUon of er,er.y 1,;,eek, in the middle of the night, and the
ponds and wella were everywhere filled.
Thus, even he 10Ao waB a hlntic, doomed by hi, creed to perdition, aolely,
from having thoroughly eachl,oed th, ,ins of an II agati" cour11e of life (of
impi~ty a111l i,dU11tice), attained this 11ulted extent of supernatural power.
Under these oircumstancos, how muoh more should the true believer and
wise man ( exert himself to) eaohew the 'vice, of an impimu and iniquiloua life,
The twenty-first chapter in the Mahavagaa., entitled II The Five Kings,"
composed equally for the delight and aOiiotion of righteous men.

DunuA O!MANI putting him (Elira) to death, became king. To ill111trate
this (event), the following (is the account given) in 8ancient hiatorg.
The next brother of king Dc1vanampiya Ti111111, named lfahinip, had been
appointed sub-king ; and 9kA 1,xi, tnuck attached to his brot/1.e1.
The consort (of Dcvanampiya Tiaaa), ambitious of 11dministering the
government during the minority of her aon, was incessantly plotting the
destruction of the sub-king. She sent to him, while engaged in the formation
of the Tar*ha tank, 10,,n amba fruit containing poiaon, whiob woa placed
the uppcrmoat (in a jar) of ambas. Her infant son, who had a.ocompanied
the sub-king (to jhe tank), at thltinatant of opening the jar, eating that
particular amha, aied. From that very spot, for the preaervation of his life,
taking his family and his establishment with him, the sub-king escaped in
the direction of the R6hatta, division.
(In the flight), at the Yanhala vihara, his pregnant, consort was delivered
of a. aon ; to whom he gave the name of his (reigning) brother (and of the
plaoe of his nagivity, Yatthala).11 Prooeeding from th~noe to Rohar,ia, thia
illuatrioua prince ruled over the 1'ferlile and produclii-e Roha\la oon*y,
making Mahlgama his capital. He constructed a vihara, bearing his own
name, Mah6niga, aa well u UddhakaJ!clara and many other viharaa.
On his demise, his aon, the aforesaid Yanhalaka Ti111111, ruled over the
mm.a country. In like manner his aon GothAbbaya suoceeded him. Similarly,


opproued with the weight of the Jr:iag'a glor,."

11 onoeaweek."
11 who 1aad not disoa?ded hill falae oreecl."
''liberated himaell from the ainful II01U08II of injaatioe (10ft, fear, hatAI, and
1 11

a "c1011Cl-god."

"evils that lead men to oommit iniquit1."
"due Older."
"alld WM maah beloved b1 hill brother,
"Thali ia, Yltwan-


a mango.



on ,the demise of Gothabhaya, his 110n, the monarch celebrated under the
name of Kakavaoa;aa Tiua, ruled there. The queen-comort of that sovereign
of e~inent faith wu Viharadevi, the equally pious daughter of the king of
1 Ti,,a, ~ ""1ereign of Kalgd1J.i, hacl a brother named UUiga, toho,
lerri/iMl at the resentment borne to him on the king's detect:on of his
criminal intercourse with the queen, fled from thence. This prince, called
Uttiya, from his grandfather (king of Anuradhapura), established himself in
another part of the country (near the sea). From that circumstance, that
division was called by his name. The said prince, entrusting a secret letter
to a man disgui11ed in the garb of a priest, dispatched him to the queen.
(The moasenger) repairing thither, atationed him,elf at the palace gate ; and
as the sanctified chief thura daily attended the palace for his repast, he alao
unobserved entered (with that chief priest's retinue) the royal apartment.
After having taken his repast with the thera, on the king's leaving the apart.
ment in attendance (on the th6ra), this disguised m88118nger catching (at
last) the eye of the queen, let the letter drop on the ground. By the noise
(of its fall) the king's (attention) was arrested. Opening it and discovering
the object of the communication, the monarch, misled (into the belief of the
chief priest's participation in the intrigue), became enraged with the thfra;
and in his fury putting both the thcra and the melll!Cnger to death, cast their
bodies into the sea. The dcvatas, to upi<Ltll (this impiety), submerged that
province by the overflo.w of the ocean. This ruler of the land (to appease
the dcva.tns of the ocean) quickly placing 1his 011111 lo11el.1J daugl,ter Suddliade11i
in a golden vessel, and inscribing on it "a royal maiden," at that very pl'l.00
launched her forth into the ocean. The king (of ::Mahagima) Kika.var.ir.ia
raised to the dignity of his queen-consort her who wa.s tbUB cast on shore
4011 hi, dom.inionB.
Hence (from the circumstance of her being cast on shore
near a vihara), her appellation of -Vihara Devi.
Having caused to be constructed the Ti11Samaha, as well aa the Cittalapabbata, GamiHhavUi, Kutili, and other vih6.ra!l1 (the king) zealo118ly devoted
to the "ra.tanattaya," constantly bestowed on the priesthood the four
ucerdotal requisites.
At that period there was a certain samal}.~ra. priest, am- holy character,
and a practiser of manifold acts of charity, residing in the K6tipa.bbata
Yihara. For the purpo118 of facilitating the aacent to the 6 ,lkdaketiya vi/uira.
(tol&ich 1/Jllll difficult of access) /1.11 plaeed, in the (in~ruals of) tlnlltl rocka, &01116
1tep,. He constantly provided for his fraternity the beverage used by
priests, and performed the menial 11ervices due to the senior brotherhood.
Unto thi1 (sama.9era), worn out by his devout assiduities, a aevere visitation
of mnesa befel. The priests who were 1rtJndering fJIBi11lOJUJt (to the patient)
removing him in a 8" sioil.-d to the Tisdrama vihira, were attending him in
Ute Silapaasa pariv6Q.&. 'Tlv. benevolent Vihdra Divi corntantly ,mat from ~

' "Now there was a sovereign of Kal7lt\li oalled Tiu&, a K..hatriya, whose
brother Utti7a, terrified," &o.
"inoenaed at."
"his daughter Devi, 'II. priaoesa of great beauty and purity."
"near the La.ilk;. vihara."
" terrace of ..he dagoba aloft ( on the top of the rock), he lb:ed tltree atone
alt,be on the flight of atepe that led thereto."
' "grateful tor his ae"i~,"
" litter"
" Now the gentle Vihara D4vi wu alwa:,a wont to treat the prithood with
11umptuo1111 food at the king's palace in the ioreuoon, and. after meal time, t.o take
with her ung118Dt.ll, ftowera, drug~, and olothea to the t.emple, and make offering
co '1:le prieeta aooordin, to their want.a."



eoell-prooidl palace Iha fore,wo,a principal alma w 1M priuthootl; and ~

IDi'1I 1Nr 1M ffffling m,al, qffrrings of fragrant garland,, medicinal drug,,
clothing, ,he npaiml to 1M ~"'JM and adminis~ri ~ comforl, While lhe
WM in the performa.nce of thi11 duty, she ha.ppened to be seated near the
chief priest; and the said thera in expounding the doctrines of the faith,
thus addreued her: "It is on account of thy pioua benevolence that thou
hut a.Uained thy preaent eulted position of prosperity. Even now (however) in the performance of acts of benevolence there should (on thy part)
be no reluation." On his ha.ving delivered this exhortation, ahe replied,
"' WAy 1 in whal dou tlw tttJlted prosperity consist 1 Up to thia prriotl IN
1&aN no children ; it follow,, tMrifore, that our, is tM prospuity of barMlnllB.''
The chief them, muter of the six branches of doctrinal knowledge,~~
lhe proapenty which would attend Mr aon, ' replied,' "Queen, look (for the
realiaation of thy wish) to the suffering 11ama,;iera," Repairing to the dying
print, she thua implored of him: 1" Becomt. my ,cm: ii ,oill bll to"" (a ruule)
of t"t. utmoat importance." Finding that he W&B not eonaentient, &till with
the sa.me object in view, ha.ving held a magnificent festival of flower offeringa,c
thi1 5bmefactru, again. 1'8Dewed her petition. On' him who Wll8 thu1 unrelenting 'mad on tM priuthoorl ( gt.nerally) the queen, fruitful in upedientl,
ha.ving beatowed medicines and clothing,8 again implored of him (the dying
IWD&l}era). He (at l&Bt) consented to become a member of the royal family.
She, causing his residenoe to be ornamented with every description of
decoration, and bowing down and t.aking leave of him, departed, 1188.ted in her
oarriage. The sama9era expiring immediately afterwards W&B conoeived ill
the womb of the queen, who waa still on her journey. Conaoioua of what
had t.aken place, she stopped (her carriage) ; and having announced the event
to the king, t.ogether with his majesty returned, and both performed the
funeral obsequies of the aamaoera ; and for the priesthood, 11&nctifi.ed in mind,
resident in tha.t parive9a, they constantly provided alma.
Unto this p19-eminently pious queen the following longing of pregnanoy
wu engendered.
First : that lying on her left aide, on a magnificent bed, having for her
head-pillow a honey-comb, an "Ulltlbha" in siu, and having given thereof
to twelve thousand priests, she might eat the portion left by them..
Secondly: that she might 10bathe in the (water) in which the sword which
struck off the head of the chief warrior of king EJa.ra W&B washed, 1tanding
on the 11 head of that identical individual.
Thirdly: that she might wear unfaded 11uppalajlo,aer,, brought from the
11uppala marshes of Anuradhapura.
The queen mentioned th988 longings to the king, and the monarch consulted
the fortune-tellers. The fortune-tellers, after inquiry into the partioulan,
thus predicted : "The queen's son, destroying the dami!as, and reducing the
country under one sovereignty, will make the religion of the land shine forth
again.'' The sovereign caused to be proclaimed by beat of drums :-" Who-

1 What J>?Ollperit.)' is this to 118 who have no children in this world : our
prosperity, theiefore, is indeed barren."
"for81Ning that she would be bl81!8ed with a son.''
"Desire to become my aon (in thy next reinoamation); for our estate indeed

la great."
' Add, " (in ma behalf).''
1 I'IWfJrt "baball of."
Atltl "on the priesthood."

" drink of."

11 "a ,arl&lld of water,Jiliea.'

" truly wlae 'WOlllall.,"


" of about the 11U1e of a bull."

II I'/llffl .. (d8!J1,pitated)"
II "

W&te?lil/. 11



IIU8Ver will discover a hont!y-.:unab of 11uoh a d811Cl'iption, to him will the king
give a proportionate reward." A native of that district seeing a canoe whioh
wu turned 1up on the beach near tll.ll ,caties, filled with honey, reported the
same to the king. The ra.ja conducted the queen thither ; and 1in a
COlll&modiou, building ended t-here, 11'/ie lw.d, tll.ll 111.Bam, of partnkillg of fk 1,,oneg-

comb according to her longing.

For the purpose of gratifying her other longings, the ruler auigned the
accomplishment of the task to the warrior named Velu11uma1.ia. He, repairing
to Anuridhapura, formed an intimacy with ihe groom of the king (EJira's)
charger (named Sammata), and co1111tantly assisted him in his work
PerNfoiwJ that tll.ll 91"0011, luul reluu.tl i1& T,i11 oigila.nce, at the ,lu.wn of day,
(previously) concealing Rome 111ppul" jltJwers and a 11word on the bank of the
Kadamba river, without creating the slightest suspicion, leading the state
charger (to the river), mounting him, and seizing thd 5upp<il<& fto,,,,.rs and the
sword, and proclaiming who he was, darted off at the full 11peed of the
The king (Elm), hearing of thi11 event, dispatched his warrior (Nandieirathi)
to aeize him, mounted on the next betlt charger (Sirigutta). That warrior
obued (the fugitive). (V,Uusum393) stationed himnlf in ambuscade in a
foreat (Ollled the nigrodha forest in the Roba1,a division), retaining his aeat
on his horse. On the approach from behind of his punuer, he drew his sword,
and held it out (neck high). From the impetus of tho horse, tho punlier's
bead was struck off. Taking po11ses.11ion of tho head and of both chargers
on the same evening he entered :Ma.hai.gama. ; and the queen, according io
her desire, gratified her longing. The king conferred favoun on the war-ior
proportionate to his great services.
This queen, in due COlll'lle, gave birth to "a 11011 el'ldoUMcJ with marka
prerlictiN of tlie most pro1>itiou, ck11tiny. By the preternatural good fortune
of the (infant prince), on the aame day, seven ahips ladon with treasures
arrived 'in different (parts of the isla.ncl). By tbe aame good fortune, a state
elephant of the" Ohaddanta" breed, bringing a young elephant (of the same
breed) and depositing it here, departed, On the 11&me day, an angler named
.Kal)fJula, finding this (young elephant) in a hmar11/1 ,1ear the l,a,-bou,, reported
it to the king. The raji\ sending elephant 9 1.:eeptr~ and having it brought,
reared it. From it11 having been diBCOvered by the fisherman KaocJula, it was
named Ka1.1cJula. Report having been made to the king that abipa bad
arrived laden with golden utouils and other goods, the monarch cauBOd them
to be brought (to Mahagama).
At the festival held on tbo day on which the kmg conferred a name on hill
eon, he invited about twelve thousand priests, aud thus meditated : " If my
110n be destined, after extending his rule over the whole of Lagka, to cause the
religion of Buddha to 10 alw,o forth ; let at leaat eight thol18Blld priests, all
provided with robes and with uncovdred di11hes, now enter (the palace). LeL

1 "11p11ide down."
"of the Oo$ha aea." Go~ is the name or t.he 1183 oalled by Si9haleae writ.en
Qoli1111a, "the Dumb-," moat probablt on aocollnt of ite calmneu,
" in a well-furniahecl hall erect.ad there, oaWled bur to partake of the honey M
llhe pleued..,
" All1luring hi11180lf of the groom's friendahip."
" wat.er-liliea."
a noble son emlowed with good fort.une ; and there wu great joy in thr.
kiag' homehold thereat.''
'" flOlll diftlll oountrie1.
" thicket c:.11 the bonier of a pond."
I O cat,chen.,"
II llhine.''

OHAP'l'RB XJ:11,


them uncoTer with one band their drinking buona, and let them cro11 the
threahbold with their right foot foremoat. Let the th&a G6tam& undertake
the office of naming my son, and let him I inculcate on llim tlia life qf riglatcou
ne,s u,1,i.h ktuli to ,alvation." All (these ailent 1upplication1) were fulfilled
Seeing every anticipation realiaed, th11 monarch exceedingly rejoiced, pre11enting the prie11thood with rice dreaed in milk, caased the ceremony to be
performed of ,amlng hi child. Uniting in one the I appellation, of" Hahigima" the aeat of hia government, and (" Abhaya ") the title of his own
father, he called him "GiUDani-Abhaya." On the ninth day (from that
event), while reaiding at Mahagama, (the king) renewed connubial intercoune
with the queen, whereby Bhe became pregnant. On a son being born, in due
coul"IO, the rajA conferred on him the name of Tiua. Both theae children
were brought up in great atate.
On the day of the festival of I pillf"Cing IM tar11 of the two (prince,), this
atfectionate (parent) again bestowed the alms of milk-rice on five hundred
priests. The monarch, 1188iated by the queen, having collected into a golden
dish a little from each of the partially con11umed contents of the priests'
di11be1, and bringing (this collection to the princes) be put (a haadfql thereof
in the mouth of each) and uid : "My children, if ye ever oocome n1>verters
of the true faith, may thia food, when admitted into your stomachs, never be
dige11ted." Both the royal youtha, fully understanding the imprecation
addreued to them, accepting the milk-rice, as if it had been heavenly food,
swallowed it.
When theae two boys had respectively attained their tenth and twelfth
years, the king, wishing to ascertain their sentimenta, having u before entertained the priesthood, gathering the residue of their repast into a dish, and
placing it near the youth111 thus addrelllled them, div/ding the contents of the
dish into three portions : " My children, eat this portion, vowing ye will
never do injury to the prieata, who are the tutelar devatu of our dynaaty.
A.gain vowing ' We two brothers will ever live in amity without becoming
hostile, eat thia portion.'" Both of them ate theae two portions, u if they
bad consisted of cele11tial food. (The king then said,) " Eat thia, vowing we
will never make war with the dami!aa.'" On being called upon to make this
vow, Tisaa flung the portion from him with hia hand. Gamani also spurned
away hia handful of rice, and retiring to bis bed laid himself on it, with his
hands and feet gathered up. The princes' mother following Oamani, and
caressing him, inquired, "My boy, why not stretch thyaelf on thy bed and
lie down comfortably P" "Confined (replied he) by the dami!u beyond
the river (Maha'V\?ligaiiga) and on the other aide by the 4 unyieldi111f ocm,
how can I (in M> confined a apace) lie down with outstretched limbaP"
The monarch on bearing the import of hia reply, was apeeohle.u (from
The prince, in due course, increasing in piety, prosperity, wisdom, 1good
/01t11nt, and martial accompli11hmentR, attained bis sixteenth year.
1 This is rather a
broad rendering. " Impart the oonfeB1ion of faith
(' rai,a ') and the precept.a of the law (' aikkh' ')," wonld be literal. It
mut here be borne in mind that it is oustomaey with the priesthood to administer the conf-ion of faith (' ~ a ') and the five precept& (' paftoa 1fla ') ,,,

tlte a111emblr befon the commencement of any ceremony : otherwise one would
be led to BUJIPON that thel8 wen administered to the child.

rule over."

"giYillg rice to." Alluding t.o the ceremoDJ' of weaning and maldnar the child
wallow a few mouthfnlll of boiled rfoe u aolid food.




1Tu datiflldian ff nery llorlaZ cnrdure being i,..,,Zt,,d in lfflM'lczin'11 (;/,'oM
U..frailliu qf mortalie,), iii, only by a life of pie'11 Uuu tle duind dt,tmaeion
cma 6e ennmwl. &aring ru,
con,tantly in 111intl, Uu, u,i,e an ,lwBltl
i~atigal,ly ,:r;en AimBM,! to eam tAe reumrd, o/ a piouo life.
The twent7-aeoond chapter in the M'ahivavu, entitled 1 " Origin of
Glmanf," oompoaed equally for the delight and affliction of righteou men.


TAe &.!/ore-mentionI magni,icent ,tale eleplaant Ka,lula, n,pernaNnllly
gi/fetl VlitA ,trengtA anti ,ymmewy of form, wa, int:aluable.from Ai, ,pelt.I anti
tlocility. (G,mani) bad alao ten powerful warrion, viz., Nandimitta,
8l1raDimila, Mahiao1,1a, G6ihaimbara, Thc!raputtlbhaya, Bhan.va, V'1uaumaaa,
u alao K.hailjadm, Phlllllladeva, and Labhi:ya Vaaabha.
King EJba had a miniator named Mitt.a. In his ~atiw t,illage lCamnuudagdma, aituated in a diviaion to the 6aouth-eut, near the Oitta mountain,
lived his aiater'a aon, 11"110 hatl a pe,mliarity offormation in Cf!'l'tain mnn&.ir,,
and bore the name of his maternal uncle. (Bia parent.a) were compelled to
tie a' atone, with a band round his waist, to this infant son of theirs, who had
acquired the habit of wandering far away. 8 Tliis tlio11g ( nandi) with u:Aich hr.
_, tilt.I to tAe ,tone, by (the boy',) con,tantly ,-ubbii,g it bacA:u1artl antl/Of'UJIJrd

against the ground at t1u, threilwld of the house, waring through, _ , broken.

Hence he obtained the apellation of Nandimitta, and acquired the atrensth

of ten elephant.. On attaining manhood, repairing to the capital, he atti..ohed
himaelf to hia uncle.
At that time, on a damiJa being detected in offering any indignity to the
digobu or other sacred edifices, this powerful (Nandimitta) was in the
practice, after placing his feet on one of hia (the ofl'ender't) thighs, aeising
the other with his hand, and 11plitting him in two, of pitching the corpee
beyond (the barrier of the town). The d6vaa rendered invisible the corpaea
thus thrown away b7 him. Beporta were made to the king of the obvioua
diminution of the damiJaa ; and on being answered, " Seize him with the aid
of the warriors," they were not able to enforce that order. Thill Nandimitta

1 I think this tramlation ia rather too free,

The following would aooord
better with the original :-" :Jven in this changeful life's journey men reach their
demed deatination by walking in the path of virtue. Remembering this let the

wlae lll&ll atrive with great eameatn81111 to acquire virtue."

1 "The Birth."
"The elephant XaocJula pew and became a huge beast, noelling othen in
stnmg-th, beauty, and form; in m.ajeaty, 1peed, and other rat qualitfa"
"village of tenants." I think the word kummallta-gdm, "aenlce village"
is equivalent to the rdua,1.111111 of the present day. It is a village, thetenantaof
wblch an liable to render aervioea to the landlord.a
The origiDal idHAUa-gJlua ia too delicate to be literallytramlated.
' Iuerl II grinding,"
" But he would (neverthe1818) orawl along the pound dnggiDg the at.olle
aft-.- him. ; and in oroaaing the threshold (one day) the thong (' 111PJ!AU '), when
,rlth he was aecl to the atone, broke." The threshold of a natift peuu.t'a cottage
1lly :form.a part of the door frame, and projeot.11 a little abcmt the level of
the l.oor. What ia meant hen ia, thal. the at.nngth a:eri.ed by the ollild in
liallllDs the rope, when the atone - e in OG1Lt.aot with the Jl'Dfeafibls thnihold,
IIO peat all to oauae it to IIIUIP, So pat. WU hla natural IIWllllltb ... In
clliJdbood I




then thus meditated : " From my pl'88ent proceedinp there is only a

diminution of the people. There ia no revival of the glory of our religion.
In Roha.l}a there are sovereigns, believers in the 'ratanattaya.' Establishing
myself in their courts, and capturing all the damiJas, aud conferring the
sovereignty on those royal personagea, I will bring about the revival of the
glory of the religi<'n of Buddha." With this view he repaired to the court
of Gflmani and disclosed his project. The prince, having consulted hia
mother, received him into his service. The warrior Nandimitta, who was so
befriended, ost.i;l:,lislu,'4 himself at the (prince's) court.
The monarch Kllkavai,tl)n '1'111118, .for the purpose of keeping the damiJas in
check,, established guards at all the ferries
the principal river. Thie king
had, a son named Dighlibhaya by another wife (than Vihara D.Svi); by him
the passage of the Kacchaka ferry waa guarded. In order that he might
protect the country within the circumference of two yojanas, he called out,
to att,md that duty, 11, man from e11.ch family.
In the village Kalia,.i~avitthika, in the Konhivitla division, there was an
e.minr,nt cmaiw, cl,ief 11a111ul Smiyl,a; l1ig seventh son Nimilii Aacl tl,e 1t1-ength
qf ten eleplu111tx. uml tlte pri,1ce, tlesfro11s qf enlisti11y 11h11, aent a mesaengerfor
l,i111, lliH siJ: l,rotl1rrs tluitletl /iiH l,tlpleBOntsB in er~r!I 1my, tttul /,is 11unt of
al.i(ful11rs11 ; /,is JN.l/'e11ts tl,er~forr. 1if11secl tl,ei, co11~11t to tl,e i11vitution of 11,e
pri1ll'e, Ewtt[Jl'tl. with all his brothers, departing at dawn of day, befon,
the riRe of the ~un, ho reached that prince's post, a distance of three yojana ..
(The prince) to put his powel'!I to the te~t, impoBCd upon him the taak of
performing distant journeyR. "In the village Dv6rama1,1~ala, near the Cetiya
mountain (said he) my friend, the brahman named Ku1,1gala., resides. In his
po&aession there are rich article11 (1mch u frankincense, sandalwood, &:c.)
imported from heyoud the ocean. Repairing to him, bring hither such
articles 11.B may ho given by him." Having put this injunction on him, and
given him refreshment, he despatched him giving him a letter.
Reaching this capital Anuradhapura in the forenoon, being a distance of
nine y6janas irom the (Kaccliaka) ferry, he met that brahnian. The
brahman observed : '' My child, come to me after thou lutst bathed in the
tank." A.s he had never vi11ited (the capital) before, bathing in the Tissa
tank, making offerings at the great ho-tree 1111d the ThupArama dagoba, and
for the purpose of seeing the whole capita.I, entering the town and purchasing
aromatic dru'-rs from the bazaars, he departed out of the northern gate, and
gathering 11pJHLlii flowers from tJ,e IIJ1J"ilu plantLcl-11ut1sJ1es, presented himself
to that bruhman. On being questioned by him, he gave an account of his
previoua journey (in the morning) and his preaent one. The brahman
a11tonished, having listened to hill statcmC:nts, thus thought: "This is a
11upernaturully gifted man. Most assuredly if Ejara knew him, he would
engage him in his service. It is therefore inexpedient that he should even
lodge among tho damijas. It will be desirable that he should be eatablished
in the service of the father of prince (Gam11,ni)." Embodying all this in a
letter (the brahID11.n) gave it to him ; committing also to his charge some
"pm,n,iava<jghana" cloths and many other presents; and having fed him, dispatched him to his llp1i11ce (G,i111wii). This (Nimila), reaching the prince's
court at the hour at which shadows aro most extended, delivered to the royal


' " a chief named Sangha, who was the head of 11, family, and had aeven sona.
The prince, dt11irous of enlillting one of his sons, sent a m81111611ger to him also.
Now his aevent.h son, Nimila, although he had the strength of ten el11pbants, was
naturally indolent; and on that &CCOU"lt hi1 six brothers de11pised him and wiahed
that he should go; but his parente wiBhed not. Being therefore enraged," .to.
1 ,. frieno.l."
"blue lilic11 'from the lily-ma.nib.''



'l'HB KAH.!,AftlA.

youth the despatch and the present.a. Pleased (at hia feat, the prince
addreuing hiJD11elf to his oourtiol'II), said, "Reward him with a thouaand
pieces." The prince's other oourtiel'II 1(/rom }Mlouay) irritated l,im (by
tkri,ion). He (Gamani) pacified the young man by giving him ten thousand
(and iued these directions to these courtiel'II): "Let them reconciuct him
into my presence after having I shatJed Ms head and bathed him in the river,
decked in two of the 'pm.1l)av&l)cjhana' cloths, in beautiful fragrant flowers, and
in a rich silk turban." 3 ( Theu orclers h,1.vil,g bun complied with,) the king
caused his repast to be serted by his 01,m retinU11. This royal personage moreover bestowed on the warrior, to sleep on, his own state bed, which had cost
ten thousand pieces.
Collecting all the presents together, and conveying them to the residence
of his parents, he bestowed the teu thousand pieces on his mother and the
state bed on his father. On the same night returning to his post, be
stationed himself there : (from which circumstance he derived the appellation of Sdra-nimila.}
In the morning, the prince hearing of this feat waa exceedingly pleased,
and bestowing 4 ( sev,wally) ten el1ouaa11d 1iieces for himstlf cmd fm the fo,-111ation of his 0101, BUite, deputed lti,n to the court of his father (Kakava1.1r.ia).
The warrior conveying 5hia ten thousand pieces to hia p:arents and giving
them to tbem, repaired to the court of Kakavm.wa TiBBa. Thill monarch
established him in the service of prince Gamani, and the said warrior continued in hia service.6
In 7u. certain village, Hunadllri, 1111,ich 1,as a tri,,k nm11t1l Kcmnikt1, ill tT,r
Kul11111bmi division (of Roha1,ia), lived one 86Qa, the eighth son of a pel'llon
called TiSIII\, who in the seventh year of his age could 1mll up yv.a.ng
cocounut plt1nts; and who in hia tenth year, acquiring great bodily strength,
tore up (full grown) 10coco1m11t trees. In due course he attained the physical
power of ten elephants. The king hearing of his being such a pel'l!On, taking
him from his father, transferred him to prince G6mani. The young hero
who had been thus sent, protected by (the prince,} lived in his establishment.
In the village Niccefo1i!ll1ikt1, in the Giri division (of Roha\ia), one
Mah!n'aa had a 110n posseMing the strength of ten elephants. Being of low
,tature he obtained the name Oo\haka, and II lie 1rus addicted to frh'olous
c,m11,e11unt1. 12lle laud six bmtllers Bl!t1io1 to /1i111Relf, 1d10 having undertaken
the cultivation of a crop of m'8a, and felled the forest trees standing on the
ground,-reserving his portion of the forest, returning home, told him of it.
He starting im,tantly, rooting up the imbara trees growing there, and levelling the ground, returning, reported the same. The brothers proceeding
thither and beholding this wonderful feat, returned to his residence
applauding his exploit. From that circumstance he acquired the name of
Goihayimbara. As in the former instance, the king established him also in
the service of the prince.
In the vicinity of the Kuti mountain, 13at tlie rillt1ge Kiltigdma, tl1mi lhed
'" became jealous (and vexed him)."
out his hair."
"And when they brought him, thus arrayed, before the king, he caused fOOll
to be served to him from hill own repast."
"on him arms and attendant.II and ten thousand pieces, sent him on,"
Add, "being treated well (by hi11 master)."
"Hundari-vapi in the Kulumf>ari-ka\n;iikA."
' "the."

palm tree&. n




"his six elder brother11 were wont t.o jest at him."

,. "Tb.ey,"
11 "there lived a landed proprietor named Robaoa, who WIii! lord of the village
Kitti. He conferred on the son bom unt..o him the 1111me name as that of king
~lbhaya, The child grew ezoeedfng 1ttrong, At the age of t.en or twelye
:,ean," &c.



" ,otall11y lallfietl 1n-01,1ietol' na11,11n Ro/111.IJU, Tlie aon qf 1.:;ng Gtilluil,:6.bhaya
conferred on hi, (Rohai,aa'a) ,on tk11 ,um11 na11111 (Abha!J"), He, about hi, t4nll& or
t11H1lflh year, acquired greo.e atl'llngt/1. At tbut age he could toll about atones
which four and five men could not lift, All if he were playing at hand balls.
Ria fat!ier had made for him, when he attained hie sixteenth year, a ataff
thirty-eight inches in circumference and sixteen cubits long. Striking with
this instrument the trunks of palmyra and cocoanut trees, he levelled them
to the ground : from this feat he became 1u clllebrawl hero, The king
established him also, in like manner, in the service of prince G6mani. His
(A.bhaya's) father wu the patron and anpporter of the thSra Mab'8umma.
'.rhia wealthy person, having heard tho doctrines of Buddhism preached b;r
the tb.!ra :MaMsumma at the vih6ra of the Ku~i mountain, attained the
sanctification of '' sot6patti." Thereafter being 'diagu,ted (wit/, a lay life),
announcing his intention to the king, and transferring his property to hie aon,
he entered into the priesthood iu the fraternity of that th6ra. Excelling in
his calling, he attained the sanctification of" arhat." From this circumstance
his 110n was known by the name of "TheraputtAbhaya,"3
A certain chief of the viBage Kappakandara had a son named Bharava,
When he becam.11 ten or twelve years old, repairing to a ,oilclernu, with other
boys, he chased many hares ; and kicking them with his foot, brought them
down cut in two. When he had attained his sixteenth year, AtJie villager,
,-er,i,ited thi11 1oiltkrnu,: he in the same manner expeditiously brought down
tlUl g6kannaka elk ~nd wild hogs. From thia exploit 7t/1ia Aero became clllebralI.
Him also, in the same manner, tho king established in the aervico of prince
I 1 the district called Giri, in the village Jtuiiyadgana, there lived a wealthy
chisf named Vasabba. He had (two) attached friends, a natitHJ qf Ike Velu
!lit1i1ion and one Sumal].& of (:Mahflgima) 8i11 the Giri division. At the bi.rib
of hia (Vasabha'a) son both these peraona, t>receded by preaenta, viaited him,
and gave their own name (VcJu Sumava) to this child. The chief of Giri
brought tip this boy in his own house. He p0118eaaed a charger of the
'' aindhava" breed, which no man could mount. Thia (animal) ,on aeeing
Ve!u Sumal}A, thinking " This ia a man worthy of backing me," delighted,
neighed. Th~ owner comprehending its meaning, said to the youth, " Mount
the 11toed." He, leaping on the charger, preSlled him into full apeed in a ring.
(The animal) presented the appearance of one continuous horse in every
part of the circus. Poiaing himself by his own weight on the back of the
flying steed, the fearle1:111 youth repeatedly untied and rebound his acarf, The
multitude who witneued this ex1>loit gave him a simultaneous cheer. This
wealthy proprietor of Giri bestowed ten thousand piecea on him, and (aying
to himself): "Thie ia a person worthy of being in the aervice of the king,"
rejoiced in presenting him to his majesty. The monarch eatabliahed the aid
Ve!u Sumava in his personal aervice, conferring on him many honoura and
other favours.
11 In the Mahindadonika tli11iaion, in the t1illag, Kannilt:dya, near the cilu Naktlla,
the youngest son of one Abha;ya, named Den., was endowed with great
bodily atrength. Being (khafija) deformed in hie foot, he became known by
the name of Khafijaden.. At that period, this individual going out with
1 " oeleh:rated as a giant."
"atrioken with Js.orror (a.t the evila incridenl to the li[e of a. hoaaeholder),"
Acid, "('Abba:,&, the son of the thera')."

1 jungle (to hunt)."

"ha went with the villagers to hunt in the jungle, and,"
'elk, deer."
"ha became oelebrat.i III a giant,'
11 "ohie! of."
' one Vela, a native of the province."
"ID Iha Nakula-naga llivLtion, in the village llabiada..lavika.'


Uie villapn elk-hunting, 1and chaaing tM c.Ydtk which can&e to l&i,a, ,ca1'll'l tl1e11,
&, Ai, ~ ,Aoi&t,. Tkia person tooultl alao, Hising them by tl~ leg anrl
aoAiriing IIM!m 0"6r hia head, and dashing theni on th, ground, r1lfl11C11 thei, bont#J
lo po""11Jr. The king, hearing theae particulara, sent for Khaiijadeva and
eeta'&liahed him in the service of o,mani.
Near the viblra on the Cittala mountain, in the village Kapittha, lived tlte
10n of one Uppala named Phuuadeva. Thie valiant youth repairing to thit.t.
vihara,accompanied byother young men, and 11u,H11g offeri11g11 to the l10-t1"1J'-,
lalmig up hi, chank, ,owuled it. His blaat was like a loud peal of thunder.
All tbeae youths wero terrified unto (Umm:\da) stupefaction. From this
ezploit he acquired the name of Ummlda-phuuadcva, and his father taught
him 11A, bow aerci,e, which was the profeB11ion of their cute. He beea.11\e I\
11 aound archer," who ahot guided by sound only (without seeing his object);
a "lightning archer," '(,oho rlwt as t/ttick a, light11i11g); 6a "11mul arche,-,"
aoAo could ,hoot through a randbank. r The Ctl"f'OIIJ) Hl1ot by l,;111 ll"t.tll8J1ie1"Ctfl
throug1& and through a cart filled with sand, as well a.s through hides a
hundred-fold thick; through an Asoka (wood) eight inches, and an Udumbara plank &ix.teen inches thick, a.s well as a plate of iron too, and a pmte of
bl"UB four inches thick. On land hia arrow would fly the distance of eight
abhaa, and through water one uaabha. The Malu\rajl bearing of 1tl,i
dezterity, aending for him from his father's house, established him in the
aervice of GAmanf.
Near the Tuladhara "riiha,.,,, in the village 9 Vu.11igti11u1, lived one Vasabha,
the aon of Mattaku\umbi. As be was endowed with great personnl beauty,
be acquired the appellation La.bhiya Vaaabhn.10 At twenty yCl\l'R of age ho
attained extraordinary physical power, and w1111 hdcl in grent repute. Thi11
powerful and extensive landholder, 111111embling a few labourers, undertook thu
formation of the tank (near the TulAdham vibam). He i11dividually lifti11g
up bukete of earth, which ten and twelve stout labourers could alone railtl,
expeditioualy completed the formation of the embankment of the tank.
From this feat he became celebrated. The king enli11ting him alRO, and
conferring favours on him, assigned him to Gamani. The field (irrigat9d by
tbia t.ank) became celebrated under the name of 11 " l!tluh11-a,11. of Vw1ttblm."
Thua La.bhiya Vaaabha was e11t.abli11hed in the 11ervico of Gi&mani.
At that period the sovereign (Kalmva91.,1a) conferred 11/,i11 ,ogal prott'.ction. '"'
thsH ten enailll!nt l,.eroe,, in the 11a111e tleg,ee th1tt lie prott!ctecl hi11 11m,. Assembling tbeae warriors, that provincial monarch i11sued thesc com1111\nds : " Let
the ten warriora each enliat ten men." They enlisted ROldiers accordingly.
To these hundred waniors similarly the ruler giwe directions that each should
ebliat (ten men). They engaged troops accordingly. Then the king again
direated tbeae tho11111111d aoldiers to 11elect in like manner (ten men each).
Thefi&o enliated aoldien accordingly. The whole number embodied were
eleven thouaand ono hundred aml ten. 13
------------------ -- --- ----------------- "would give chase to big wild buff&lOCI! as they were startled one after
another, and aei&iag them by the leg whirl them round hill head, and break their
boneB to piecea by dashing them agaiDBt the ground."
' "t.ook up &oh&nk that WM offered to the bodhi treo and blew.

''aroherJ' ...

"(who shot by the flash o! the lightning)."

"A h&J.r archer," (who could shoot through a hone-hair held &Ba. target)."
" With hia arrow he would pieroe."
' "hill."
" Vihara Vli.pi.gMDa.''
11 "Vasabha'1 auicut."
Aid,"(' the covetable Vasabha ')."
11 "the 111me ravoun on th- con atrong men &1 he did on hia own ion."
11 Atltl, " All these pel'IODB &IW&J'II founr.. favour in the 1ight of the ruler of the
i.ad, and were .maintained on the eatablWUDeDt of hill ro:,al aon ot.-nl



Thus a truly wi11.9 man, delighting in having lilltened to a wonderful reeult

righteously brought about, avoiding the waya of unrighteoun-, lhould
inceuantly'delight in purauing the paths of righteo111Deu.
The twenty-third chapter in the :Maluivaga, entiUed The 111 Embodying qf
tlle Wa"Tior,," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteou

Tms prince Gimani, who was skilled in the elephant, hone, and bow
exercises, aa well aa in stratagems, waa then residing at MahigDlll ; and
thking had stationed hill (aeoond) aon Tiaa, with a powerful and efficient
force, at Dighavapi, for the protection of hill dominions (against the
invasions of the damilaa).
After a certain period had elapsed, prince Gamani, having held a review
of his army, proposed to hill royal father," Let me wage war with the
dami!aa." The king, only looking to his (BOn'a) perBOnal safety, interdicted
(the enterpri88); replying, "Within this bank of the river ill sufficient." He,
however, renewed th'3 proposition even to the third time ; (which being still
rejected) ho 11ent to him a female trinket, 11,:ith. this m.e1111cge : "It being said
fatht1r is not a man, let hi1n therefore decorate himself 1oith an ornament qf
thi11 ,lesc1"iJ.1tion." The monarch, enraged with him, thua apoke (to his
courtiers): " Order a gold chain to be made, with which I shall fetter him ;
not being able to restrain him by any other means." He (the prince}
indignant with his parent, retiring (from his court) Red to (K6ta in) tho
Muya district. From this circumstance of his having become (" duttha ")
inimical to hill father, he acquired from that day the appellation "Duttba
Thereafter the king commenced the construction of the Mahinuggala
cetiya. The ruler U11embled the prieathood " twelve
thousand prieeta from the Citt.a.la mountain ; and from other places twelve
thou11and &1188mbled there. 6 When the great Oitiya r,iluira lfJaB completfld,
11888mhling all the warriore in the presence of the priesthood, 1the king made
them take an oath. They thus swore : '" We unU nol npair lo the 8Clfflll qf
conflict between thy sons." 8From thi11 circumstaru:e U&ey (tA,prillMB) ditl no,
nigag, in tAat war.
The monarch (Kikav6.Ql,13 Tissa) having caused sixty-four vihAru to
be constructed, and survived as many years, then demiaed. The queen
placing the corpse of the king on a low heane, and remo>ving it to the
Tiaamah6.vihira., 18introduutl herself t,o the p1i~atliood. Prince Tiaa hearing of
this event, hastening thither from Dlghadpi, performed hill father's funeral
obsequies with great pomp. Taking charge of his mother and of the state
elephant Kar,uJula, this powerful prince, dreading the attack of his brother,
quickly departed thence (from Tiasavihua) to Dfghavipi.


1 "The Aoquial.tion of Warrion."

"remarking, Friends, my fa"1er, if he be a man, would not. ay 110 ; let him,
therefoa, wear thil."
" nndutifu.l."
The words left out a.re evidentl7 i.llAitr. retiya, "when the o4ti,a wu
oompleted," whioh llliould p~e '6hap aa.Pdt11i H.upti, " the .raler
-bled the priellthood."
"Alter he had held the Cllft.i7a featinl, the klJII'."

' "We will take no part in the impending oomliot," &o.

"Thueforethe, (the warrlon) took llO part iD. that
"in oo'feftlll."
" informed '1le prleathood thereof."




In order that this event might be made known at the court of DuUha
Gimani, all (hill father's) ministers having aaaem bled and prepared a report,
despatched (a meeaenger) to him. He (the prince) repairing t.o Guttahala, and
having despatched emi1111ariee thither, repairing thence himself t.o MahAgama,
effected the lllll!lumption of the aovereignty.
Having eent a despatch t.o his brother, on the subject of hie mother and the
state elephant Kar.,cJula, and his application having been mused even t.o the
third time, he approached him in hostile array. A great battle was fought
between theae two princea at CulaliganiyapiHhi, and many thousands of the
king's men fell there, The king, his minister Tissa, and his mare DighatMlik6 all three .Bed ; and the prince pursued them. The priests ruiBCd up a
mountain between these two (combatants). He (Tillsa) seeing this (miraclC!),
desiated from his purauit, declaring, " This is the act of the priesthood."
The king on reaching the Jivamali ferry of the Kappakandara river, addreeaing himaolf t.o hill miniater Tisaa, said," We are famished." The (miniater)
preaented t.o the (monarch) some dressed rice, placed in a g"Olden dish (which
he had kept concealed under his mantle). In order that he might not break
through a rule invariably observed by him, of presenting a portion t.o the
prieethood before he himaelf partook of it, dividing the rice into four
portions, he aaid, "Set up the call of refection." Til183 accordingly Bet forth
the call. The them (G6tama) resident in the isle of Piyadgu, who had been
the precept.or in religion of the king, having heard this call by his supernatural gif~ of hearing, directed a them named 'l'issa, the son of a certain
Kutimbika, t.o answer it : who accordingly repaired thither through the
air. Tiasa (the minister) rec~iving the refection dish from his band,
preaented it t.o the king : the monarch deposited in the diah his r wn
portion, as well aa that reeerved to the tbcra; Tissa (the miniater) contributed his portion also : the mare likewiae rejecting her portion, Tisaa
deposited that share also in the dish. The king preaented this filled dish of
drell8ed rice to the them; who, departing through the air, gave it to Gotama
th6ra. The said th6ra having bestowed tlielNI 110rtio1&8 of rietJ on five hundred
priesta who were wi!ling to partake thereof, with the remnants left hy them,
at the place where the meal wn.11 ae"ed, filling the dish again, he remitted it
back through the air to the king. 'l'i1111& (the minister) watching the progre1111
of the approaching dish, and taking p<>B88BBion of it, aerved the monarch
with hill meal. The ruler having taken some refreshment himself, and fed
the mare, the said rija 1g,.,tluiring liis ,oycd i11si9nia i11to et bumllr., togtt/Mr
11Jilh the clish, la11nc/1ed them i11to 1/,-, t1ir, 3mul t/,ey fo11111l theil' 1ray to {Gotama).
Proceeding thence to Mahigama, 4ancl 11,/.:i11g 11:itl,. Mm (&n mmy qf Ri.t:(1/
thoUIIIIIU, mi,n, and ha1teni11g to 1,wl..~ 1C<"&r, eng11ged iii a JMrR01u1l co11t,.11t ,r.ith hill
brothe,. In the field of battle, in the course of the conflict, the two brotherR
approached each other ; the king mounted on his mare, and Till8& on the
atate-elephant Ka1;11)ula. The king galloped his mare in a circle round tho
elephant ; but even then detecting no unguarded point, he decided on leaping hia charger (at the object of hie attack). Accordingly springing his steed
over the 4 head qf hi, brotlier on tlie elephant, he launched his javelin at 61,im-,
"a ball of rice each."
having made a rest (' oumba\3 '} for the dillh with hilJ coa.t of mail, aent it
back." The "oumbata" ill a. circular reMt for the round refection bowl of
Buddhist monks. It is made iu the form of a ring, The king t.willted hill ooat
into auoh a form, plaood the bowl on it, and 11811t it back to the owner.
"he pthend an army of aixty thoUIINlll men, and haat.ened to make war
with hl8 brot.her."
~ biB brother."

1 "



10 that it might 'pau C'l'OIIUX1.y1 bmoan t'h. bacJ: and t'la, ,Jein armour of tie
elephant (in order that he might display hi, n1pe1-iority without injuring the animal
,ohicl,, ''"'" hi11 own property). In that oonflict many tho11111ndi of the prince's
men fell in battle there; 1md his powerful army was routed. Tho elephant,
indignant with his rider at the thought of having been mastered by a,1
opponent of the fe,nak Bl!Z (the mare), rushed at a tree, with the intention of
11haking him (the prince) off. Ti88a, however, scrambled up the tree; and the
elephant joined bis ( ,ltsthlt.tl) master (Ghmfm i), who, mounting him, plinued
the retreating prince ; who, in his dread of his brother, seeking refuge in a
(neighbouring) vihAra, entered the apartment of the chief th!Sra there, and
laid himself down un,k,o his bed. That prit>.st 4t/u~to a robe on the bed (to
screen him). The king arriving, tracing him by his footstept1 1 inquired,
"Where is Tiua?" The tb6ra replied to him, " RAjil, he is not 0,1 the bed."
The monarch knowing from this rel)ly that he was '""kr the bed, at onoe
left the premises, and planted guards round the vih6.ra. (In urder to prevent
the violation of the aanctity of the temple) having placed him (Tislll) on a
bed, and covered him with a robe, four young priests lifting up the bed by
the four posts, carried the prince out, as if he were tl1e corpse of a priest.
The king at once, detecting who tbe person carried out wu, thua addre11Bed
him : " Tis11&, dost thou think it right to ride mounte11 on tl1e heads of our
tutelar gods? It is not my 'iiilentio11 to tal.-e from, 0111 t11t,1tcr aaint11 tliat which
fhey a1iprop1iat11 to tlummifres. Ho1eever, ,1erer c1gui11 for11et th11 acl111onitio1111 qf
those 1a11etijietl ehara~tr.1"11." From that very spot tlic monarch repaired to
Mahagluna, and had hill mother conveyed thither with all the honours due to
a royal parent.
'lhat sovereign, a devoted believer in the doctrines of Buddha, who lived
(altogether) sixty-eight yea.rs, built in the R6ha1.1a division (alone) aixtyeight viMl'Ril.
This child of royalty, Tissa, who had been protected by the priests,
departed at once for Dighavapi in the guise of a common person ; and to
the th~ra Tiasa, who w:ui afflicted with a cutaneous complaint, which made
his akin scaly like that of t1,e " 9odha," he thus addrelllled himself : " Lord,
I am u. guilty, fallen man, obtain for me my brother's forgiveness." This
th6ra, taking with him Tilllll\ in the chamcter of 1a j11nim Bti111uttllra, the
1rmrito1 of five hundred prietlts, repaired to the king. Leaving the royal
youth at the foot of the at.airs, the ther.1 entered the palace with his fmternity. 'l'he 1>ious monarch, havin~ offered them 11eat11, presented them
with rice-broth and other rcfreshmentl!. The th6ra oovered his dish
(in token of declining the refreshment). On being asked, "Why P" he replied,
""l have come accompanied by Tillllll." TAe i1111ta11t (the ki11g) had aaid,
"Where is that traitor!'" (the thera) mentioned the place. 10The queen Vih6ra Dcvi rushing out, folded her aon in her arms (to protect him from
violence). The monarch thus addressed (the thera): "lsit now that ye have
discovered 11 tlmt 1u are in tie conclitio11 qf alavea to you ? Had ye sent a
s1bna96ra of seven years of age even, moat aaBUrcdly, neither the sacrifice of
the lives of my people, nor our deadly strife, would have taken place. The

' " cut the armour on his back."

" '" a emale."
"spread": pasM'!Jl meaning that a robe waK so 11pread as to fall down the
aidea of the bed and screen the prince from view.
" ouatom to take aught. by force from our t.ut.elar aaint.11 ; howbeit., tlaou
11houldat always remember their kindnet111."

" an ilfuna."
Inaert " ( A1. that. moment)."

'"a servitor, and a oompany.''

""Being ~..ked (again).'"
11 ' our aubmli111ivenea..,.."

fault (added the king) ia that of the prieethood." 1(T11, I.Urn pleading
guilty t11ereto, r,Join11d), " Th, priuthood will perform pma,u:e.'' " TA, i?lr
pending penalty ,hall b, i1,jli~ud on you at once: partake of rice-broth and other
refreahmente "(aaid the king), presenting them to the priests himself. 'Calling out for his brother, in the midst of the assemblage of priests, and seated
with bia brother, he ate out of the aame dish (in token of perfect reconciliation) ; and then allowed the priests to depart.
He immediately sent back TiBIIII (to Digbadpi) to superintend the agricultural works in progreaa. He similarly employed himself also, calling out
the people by the beat of drums.
Thus good men being sensible that violent resentment, engendered hastily
by many and various means, is pernicious ; what wise man would fail to
3mtertain amicable ,mtiment, wwards others P
The twenty-fourth chapter in the Mahivagaa, entitled," The War between
the Two Brothers," composed equally for the delight and affliction of
righteous men.
TnRBEAFTRR the djlt. Du\~ba Gimani having made provision for the welfare
of his people, and having enshrined iu the point of his sceptre a sacred relic
(of Buddha); accompanied by his military array, repairing to the Tissavihara, and reverentially bowing down to the priesthood, thus delivered him1elf : " I am about to cross the river for the restoration of our religion.
Allot some priests "for our Bpfrit11al protection. Tl1eir accompanying us u,ill
afford both protection and the pre11ence of ministers of religion (tchich will be)
equfralimt to the obstttance of tl1e sertice, ef our ,elioion." The priesthood
accordingly allotted flve hundred ministers of the faith (to attend the king
in his campaign) as a 611tlf-i111JXJBtd 1ienance. Th9 monarch, accompanied by
the priesthood, departed.

Having had a road cleared through the 8111ilder11es11 for bis march thither,
mounting his state elephant Ka1,11)ula, and attended by his warriors and
a powerful force, he took the field. His army formed one unbroken line from
Mahigima to Guttah61a. Reaching Mahiyangana, he made the damiJa chief
Chatta prisoner ; and putting the dami!as to death here, he moved on to the
Amba ferry. For four months he contended with a most powerful 7damila
chief at the post of tl1e Ambafe1"f"11, which wns almost surrounded by the river,
without succet111. He then brought hia mother fon'l>ard ( on the pretence of
entering into a treaty of marriage), and by that stratagem made him prisoner.
This powerful rijt, thereupon 8pot"ing d0ttn on the dami!as 't116'1"e, 011 the ,ame
day, took tl1em pri,oner,. He conciliaud the attachment ( Tchdmo) of his great
force ; and di1tril,11ted the richea ( of the plttnder among them). From this
circumstance the place obtained the name of KMmArima. He captured 'at
D61,1a "among the marshes in the great ditJision Kola, the chief Gavara ; at
1 11 They will therefore have. to perfonn penanoe.
But the buainess about whioh
1 Iu,,-t '' Then."
you have oome will be aucceeeful. Partake now," &o.
' cherish a spirit of forgiveness."
' that we might render homage unto them : their preaenoe (among us) will be
even 1111 a festival unto 1111, andal!o!d ua protection."
1 " Halaya country,"
11 punishment for breaches of diloipline."
" and experienced damila chieftain named Tittbamba, at that poet."
"making a descent."
from that po11t took aeven of their chiefs prisonen in one day. Having
ensured the aecurity(DMtaJofthc place he distributed the riches(of the plunder)
amonc hia forces."
'" I Me rt "at Antaruobbha, the chief lllahM:ot~."
" Jhl,.


Ralakula, the chief of Uttd pi~ ; at the N6li marah, the chief Nilib ; at
D ighAbhayagallaka, the chief DighAbhaya ; and, after the lap119 o! four
months, the chief Kapisiu, at the Kaccha ferry ; at the town KcSta, the chief
of that name; and 1ubeequently, Rilavabhi.oaka; at VahiUha, the damila
of that name ; and at Glunani, the chief of that name ; at Kumbigama. the
chief Kumba ; at Nandigama, the chief Nandika I in like maDDer he iook
p1iaoner the chief Khi.l}U at Khiougima ; and at the 1toion Tuuuno, two
chief11, an uncle and nephew named 1Tu11,bo and U1U10 ; aa well aa the ohief
Ja.mbu. Each village gave itll name to him ( the Malabar chief in charge of it).
The king having heard thi1 report, viz. : " Ilia army i1 dostroying hiB own
41111/Jjeeta, without being able to diatinguiBh them;" made thi1 aolemn invocation : "This enterpriae of mine is not for the purpoae of acquiring the pomp
and n.dvaotagea of royalty. ~l'his undertaking baa always had for ita object
the re-e11tabli1hment of the religion of the supreme Buddha. By the truth
of this declaration may the arma and equipments of my army (in the hour
of battle, 1111 a mark of diatinction,) flash, as if emitting the rays of the 1un."
It came to pass 11000rdingly.
All tho11e dami!as who had escaped the alaughter Hlongthe bank of the river
thniw themSt1lvcs for protection into the (fortified) town called Vijita; and
be also thnnr up 11 (khandhavum) fortification in an open plain, on a spot well
provided (with wood and water); and that place became celebrated by the
name of KhandbavarapiHhi. While this monarch was revolving in hi11 mind
the plan of attack on the town of Vijita, seeing N1111dimitta pasaing by, he let
loose the 11tate elephant Kar.icJola after him. Nandimitta, in order that he
might arre11t the charging elephant, seizing his two tuw in Loth his handll,
pla: .ted him on his haunches. 5ll'/111erer the place, uml 1rl,uterei U,e
circu11111tu.nre umler 1r./1icl,. the el,.11l11,11t uml Nu11di,11ittu. 1i,rntlecl; jiTJm tl1ut
cb-c111natance tl,e tilluge formed in ll,ut 1iluce obtt1i11eJ t/16 t1a11111 ,If llutthipdl'l&
(the el,11l1ai1t'a co11ttst).
The riji, having 11atisfied hillllllllf (of the prowelll!) of both, commenced hiR
1U1S&ult 011 the town of Vijita. At the southern gate, there w1111 a terrific
conflict between the warriol'II (of the two armies). At the Olllltern gate, the
warrior Vclusumar.ia, mounted on the charger (carried away from the 1tables
of E!ira), slew innumerable damilas. The enemy then cloaed the gatell; and
the ki11g ae11t tl1e eltJJl1ant Km.i,Julu. mid the 1t1rrio111 Nandi111ttta and Suruniniila to the 1outher11 gate. Tl1e 1ourrior11 Jluhaau,a, Gdll1a, anti TJ,iraputta, lhee
tl1rt.t 11"-re at tlmt tinie a,ssuiling the olhe1 th;'tle gc1t~s. That city wu p~tected
by throe lines of' lofty battlement. and an iron gate impenetrable by human
e.tforts. The tusk-ele11hant, placing himaelfon hia knlMII!, and battering a atone
wall which was cemented with fine lime, made hia way to the iron gate. The
damiJaa who defended (that gatej hurled upon him every kind of weapon,
heated lumps of iron, and 1niolte11 lead. Thereupon, on the 8111oltm lul falliag'
on hi11 back, the agonised Ka9,Jola ruahing to water 11ubmerged hiJDIIOlf
therein. Guthaimbam thUII addreM6d him : " This is no 10asauagit,g lotion for

1 " [uariyL"
" towns Tamba and U,;a,;iama."
" Tambaka and Uotiama."
~ "men."
" By reaaoo whereof thevillage that was (afterwards) formed where Nandlmitta
wrestled with the elephant received the name of Batthip6ra ('elephant fta'ht')."
"advanced his warrion. Ka~4ula (the elephant) and Nandimitt.a and 81iranimila oharged the aouthern gate ; Malw6na, Go~, and Th&aputta, thNe three,
charged the other three gate&."
1 Orig. " melted resin."
' I1U1Jrt "trenches and."

Ilflert "and IID.Oking."


"BOOthing drink." Orig. auong drink.




thee : 11-etimii-ng to the demolition of the iron portal' batter down thnt gate."
Thie 1monorck of tlt11l,a11t.11 reoonring hi:i courage, and roaring defiance,
emerging from the water, stood up with undaunted pride.
The king, 4aJ>J)ointing tlt11hant 111t!-flit:11l pl'uclitio11,1s for tl,at p1upo3,, caused
remedies to be ap1,lied to the (wounds occasioned by the) ~molten lt11d; and
mounting on hie back and patting him on bi11 hood, Mid, "My favourite
Kas;>cJula, I confer on thee the ROvereignty over the whole of LaykA." Hn.ving
thus gladdened him and fed him with choice food, he wrapped him with a
linen cloth ; and causing a leather coYering to be made, formed of well
softened buffalo hide seven-fold thick, nnd adjusting that leather cloak 011
his back, and over that again spreading an oilecl llkin, he 11ent him fo1-tl1.
Roaring like the thunder of he.-iven, and 811111l1i11r, i1110 tJ1,. 11pl,,,.,.. qf JH'l'if,
with hia tusks ht1 ehivered the gate ; with biK foot bnttel'ed the thrc~bolll ;
and the gate fell together with ita 111nl1 1m1l 1mJ1rrll'trrf111e, with n tremendou11
Cl'IUlh, Nandimitta opposing his sbouldel' to the mn1111 of "11pt111tnuf11l'I',
con11i,ti11g nf tl1e 11ulcl1 tmi:e1 uml otl,,,. 111ule1iul11 1/f 111t111on111, 11:/,id, 1m11
tofte1i11g over the elephant, hurled it inw11rtl11. Tbo elephant, wit11e1111ing thi11
feat, overwhelmed with gmtitucle. ~fo, tl,r ,firt timf. .fi11r1t11c l,i111 fm
111ortijication af lwr.iti[I thm1r11 liim by l,i~ t11Hh,
This 10io1'1l of ,lr11hant11 Ka9(juln, in order that he might entel' tbe town
close behind (Nandimitta), stopping there, looked 1mnmd for the warrior.
Nandimitta rc11olving within himself, "Let me not enter by the plUIMge
opened by the elephant," charged with his 11houider a rampart 11 11!,icll 11.'t18 iii
h,ir,1,t eir,httm n,bits mul i1a bremltl, eigl,t "111111bl11111," It/ell, and he looked
towards Surnnimiln ; who, di11daining to enter by that pa!ll!llgtl, leaped ovtir
the battlement11 into the heart of the town. G6tha aud 861,111, each bnttc-ing
down a gate, likewise entered. 'l'he elephant sciv.ed n. cart wheel, Nandimitt~i
11alll0 tt curt 111,ul, Guiha a 131"'1111111"' tree, Nimila an enormous sword
Mahasor;ia a Hcocoam,t tree, and Thiirnputtn n. great club; r..ml severally
slaughtered the domi!aa, wherever they wcro met with l!Cllmpering through
the streets.
The king', demoli11hing (the fortifications of) Vijita in four month11, and
proceeding from thence to the attack of Girilnkti, 1dew Oiriya the damiJa.
Marching on the town of l\lah~ln, which waa sunotmded 011 all sides with the
thorny kadamba creeper, within which was a great triple line of fortification,
in which there was but one gate of difficult acceRB ; the king besieging it for
four months, got polllleSllion of the person of the rijl of l\labiila by diplomatic



The sovereign then, preparing to al!llail Anuradhnpurn, threw upa fortification

at the foot of the Kli1111 mountain, 1;,,
111011111 "jrtllmmzi/11,'' 11111l 11111dP a
reservoir of water. He held 181, jeHtiml ,1,,.,.,. to celebrate the completion of
the reservoir. The ,illage formed there acquired the name of Posona. 11
The reigning monarch I<~!itra, hearing of the approach of the rhjh I>uHha


1 Uretum!'
:! ,. I1111,rt and.11
"noble elephant.''
' "detailed an elephant doct.or and,"
Orig. ;, melted resin...
' daring all danger,"
'" door and bolts,"
" ml\terinl11 falling from the watch tower,"
''put away from him the hntr<Xl he hore (to Sm1dimitta) for having hmt his
tt1Mks at first."
"noble elephant,"
11 "It, (the rampart) eighwen cubit.El high and eight" usabhall" long, fell."
11 "llOCOAllUt tree."
'" "the body of a cart,"
" '"Jlll,lmyra."
" "and in the month' J8*tJiam1na' (Ju:i.e-July) ma.de there,"

"acquatic aport.B."
" J'r111J11, ill the Sil)haleiie for .. JU11e,"



Oamu.ni with ho11tilc inl.ent, alllltlmbled hii; minii;ten, and thu11 addrellll8d theiie
personages: This rnja is him11elf a hero: he has also many valiant warrion
(in hill army): counsellol'll, what shoulcl be done : what do ye adviae P"
These warrior11 of king EJim, commencing with Dighajantu, came to thi11
r8110lntion : ' 'fo-morrow we will attack him."
The rf,ja Duttba Gimani also consulted with his mother. At her
recommendation he formed thirty-two sb:ong rnmpn.rts. The king displayed
in each of the!IC posts pcl'!!Onifications of himself, with a royal standard-bearer
attending on him ; while the monarch himself remained in an inner
King E)1lra, accoutred for battle and supported by bis military array,
mounted on his Htatc elephant Mabapabbata, advanced on him. At the
commcncomcnt of the onset the valiant Dighajantu, with sword and shield
in houul, Ktriking terror by the fury of his attack, springing u11 eighteen
cubitK into the :tir, and piercing the figure which repro11entcd the king, took
the first mmpart, In thi11 manner, having carried all the other posts, he
approached the fortification defended by Gima.ni, the riji himself.
1'he powe1ful warrior Sunmimila, 11hou!ing out hi11 own name to him who
wa11 111Khi11g :it the king, tauntcl1 him. The one (Dighajantu) incenlled, and
replying, '' Let me slay him 1irt1t," made u le.ip at him. The other met the
:\>lllailant with hh1 shield. ~ying to himself, " I will demolish him and his
Khield at once," (Dighajantn) sh,11hed at tl1e shield with hi'." dWord. Tile
other emit the 1<hicld at him. Dighaj11.11tu plunging at that U1,1"e11i11ting shield,
fell with it; a.nd Sumuimila springing up, 11lew the pl'ost1"&te (enemy) with
his 11word. Phussadcva sounded hiK cha.nk, and the army of damiJas gave
way : EJam r.illied it, and many damiJa11 were slain. The 11atcr uf the tank
at that pi.Leo was diKcolourecl by tho blood of the slain ; and from that
t:ircumstancc the tank has hecn celebrated by the name of "Kulattha."1
The monarch Dutth,L (Um1mi then making this proclamation by beat of
d1ums, "No othe1 person but my11clf 11hall assail J<:Jara;" accoutred for
combat, mounted 011 his well-appointed state elephant K1,1.icJula, in his pursuit
of B)am, reached the southern gate. These two monarchs entered into
p01'llollll.l comhat near the KOUthcrn gate of the city. EJara. hurled bis spear :
Gamani ev:Lded it ; and making hi11 own eleplm.nt charge with his tullks the
other elephant, 111ml lrnrli119 ait the 11ame time hiK javelin at E!ira, 3 /ie and hili
clcphn.nt both fell together t11crn.
'!'here this conqueror, in the field of victory, Hurrounded by hia martial
might,rcdncing I,,iyki'i under (the 1:1lmdowof)oue canopyofdominion,ontered
the capitn.l.
Summoning within the town the inlmbitant11 of the neighbourhood, within
the dhstance of 1& yuj:ma, he held a festiml in honour of king E!ara, Con1mming the curp~e in a funem.l pile on the spot where he fell, he built a tomb
there; and ordained thut it should l'ocoive honoun (like unto thollO conferred
un a Oakkavatti). J<~ven unto this day, the monarchs who have succeeded to
the kingdom of Layka, on re.'lching that tiuarter of the city, 410/uit,v,r th,
111ocessio11 mau be, t/,,.u 11ilence theil' musical band.<:.'
In thia mauner, Duttha Gamani, having made prisoners thirty-two damita
chieftains, ruled over I..agka sole sovereign.

These honours continued to be paid to the tomb of E!llra, up to the period uf

Lhe British occupation of Lhe K11111lyan torritory,-[.Ni,tc bg .tI,. 1littrtwttr.]
' A kind of edible pul~o which, when boiled, yieldii a IIOUp of a blood-reel
Full 11to'(I: "llo,".
1 "in p..-ion, pay the 11a111e hunour. and:



On being clofi:atod at Yijitl\, tha wurrior Dighajantu reminding E!ira that

hii\ nephew was a warrior of repute, sent a mission to tho Aid nephew
llhalluka to haatcn hither. Receiving this invitation, he landed on this
island on the seventh d;,y after E!ara 11 cremation, at the head of sixty
thousan<I men.
He who had thus debarked, though he heard of tho dt.\"\th of hiK king, coni;idering it a rlil!b'l'ILCO (to retreat), and deciding, "I will wago war : " advanced
from l\fahatittba hither (to Anuradhapura), and fortified himself at tho
village Ko!ambahlilaka.
On receiving iutimation of hiK landing, tho r~j6, who wa11 fully c11uippcd
with an army of efoph:mt11, cavalry. clmriots <if war, and infantry, accoutring
hirnso.lf with hit1 martial equipments, and mounting hill ele11hant Km}cjula,
1<et out to give him liattlo. The "11rrior Ummlida Pbu11.111.dliva, the n1ost
expert archer in the lu.nd, equipped with bi,ai five weapons of war, and the
1cst of tl10 warriors ulso 11ct out.
When the conflict was on i.be point of taking place, Bha.lluka, who
waR o.1110 accoutred for battle, charged immediately in front of tho rajfi.
K:1.1.11Jula, the momm:h of clophauts, t-0 brc;i.k tho shock of duLt attack, b1LOked
rapidly; and with hi1r. the wbolo army receded alertly. The king rcmal'kcd
to Phussaduva, "What doe11 this mean'! he has nevel' before giveu ground in
the previous twunty-eight battles he b1111 been engabre<l in.'' '" Victory
(replied Phu11>l."1lcva) is iu the rear. This elephant, seeking th1Lt field of
triumph, is rl":cdiug. 0 king, he will make his staml 011 the 11pot where
victory awaits us,"
The elephant continued retreating in tho direction of tho temple of
Puradeva ( 011 the northern toido of the great cumctery); and steadily plantm11
him.self there, took up his position within the uon11CCmted boundaty of the
,vhcn the elephant thus made hi11 1c1tand, Hlmlluk:L the d1u11i\a, presenting
himself bofore the protector of the laud, ridiculotl hiau on his retreat. The
king gnar,ling hi11 month with (the handle of) his sword, reproached him in
return. Retol'tiug, Let me strikt, tlw r{1ji1'11 mouth"; (Hhnlluka) hurled
hi,i spear at him. The said javelin striking the handle of the 11word (which
guarded the ritjit~ mouth) fell to the ground. l3lu1llnka }u,ving vauntingly
announced hi11 intention, "Let me hit him in tho mouth," set up:\ shout (at
t.he tJlfect of thir1 tlm1w ). The valiant warrior I>Jmss;Ldova, who was se:i.tml
behind the king (on thu elo11hant}, hul'ling his j;Lvulin a.t the mouth of this
(bol\llting cucmy), }t;lpponu,l to gmze the ear-ornament of tho monarch.
Throwing a ;iecond spear ;1t him (Bhalluka) who wm; th1111 falling (backwa1-d11)
with hi:. feet t11ward11 the ri1j:i.. mid hitting him on the knee, the I Hl,itl upe,t
1'.lrplttmf-ri,lrr 1111,'cl.l!f f,ll (rr.<prd/11llu) with bis head presented to the king.
At the fall of the >'aid Hh;Llluk.a the i<hout of victory was Ket up.
Phu11Madcva, i.o 111.tuifost hill contrition on thu 11pot (fo1 having gmzcrl the
(1:1r-ornnme11t of till' kiug with thtJ MJ.1ear), llplit his own car at the part in
which tho riug i11 i1111c1-ted : and himMelf oxhihited t,u the monarch hi11 Ht1-eaming blootl. Witnessing this exhibition, the king o.skud, ",vhy, what i11 this p
Ho replied to the mouarch, " It it1 a punishment inflicted by myself for an
offence c:ommitted 1i.gaim1t maje~ty." On inquiring, "What is the offence
committccl by thee P" he replied, "Hrnzing the eaT-ornament." " My own
brother ! ( exclaimed the king) what hast thou been tloing; converting th;\t into
an offence whiuh j,. Um reverse of one ! " Having ma.de thit1 ejaculation, the
mona.rch,who knew how tn appreciate merit, thnH pn>el!'edetl; ..t ,em,utl umtJits
tl1ee fr,,n~ "'" proportio11llte to tlie se1'tite re,ukretl bg t/M tl1ruw of t/1e jateli11.''

.. 1>kilfol u.r-.,hc1 foiled him."'

Lit. "A greo.t reward aw,Li.t.< t.huc, worthy of thy (un[ail.inlc() Mruw."'



.After having subdued all the damilu, the victorious moll&l'Ch ( on a certain
day) uoending thfl state apartment, and there approaching the royal throne
in the midst of his officers of state ; and while surrounded by the cbarma of
music and revelry, caused Phussadeva's !j,awlin to be brought, and I lo 6depo,itl fmmally on the royal throM by thia aambly; and hsaping (gold)
OIIM' and ow.r again above thi.8 ja"sZin, anti thtJreby concealing ii toith kaiapana,,
at ona made a pre,ent t.htreof to Phuaaadiva.
On a subsequent occasion, while seated on this throne, which wu covered
with drapery of exquisite value and softness, in the state apartment lighted
up with aromatic oils, and perfumed with every variety of incenae, and spread
with the richest carpets, attended by musicians and choristers decked (u if
belonging to the court of the dcva Sakka); this monarch was pondering over
his esalted royal state, and calling to his recollection the sacrifice of coantleu
lives he had occaaioned ; and peace of mind was denied to him.
The sanctified priests resident at Piyangodipa, being aware of this visitation
of affliction, deputed eight "arhat" priests to administer apiritual comfort to
the .nonarch. These personages, arriving in the night, descended at the palace
gate.; and with the view of manifesting that they had journied through the air,
they rose (through the air) to the opstair state apartment. The Mahlrlj'
bowing down to them, and showing them every.mark of attention (by washing
their feet and anointing them with fragrant oil), caused them to be seated on
the throne; and inquired the object of the visit. "0 ruler of men I (said
they), we have been deputed by the priesthood at Piyadgudipa to administer
spiritual comfort unt'> thfoe," Thereupon the riji thus replied : " Lords! what
peace of mind can there be left for me, when under some plea or other I
have been the means of destroying great armie111 an akkhohir,i in number P"
" Supreme of men I from the commission of that act there will be no impediment in thy rood to "aagga " ("salvation) : herein no more than two human
beinga have been sacrificed ;-the one person had been admitted within the
pale of the salvation of the faith ; the other had attained the state of piety
which en11bled him to obAerve the five commandments. The rest 'being lieNtic,
are ,inners, a11d on a par with wild beasts;" and added: "As thou wilt cause
the religion of Buddha. to ahine forth in great splendour ; on that account, 0
ruler of-men, subdue this mental affliction."
The Mahir!i.ja, who hacl been so admonished, and who had been restored to
peace of mind, having bowed down to, and allowed them to depart ; thereafter,
extended on his bed, thna meditated:" Inmy childhood,my father-and mother
administered au oath to me, that I should ne"\"er take a meal without sharing
it with the priORthood, Have I, or have I not, ever partaken of a meal without "baring it with the priesthood P" While pondering thus, he recollected
that (he had ate) a round chilly at his morning meal, in a moment of
abstraction, without roserving any 1111rt of it for the 1riesthood ; and decided
thereupon, " It is requisite that I should perform penance on that account."
6 R~eeti11g on tl,e 11unibtrl1m T.'6fis nf human li1!u ,acrificed by then perBOIIR ( Duttha GamanS and Tiia onny); a fl'lil!J ,,,;Ill!- man, i'fll,,enr:"tl by hi,
abho1rl!11Cff of sue/, illdisc1i1nhtate 11l,1,,1glcter, pondering on t/1is Cfdamitg,


causing it to be placed upright on its feather end, heaped gold thereon so

1111 to cover the top thereof, and preaented them forthwith to Phuilll&diva."

'' are hezetics and 1inne111 who are,"
1 " The good man should bear in mind the numberless ororea of human beings
..a.criftoed for the sake of ambition, and the evil attendant thereon. De lhould
a.ll!O steadfastly keep in mind the instability of all things, with 11, view to attain
enduring happina&. Th1111 will he obtain before long a delivezanae flODl aouow
or a happy departure (from this world)."



wlfl 1f.6adja1Jtl11 conte11i11lating tM principle of mortality ; by tha,e mean~

thB ,aid pion, man 1cill llp6etlily aUain " nwkl:l1a " ( tM emancipation fron, all
IH,man_ qtflicuon); or, at lea1t, will be bo111 fo the ,ro1ld qf the dertii (which
lJd, t,o that jin<tl en1a1icip,tion).
The twenty-fifth chapter in the Mahavagaa, entitled " The 'friumph of
DutthaG6.mani," composed equally for the delight an.d affliction of righteous

Tms potent monarch, having reduced tht dominions of Lavka under one
Government, according to their deserts conferred honorary distinctiorui on
his waniors.
The hero Theraputt!bhaya rejected the reward offered to him : 11,lld being
asked, 11 What does this mean P" replied, " The war is not over." (ThE.
king) again asked, "Having by war reduced tl1is empire under one G-Overnment, what further war can there be ? " He thus rejoined, 1 " / will 11W,l,;e war
to gain tlie righteoul v,ictory ove, our i1111idioU11 ene111ie11, the sinful p111111ions."
A.gain and again the ri.ja attempted to dissuade him: bnt again an.I again
TMraputtabhaya, renewing his application, with the king's consent entered
into the priesthood. Having been ordained, in due oourae he attailied
"arhat," and 3becaTM the head of a fraternity of five hundred llllnctified
ministers of religion.
On the seventh day after the elevation of his canopy of dominion, this
inaugurated, fearless monarch, (hence also called) Abhaya raja, with a
splendid state retinue, (proceeded to) the Tiua tank to celebrate an aquatic
festival with every deaoription of rejoicing ; and to keep up a custom
observed by his anointed predece&110rs.
The whole of the king's royall\ttire,aawell as a hundred tributes (pl"ellented
to him during that festival) were deposited on (a certain spot, which became)
the site of the :MaricavaHi Vihara ; and the royal 11uite, who were the soeptrobearers, in like manner deposited in an erect position, on the site of the
(future) dagoba of that name, the i~1Jerial sceptre.
The :Maharaji, together with his 11uite (thus undre11&ed), having sported
t1bout (in tlie Ti,m ca,i.l.:); in the afteruoon, he said, "Let us depart: my
men, take up the sceptre." The royal suite, however, were not able to move
the said sceptre. Attended by all the guards who accompanied the monarch,
they made offerings thereto of garlands of fragraut ftowel'II.
The raja, witneaaing thi11 g1eat miracle, delighted thereat, posting a guard
round the spot (to which the sceptre was fixed), returne~ to the capital.
Thereafter, he inolOlled the sceptre in a cetiya, and encomp&lllled that diigoba
with a vihara.

In three years that vihara was completed, and the monarch invited the
priesthood to a great fea,ival. Those who aaaembled on that oce&llion, of
prieats, were in number one hundred thousand ; and there were ninety
thoaaand prieat81111811. In that aaaembly, the ruler of the land th1111 addressed
the prieathood : "Lords ! forgetting the priesthood, I have (in violation of a
vow) ate a chilly: '/or U&al act, thia infliction i, "i,ited 0111M, (In upiaUon
tMreo/) I have constructed thie delightful vihara, together with its (retiya :
may the prie11thood vouchsafe to accept the same." Having made this addreM,
relieved in mind, pouring the water of donation on the hand of the priesthood,

"I will 1'age war with enemies who.nit is vtiry ham to conquer."

becatne an.''

1 "in

the water during the day."


"in expiation of that a.et."



he beatowed this vihira on them. 1llafJing caused a llll]JM'b 'banquting 1tall

to b, ,reeled around that 1Ji111fra, 11, tl,11-e celebrated a great festival of almsoffering to the prieathood; 1T1" hall thus erected, on 006 sick mu:Md 11"
Abhaya tank:-v:lw will untk,take lo tkacribe tkB (,limenaiona of 11")
other sitk, 1 For seven days having provided food and beverage, he then
be11towed every dellCl'iption of aacerdotal equipment& of the most costly kind.
The first offering of 11aoerdotal equiJJment& was worth one hundred thoud&lld,
and the la&t a thousand pieces. The priesthood exclusively obtained all
Independently of the inc-.alculable amount of treasures expended, commencing with the construction of the thupa, and terminating with the
alms-festival, in making offerings to the "ratanattaya "; the rest of the
wealth (laid out) on this 11pot, by this monarch,-who was as indefatigable
in war aa in acts of charity, Nincerely attached to the "ratanattaya," endowed
with purity of mind, (and wise in the application of his mean11,)--6mounted
to nineteen kotis.
If by men endownit with wisdom the five evila (lo811 by confiscation, by
robbery, by water, by fire, and by the animal creation) attendant on the
acquisition of wealth were thoroughly underatood, they would thereby
realise the five reward11 of virtue (love of mankind, good-will of pious men,
character for piety, lay-sanctity, nnd regeneration in the D6val6ka heavens).
The wise man therefore ought to secure to hiDlllfllf the treasure of this

The twenty-s~th chapter in the Mahtivagsa, entitled " The Featival of

Offerings at the MaricavaHi ViW.ra," composed equally for the delight and
affl;'ltion of righteous men.

(to tlie con11tr11clio11 of the Mal'icaval(i ,~il11iro a11el cetiya) thia
111onarch, 1r.l10 1cas endo1r.ed 111itl1 1111pe1lnth:e goodfo1tune, wul with toilldom u,ell
1,a beTl.l'ficence, 1ca11 medituting 011 a t1mlitio11 ti:hicl1 origitmted (1oit/1 A-laMnda),
aml had bee,i perpet1wtetl to his time (from gtmemtirm to generatio11) without


The thera Of<thi11d1i), who had shed the light of religion on this land, had
thus prophesied (to Devnnnmpiya TiBS.1,) t/1e a11eestor of the king: "Thy
descendant, DuHha G/imauf, a most fortunate prince, will hereafter build the

great splendid thi1pa Sol}l}amali (Ruvanv~li), in height one hundred and

twenty cubits ; as well as the L6hapuidn, to serve as an " up6satha hall,"
embellished in every possible manner, and having nine stories." The monarch (Duttha G 6.manl) reflecting ( on this tradition), and searching for a record
thereof, 5statnl to 11111:e been depo11itetl hi the paluu; uml by tl1at (aea1-cl,,)
findillg in a vase an i11scribetl golden JJlate, lie thereo11 1't!atl as follows : " Here"In the vihAra itself and in a superb hall which he built around it, be."
That hall eztended even over the waters of the Abhaya tank in which pillars
were cauaed to be erected (for a platform). What need i11 there to epeak of other
open 11paceB (into which the hall wa11 extended) 1 "
"After that the king deeply meditated on a tradition that was (then) Willleatabli11hed and wide-spread, in this wise, namely, "It, is said that the th6ra
(Mahinda)," &c.
" my royal anceBtor."
" found in a vue depoaited in the i.:ing'a palaoe an iDBCribed golden plat.e, the
writing whereof he read 1111 follow~."

1 "

after, at the t.ermination of one hundred and ljifty-aiz yeara, the monaroh
DaUha Glman(, 10n of JUka'91U)V&, will construct 1uch and such edifices in
such and 1uch manner." The delighted monarch, overjoyed at hearing this
(inaoription) read, clapped hi1 hand1 ; and early on the following morning
repairing to the magnificent Mah,megaha garden, and convening the prieathood, thua addreBBed them : " I will build for you a palace like unto that of
the devu : aend to the world of the dcvaa, and procure for me a plan of their
palace." Accordingly they despatched thither eight priesta, all aanctifl.ed
In the time of the divine aage Kuaapa, a certain brahman named .Aadka
1 Aad matk a io10 Chat he would git1e daily alms ,ufficienl for eight prieata.
aid to his alave-w(!m&n named Bhara9i, " Provide them alway1." She,
during the whole course of her life, zealoualy providing them ; thereaft.er
dying, waa born again in a superb and delightful reaidence in the (Catummabirajika) heavens, surrounded always by a heavenly boat of a thou1111nd
att.endantB. Her enchanting golden palace was in length twelve y6jan1111
and in circumference forty-eight y6j11nas ; having nine stories, provided with
a thouaand apartments and a thousand dormitorie,. It had four faces, each
having in number a thou11and windows, like so many eyes ; and the eves of
the roof were decorated with a fringe tinkling (with gems). In the centre
of this palace was situated the Ambalatthika hall, decorated with a profUBion
of banners all around.
The aforesaid eight thtira.a, in their way to the Tivatigaa heavens, seeing
this palace, immediately made a drawing of it on a 4leaf with a vermilion
pencil ; and returning from thence, presented the drawing to the prioathood,
who 119Dt it to the court of the king. The monarch, on examining the u.me,
delighted therewith, repairing to the celebrated garden (Mabimegha), according to the plan of that renowned palace, constructed the pre-cminen 4
The munificent raj! at the very commencement of the underta1...ng
depoaited at each of the four gates eight lacs (to remunerate the workmen).
Be deposited also at each gate, severally, a thousand suits of clothing, as well
u vessels filled with sugar, buffalo butter, palm sugar, and honey; and
announced that on this OCC&11ion it waa not fitting to exact unpaid labour ;
placing therefore 5high value on the work performed, he paid {the workmen)
with money. This quadrangular palace was ouo hundred cubits long on each
of its sides, and the u.me in height. In this supreme palace there were nine
noriea, and in each of them one hundred ap11rtmenta. All these apartment.
were highly emhlliahed ; lhey had festoon, of IN.ads, resplendent (like) ge1ns.
The flower-ornaments appertaining thereto were also set with gems, aud the
tinkling fe11toons were of 1gold. In that palace there were a thousand dormitoriea having windows with ornaments 8(like ttnto) jewels, which were bright

u .,...,

BaTing heard of the beauty of the conveyance used by the females attached
to the d6va Ve1111&va~, he (Duttha G6man() caused a gilt hall to be condnlcted in the middle of the palace in the form (of that conveyance). The

WI wu supported on golden pillars, repreaenting lions aud other animala, aa

"wu wont to give ticket-food,"
11 oloth."
" (proper)."
" IDilhed with silver; and the cornices thereof weru embellished with ,-.."




well as the d,vau.. J..t the extremity of thia hall, it wu oniamented with
1.f,atoon, '.Jj pJrll, and au around with beada 8B before deacribed. \
Euctly in the centre of this 'palace, which wu adorned with (all) the
seven treaaUl'ell, there waa a beautiful and enchanting ivory throne, floored
with boards. On one aide (of this throne formed) exclusively of ivory, there
waa the emblem of the sun in g,,ld; on another, the moon in silver; a11d (on
the third) the 1tara in pearla. From the golden corners or 1treaka, in various
placea as moat 11uitable in that hall, bunchee of flowen, made of various
gems, were (suspended). On thia most enchanting throne, covered with a
cloth of ineatimable value, an ivory fan of exquisite beauty was plaoed.
On the footstool (of the throne), a pair of slippers orn&mented with beads,
and above the throne the white canoJ,y or paruol of dominion, mounted with
a silver handle, glittered. The eight "111aligali1,a" thereof (of the canopy)
were 1lib Hnto tluJ ui,en treasures, a:t'.d amidst the gemB and pearls were rows
of figures of quadrupeds ; at the points of the canopy were sU11pended a row
of silver bella. The edifice, the canopy, the throne,and the (inner) hall were
all most superb.
The king caused it to be provided suitably with couches and chairs of great
value ; and in like manner with carpets of woollen fabric : 8e11m tl,e ladle
(IUl.fally made of a cocoanut 11htll) of tluJ rice boile-r wall of golcl. Who lhall
describe tho other articles used in that palace P This edifice, surrounded
with a highly polished wall, and having four embattled gates, shone forth
like the (Vejayanta) palace in the Tavatigl!& heavens. This buildingwu
covered with brazen tiles ; hence it acquired the appellation of the "brazen
At the completion of this palaco the r6.j6. assembled the priesthood. They
attended accordingly, as in the instance of the Maricavatti festival. There,
on the first floor, the "puthujjaru:." priests (who had not attained the state
of aanctification) exclusively arranged themselves. On the second floor, the
priests who had acquired the knowledge of the "tepitaka." On the three
Rucceeding floors, commencing with the third, those arranged themselves who
had acquired the several grades of sanctity, commencing with the "aotapatti."
On the four highest floors, the "arhat" priests stationed themaelvea.
The rija having bestowed this palace on the priesthood, pouring the water
of donation on their right hand ; 7and, according to ;.he former procedure,
8having kept up an alms-feOJtival of seven days.
Independent of the cost of
the invaluable articles provided for this palace-festival, the expenditure
incurred by this munificent monarch amounted to thirty k6tia.
Some truly wise men, oven from perishable and unprofitable wealth derive
(the rewards of) imperillhable and profital-le charity. By setting aside the
pride of wealth, and seeking tJ,,e;r own spiritual 1oelfare, they bestow like unto
him (Duttha Giman() largely in charity.
The twenty-seventh chapter in the lltlahiva.vaa, entitled " The Featival of the
L6hap'8ida," composed equally for the delight and afflictiou of righteous men.
The fan bome by the Buddhist priests; which, till very recently, has been
beltowed in Ceylon OD the appointments of a ohief prieat, aa the official emblem
of hfa o.lllce.-[Noti, l>r Mr. Jwl"IIOUr.J
1 "hall."
1 "festoons of pearls all around, and oornicea."
.AU "and between goldon oreepen there were repreaentationa of the J,ta.ku."
Bight objeote conaidered u auarioioua: namely, a lion, a bull, an elephant,
a water-jar, a fan, a flag, a trumpet or ohaDJI:, and a lamp,
I UJ'll&de Of the 118YeD gem.a."
"cmm. the laver and its ladle (for washing the ha.nda and feet of prleata, kept
at the door of the t.emple) were made of gold."

"the welfare of others."




CH.APTER xxvm.
THEBEAJ'TER, this monarch caused a splendid and magnificent festival of
offerings to the bo-trae to be celebrated, expending a sum of one hundred
Subeequently, while 1ruirling in tAis capilal, noticing the atone pillar planted
on the (intended) Bite of the Buvanvo}i th4pa, anq recurring to the former
tradition, delighted with the thought, he said: "I will conatract the great
thdpa," Reascending his upatair palace, and having partaken his evening
repaat, reclining on his bed, he thus meditated : " The inhabitants of this land
are still autfering from the war waged for the subjection of the damiJaa : it
ia not fitting to ,met co111pulaory labour ; but in abandoning tM l:DIJt'CiBtJ of II.at
JJOIMf', how shall I, who am about to build the great th6pa, procure bri.cka
without committing any such oppreeaion ? " The tutelar deity who guarded
the canopy of dominion knew the thought of the penionage who waa thua
Thereupon a diRcuBBion aroae among the devaa.
obtaining a knowledge thereof, thwi addreaaed hiJD88lf to Vissakarnrna : "The
riji Gamanr is meditating about the bricks for the cetiya. Repairing to the
bank of the deep river (Kadamba), a yojana from the capital, there do thou
aauae bricks to be produced." ViBBakamma, who had been thus enjoined by
Sakka, proceeding thither caused bricks to be produced.
In the morning a huntsman repaired with his dogs to the wilderne111 in
that neighbourhood. The dovatll. of that spot preaented himaelf to the
huntsman in the form of 1'4 "g6dha." The sportaman challing the '" godha"
oame upon, and aaw the bricks ; and from the circumstance of the '" gddha "
vanishing, he there thus thought : " Our sovereign is desirous of oonatracting
the great thdpa, this is a (miraculous) offering to him." Hastening (to the
king) he reported the same, Hearing this agreeable report of the huntsman,
the overjoyed monarch, delighting in acts of benevolence towards his people,
conferred on him great favours.
In a village named A'ciravitthig6ma, situated three yojanaa to the northeut of the capital, on a space of ground sixteen kariaa in extent, 6gold,n
,proula of i'lfJrifiUB ducrip,iona .-prung up, in Might one span, (1oith a root) one
incl& under ground. The 1Jillag8f'1 discoiiering tl,i ground covef'tltl ioitA gold,
tal:mg a cupful of tAia gol.:l and Np(Jiring lo the king, reported (the
At the distance of seven yujanaa, .e;,, the aouth-eaal tlinction from. tlui capital,
on the bank of the river (Mahav~p:tlp) in the TambapiHbi division, a
7bra.un metal rose to the aurface.
The villagen taking a cupful of these
1bra.un ,proulB, and repairing to the rija, reported the circumstance.
In the aouth-east direction from the capital, at the village Sumanavlpi,
distant four y6janas, a quantity o"f gema l'Oll8 to the aurface ; among ioliicA
tli,rs were int4rmingled the cinnamon atone and sapphire. The villagers taking
the aame in a cup, and repairing to the rija, reported the circumstance.
Eight y6janas to the southward of the town, in a cave called AmbaUhak6la,

1 "entering the capital (one day),"

but on remitting those revenu1111,"

"'an i,suana."

"therefore that I should levy tuea,

" ., ipa.na."

" were found nuggetAI of gold of dlven ats., the larreat about a span and
the amalleet an inch long, The inhabitantAI diaoovering that the ground waa full
of gold, took a plat,eful thereof to the Jdu.a', and reported the matter to him,"
"to the east of the cit.7, beyond," &:c.
"mine of copper."
" nugget.a of copper."
I "intermingled with,"

olluTaB :r.xmr.


11ilver wu produced. A certain merchant of the capital, who wu proceeding to the Malaya division to procure aaffron and ginger in the Did M'ala:,a
division, taking many carta with him, wiahing to get a l'Witch, stopping lua
carts in the neighbourhood of tlua cave, 111Cended a hill. ObaerYing a fruit
of the 1ise of a 1 " cdU " attached to a 'branch of a jak tree, which ~Kit ,na
bending with itll weight, and' resting on a rook : aevering the same (from- the
branch) with an t.ltlu, at the atalk of the fruit, and saying to hiDUl8lf, "This
ia precious : I muat give it (to the priesthood) ;" in the fervour of hia devotion, he aet up the call of refection. Four aanctified prieata preeented
tbemnlftll. Thia delighted and devoted person, bowing down to them and
cauaing them to be aea.ted, with his "adzi, pa.ring all round the point at which
the stalk adhered to the fruit (ao that no akin WIii perceptible), and pulling
ont (that at.alk) he poured into their dishes the juice with which (the cavity
of) the stalk was filled. The four brimming di1hes of jak fruit juice he
preaented to them. They a.ocepting the same, departed. And (the
merchant again) shouted out the ca.11 of refection ; and four other aanctified
cha.ractcra proaented themselves there. Receiving their dishes a.lao from
them, he filled them with the poda of the jak fruit. Three of them
deparied : one remained. This particular (prieat) in order that he might
point out the silver to him,1 aea.ting hilllll81f at the mouth of the cave pa.riook
of the jak: pod1. The merchant having ate aa much of the reat of the poda
u he wiahed, taking the reaidue in a "jar, he followed the footatepa. of the
priMt. Having reached this spot, he beheld the thera. there, and showed
him the aaual att.entiona ; and the thn pointed out to him the path to the
entn.nce of the cave. (The merchant,) bowing down to the thlSra and
proceeding by that (path), discovered the cave. Stopping at the mouth of
the cave, he perceived the silver. By chopping it with hia 'ad.re, be aatided
himaelf that it WN ailver. Taking a 18 handful of the ailver and halting to
the cart.a, and leaving his carr,1 there, this eminent merchant conveying thia
handful of 11ilver, quickly repairing to A.nuridhapura, and uhibiting it to the
riji, ezplained the particulars.
To the W'81tward of the capital, at the di11tance of five y6jansa, at the
Urnftlapattan&, pearla of the aiae of " 11116lli" fruil, together Ulilh. coral beadl,
to the ahorea from the ocean. Some fishermen 11eeing these, gathering
them into one heap, and taking (aome of) the pearla and coral in a diah, and
repairing to the king, reported the event to him.
To the northward of the capital, at the distance of seven yojanaa, in the 11
at.ream flowing 11through th6 b,-okm embankmem of the tank of PQivlpipma,
foar a11perb gems, in siae Ha apan and /our inchu, and of the oolour of the
nmm.6. flower, were produced. A huntsman diBCOvering tbeae, repairing to
the oourt, n:ported, Such and such gems have been diBCOvered by me."
It was on the same day that this most fortunate monarch heard of the
15 ,nanife,lation of th8lltl bricks and other treasures, to be uaed in the comtraction of the M:ahithupa. The overjoyed (king) conferred. favoun on thole
penona (who brought the newa o:i: theae miraculoua productions), 1'aa in l1ie

------------------ ---- "a large pot or pan."

~- -

------------ -

"young." .
"ita fruit.."
1 " knife,"
Iraurt "deaoended from the hill and."
11 "lump."
11 "A'malaka (emblio myrobalan), intenperaed with oon.l."
is IUt1rt "aandbanka of the."
.. "into."
H "about a small grindstone."
11 "and placiq them gaarda thenof."
11 "diaooveey."

A "Jr:nife."




/Of"'IIIM inatane,

(w the huntsman); and maintaining them und6r the royal

prot.,ction, cauaed all these things to be brought (to the capital).

Thua,_be who delight.a in the accumulation of deeds of piety, not being

detetTed by the apprehension of it.a being attended by intolerable personal
aacaiflcel!I, readily finds a hundred aources of wealth. From this (example)
the really religious man should devote himself to (deeds of) piety.
The twenty-eighth chapter in the Mahava-gsa, entitled " The Acquirement of the :Materials for the construction of the :Mahithupa," compoaed
equally for the delight and affliction of righteous meu.

the collection of the materials being completed, (Dutiha Gimani)
on the full moon day of the month of "vesa.kha," and under the constellation "vesakha," commenced the Mahithupa.
The protector of the land, removing the stone pillar' (which bore the
inscription); and in order that '(the ,trncture) might endureforageB, ezcatiated
by tJariou11 e;r;p,aienta a foundation for the thupa there, one hundred cubit, dMp.
This monarch, who could discriminate 3posBibilitiea fro111 impo,,ibilitiu,
eausing by mt1ana of hie soldiers (literally giants) round stones to be brought,
had them well beaten down with pounders ; and on the said stones being
pounded down accordingly, to ensure greater durability to the foundation, ha
caused (that layer of stont"B) to be trampled by er:>rmous elephants, whoae
feet were protected in leathern cases.
At Satatatintaka,-the 11pot where the aerial rher (flowing out of the
An6tatta lake) descends, spreading the spray of its cataract over a apace of
thirty yojanas in extent.-there the clay ia of the finest description: the
same being thus exquisitely fine, it is called the "navan{ta "4 clay. Thie
clay, sanctified sama9era priests (hy their aupernatural powers) brought from
thence. The monarch spread this clay there, on the layer of stones trod
down (by elephants); and over this clay lie laid the brick!!; over them a coat
of 'astringent cement : over that, a layer of "kuruvinda" atones ; over that
a pl,at,e of iron ; on the top of that, the ruler of the land spread 7the inun/16
of tb.e detas brought by the eimal}erae from Himavanta ; over that 8layer of
" phalika '' stone, 9be laid a cour-.e of common stones. In every part of the
work the clay used wa11 that which is called the " navanita." Above the
layer of common stones he laid a plate of bm88, eight inches thick, embedded
in a cement made of the gum of the " kapittha" tree, diluted in the water of
the small red cocoanut. Over that, the lord of chariots laid a plate of silver,
aeven inches thick, cemented in vermilion paint, mixed in the "tila " oil.
The monarch, in his zealous devotion to the cause of religion, having made
theee preparatory arrangements at the spot where the :Mahathupa was to be
built ; on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month " WJbi,"
causing the priesthood to be lU!Bembled, thus addressed them : " Revered
lords I initiative of the construction of the great ootiya, I shall to-l!lorrow lay

I1V6rt "that wall there."'

he might in every way make the thtlpa firm and at.able, digged a :foundation for it aeven cubitadeep." M'.OBt MSS. have_.ratta, "aeven"; theT(lm hu aata,

1 "

"the advr.ntagel and dil!lldvantagee of thinga."
' I1m.it "(butter)."
" ioqh."
" an iron network."
I8#rl "marumt., a fragrant (aubatance) brought," &c.
1 " &Jld O'fer that."
1 11 & "

caAl'TER xxn::.


the festival-brick of the edifice: let all our ppesthood 1S1emble there." This
sovereign, ev&- mindful of the welfare of the people, further proclaimed :
" Let all my pious subject.a, provided with Buddhiatiaal offerings, and
bringing fragrant flowel'II and other oblations, repair to-morrow to the aite of
the llalmthupa."
He ordered his ministers (V&akha and Sirideva) to decorate the place at
which the c~tiya (wae in progress of construction). Thoae who were thus
enjoined by the monarch, in their devotion and veneration for the divine
age (Buddha), ornamented that place in every po1!8ible way. The ruler of
the land (by instructions to other parties) had the whole capital, a.nd the
road 19a.ding hither, similarly decorated.
The ruler of the land, ever mindful of the welfare of the people, for the
a.oeommoda.tion of the popula.ce, provided, a.t the four gates of the city,
numerous 1ooths, barbers, and dreesere ; ae well ae clothing, ga.rla.nds of
fragra.nt flowers, and savoury provisions. The inhabita.nts of the ea.pita.I, 118
well a.e of the provinces, preparing c,ccording to their re11pective mffln& tribut81 of
the/JIJ kinds, repa.ired to the th(Jpa.
The dispenser of stcite honours, guarded by hill officers of state decked in all
the insignia of their full dross, himself captivating by the splendo1r of his
roya.l equipment, surrounded by a throng of dancing and sir:.ging women-rivalling in beauty the celestial virgins-decorated in their various embellishments ; attended by forty thousand men ; aocompa.nied by a. full band of all
deecriptions of musicians ; thus gratifying the populace, this monarch in the
ILfternoon, as he knew the sacred from the plaoes that were not sacred,
repaired to too Kite before-mentioned of the Mahathupa, as if he had hilllNlf
been (Sakka) the king of devas. The king, moreover, deposited in the centre
"and at tll.ll four corners (of the thupa.) a thoUF!a.nd, plus eight, hundles of
8made-up clothing. The va1iuus dJJscriptions uf cloths ( not made up) tM sovereign
deposited in a heap ; and for the celebration of the festival, he ca.uRed to be
collected there honey, clarified butter, sugar, and the other requisites.
From various foreign countries ma.ny repaired hither. 7 Who ioill be abu to
render an account of the priests of the isla.nd who assembled here P The profound teaoher Inda.gutta., a sojourner in the vicinity of Raj11gaha, attended,
accompanied by 8 eight thousand therae. The Maha tMra Dhammasena
bringing with him twelve thousand from the fraternity of the Isipata.na temple
(near Ba.ranasi), repaired to the site of the thlipa. The Maha thera Piyadassi
from the J~tl!, vihara (near Sava.tthipura) attended, bringing with him sixty
thousand priests. The tMra. Buddharakkhita. a.ttended from the MaMvana
vihara of V et!lli, bringing eighteen thollll&nd priests. The chief there. Dhamma.rakkhita., attended from the Ghosita temple of K0811mbiya, bringing thirty
tho111&Dd priests with him. The chief thcra Dhammarakkhita, bringing
forty thousand disciples from Dakkhinagiri temple of Ujjoni, also attended.
The tMra named Mittiooa., bringing' sixty thousa.nd priests from his fraternity
10o/ OM 1,undred thousand a.t the Asoka temple at Puppha.pura.
The thera
Uttiooa, bringing from the Ka.emira country two hundred and eighty
thoU1&Dd priests. The great sage Ma.hadeva. with 1'.fourteen laoa and aixty
tho1111&Dd priet1ts from Pallavabhogga; and Maha Dhammara.kkhita, thm of
" aooording aa they were required.''
lord of the land."
""clothes, and oauaed divera (other) clothe to be oolleoted on the four B1dea
' " What need of apeakiDg then about."
IllalH't "one h ~ and.''
1 .Ad.tJ



Y 6na, acoompanied by thirty thoull3Dd priests 'from the 11icinity of Alaaadda, tbe
capital of the Ydna country, attended. The tMra Uttara attended, acoompanied by sixty thousand prie11ts from 1ths Uttania ~mple in the wildeme111 of
Vinjha. The Mahi tMra Citt.aguita repaired hither, attended by thirty
tbouaand priests from the Bodhima'OIJa. The Maha thera Candagutta repaired
hither, attended by eighty thousand priests from the Vanavasa country.
The Mahi thera Suriyagutta attended, accompanied by ninety-11ix thou111L11d
priests :Crom theKelasa vihara. The number of the priests ofthillialand who
attended is not r.pecifically stated by the ancient (historians). From all the
priests who attended on that occasion, those who had overcome the dominion of sin alone are stated to be ninety-six k6~is.
These priests, leaving a space in the centre for the king, encircling the aite
of the cctiya in due order, stood at"ound. The raja having entered that
11pace, and seeing the priesthood who had thus at"ranged themselvei, bowed down
to them with profound veneration ; and overjoyed (at the spectacle), making
oiferings of fragrant garlands, and walking thrice round, he stationed himself
in the centre, on the spot where the "pun,.i'Oaghata" (filled chalice) waa
dep011ited with all honoul'!I. This (monarch) superlatively oompa1111ionate, and
regardful equally of the welfare of 1the human race an<l of Bpirits, delighting
in the task a1111igned to him 'by 111.eana of a minister, illustrious ;n descmt and
fully duorated.for tl,e solenm occasion, to whom he assigned a highly poli,hsd
pair of con,pa,aea made of 1ilver, pointtd 1oith gold, having at tllB place .befoNmentioned prepared hiniaelf to clescribe the cir1Jl6 of the bas, of the great cetiya,
by moving round (the leg qf tlie compaBB; at that {tistant) thll i111pirt.d and
profoundly prophetic great th.ira, named Siddhatka, 1,rr111ted ths monarch in ths
actofd11scribing (the circle), sayiTlfJ, "Ths monarch i11 about t.o co,mmincs the
con,truction of a ,tupmd<YUB thup,: at the inatant of ,itB completion he is dutinl
to dill : the 111agnitude also of the thupa make, fhs undertaking a moat difficult one."
For these reasons, looking into futurity, he prohibited its being formed of
that magnitude. The raja, although anxious to build it of that si1e, by the
advice of the priesthood, and a.t the suggestion of the theras, adopting the
proposal of the thera (Siddhattba), under the direction of that thira
described, for the purpose of laying the foundation bricks thereon, a circle of
moderate dimensions. The indefatigable monarch placed in the centte eight
golden and eight silver vases, ancl encircled them with eight ( silusr) and dgltl
(go1,den) brick,. Ile also depositl!d one hundred and eight mu, (enrthm) m,u,
and around BOCk of the eiulit bricks he dllpoai~d 011.11 hundred and eight pi11c1 of
Thereupon by nl,l!Qns of tlir especially ,eluted ministBr, 10},o was dtJcorated, toith

1 "from Alasanda."
1 "all beings.''
"Vattaniya, their dwellings."
"caused a minister of noble descent, well attired, to hold the end of a fine rod
of ailver that was fitted into a gold pivot, and began to make him walk round
therewith along the prepared ground, with the intent to describe a great oircle
to mark the hue of the oltiya. Thereupon a great th~ra of great apiritu&l
power, by name Siddhattha, who bad an in11ight into the future, dissuaded the king,
eaying to himself,' The king is about to build a great th11pa indeed; so rreat
tlul,t while yet it is incomplete he would die : moreover, if the thup& be a very
great one it would be exceedingly hard to repair. "
"and surrounded them with one thousand and eight fresh vases and with
cloth in quantities of one hundred and eight pieces. He then caused eight ezoellent bricks to be placed separat.ely (one in each of the eight quartera), and causing
a minillt.er, who was sele<Jl;ed and arrayed in e'l"ery 11111nner for that purpoae, to
take up one that was marked with divera 'ligns of proaperity, he laid the ftrat
auapicioua atone In the fine fragrant cement on the eaetern quarter ; and lo I
when j8BIUIWle flowers were offered thereunt.o, the earth quaked."



all the inaignia qf ,tat,, caU1Jing to be tahn up one qf tl&oN brielc1, IIIAicA II/CU
with all the pageantry qf featitJilg, ( IAe. lcing) tkpo,jlecl ii t/wJrt on the
~ lide, with the prucrfbed formaUtis,, in the deliciou, fra,granJ ~
lorml old qf the juaamine jlo10BTa which 1,atl been prutmUtl in off,ring, : an4
the ,arth quakld. The other seven bricks alao he cauaed to be laid (severally)
bJ aevon stato mini11tera, and 1celebrated great fe,tfoau. Thus those briclm
were laid during the bright half of the month "'86,Jhi," on the fifteenth day,
when the moon attains it.a utmost plenitude.
The overjoyed monarch having in due order bowed down and made
o1feringa to theN :Maha thl!ras, victon over sin, at each of the four quarters
at which they stood ; repairing to the north-east point and bowing down to
the sanctified Maha thira, Piyadnssi, stationed himself by his side. The B&id
(Maha th&a) on that spot raising the "jayaD1&dgala" chant, expounded to
him (the monarch) the doctrines of the faith. That diacoul'lie was to that
(aa,embled) multitude an elucidation (of those tltltri~). Forty thousand Jay
penons attained 1auperior gra.du of ,anctif.y; forty tbouaand attained the
state " s6tipatti"; a thousand " 111\kadigam.i"; the same number " aiiAgim.i";
and a thousand alao, in like manner, attained " arahatta." Eighteen thouaand priest aud fourteen thouaand priestesses alao attained the aanctification
of " arahatta."
From thia aample ( of Dul/ha Gdmani) by tlUJ truly ,oiu man, u,ho,e mind, in
hi, implicit faith. in tlM " raw.nattaya," ia bent on tM perform.aru:6 of charitabZ.
action11, and who is devoted to tM ,~elfare of the human race, the con?Jiction being
firmly entertained th.at th.e atlvance1nent of the ,piritual aalvation qf the to0rld ia
th.e higheat attainable reward; i11ibuetl by tl,e aznrit of faith and by ot1uJr piOUI
iwap..lHs, M ough.t llllalou,ly to ,eek that retoard.
The twenty-ninth ohaptcr in the l\lahAvavaa, entitled, 111 The PFVJJIGration for th.e (conatruction of th.e) Thupa," com110Bed equally for the delight
and affliction of righteoua men.

THE Malwija reverentially bowing down to the whole priesthood, thus
'addresHd t1iem : " Whatewr the ter111 of tke period may be, during ,ohich t1atJ
cdtiya will be in procea, of completion, (for tl,cd period) acc,pt your main"'9anoe
from me." The prieathood did not accede to thia (propo11ition). He then
by degrees (reducing the term of this invitation), solicited them to remain
seven days. Having succeeded in gaining their acceptance of the sevenda:,a'
invitation from one-half of the priesthood, the gratified monarch causing
edifices to be erected on eight different spot11 round the Bite of the thdpa,
for the priest& who had accepted the invitation, there he maintained the
priesthood by the auignment of alms for nven days, At the termination
thereof he allowed the priesthood to depart.
Thereafter, by the beat of drums, he expeditiously assembled the brickIayeni : they amounted to five hundred in number. One of them being uked
1 "caused auapiolous ceremonies to be pedormed over them,"
" att.ended with peat benefit to the multitude."
" the knowledge of the Law."
" Seeing that the highelt good of hum&nity iB bTOught about by meau or him
whole mind delighteth in the Three Gema, and whoff heart Is iupind wltb
a loft of manldnd and a 1pirit of aelf-aacriflce,-a man should oharilh II 1cm of
faith and other 'rirtuoua im.pullN."
" The Oommenoement (of the buildfn,r) of the Tluipa."
" inTlted them : '.Be pleued to aooept my alma until the aftfya II oomplelied.' "



by the king, " How much work cani,t thou perform P" he replied to the
monarch, 111 I unU ;n ona day compku work ffi.fficient to contain t116 earth
drawn by a hundntl mm in cart.." The rij6. rejected him. Thereafter
(each of the five hundred bricklayers) decreasing the quantity of work by
half, at last they stated two "ammanaIJB II of sand. The four bricklayen
(who gave this answer, also) the r6ja dismiBBed, Thereupon an intelligent
and expert bricklayer thus addreued the monarch : " I (will do the work of)
one 'ammanan' of sand, having (first) pounded it in a mortar, sifted it in a
11ieve, and ground it on a grinding stone." On this offer being made, the
ruler of the land, omnipotent as Sakka himself, being aware that on this
thupa no grau or other wead ought to be allowed to grow, inquired of him,
" In what form dost thou propose to construct the cctiya P" At that instant
Viasakammu '(invisibly) came to his aid. The bricklayer, filling a golden di11h
with water, and taking POme water in the palm of his baud, dashed it against
the ~ater (in the dish) ; a great globule, ,n the form of a r.oral bead, rose to
the surface ; and he said, " I will construct it in this form." The monarch
delighted, bestowed on him a suit. of clothes worth a thousand, a splendid
pair of slippers, and twelve thousand kah6pa1,1as.
In the night the r6jll thus meditat-ed : " How shall I transport the bricks
without harassing labourers P" The devas divining the meditation, night after
night brought and deposited at the four gates of the cetiya bricks sufficient
for each day's work. The delighted monarch being informed of this (miraculous proceeding), commenced upon the construction of the cetiya ; and
caused it to be proclaimed, "It is not fitting to exact unpaid labour for this
work." At each of the gates he deposited sixteen lacs of kah6pa1,1as ; a
'V811t quantity of cloths ; food together with beverage, served in the nost
sumptuous manner ; garlands of fragrant flowers ; augar and other luxuries ;
and the five condim\)nt.s used in mastication (and issued these directions :)
11 Having performed work according to their inclination, let them take theae
things according to their desire." Pursuant to tbeae directions the royal
servant.a, permitting the workmen to make their selection, distributed these
A certain priest, desirous of contributing hi11 personal aid in the erection
of this thupa, brought a handful of earth prepared by himself (in the manner
before described). Repairing to the site of the c~tiya, and eluding the king's
overseers (who had been enjoined to employ paid labourers only) delivered
that (handful of earth) to a bricklayer. He, the instant he received it,
detected (the difference), 6 8 This evasion of the king's order being made k1101Cn,
it led to a disturbance. The kin/( hearing of tM affair, repairing to the spoC;,
interrogated the bricklayer. (He replied), "Lord! priests are in the habit,
holding flower-oft'.erings in one hand, of giving me a handful of earth with
the other : I am 7only able, lord, to distinguish that such a priest is a stranger,
and suchapriest is a resident person here ; ( 8 h11t I am not personally acquainted
with them)."
The rAja hsving heard this explanation,'in order that (the bricklayer) might
point out the priest who gave the handful of earth, sent with him a "balattha"
(one of the messengers who enforce the authority of the king). He pointed

1 "I will exhaust, in one day (in my work), the earth drawn in a cart by an
hundred men.''
.4dtl "(aa ao large a portion of. earth mixed in the masonry wonld have the
effect of. producing treat! in the ediftoe)."
'' inspired him."
"like unt.o a ball of. crystal.''
AIU "and smpected the prieat from h:a manner."
"The rumour spread gradually, and reached the ears of. the king, whe."

'" not."




out the (offending prieBt) to that enforcer of authority, who reported him to
the r6jl. The king (in order that be might fulfil his own vow of building
the dAgoba exclusively with paid labour, yet without compelling the rriest to
violate the rule that priests should never accept any reward or remuneration)
had three jars filled with !fragrant jusamintJ and mugrem jloUMrs deposited near
the b6-tree; and by the management of his me11Benger he contrived that they
ahould be accepted by the priaat. To the said priest who was standing there
(at the b6-tree) after having made, an offering (of theae flowers), without
having discovered (the trick played), the messengor disclosed the same. It
'W8II then that the priest became conscious (th.'\t the merit of the act performed
by him had been cancelled by the acceptance of theae flowers).

A certain thera, the relation of the aforesaid bricklayer, resident at Piyaugalla in the K~livata division, impelled by the desire of contributing towards
the construction of the dtiya, and having ascertained the size of the bricks
uaec! there, and manufactured such a brick, repaired thither ; and deceiving
the superintendents of the'work, presented the brick to the bricklayer. He
used the same, and a great uproar ensued. The instant the rija was informed
of it, he inquired of the bricklayer, " Canst thou identify that brick P "
Though he knew it, he replied to tht. king," I cannot identify it." (The
monarch) again asking," Dost thou know the tbcra?" thus urged, he said
"I do." The monarch, that he might point him out, assigned to him a "balattha." The said messenger having identified (the priest) by means of him
(the bricklayer) ; pursuant to the commands of the riijfa, proceeded to the
KaHh:lhala parivci;ia ; and sought the Rociety of, ami entered into conversaticn with, this thcra. Having ascertained the day of the thera's intended
departure, as well as his destination, he said, " I will journey with thee to
thy own village." All these particulart1 be reported to the raja, and the
king gave him a couple of moat valuable woollen cloths, with a thousand pieces;
and having also provided many sacerdotal otferinge, sugar, and a "nali" full
of 110ented oil, despatched-him on this mission. He departed with the th~ra;
and on the following day, at the Piyangallaka vihara, having seated the prieat
at a cool, shady, and well-watered spot, presenting him with sugared water,
and anointing his feet with the scented oil, and fitting them with theslippen,
he bestowed on him the priesUy offerings with which ho was entrusted.
3" This pnir of cloths and other articles belonged to a certain thera who is attached.
to 11wi as if he were a son : ,rccepting the,n from him, I now give them all to
thee." Having thus spoke, and presented (the thl'ira) with these things ; to
him who 1vaa depaiting, h.aving accepted them, the "balattha" in the preciae
words of the king, delivered the royal message.
Many asankiyas of paid labourers, in the course of the construction of the
thupa, becoming converts to the faith, went to " sugati." 8 The wise man
bearing in mind that by 7co11veraion alone to the fa.ith the supreme reward
of being born in heaven is obtained, should make offerings also at the thupa.
Two women who had worked for hire at this place, 9aft,er th'1 completion of
the g,eat thupa were born in the Tavatigsa heavens. 10Both these (women),
endowed with the merits resulting from their piety in their previous exi11tence,
1 " jeeeamine flower buds."
"clothe worth."
"These priestly articles were bought by me for a certain th~ra who ia
attached to me, and this couple of cloths for my son,"
" and having bowed unto him who had accepted them, and departed."
"A great number."
' " only taking a delight in Buddha."
.Atltl "(aa the following story will illustrate)."
11 Iuert "After the completion of the gnat thdpa tioth" .tw.
" (died), and."




oalling to mind what the act of piety of that previous existence wu, and
preparing fragrant flowera a.nd other o1feringa, deacended 1(at a 114bnqt1Mt
period) to thia thdpa to make oblationa. Having made theae flower and
other o1feringa to the cetiya, they bowed down in worahip.
At the aame inataut the tbera Mahisiva, reaident at the Bhl.tivadka vihm,
who had come in the night time, saying, " Let 111e pray at the great thiipa ";
aeeing theae females, conoealing himaelf behind a great " sattapa,,u_ii " tree,
ud atationing himaelf unperceived, be gazed on their miraculoua attributes.
At the termination of their 3pra11er1 be addresaed them thus : " By the effulgence of the light proceeding from your pel'IIODB the w bole ialand haa been
illuminated. By the performance of what act waa it, that frcm hence ye
were transferred to the world of the diivas?" These d~vatiis replied to him:
"The work performed by ua at the great thupa." Such is the magnitude
of the fruits derived from faith in tho 'aucceBBOr of former Buddhas I
1 .A, by tll.ll b1icklaytit1 the tl1upa u:aB ,ucce,sfrely raiaed thrtJtJ ti111ti1 to thti htJight
o/ the ltJdgtJ on which the jl.owe1-ojftiri11g1 are deposited, (
each occaaion.J the
in,pired (tl&baa) caused (the edi6.oe) to sink to tbo level of the ground. In
thia manner they depreaaed (the atructure) altogether nine times. Thereupon the king desired that the prieathood mighl. be R888mbled. The priest.a
who met there were eighty thoueand. The raji repairing to lhe aBBemhled
prieathood, and making the usual offering&, bowed down to them, and inquired
regarding the sinking of the IDIU!onry. The priesthood replied, "That is
brought about by the inspired priests, to prevent the ainking of the thupa
itaelf (when complotel) : but now, O :Maharaja I it will not occur again.
Without entertaining any further apprehenaions, proceed in the comp!.ition
of this undertaking." Receiving this reply, the delighted monarch proceeded
with the building of the thupa. At the completion for the tenth time up
to the ledge on which flower-offerings are deposited, ten ku~ia of bricks (had
been consumed).
The priesthood, for the purpose of obtaining (mighaval)9a) cloud-coloured
stones for the formation of the receptacle Qf the relic, &1111igned the task of
procuring them to the aamal}cras Uttaro. and Suma9a 1 aaying, "Bring ye
them." They, repairing to Utta.rakuru, broughtsix beautiful cloud-coloured
stones, in length and breadth eighty cubits and eight inches in thicknesa, of the
tint of the" ga1Jthi" flower, without flaw, and reaplendent like the aun. On
the flower-offering ledge, in the centre, the inapired therat1 placed one ( of the
a1aba), and on the four aidea they arranged four of them in the form of a
bo:s:. The other, to be used for the cover, they placed to the eastward, where
it wu not aeen. For the centre of this relic receptacle, the raja caused to be
made an exquiaitely beautiful ho-tree 6in gold. The height of the atem,
'including the five branchtia, waa eighteen cubit& :1 the root was coral: 'he planted
(the tree) inan emerald. The stem was of pure silver ; itB leaves glittered with
gema. The faded leaves were of gold ; its fruit and tender- leaves were of_
coral. Onita atem, 10dght inches in circumftirence, jlower-cnepera, repreaentationa
--qf quadn,ptida, and of the " hapBa," and other bird,, alwntJ forth. Above thia
(receptacle of the relic), around the edges of a beautiful cloth canopy, there
was a fringe with a golden border tinkling with pearl, ; and in various parta


"to wonhip the great thdpa."

" Ta~ata {' the BUCOOIIIIOr of former Buddhu ')."
" No ~oner were the three ledgea for laying offering1 of 11.owen built up with
bricks and raised, than the th4ru, who were endued with 1piritual power,"
11 made of preoioW! thinge."
' Dele.
I'llffrl "it had 11.ve branches."
"it waa fixed on emerald pound."
,. .. there were repreaentationa of the eight auapioioua objects (a~mailg&lik'),
tlower-planta, and beautiful IOWB of quadru.pedB and hq11&11,"




garlands of flowel'II (were suspended). At the four corn81'11 of the canop7 a

bunch exclusively of pearls waa suspended, each of them valued at nine lam:
emblema of the sun, moon, and stal'II, and the -variom species of 1.flm,,er,,
represented in gems, were appended to the canopy. In (the formation of)
that canopy were apread out eight thouand pieces of nluable clotha of
various deacription and of every hue. He SlUTOunded the bo-tree with a
low parapet, in different part.a of which gems and pearla of the Bise of a
" neli " were atudded. At the foot of the ho-tree rows of va&e1 filled with
the various flowel'II represented in jewellery, and with the four kinda of
perfumed watel'II, were arranged.
On an invaluable golden throne, erected on the eaatern aide of the bo-tree
(which WIii! deposited in the receptacle), the king placed a resplendent golden
image of Buddha (in the attitude in which he achieved buddhahood at the
foot of the bo-tree at UrU:vela in the kingdom of Magadha). The featarea
a.nd membel'II of that image were represented in their aeveral appropriate
eolonl'II, in exquisitely resplendent gems. There (in that relic receptacle, near
the image of Buddha), stood (the figu1-e of) Ka.hAbrahma, bearing the silver
parasol of dominion ; Sa.kka, the inaugurator, with hia "vijaynttara " chank ;
Pailcasikha with his harp in hia hand ; IUJ,aniga together with hia band of
singers and dancel'II ; the hundred armed Mira (Deat.h) mounted on his
elephant (Girim&khala), and surrounded by hia hoet of attend11ta.
Corresponding with this alta. on the eaatem aide, on the t1ther three aid
also (of the receptacle) altal'II were arranged, each being in value a" kcSJi."
In tk nol'tlt-eaatern dir,clion from IM bo-tms IMN _ , an altar arrangI, made
qf tlie various descriptions of gema, coating a "k6ii " of treasure. The varioaa
acts performed at each of the places at which (Buddha had tarried) for
the aeven timea seven daya (before hia public entry into Birlmaaf), he moat
fu:lly repreaented (in this relic recept.acle); as well as (all the aubeeqaent
important works of hia mi&aion, viz.): Brahmf. in the act of supplicating
Buddha to expound his doctrines ; the proclamation of the sovereign supremacy of hia faith (at Birinaai); the orditiation of Yau; the ordination of
the Bhaddavaggiyi princea ; the convel'llion of the Jatila sect ; the adftDoe
of Bimbisara (to meet Buddha); his entrance into the city of B,japha;
the acceptance of the VQuvana temple (at Bajapha) ; his eighty principal
disciples 1tliere (n11ulent); the journey to Kapilavatthu, and the golden
"chalikama" there ; the ordination of (his son) Bihula and of (his oouain)
Nanda; the aooeptance of the Jet.a temple (at Bbatthi); the miracle of two
opposite Yeaulta performed at the foot of the 'amba tree (&t the ptea of
Siwtthi); 81&i11 at!rmon delivered in the Tin.tigaa heavena (to his mother
Miya &nd the other inhabitants of those heavena); the miracle performed
unto the devaa at his deacent (from the heavens, where he had tarried three
months l!lxpounding the "abhidhamma"); the interrogation of the aaaembled
theraa (at the gates of Badkspura, at which he. alighted on his deacent from
the Tavatipa heavens, and where he was received by Siriputta at the head
of the priesthood); the delivery of the "Ka.hiaamaya "discolJ1"18 (at KapU..
vatthu, pul'lluant to the example of all preceding Buddhaa) ; the monitory
discourse addreaaed to (hi son) Bihula (at KapilavaUhu after he entend
into priesthood); the delivery of the M'ahimagpla diaoo11l'l18 (at Slntthi,
aJao pursuant to the e:nmple of preceding B11ddhaa); the uaeml,17 (to


"There wu alao a bed (repMllell.ting that on whioh Buddha reated immecUat.eq aft.er he llad attained enlightenment) with itl head towuda the boclhl

tree, adorned with," &c.

I IJd.6.

... ,av,Jaala tree."

t H


" the cluoounm." Tba .A.bhidhanu...



witneu the attaolr: on Buddha made at B,jagaha by the elephant) Dhaoaplla ;

the diaaouree addreued to A'Javalr:a (at A'lavipura); the 1di,courN on t1" ,trit,g
qf amputated finger, (at &ioatthi); the subjection of (the nip rij6
Apa1'1a at o o o o o o 0 0 ); the (aeries of) diacounea
adoirelled to the Pir.iyaoa brahmao tribe (at Bljagaha); as aJao the
lmlflation of ( Buddl&a',) approachi1'!1 dtlmiae (communicated to him by Mam
Ua,w month, before it took place at Plva) ; tho aoceptanoe of the 'l.lma-offering
prepared of hog's flesh (presented by Cunda at Pava, which was the
laat aubetantial repaat Buddha partook of); and of the couple of "1idgivavva "
cloths (preaented to Buddha by the trader Pukkwia on hill journey to
Kuaioara to fulfil his predicted destiny); the draught of water which
became clear (on the disciple .A.'oanda.'1 taking it for Buddha from t.he rivflr
Kulr:uta, the stream of which was muddy when he first approached it to draw
the water) ; his "parinibblna" (at Kosinari) ; the lamentation o~ devaa
and men (on the demiae of Buddha); the prostration at the feet (of Buddha
on the funeral pile) of the thera (Maha Kassapa, who repaired to Ku1.1inAra by
his miraculous powers from Himavanta to fulfil thia predestined duty) ;
the self-ignition of the pile (which would not take fire beforo Mahi Kauapa
arrived) ; the e:s:tinction of the fire, as a1ao the honours rendered there ; the'
partition of (Buddha's) relics by the (brahman) D6i,a.. By thia (monarch)
of illustrioua descent, many of the "Jataka" {the former existences of
Buddha), which were the best calculated to turn the hearts of hia people,
to conversion, wore also represented. He caused Buddha's acts during_hia
exiatence as Vellll&Jltara r(\ji\ to be depicted in detail; as well as (his history)
from the period of hia descent from Tusitapura to hie attaining buddhahood
at the foot of the ho-tree. At the fartheat point of the four aides (ot the
relic rel'.eptable) the four great (mythological) kings (Dhatarattha, ViruJha,
Vinipakkha,and Vessaval}a) were represented; thirty-three devaa and thirtytwo princes; twenty-eight chiefs of yakkhas ; above these again, d6vas
bowing down with clasped hands raised over their heads ; still higher othera
bearing vases of flow11rs ; dancing dcva11 and chanting d6vas ; devaa holding
up mirrol'II, 1111 well as those bearing bouquets of flowers ; devas carrying
flowers, and other dcvas under various forms ; diivas bearing rows of boughs
made of jewels ; and nmong them (representations of) the " dhammacaklr:a";
rows of d6vas carrying swords; aa also rows bearing refection diahes. On
their heads, rows of lamps, in height five cubits, filled with aroma.tic oil and
lighted with wicks made of fine cloth, blazed forth. In the four corners of
the receptacle a bough made of corn.I, each aurmounted with a gem. In the
four corners alao shone forth a clu11ter, each of gold, gems, and pearl11, a.s well
u of !apia lazuli. In that relic receptacle on the wall made of the cloudcoloured atone, streams of lightning were represented illuminating and
aetting off (the apartment). The monarch caused all the images in thia
relic receptacle to be made of pure5 gold, oosting a "koti." The chief
thora Indagutta, master of the- six branches of doctrinal knowledge, and
endowed with profound wisdom, who had commenced the undertaking, superintended the whole execution .,f it himself. By the supernatural agency of
the king, by the supernatural agency of the devatlu!, and by the supernatural
agency of the arhat priests, all these (offerings) were arranged (in the
receptacle) without crowding the space.

1 " oonvelllion of Angulim'1a."

'There is no omiHion in the text here 1111 tl:.e a11teriilb would indicate.
" relinquiahment of Buddha's full tArm of life, (three montha before hia
I1t1t1rt " solid."



IB, ,A, ,,..,, .,,;., man, linoml1 tmdouHlti toilA /ailh, ,A, Jl'*fflla4i011 of

owinga unto I.la tki9 of propiUou, OIM1tllll, t.v ..,,.,,,., of IAI _,_,.., t.v tli,,,U.,, of,,., tlarkn,a, of"" ,,., obj,cl
of o,ffmng,
litling, anti unto
Ai, nliu t0Aln nducl to atom., and conducing to IAe ,piricual raeifan of n1m1Hing 6ol1& duly IOligW; ,acA acl of pi,ly lllill appMW of equal i m ~
(toilA 1M o1AtsrJ; and a, if unto t.v lifffllfl tlat, AimNV offoUci1o111 ,_,.,.,, Al
nndlJr o,ffmng, to IA, nliCII of IAI tlitiin, ,ag&
The thirtieth chapter in the Mahbag1111, entitled " The DIIOription of the





Beoepta.ole for the Belics," oompoeed equally for the delight and affliction of
righteoua men.

TIii: YILDquiaher of foal (Dut~ Glmani) having perfected the worb to
be uecuted within the relic receptacle, convening an auembly of the priesthood, thua addreaaed them : " The works that were to be executed by me in
the relic receptacle are completed ; to-morrow I ahall enahrine the relica.
I orda, bear in mind the relica." The monarch having thus delivered him.self, retlll'Ded to the city. Thereupon the priesthood consulted together u
to the priest to be selected to bring the relics ; and they llllligned the office of
ucorting the relics to the disciple named S61,1uttara, who resided in the Pdjl
parivfva, and wu muter of the 1~ depanmenta of doctrinal knowledge.
During tit, pilgrimag, ( on ,art!& of Buddha), tl&, compa,lionating aaoioar of
,A, u,orltl, tlti, p,r-u had (in a /orm,r a:i,t,nc,) bnn a youl,\ qf IM nam,
Nantluttara ; t01&o, having inr,it,,l tl&, ,upmn, Buddha u,itl& Ai, di,cipla, had
md,rlained tl&em on t1&, bank, of tl&e river (Ga,agea). The divine teacher with
bis ucerdotal retinue embarked there at Payiga-paUana in a veaael ; and the
thera Bhaddaji (one of these diaciplea), muter of the &ix branches of
doctrinal knowledge, and endowed with aupern"tural powen, obaerving a
great whirlpool (in the rivor), thus spoke to the fraternity: "Here is aubmerged the golden palace, twenty-five y6janaa in extent, which had been
occupied by me, in my existence u king Mahipanlda (at the commencement
of the " kappa'"). The inoreduloua among the prieata (on board), on
approaehing thtJ 10/&irlpool in tA, rfoer, reported the ciroumat.ance to the divine
teacher. The aaid divine teacher (add1'8111ing himaelf to Bbaddaji) said,
"Remove this acepticiam of the prieathood." Thereupon that individual, in
order that he might msnifeat hi& power over the Brahma16b heavena, by his
1n11ernatural gift apringing up into the air to the height of aeven palmyra
tree&, and atretohing out his arm, brought to the apot (where he WIii poised)
the Duuathdpa, (in which the dreu Jaid aside by Buddha u prince Siddhattha,
on his entering into prieathood WIii enshrined in the Brahm'llub heaven, for
ita apiritual welfare) and exhibited it to the people. Thereafter, having
reatored it to its former position, returning to the (veuel on the) river, by his
1 " Of!eringe preaented In (einoere faith) by a lover of mankind unto the
'bl81118d,. ~ adorable, the 1npreme, and the enlightened Buddha while he yet lived,
and thoae olfered unto hie reli.ce which were diapened (at his death),- both
equal in merit. Bearing thia in mind, let the wise man, adorning himaelf with
the ornaments of faith and virtue; make of!eringll unto the reliClll of the Sage u
unto the living Lord himself."
I II pioouring."
"(Now at one time), during the pilgrimage of our Lordonearthforthe benefit of mankind, a certain youth, by nameNandnttara, who dwelt on the banb of
the Gangee, in"tited the BDpremeBudcn&withhiadiaofpleaandentert4ined them."
4 IUtJrt "The 1tffllm of the Ga.Dg81 comea in contaot therewith at this plMe,
(and thna onateB thla whirlpool),"



11upernatural powel'II he ra.illlld from tbo l,ed of tho river the (submerged)
palaoe, by laying hold of it, by a pinnacle, with hi, toes; and having exhibited
it to "the people he threw it back there. The youth Nanduttara, seeing the
miracle, 11pont<11k!OU1Jl9 (airfrerl at tlii,1 com:icti011): "It 1oill beper111Utetl to ,m,
lo bring a111t1y a relic aJ>propl'iated bu rinotM1."
On account of thi11occurrence (which bad taken place in a former exiatenoe)
the priesthood selected 18d1mtlar11 a (lf<ill1Jt{'#il'lt) prie11t, ,i:r:teen yw.r, qf age,
for the execution of thi11 commiBBion. He inquired of the 1,rieathood "From
whence can I bring reliCK P" The priesthood 111,.1111 rpliNl to thi, thera: " TIUJ
reUc a,-,, tht~e.. The 111l~1 of tit~ u11i11,ir11~. 10/1.11 11eated 011 ths t11rone on ,r.hich he
attained parinibbtina,' in order that he might provide for the spiritual
welfare of the world by moons of relillll, thus addre11Bed himself to (Sakka)
the supreme of dh:ui, regarding these relics : Lord of dcvaa, out of eight
duoa,a' of my corporeal relic.'! one ' d61,1a ' will be preserved 1111 an object of
worship by the people of Koliya (in Jambndipa): it will be transferred from
thence to Nagaloka, where it will be wonhipped by the nqas ; and ultimately it will be enshrined in the MahitMpa, in the land Lavka.'
" The pre-eminent prieat, the them Mahi Kolll!Bpa, being endowed with
the foresight of divination, i11 rml.~r that he 1Mr1ht 7,r. 1n-eparerl for the
t.z.ten,i11e ,equiitio,i mhic/1 would he m:l!le (at a future period) by the monarch
Dhamm."'6ko. 6/01 ,.,.1;c,,, (by application) to king Ajataaattu caused a great
enshrinement of relics to be celebr.1ted witb every sacred B01emnity, in tho
neighbourhood of Rajo.gaha, and he transfe1red the othor seven d69as of
relics (thither) ; but being cognizant of the wish of the divine teacher
(Buddha), he did not remove the 'd61)a.' deposited at Bimagima.
"The monarch DhammAsoka seeing this great 111/i,ine qf 1-elic,, resolved on
0th, tli11e,.;butioJ1 of tbo eighth d61,1, also.
9 W/w1 th, tl"g lu,rl been ftud Jo,
'1Ull&rining ihe11t! rtlics in tl,., great tluipti at (P11ppliap11m, re11wri119 tli.en1.fro11,
RtinuuJama), 011 that occc1Aio11 t1l110 t/&P. s"nctift,tl 111inist~r11 of religion pro/1lbitl
Dha11"aa11dk1,. ' 8Tl,r. sc,irl thllpa, which stood o.t Bamagam~ on the bank of
th~ G.1n,iea, by the action of the cur1ent (in flllfilment of Buddha's prediction) was d811troyed. The cm1ket containing the relic being drifted into th11
ocean, 1111tatio11lltl it11elf u.t tl1~ 11oi.11t where the stream (of the Ganges) 11pread11
in two oppoaite directio1111 (on encou11tcri11g tho ocean), 11011" bed of gf'ms,
tlazsling by the brillimw,11 of tl1eir I'll!/" N,i,gas discovering this ca11ket,
repairing to the naga land Maijcrik:l., report!!cl the circulOlltanco to the 11aga
raja Klt!a, He proceetling thither attended by ten thousand koiis of nagas,
and ma.king offcri11gs to tho 11:,id relic11, with the utmost aolcmnity removed
them to his own rea.lm. Erecting there a th(1pn. of the most precio1111
materials, M well n.t1 au e<lifi(',O over it, with the mDllt ardent devotion he with
his nigaa inces.<1antly made offcrin1,'K to the same. It is guarded with the
greate11t vigilance ; (nc,erthcle11s) ropiliriug thither briug tho relics hither:

' "made thiM a,opimtion. nau1cly, '' May I (in" future, exi.. t.onc<) be endttlod
with the power of bringing 11.wo.y 11 relic that is in the po,1se111&ion of another."
"the monk Sotmttn.n,, albeit he was only ~ixt...on years olrl."
"then described the relic~ to the thd"ra in this wise : ' The Chief of the worM
while lying on hi.15 bed of final emancipation.' "&.r,,
,. o.t Rii.mo.gama.
seeing that I\U ez:teDBive dilfosion of relics.
"collection of relillll for en~hriuem.cnt.
" procuring.
"But the sanctifwd prie~ts wllo were th<rc dilllluaded DhammAsoka, 111,ying, I 1.
hall been reserved by the Conqueror (Buddha) for enshrinement in the great
thlipa (Ruvan~li).'
11 .. rl!lltod on a bed of g8111J!."
" Now the."
11 "and remained there covered with a halo of rays."



to-morrow the protector of the land will celebrate the enshrining of the
Having attentively listened to the addresa thu1 made. to him, and replying
" SAdhu," he returned to bi1 own parivf9a, meditating RB to the period at
which he ought to depart on hi miuion,
The monarch (DuUha GAmani), in order that all things might be prepared
in due order, caulled proclamation to be made by beat of drums : "To-morrow
the en1hrining of relics will take place ;'' and enjoined that the ,rhole town,
as well as the roads leading (to the Mab&vihlra), should be decorated, and
that the inhabitant11 of the capital 1hould appear in their best attire. Sakka,
the 1upreme of deVBB, 11ending for Vi111111kamma, had the whole of Lauki
decorated in every pouible wny. At the four gates of the city the ruler of
men provided, for the accommodation of the people, clothing and food of
every d811Cription. On the full moon day, in the evening, thi1 popular
(monarch), wiae in the administration of regal affairs, adorned in all the
in1ignia of majesty, and attended by band& of singers and danceni of every
description ; by hi guard of warriors fully caparisoned ; by his great
military array, consisting of elephants, horses, and chariots, resplendent by
the perfection of their equipment; mounting his state carriage, (to which)
four perfectly white steeds of tho Sindhava breed (were harne111ed), stood,
bearing a golden caaket for (the reception of) the relics, under the white
canopy of dominion. Sending forward the superb state elephant Kai;i4ula
fully comparisoned to lead the proce11ion, men and women (carrying) one
thouBBnd and eight exquisitely resplendent "pur,u.iagha\a" (replenished
vasea) encircled the state carriage, Females bearing tbe same number of
bu11:etB of floweni and of torches, and youths in their full dreu bearing a
thouBBnd and eight superb banners of various colours, 1urrounded (the car).
From the united cl'IU!h of every description of instrumental and vocal music,
and the sounds heard from different quartera, produced by th~ movements
of elephants, ho1'110s, and carriages, the earth appeared to be rending asunder.
This pre-eminently gifted sovereign, progl'888ing in state to the lfahamha
garden, shone forth like the king of d~vas in his progress to his own garden
The priest S09uttara, while yet at his parive9a, hearing for the first time
the buwt of the musical sound11 which announced the procellion to be in
motion, instantly diving into the earth, and proceeding (subterraneous1y) to
the land of nagas, there presented himaclf to the naga. roja. The n6ga king
rising from his throne, and reverentially bowing down to him, seated him
(thereon); and having shown him every mark of respect, inquired from
what land he had come. On his having explained himself, he then BIiked the
them for what purpo11e he hacl como ; who, after detailing all the principal
objectll, then delivered the meHBage of the priest.hood : For the purpose of
enshrining at the Mahathupa, pursuant to the predictive injunction of
Buddha, do thou surrender to me the relics which have fallen into thy
hands." On hearing this demand, the nilga rijri, plunged into the deepeat
consternation, thus thought : " Surely this sanctified character ii endowed
with power to obtain them by forcible meam ; therefore it is expedient that
the relics should ho transferred to some other place "; and 1 ( 1ec1-etl11) aignifit,l to hi11 nephew, who was standing by, JJ11 110111e 1mia,.,. nr other (kt thia be
done)." That individual, whose mime was V'8ul1idatt111 understanding hia
uncle's intention, hastening to the relic apartment swallowed the relic
caaket ; and repairing lo the foot of mount Mcru (and by his supernatural
powera extending his own dimen.-ions) to three hundred y6jaDM, with a hood


intimated hill J>Ul'P088 by a aiBn."

. I)et,,



,4;Clllfll broad, ooililqr himeelf up, remained there. Thi1 preter..

naturally-gifted n6p, 1preading out thou,anda of hood11 and retaining m1
coiled-up poaition, emitted amoke and I lig1,tning; and calling forth thouaanda
of makee llimilar to himaelf. and encircling himaelf with them, remained coiled .
there. On this occasion, innumerable dhu and mgu B1Hmbled at tlwi
place, nyi11g, "Let us witnea the contest letween these two 'partita, tit,
The uncle, aatiafying him1elf that the relics had been removed by m1
nephew, thus replied to the thera: "The relics are not in my poueaion."
The Eaid then, revealing to the up rija the travels of these relica from the
commencement (to their arrival in the land of mgaa), aaid, "Give up thoae
reliaa to me." The ophite king, in order that he might 'indicate to tlle Ui.4ra
('1iat lie mu,t atarch) el,um:llere, ueorting and conducting Mm to ,1,, nlic apartflNnt, prt>Ntl t./aat (point) to Aini. Tlle pri,et 6dolding the cetiga ant/. U,e
dtiga apartment, 60th nquilit8lt1 conatructttl, and ,uperbly ornammlfd in ,:ariou,
toitA "'''71 ducription of trtaaure, u:claimtd, " ~ ll the aecumvlaled
treasures in Lavkl would fall ,hort of the value of the Jut 1tep of the atair
(of thia apartment); who shall describe the rest I" 5(Tlle ndga king, for
getting Ai, prnioa11 dttltm1tion that tits nlic, ,,.._ not thfln, ntorltd):
"Prieet, the removal of the relio from a place where it i1 pl'elerved in so
perfect a manner, to a place inferior in the meana of doing honour to it,
surely cannot be right P'" (Scivattara replied) : " Niga, it is not voucheafed
unto you nlgaa to attain 1 thfl /our 1HJperior grade, of aunctijication : it ia
quite right, theN!fore, to remove the relica to a place where 'the/our 1t1perior
gradu of ,anctijiration are attainable. Tathilgataa (Buddhaa) are born to
redeem beinp endowed with uiatence from the miseries inBeparable 1rom
agslra (interminable transmigration). In the present cue also there ia an
object of Buddha'a (to be accomplished). In fulfilment thereof I remove
these relica. On thia very day the monarch (of Lavka) ia to effect the
en1hrinement of the relioa. Therefore, without causing unavailing delays,
illlltantly surrender the relioa."
The nigi &;n,idiou,lg rejoined : " Lord, 1a, tllou ( of courae) aeut the- nlic,,
talcing thtlm btgont." The th6ra made him repeat that declaration three
timea. Thereupon the th6ra, without moving from that spot, miraculously
creating an invisibly attem~ated arm, and thrusting ita hand down the mouth
of the nephew (at mount Meru) inatantly poBBeBBed himaelf of the relic
ouket. Then saying (to Kila), "N6ga, rest thou here"; rending the earth,
he reucended at hia pa.riv69a (at A.nuridhapura).
The nip dj6. then sent a meuage to his nephew to bring back the rilioa,
informing him at the same time, " The priest i1 gone, completely deceived.
by ua." In the meantime, the nephew becoming oollloiou1 that the ouket
wu no longer in hia stomach, retuming, imparted the aame to his uncle with
loud lamentationa. Then it wu that the nip r6.ja, exclaiming, " It ia we
who are deceived," wept. The afflicted nlpa also all mourned (the lou of
the relic). The deva.a uiembled (at M6ru to witneB1 the conflict), exulting

.,.,.. (and,,,,


I II one




"n&gu." The wozd fl4g11 -na a serpent u well u a chief 11r magnate
uecl here t.o apply to both the make &Del the tMra.
" make an imp191ion on the th6ra fn another W&7, took him to the oMfya
houe and praised the beauty thereof, saying, Behold, 0 priest, thla o6t4.,a ud
the houe which oovera it, ao u::quiaiteq built and adorned with diven pmL'

All the,'' &le,

I .DIJlt1,
" to an nndentanding of the four Great Trutha."
"an undentancling of the four Grat Truths fa."
"if thou 11ee1t the relica, take them and depart."





at the prieet'1 victory over the nip, and making ofterinp to the reli01,
acoompanied him (hither).
The ~ . who were in ~ deepeat affliction at the rem.oval of the reliaa,
also p1'811lnting the11118lvea, full of lamentation, to the thhu (at A.nundhapura), wept. The priesthood., out of oompauion to them, belltowed on them
1a trifling relic.
They delighted thereat, depariing (to the land of mgu),
brought back treuurea worthy of being preaented aa offerinp.
SaJdra, with hi1 boat of deV&ll1 repaired to thia &pot, taking with him a
gem-Bet throne and a golden ouket ; and arranged that throne in a 1aperb
golden hall, oon1tracted by Vi111akamma himaelf, on the 1pot where the thha
wu to emerge from the earth. Receiving the c1Bket of reliCB from the handB
of the mid thera (u he emerged), and encaaing it in the caaket (prepared by
hiD1Belf), depoaited it on that 1uperb throne. Brahma waa in attendance
bearing hia paraaol; Santuaita with bis" cimara "; Suyama with bill jewelled
fan ; and Sakka with bill cbank filled with ooDBecrated water. The four
great kings (of the C"ummahlrijika heavem) 11tood there with drawn
1wonh; and thirty-three supernaturally-gifted deVIIII bearing baaketa of
flowen. There stood thirty-two prinC888811 1n&aking offering, of "pdriccluttta" jto1oe11; and twenty-eight yakkha cbiefa, with lighted torcliu, ranged
th8Dlll8lvea as a guard of protection, driving away the fierce yakkhu. There
1tood Pa&casikha striking the harp ; and Timbaru, with hill stage arranged,
dancing and Binging ; innumerable d6vaa 1inging melodio111 1train1 ; and the
nAga. raji :Mahikila rendering every mark of honour. The boat of devatda
kept up their oeloatial music, poured forth their heavenly aonp, and caused
fr11grant showel'B to descend.
The aforemid thera Indagutta, in order that he might prevent the interference of Hara (Death), caused a metallic paruol to be produced which
covered the whole "cakkavila." In the front of the relica, at Jive aeveral
placeB, all the priests kept up chant.a.
The d9liA_hted mah6.rliji Duttha Gimani repaired thither, and depositing
the relioa in 'llb.\f golde11 caaket which he had brought in procession on ,the
crown of hia hea.d, placed''lfem-on the throne; and having made offerings
and bowed down in worahip to the reliCB, there 1\8.tioned himaelf, with claaped
hands uplifted in adoration. Beholding these divine paraaols and other
paraphermilia, and heavenly fragrant (flowers and inceDBe), and hearing all
this celestial music, while at the same time Brahma and the devu were
invisible (to him), the monarch delighted and overcome by the wonders of
these miracles dedicated hia canopy of dominion to the relics, and inveated
them with the 10vereignty of La9li; exclaiming in the exuberance of hill
joy, " Thrice over do I dedicate my kingdom to the 6Ndeener of the world,
the divine teacher, the bearer of the triple canopy-the canopy of the heavenly
hoat, the canopy of mortals, and the canopy of eternal emancipation"; and
accordingly he dedicated the empire of LaplrA three times 1ucceBBively to the
The monarch attended by devu and men, and bearing on hia head the
cuket containing the reliCB, making presentations of otferingi thereto, and
surrounded by the prieathood, marched in proceuion round the thupa; and
then aacending it on the ea1tern Bide, he descended into the relio receptacle.
Surrounding this supreme thdpa on all sides, stood ninety-aix "kutia" of
" arhat" prieata with uplifted claaped hands. While the ruler of men, having
descended to the relic receptacle, was in the act of deciding, " Let me depoait
them on this invaluable splendid altar"; the relica, together with the cuket

"a few relics."

Add" and -n.~l)fferi,np of' p6.ricchatta flowers.'"

... bearing lighted u.roh!..:




rising up from hia head to the height of seven palmyra tree111 remained poised
in the air. The casket then opened spontaneously, and the relics diaenpging
themselves therefrom and UBuming the form of Buddha, resplendent with
hia special attributes, acoording to the resolve made by the daity of felicitous
advent while living, they worked a1 miraclo to/ t,co oppoai~ re,ult,, similar to
the one performed by Buddha at the foot of the gai;,11Jamba tree,
On witn888ing thia miracle, twelve k6iia of de't'llll and men, impelled by tl1e
ardour of their devotion, attained the sanctification of "arhat." The rest who
attained the other three stageR of sanctification are innumerable.
These (reli011) relinquishing the aBBUJDed peraonification of Buddha, reverted
to the casket, and then the casket descended on the head of the raj&. This 1c1iif'f
o/ victor11 (Duttha G6mani), together with the thtb-a Indagutta and the band of
musicians and choristers, e11terin9 tM relic nCllptacl11, and moving in prooeBBion
round the 6pre-e1nint.nt tlmms, depoaitl it on the golden altar. &thing hi~
f,st and hafl(l, with the fragrant water poured on them, and anointing them
with the four aromatic unctiona, the ruler of the land, the delight of the
people, with, the profoundest reverence opened the casket, and taking up the
relics mado this aspiration : "If it be destined that theae relics should per.
inanently repose 'anywMn, and if it be destined that these relics sh-,uld
remain enshrined (here), providing a refuge of salvation _to the people ; may
they, aaauming the form of the divine teacher when seated on tM tk,'OM on
which he attained ' pa.rinibbana,' recline on the superb invaluable altar
already prepared here." Having thus prayed, he deposited the relioa on tho
supreme altar ; and the relioa aBBuming the desired form reposed themselves
on that pre-eminent altar.
Thus the relics were e11hrined on the fifteenth day of the bright half of
the month " Wlhi," being the full moon, and under the constellation
"uttarf.8'Jha." 9From the enshrining of the relics the great earth quaked, and
in various ways divers miraclea were performed. The devoted monarch
dedicated his imperial canopy to the relics, and for seven days invested them
with the sovereignty over the whole of Laoka ; and while within tho receptacle he made an offering of all the regal ornaments he had on his person.
The band of musicians and choriatera, the ministen.of state, the people in
attendance, and the devatu did the same.
The monarch bestowing on the priesthood robes, cane aug1'1\J,uffalo butter,
and other offerings, kept up throughout the night chants hymned by the
prieata. Next day this regardful monarch of the welfare of his people
caused it to be proclaimed by beat of drums through the capital : " Let ali
my people during the ensuing seven days worship the relics."
The chief thera Indagutta, pre-eminently gifted with supernatural powers,
formed this aspiration : " May the inhabitants of Lavki, who are de11irou1 of
worshipping the relics, instantly repairing hither, worship the relics; and in
like manner return to their respective homes !" His prayer came to paaa
This indefatigable great monarch having kept up abna-offeringa for aeven
days, without interru11tion, to the great body of priests, thus addl'Olllled them :
" The task &BBigned to me within the relic receptacle baa been accomplished :
let the priesthood who are acquainted therewith proceed to close the
receptacle." The priesthood allotted the task to the two 8'ma1,1eras (Uttara
and Sumaoa), who cloaed the relic receptacle with the atone brought by
Jn,,..,.t "biform."
'' illmtriowi chief,"
" relic receptacle, entered it and deposited the Ollllket."
"Wuhing his harida."
' ' undisturbed by any (enemies)."
" lying" on the bed."
.. Shu.ultaneoualy with."



them. 1'he sanctified ministers of religion moreover formed these aspirations :

" May the flowers offerud here never perish I May these aromatic drugs
never deteriorate I May these lamps never be extinguished I May no injury,
from any circumstance whatever, be sustained by these I May these cloudcoloured atones (of the receptacle) for ever continue joined, without showing
an interstice I" 1All tliis canle to pass accordingly.
This regardful sovereign then iuued this order : " If the people at large are
desirous of enshrining relics, let them do so." And the populace, according
to their meaus, enshrined thousands of reliCA on the top of the shrine of the
principal relics (before the masonry dome was closed).
Inclosing all these, the rajli completed (the dome cf) the thupa : at thia
point (on the crown of the dome).he formed on the cetiya its square capital,
(on which the spire was to be based).
'Thus ( like unto Dul/l1a Gtimanf,aome) ti,1.Zy pi.ou11 men,for tliepurpose qf incli.1iid11ally ear11ing for themselves the 1mpre11ui of all re.,.cirds ( nibbuti), accumulate
act11 of the purest piety; and again ( also like unto Du1tl1a Gdmanf, other) mm
e11dowecl 11:it/1 the purest Hpirit of piety, born in eiery grade i,i society (fro1n the
l.hattiya and the bral,ma to the I ou:est clrus), on account of the spfrit11al welfare of
tlie human race at large pe1form ( similar acts of pious merit).
The :thirty-first chapter in the Mahl,.vaysa, entitled " The Enshrining of
the Relics," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

WnEN the construction of the spire and the plastering of the cftiya alone
remained to be completed, the rlijli was afflicted with the disease which terminated hi11 existence. Sending for his younger brother TiMa. from Dighavapi, he said to him, "Perfect the work still left unfinished at the thupa."
As his brother was in the inst stage of weakness (and as he WM dOBirous of
exhibiting the cetiya. to him in its completed form) this prince caused a case,
made of white cloths, to be sewed by seamaters, and enveloped the cetiya
therewith. He also employed painters to paint the pannelled basement ; and
thereupon rows of filled vases, and ornaments radiating like the five fingers
(were represented). He employed parasol-frame-weavers to form the frame
of a temporary) spire, made of bamboos; and in the same manner with
"kharapatta" he formed a (temporary) parapet round the pinnacle, representing thereon the sun and the moon ; and having painted the same moat
beautifully with red stick lac and " kugkuma," he made this announcement
to t,he king : "The work which was to be performed at the t.hupa is completed."
The ruler of the land repaired thither, carried extended on his "siviki ";
and causing himself to be borne in the " siviki " round the c~tiya, and having
bowed down thereto in worship near its sout!Jern enlrance,-extending himself
on a carpet spread on the ground,4 and turning on his right side, he gaired on
this pre-eminent Mahithupa ; and then turning on his left side, he fixed his
eyes on the magnificent Lohaplislida ; and finding himself at the same time
encircled by the priesthood, he was filled with joy. The number of priests
who congregated on that occasion to inquire after the patient were ninety-six


good men, pure in heart, themselves perform, and also cause othen to
perform, pure actions, which are the means of eecuring the highest of all bleuiqs
as well as of obtaining a. mulLitude of followers of divel'II kinds."
Omi' I1t1t1rt .. near its BOuthementranoe
" So do



"kdti&" Theee mimatera of religion, in their aeparate fraternities, hymned

forth their prayen (for the ro:,al patient' 1pirjtaal coneoJation).
The monarch noticing that .the th6ra Thl!iraputtAbhaya WIIII not preeent on
thie oocuion, thu1 meditated : "There "111 a great warrior, who had fought
twenn--eight pitched battlee by my llide, undaunted, and without retreating
a etep : but now that he ia a th&ra, by the name of Th6raputtAbhaya, though
he me 1truggling with death, and on the eve of being vanquillhed, doee
not approach me." The ll&id thera, who waa reeident at the Pa6jali mountain,
at the eource of the river Karinda, cogni1&nt of hia meditation, attended by
a retinue of five hundred aanctified diaciplea, and, by their 1upernatural
power, travelling through the air, deacended, and arranged themeelvea around
the monarch.
The djll, overjoyed at beholding him, and caueing him to be seated immediately in front of him, thue addreeaed him : "In timee past, 1upported by
thee, (one of) my ten warriors, I engaged in war: now-single handed I have
commenced my conflict with Death. .It will not be permitted to me to overcome~ mortal antagoniat."
The thm replied : " Mahir6j6, ruler of men, compoae thyaelf. Without subduing the dominion of the foe, Sin, the power of the foo, Death, ia invincible.
For by ob.r divine teacher it hu been announced. that all that i1 launched
into thi1 tramitory world will moet auuredly periah ; the whole cniation,
therefore, ia periahable. Thill principle of diaaolution ( continued Th6raputt&bhaya) uninfluenced by the impulaee of ahame or fear, exert.II it.I power
even over Buddha. From hence impreaa thyself wii.h the conviction, that
created things are ,abject to diaaolution, afflicted with griefll, and deatitute
of immortality. In thy exi11tence immediately precediug the preaent one (in
the character of the 8'mar.ilira prieat, resident at the Tiadrima vih6ra) 1in,bu,,l UJith th, punat of piety while on the eve of tl"ans111ig1ution to the ' Ddvaloka '
WOl'ltl, Nlinquiahing that heavenly beatitude, and repairing thither, thou didet .
perform manifold act.I of piety in various ways. 1Bg thy having reduced this
realm under one sovereignty, 3and t"UtoMl tl,e glorification of the faith, 4a
gt'Mt -,,ice has 1-n n,,ulered. Lord ! call to thy recollection the many acts of

piety performed from that period to the present day, and conaoJation will be
inevitably derived by thee."
The raja on hearing this exhortation of the tMra, received the greatest
relief ; and thus addressed him : 1 '' Tlio1& supportest mfl then even in my
struggle with Death." The consoled (monarch) imtantly causing to be brought
the" pu66apotthakag" (regiaterof deeds of piety), commanded his secret.ary
to read (ita content.I), who accordingly read aloud the aaid record : " One
.hundred, minus one, vib6ras have been comtructed by the Mahiraji. The
ilaricavani vibAra coat nineteen k6tia ; the pre-eminent L6hap'86da wu
built for thirty kotia ; in the construction of Mab6.thupa twenty invaluable
treuurea were expended ; the rest of the workl at the MahAthdpa, executed
by thie truly wile personage, ooat a thousand k6tis." "0 Mali.u6ja (continued the l801'8tary), during the prevalence in the Kotthaka division of a
famine, to auch an extent that the inhabitants lived on the young aprouta of
treea, and (therefore) called the 'aggakkh6yika ' famine, two invaluable earornamenta were given away, in the fervour of thy devotion, in order that thou

1 "


th7 ambition to do good waa truly great ; for when the world of the goda
then even nigh unt.o thee (and thou oouldat have been bom therein) thou

didat :nmounoe."
"The objeot of thy."
4 Omit.


"waa tJu:.t thou mightellt restore tba gloq ."

"Verily, thou."



mightest become the eminent donor of a m8118 made of 1kangu '8Ml, which had
already commenctd to get ,own, to five eminent theras, who had overcome the
dominion of ain." On (the secretary) proceeding to read " On the defeat
at the battle fought at Odladganiya, in hiB flight, .the call of refection being
aet up, disregardful of himself, to a sanctified miniater who approached travelling through the air, the repa,t contained in his golden dim waa given,"-the
monarch interrupting him (proceeded to narrate hiB acts after hia acceasion):
'" The feativala of seven days at the great (Maricavatti) vihira ; 1n like
manner' the festival at the (L6ha) p'86.da; as also 1the festival of seven days
at the Mah6.tbupa ; in like manner at the eDBhrining of the relics, to the prieathood of both sexes, who had oome from the four quarters of the globe, a
aumptuous alma-o1fering had been kept up, without the slightest omission, by
me in great profu11ion. I have celebrated the great 've8'kha' festival four
and twenty timea. I have bestowed, on three separate occasions, on the whole
priesthood in the i&land the three garments (which constitute the sacerdotal
robes). On five several occasions I ha,,e conferred, with the most gratified
feelings, on the national church, the sovereignty over this land, for a term of
seven days in each instance. I have constantly celebrated, in o:fferinga to the
deity of felicitous advent, in twelve difi'erent places, an illumination of aeven
thousand lamps, lit with clarified butter and white wicks. I have daily maintained at eighteen different places (hospitals) provided with suitable diet, and
medicines prepared by medical practitioners for the infirm. I have bestowed at
four and forty places rice prepared with sugar and honey ; and at the same
number of places rice prepared with butter ; at the same number of places
confectionery drossed in clarified butter ; at the same places, ordinary rice,
collb;;antly. I have provided monthly cill tk, t,iluira in Lav)d with lamp
oil, for the ,ight ' uposatha' days in each month. Having learnt that the
office of expounding the scriptures wa& an act of greater merit than the
bestowal of offerings, 'I will to-morrow,' I exclaimed, 'in the midst of the
priesthood, ascend the pulpit on the ground floor of the Lohap6s6.da, and
expound the ' mangala ' diBCOUrse of Buddha to the priesthood ' ; but when
I had taken my place, from reverential deference to the ministers of religion,
I found myself incapable of uttering. From that period, I have caused the
preaching of religious discourses to be kept up in the vihAras in varioua part.a
of Lagki, aupporting the ministers of religion who were gifted with the power
of preaching. I have ca1111ed to be provided for each priest endowed with
t,he gift of preaching, clarified butter, sugar, and honey, a naJi' of each; I
have provided a 8pi,c, of liquorice of the 7brMdtk of the four fingers of the
hand ; 8I kaN pro"icl,d, also two cloths for each. But all these off eringa having
been conferred in the days of my prosperity, do not a1ford me any mental
relief. The two offerings made by me, disregardful of my own fate, when
I was 9a pious charact,r a.ffeicted in adversity, are those which alone administer
comfort to my mind."
The aforesaid Abhayathcra, hearing this declaration of the rija, explained
11!/rom varioua pasaagu ( of the " t,pitaka ") the cauees which led to the monarch
being especially comforted by the recollection of those two offerings; (and
thus proceeded) : " The chief thera M.Uiyad~va, one of the five prieats who
had accepted the ka6gu m888, dividing the same among five hundred of the
fraternity resident at the mountain Bumana, himaelf a1ao partook of it.

1 "bngu and aoidnlat.ed uuoe."

~ligt1 ia a sort of millet, pu.iolr: 1188d,
whioh, when boiled, m.atea an exeellent meal,
'" At the."
Iu,n at."
" tb.e qhtTihuu.'

" and."

" handful."

' " leDgth."





(Another of th8He five) the thcra Dbammagutta, the eaithquuker, partook

of his portion with five hundred of the fraternity of Kalyi,;ii vihira, (The
third) the thcra Dhammadinna, of Taladga, partook of his portion, dividing
it with twelve thousand of the fraternity of Piyangudipa, (The fourth)
t,he thcra Khudd!ltisaa, endowed with miraculous powera, resident at
Madgana, partook of hie share, dividing it with sixty thousand of the fraternity of K~laaa, (The fifth) .the chief thera Mahabyaggha, partook of his
portion, dividing it with five hundred of the fraternity of Ukkunaga vihara.
The thera (Tissa, the son of a certain kutumbaka) who had accepted the
rice offered in the golden dish (at the Kappakandara river) partook thereof,
dividing it with twelve thousand of the fraternity of Piydgudipa." The
thora Abha,a hning thus spoken, administered mental comfort to the king.
The r,ja having derived r.onsolation, thereupon replied to the thera : " For
four and twenty years have I been the patron of the priesthood: may evfln
my corpse be rendered subservient to the protection of the ministers oft.he
faith! Do ye, therefore, consume the corpse of him who has been (as
submissive as) a slave to the priesthood, in some conspicuous spot in the
yard of the 'up6aatha' hall ut the Mahithupa." Having expres11ad these
wishes, he addressed his younger brother : "My beloved Tissa, do thou
complete, in the most efficient and perfect manner, all that remains to be
done at the Mahkthupa: present flower-offerings morning and evening at
the Mahathtipa : keep up three times a day (the sacred service with) the full
band of mu11icians at the Mahathupa. Whatever may have been the offerings prescribed by me to be made to the religion of the deity of felicitou11
advent, do thou, my child, keep up, without any diminution. My beloved,
in no respects, in the offi.r.es rendered to the priesthood, let there be any
intermission," Having thus admonished him, the ruler of the land dropped
into silence.
At that instant the assembled priesthood simultaneously chanted forth a
hymn ; and from the six devalukaa devatas presented themselves in six
chariots. These dcvas remaining in t},eir ea.re, separately (implored) the
monarch : " Raja, repair to our delightful d6val6ka." The king hearing
their (clamorous) entreaty, silenced them by a signal of his hand, which
implied, " A11 long h.11 I am listening to the doctrines of Buddha, so long
must ye wait." The priests, imagining that he wished to arrest the progre88
of the hymn, (abruptly) cea.,ed their chant. The raja. inqnired the cause
thereof. They answered, " Because by the signal made (we understood
thee) to say 'stop.' " The king rejoining, "Lord11, not so," explained
what the signal meant. On hearing this explanation, some of the assembly
(as the devaa and chariots were invisible to them) observed: "Surely this
(monarch) is thus supplicating, overawed by thl' dread of death." For the
purpose of removing this misconception, the th6ra Abhaya thus addressed
the monarch: "What should be done to make manifest that they (the
devas and chariots) are in attendance l'" 'l'he all-wise king 3flung wreaths
of flowers into the air. They, attaching themselves separately one to each
chariot, remained pendent. The multitude witnessing .th~se pendent
wreaths were disabused of their misconception.
The ra.ja. then thus addressed himself to the th6ra : " Lord ! which is the
most delightful deval6ka ?" He replied, " It has been held by pious men,
O rija, that Tueitapura is a delightful dcvaI6ka. The all-compassionate
Bodhiaatta, :METTEYYA, tarries in Tusitapura, awaiting his advent to Buddhahood."

The epithet wied in the text i11 pa/l1at::-pafaka, which, even when applied to
holy monk, oan only mean " the saviour or preserver of mankind."
;,wit.bin aight of."
" caused to be 8.ung."



Bhing reoeind thls explanation from the thha, tlus pre-eminently wile
Mahuaja 1e:,:pired in tM act of gazing OD the Hahathdpa, stretched on hia
Instantly (his spirit) disengaging itself (from hia mortal remaina), and
being regenerated in the chariot which had been sent, his heavenly figure
manifested itself standing up in the said car. In order that he might display
the realised reward of his pious life, exhibiting his 1(N!J611tJralad) person,
adorned in the utmost perfection, to the multitude, and retaining his poaition
i~ the chariot, he drove round the Hahathupa three times ; and then bowing
down to the Mahithupa :is well as the priesthood, departed for Tusita.
1Fro111 the circv1111ta11M of tM ,aomen of the palactJ htuing a11iMmbled there, and
tDept tcith di,Moellul (7twl.,1/a) l,ail', tl,11 liall built on the BJ.IOI (to commenwrate
where the 11wnarch ezpired) ,oas callul Makuta-mutta-,ald. At the inatant
that the corpse of the rija was placed on the funeral pile, the multitude
(,Lravi) set forth their clamorous lamentation. From that circumstance the
edifice erectlld there obtained tho name of Bavava\ti sala. On the spot
where they burnt the corpse of the rija, in a yard without the consecrated
ground (devoted for religious purposes), a Malako. square waa formed, which
obtained the namo of the Raja-nuilaka.
This DuUha Glnnani raja, eminently worthy of his exalted state, will
hereafter become the chief disciple of the sanctified METTEYYABuddha. The
father of the raja will becom.l thl! father, and his mother the mother, of the
said METTEYYA (Buddha); and his younger brothtirSaddhi Tiasawill become
his second disciple. The son of this monareb, the prince royal Sall, will
beco"le the son of the sanctified llETTEYYA Buddha.
Tims (like. unto DuUlia G,i111anl) l,e irl,o ia intmt on. act, of piety, and lead,
a virtuoU11 life, esclmcing tl:e in1111111erable 111'1111 1rl1icl1 are 1111dl'jin"ble, enter, the
keai,snlu r,u.msiom1 a, if they 1co1'fJ hi, own 1,abittion. ~ro11t thi11 circun111tance,
tlie tmly pious 111an 1oiU be ince11111411tly dei'Oted to the pe1for11w.nce of act11 ofpiety.
The thirty-second chapter in the Mab.avaysa, entitled, " The Departure for
Tusit.apura," compoaed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous

Dua1No the reign of the rija Dut\ha Gamani the nation enjoyed great
proaperity, He had o. son renowned under the designation of the royal

prince Sali, gifted with good fortune in an eminent degree, and inceaaantly
devoted tu acts of piety. He became enamoured of a lovely female of the
cai;ujaUa caste. Having been wedded in a former existence alRo to this
maiden, whose name was A.s6kamflla, and who waa endowed with exquisite
beauty, fascinated therewith he 1elinquillhed hi11 right to the sovereignty (to
retain hia low-born wife).

1 "divine re-embodied."
1 " closed hill eyea while yet."
The meaning of this passage i11 aomewhat obacure. The Ba~uTBntutJi'V'e
Snmailgala version makea it. "The ball built at the apot where the tlaneiug
wumcu came and took otr the (dead king') crown was called the llaknta-mntt.a8'1'," (' the hall where the crown was taken otr '). The word nd,alt.ittAt m.elUlll,
here as well a.a elsewhere in the11e Chapters, women of the palace, kept to amuse
the king with singing, dancing, &c.-rtiste11. .Jlukv,a. may mean a. crown or a
knot of d.reaised hair. Here it evidently means the latter,
A. more literal rendering would have been preferable:-" Thua he who is ever
intent on good worb and doea them OOt'era a multitude of venial 11im, and
ente.rs into ht-'11.ven u freely 1111 he dOCII into hils own house. Therefore 11hould
the man of wisdom bo COD11tantl7 diligent in good works."

8addh6 Tua, the brother of Da\\ha G&manr, on hia demiae 111oaeediq to
~e monaralay, 1complel,d eig1illln ytara during Aia nign.
This mom.rch, whole name impli the llinoerity of hia faith, completed
the pinnacle, the plastering (of the dome), and the enoloeing parapet wall,
decorated with figures of elephants, of the llahith~pa. 1 TAe L,fl,apdldda,
aoAieA .lad baen comtructJ i,i thia island (by flie late king), did"' .,,.,..: (t1ie
pr-uent monarch) subuqumaelg built ii"""' atoriu Aig1i, antl tli mi.fie, cod nine
In the course of hia reign be erected the Dakki9igiri and the Kallabllena
vih6ru, as well as the KulumbOa, the PettalipvaU, the V6langaviUi; the
Dubbalaripitiaa, the Dtirati888.kavapi, u alaohismotber'avihara, and 1Dlgl,aNpi arilufra, distant each one yojana from the other. 4.AI the aa11M1 time ,nith
Digbdpi mhara 1ui wile llit cetiya of tl,at naua, i the pinnacle qf flial cetiya
he decomtJ with 111ery ducription qf gem11. TkM't!On, al t1pprapriate places, he
suspended exquisite flowers made in gold, of the size of a chariot wheel.
This mott fortunate monarch made eighty-four tbou11&Dd offerinp to the
eighty-four thousand " dhammakkbandu," 6of Buddha. Having performed
these numberlel!B acts of piety, this rnler of the land, on eevPring himself from
hia mortal frame, was regenerated in the Tuaita heavens.
While the djfi. Saddhfi. Tiasa yet resided at Dighav6pi, hie eldeataon LajjitiBB& oon&t\'Uoted the delightful Girilmmbhila vihira. Ayoung11r (theeeoond}
aon, Thu!lattbanaka, built the vihara called Kandara.
At the time that hie father repaired to the court of his brother Duttha.
Gimani, Tbnllattbanaka accompanied him, 8giting over the charge of hi11
vihira to the priesthood. On the demise of SaddhatillBII., rill the oftle,ra of
state 1U111embled, and having convened a meeting of priests at the Thupirima,
7undilr the advice of the priesthood, for the purp011e of providing for the
administration of the country, they inaugurated Thullattbanaka. On hearing
of this proceeding, Lajjiti8811. ha11tened hither (to Anuridhapura), and seizing
(Thullatthanaka, put liim to death), and aRBumed poseeBBion of his rightful
110vereignty. The riji Thullatthimaka reigned only one month and ten days.
This Lajjiti111& continued for three years displeased with the priesthood,
as tlieu had ,et aside his prior ,ight of succe88ion, u11d rtfallt!a to patranise ther,1.
Subsequently the monarch forga-re the priesthood ; and a.a a penance, contributing three laoa, caused three altars, formed entirely of atone, to be erected
at the Mahithupa. The ruler of the land caused also, by expending a lac, the
ground around the Mahathupa and the TMpllrima to be levelled ; and at the
ThupArama establiahment be encloeed the cetiya in a superb oaae of atone. In
front of the TMpirima he built the thupa of at.one (therefore called) Silithf:&pa, and the hall (otuled after the king) Lajjitissa, for the atonmmodation
of the priesthood. Expending another Jae, IDhe b"ilt a cetiya at tlui CMiyu.

"teigned full eighteen ye&n."

The mtiaDing of this p1111Bago has been entirely mia-apprehended. It Bhould

be rendered thua :-" (And it happened that in this king's reign) the stately
L6hap'8ida caught fire from a lamp and wu burnt down. He (Saddhl Till8a)

built it up agaui and formed a seven-storied building. It w1111 then worth only
ninety laca (niJlll millions)." The original building, oonsisting of nine stories,
coat Dffeampiya Tissa thirty io,i,, or crores, equal to three hundred milliona.
" and alao vihame as far aa Dfghavipi."
4 11 He alao built the Dighavapi vihara together with a oetiya, and made for it
a covering ( of network) resplendent with divers gems. On the
thereof "~
"eeotionsof theLaw." "in order that hemightgive." "with the
" saying, 'They oared no& even for the order of seniority,' and reviled them."
" sought forgivenesa from.""
11 "he eaoaaed with atone the oeti7a at the Ceti,agiri vfllAra."





.;111ra, anc1 ,,__ ;, u:itA a1orw. 1 un1o 11tr ,;zi, tAouiom1 prie,11 ,..,;., a1
,A, GirihmbAila wilidra A, matk offering, of the prment1 com~ing tile
uoerdotal robeL Be built alao the Arit1-ha and the Kandarahinab Yilwu,
and for the itinerant prieata he aupplied medicinal drup. Inquiring always
of the priesteuea, " What do ye need P" he pro'Vided1 the rice reqwarte
for their maintenance. He reigned in thi1 land nine yean and eight montha.
On the demiae of Lajjitill&a, hi1 younger brother Khal1'Janip (auceeeded,
and) reigned for ailc yean, For the embellilhmeDt of the L6hapWda he
constructed thirty-two edificea ludjac,nt to it. Encloaing the beautiful great
thdpa HcmamAli, he formed a aquare strewed with ll&lld, with a wall built
round it. This monarch alao con1tructed the Kurundap6aaka Yilma and
cau1ed 'llW'7J ol,,_,:u,ice qf r1gal piety to b, 1cq,t uz,. The miniahr MahArattaka, 5alBtlmi71g tli, character of tAe nder qf tlie land, aeilled the rij' KhallAtanap in the very capital (and put him tq death).
The younger brother of that king, named Vat ta Gamauf, putting that perfidic,u1 minister to death, a1Bumed the 10vereignty. .Be adopted III hia own
aon Ma.haculika, the son of hi1 late elder brother KhallatanAp ; and conferred on hie mother A.nuJa the dignity of queen-conaort. To him who thwi
111111umed the character of a father, the people gave the appellation of
In the fifth month of the reign of the monarch who had &a1umed the
aovereignty undtir theae circu11111tancea, a certain brahman p,inC#J of the city
of Nakula, in Bohava, believing the prophecy of a certain' brahman 1 Tiua
(who predicted that he would become a king), in hil infatuation became a
mal'II.Ud81" ; and his followers increaaed to great numbers.
98even dami!aa with a great anny landed at Mah!tittha. 18 TAe braAman
and the seven damiJIUl11 despatched a letter to the reigning monarch to demand
the surrender of the aovereignty. The king, who was gifted with the power
of divination, sent an answer to the brahman to this effect : " The kingdom
ia thine from this day: aubdue the (invading) dami!as." He replying, "Be
it ao," attacked the dami!as, who made him prisoner. These damila11 thereupon waged war agr.inst the king, and the sovereign being defeated in a battle
fought at the outskirts of Ko!amb(Jaka, mounting his chariot, fled through
the Titthlirima gate. This Tittharimli bed been built by PaocJuklbhaya,
and had always been auignud as a residence (to people of foreign religions)
during the reign of twenty-one kinga (including the Rohaoa sovereigna). A
certain 11pro/f.&11or uf a dij/"err.11t ndigion, named Giri, seeing him in his flight,
ahouted out in a loud voice," The great black Siha!a is flying." The Mahl\rija hearing thi1 thus 1esolved within himRelf : .. Whenever my wi1hes are
realised, l will build a vihara here."
Deciding within himaelf, " I am bound to save the pregnant queen .Anuli,
as well as Mahacula, and my own child Mahinliga," the king retained them
with him: and in order that the weight of the chariot might be diminished,
with her entire consent he handed the (other) queen Somadhi '>Ut of the
carriage, bestowing on her 1'a suwll b,autif11lj11,;el.
1 " At the feaatof the Girikumbhila vihara he made offerings unto sixty thouaand
1 " around."
Iurrt what they wanted and.''
"other worka of merit alao to be performed,"
" youth," ce,alt.&. Thia word is also used to 11ignify a young aervant,---a "boy."

I'IUlllrt " foolillh."

Innrt "(About this time).''

" Tfya,"

"Thereupon the brahman Tfya."

IRHrl .. also.''

"Nipvtba" (one o:f a llllCt o:f Hindu ancborit.eB).

"his beautiful crest-gem.''




When he set out to engage in battle, 1h had cakffl tl,11 princu and tlu, qtielll'lli
uilh laim, but omitted to remo" the refection dish of the vanquisher.
pleud by hi, anziety (rega,vling th11 safety of tht!,e object,) he ,oa, df,(1.at,.d;
and.flying, concealed himself in the Veaagiri foreat.
The thera Kutthikkula Mah6tiaaa meeting him there, preaented him with
a meal, 3toithout misappropriating his at:f!l!J,tt!d r;lms-ojferinga. The ruler, grati8.ed thereat, dedicated (certain laudll) for the support of hill fraternity,
reooJ:'ding the grant on "a ketab leaf," (no other writing materials being
procurable), Departing from thence, he sojourned at Si1A-sobbhakav4aka :
and quitting that retreat also, he repaired to the Vet,ul{Ja forest in the
neighbourhood of S61agalla (since called Moragulla in Malaya). There the
monarch again met the priest whom he had before seen (in the Veasagiri
foreet), who enjoined 'a Tanaslva (a ll'i/tl huntM), u:ho tea, hi11 own attmdant,
to serve (the fugitive monarch) most attentively. The r6.ja sojourned here,
in the habitation of this 6Rtttte1a-Tanaaiva7 fourteen years, dependent on
him for support.
From amongst the seven (invading) d:imilas, one greatly enamoured of the
queen S61nadcvi, taking her prisoner, quickly recrossed the ocean: another
of them appropriati11g the refection dish of the deity of ten powers, which had
been left at Anur6dl1apur..i, aml ~ati11fied with that prize alone, also re-embarked
without dO?Jay. 'l'he danaiJa Pulahattha, appointing the damila named B6hiya
his minister, reigned three years. Bahiya, putting the said Pulahattha to
death, reigned two years. Pal}ayam6.ra was his miniHter. Paa.iayamara, putting
the Raid B'1iiya to death, reigned seven years. Pilayani6ra was bis minister.
Putting that Piu.iayamara to death, the said Pilayam6ra waK king for Reven
months. D6thiya Wllfl his minister. '.l'he said Ditbiya damila, putting Pilayamara to death, reigned at Anuraidhapura for two yelll'I!. Thus the term {of
the reigns) of th~ae five damija kings w11.11 fourteen years plus seven months.


In t/1ia Alrtlay<i tlit'ision tJ,e qutm A1111fa 1rl'11t (w, 11i,ual to tlui /,au.a of the
Tana,h-a) to 1'teeii:e Tm c/(lif,1/ supply of p1'01i11io11a; 1111d t/1e Tunasittt' UJije
(on thi, or.c.u.11iu11) 1.-icketl he1 lmsk,t curay. She, outraged at thi& treatment,
weeping aloud, ran to the king. The Tanasiva, hearing what had occurred
(and dreading the resentment of the king), sallied forth with his bow.
On rer.eivi11g the queen's account (of this outrage), before he (the Tanasfva)
could arrive, the king attempted to make hill eRCape, taking his consort and
two children with him: (at that instant, however, seeing) Siva (the hunter)
rushing at him with bis bent bow, the chief of Siva11 (the ki11g) shot him.
Then proclaiming himself to be tbe Mabaraja, he rallied the population round
him. He found him11elf at the head of eight oflicer11 of mnk, and a great
a,rav qf tow,iors: both the army and the monarch's suite were very
numerous. Thill most fortunate monarch making his appearance before
Kumbhflaka. Til!B& thlra, celeb1,tcd a fe11tiva.l of ofl'er.lngs unto Buddha at the
.A.cclu,gl\11:i ,iluim.


"being doubtful of victory, he cauaed the princes and the queen11 tu be taken
with him, but could not have removed," ko.

" Being defeated he fled, and."

" which be had ftrat partly partaken of." A prieat cannot give away any
food put into bis bowl by the faithful without fil'llt partaking of a portion
thereof. exoept in certain specified inlltanoes.
"Tanasiva, (a ohief) who ministered unto him."
, I111ll!rt "the chief of the di11trict."
This atory is somewhat looeely and obecurely rclaterl. in the original. ' Nc,w
the queenAnu!6., who had gone to the M11bya country. (wa;, ill-tl'f'ated by) 'l'ana.
(va's wife, who kicked her basket away," &~.
" who were reputed llfl great warriors,''




\Vhile the mini1Jte1 Kapilli11a, who hlMi llllCem\ed to the mitiya-which WM

constructed on an eminence-for the purpo88 of Rweeping it, waa deacending,
the monarch, who wu accompanied by his queen, was ascending (for the
purpoae of making offerings), and noticed the 11aid minister Kapisiaa seated
in their path. Exclaiming, " Will he not 'rise , " he slew him. On account of
this deed, 1~r~tra.wl by tke Z,ing, the ot/111r u,:,n ojfic,.r11 fled, urriji,,d, antl
abaconded at tkey beat could. On their f'Oa(l, btil,g co11,pl.etely ,tripped (ew,n
16 tliei, clolM.s) bg l"obbers, 11eeZ:ilig r,fuge in the ll,1111b11gr1l/~d,a ,,,;/atf.m, tkq
presented themselves to the learned thcra TiBBII. The said thcra, who wu
profoundly voned in the four "nikiyn.a," beat.owed on them, from the alms
1 matle unto hilllll81f, clothes, beverage, oil, and rice, sufficient for their wanta.
When they had recovered from their tribolation . the thera inquired,
" Whither are ye goingl'" They, ~1.:itllfmf r,,,.r.,.,alillfJ 11:/iaf ngarded the111Hlou,
imparted to him what had occorred. Being asked, "'' With 11:hom will it auail
you mOBt to co-ope,vde for the caURe of the religion of the vanquisher : with
the raji or with the dami!aa? '' they replied, ""'It inill ,1,11ail mollt ,nitk tke raJa.
Having thus 7m,,de U1i11 ml111i11Rion, the two th6raR Tiua (of Kutthikkula)and
Mahitiaaa (of X.umbhilaka), conducting these persona from thence to the
king, reconciled them to each other. The king and these offic81'1 th1111 Rupplicated of the thcr&11: " When we send for you, after our enterprise has been
achieved, ye muRt repair to UR.'" The thiiras promising to comply with their
invitation, returned to the pln.ce11 whence they had come.
This fortunate mnna.rch then marching to Anuridhapura, and putting the
damiJa D6.\hika to ileath, re11umed hi11 own 11overeignty.
"'hereafter thill monarch demolished the aforesaid Nigar;ithllrama (at which
he was reviled in his flight). nncl on thP. site thereof built a vihara of twelve
Thi11 devoted sovereign completed the Abhayagiri vihira in
the 0 two Jmndred and 11eventcenth ye;,r, tenth month, and tenth day after
the foundation of tbc l\faluiviham. Sending for the aforesaid thera11, the
grateful monarch conferred the vihara on the tb~m Maha Ti!IIIII, who was the
6.rat to befriend him of the two.
~Fro11i a 1Jl"1t1,i11 ni1e11mHl1mc" (ulf"l'ml9 l'X}'luh1e,l) tl~ ll!mJnP. /,ud bor,u tht1
111111lll qf Gil'i (tiif. Ni9111Jf11 ); ,m tl111t cuctJ1111t 1/,iH l-illf/, J1u1111.uaed ulHo Abhay,,.
,cho built the temple (,m if11 sift) t:fllled it thr. Abhu9t1gil'i ,:ihdm.
Sending for hill queen Sum:ulcvi, he rc11tored her to her former dignity;
and to commemorate that event he built the SumArima, and called it by her
At the spot at whicl1 this female had descended from the chariot (ill the
king'R flight) and concealed herself in the Kadambapuppha foreBt, she noticed
a young aiimar;iem priest (who even in that 11ecl1111ion) mode11tly covered
himself with h111 hand, while he wa11 in the act of O O O The rl&ja, being
Lold of this (act of delicacy) by her, constructed there also a vihira.
The !\lu.havihira having bi,en founded n.c. 306, according to this eh.ta the
Abhayagiri was completed B.c. 89.-[Nitt' 1111 .u,,. T10-1t111fr.]
1 " proetrate himself (before me) / "
" the other BBVen offloel'II were disgust.eel ,with the king a.nd fled from hi1
presenoe ; and while they were journeying r.t leisure they were set upon by
robberil on the road and etiippcd of r.11 they had, BO that they 11011ght nfup in
the Hambngallr.ka. viharr., and," &c.
" offered."
" made themaelee known, and.''
"With whom is it JIOllllible for yon to further."
" \Vith the rajit. it it1 pos11ible."
' convinoed them."
' By reason of the A.'dma having belonged to Giri (the ~irr.\ltha). r.nd by
rea,.onot the vihiP.ra having been made (on ~hat Bite) by the king Abhaya (V~ta
Gamanf l.bhaya), therefore 1u11 it 011.llait ..\bb11,Y:1o'l;ri v:!t,n. .



To the north of thu gi-eat. thupa (Hema.viii) the monarch him11elf built
la loft, cM;ga, which was named Sll&sohbhaka\14a,lra.
Of the (eight) warriors, the one named Uttiya built to the aouthward of
the town the vihAra called Dakkhir.ia vihira ; in the me quarter, the
minister Halava built 'tl&e t1il&tira caUl .V11lam, from whom it obtained that
name; the minister SAli built the Sill vihara; the minister Pabbata built the
PabbatArima; the minister T a the Uttarat.iBBArama. On the completion of
theae splendid vihiru, they repairing to the th~ra TilBa, and addreaing him:
" In return for the protection received from thee, we confer on thee the
vihiru built by us," they bestowed them on him. The thm, in due form,
tahliahecl prieats at all thoae viharu, and the ministers supplied the priesthood with every aacerdotal requisite. The king also provided the prieats
reaident at his own vihara (Abhayagiri) with every supply requwte for
the priesthood, On that account they greatly increased in number.
This th6ra, renowned under the appellation of Mahita, 11Mrea/l,n
~ n g Aillllelf to the inte1eat of tl&e laity, his fraternity, on account of this
liaioaI o1!enoe, expelled him from thence (the Mahbihira). A diP.ciple of
hia, who became celebrated by the n&me of BahaJama1111u Ta, 4outragl at
thia proceeding of expulsion, went over to the Abhayagiri eatablillhment, and
'umting l&im.Hlf toith that fraternity, aojourned there. From that time the
priests of that establishment ceued to 1be adndtted to the Mahbihira.
Thus the A.bhayagiri fratemity 7in the thdra controvera11 became ,ecet:l,ra.
'/'mu by tM conduet of tl&eae eecding A.bhagagiri i:iMra prieeta, tM DakltiJQ fllNJrafralernity, on account of tl&ue tl&lra co11trowr,iu, aleo became dit1idi
into tUJO parliea.
The monarch Vatta Gimani, for the purpose of increasing the llpoprilieritg
qf tM principal priute of .lbhaga9iri, co1ifer~1l blu8ing, (thro11gh t'lllli, i11,trunaenlality) on tM peopk. He built vihiraa 'Ind piriv~,u in unbroken ranges;
conoeiving that by BO comtructiog them their (fut11re) repain wo11ld ho
euily e.lfecW.
The profoundly-wiae (inspired) priesta10 had theretofore orally per11etuated
the P'1i " Pitakatt.aya " and its "Atthakathi '' (commentaries). At this period
these rriesta, foreseeing the perdition of the people (from the perversions of
the true doctrinea), &'88mbled; and in order that the religion might endure
for apa, recorded the B&llle in books.
This Hah6r4jl Vatta Gamani A.bhaya ruled the kingdom for twelve ye&n1.
On the former occasion (before his deposition) for five months.
Thus a wise man, who hu realised a great advantage, will apply it for the
bene&t of others as well u of himself. But the weak, avaricious man,
haTi acquired a great advantage, does not benefit either.
The thirty-third chapter in the MahA.vagaa, entitled11 " Ten Kinga," oompoaed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

,. a o6ti::,a on an emiDellt place."

a 'rihua; and the. minfater called lldla, another."
'"baviq uD.dulJ U11C10i&ted hilll8elr with lay families." This ill an denoe
apiut the oode of monutio dieoipline.
,; beooming the leader of a partJ."
oommune with thoee of."
"aeaarled from the Th6raridas. The prieat.s of the Dakkhioa vlhua (aft.er
walda) bioke 01! their 001111eotio11 with the .A.bhayagiri fraternity ; and thu the
prlata who aeaarled fl'Olll the Th6raVMlas themaelvea beoame di'rided into two
" pl'OBp8dtJ of the prieata of the island who belonged to the gnat A.bha:,a,iri
f11161mitJ', oonfernd the donation naaaed 'patti' on them."
b them."
II I-rt .. of old."
II IUCll'C 'rhe Beicwi of."

r-re ..



O:c bia demise, MahacuJa M:ahatiua (11ucce8".led and) reigned fourteen

yean, rigbteoualy and equitably.
Tbia monarch having learned that it WIIII an act of great merit to confer
an alma-offering earned by (the donor's) 11eraonal exertion, in the flnt year
of hia reign, aetting out in a diaguiaed character, and undertaking tu culliuatio,, qf a crop of hill rice, from the 'portion deril:td by Aim a, tu cuZUwdor'
,Aare beatoved an alms-offering on Mahasumma thera.
Subsequently, thia king sojourned three years near the Sor.,oagiri mountain
(in the AmbaUhak6la division) working a aupr mill. Obtaining aome
sugar 1111 the hire of his labour, and taking that sugar, the monarch repaired
from thence to the capital, and bestowed it on the priesthood. This ruler
alllo p1"8118nted 11acerdot.\l robes to thirty thou111nd prieats u well u to
twelve thoUMnd prieatoases. Thi& Zortl protector, building also a vihara, moat
advantageously situated, bestowed it, and the three garments coutituting
the sacerdotal robea, on sixty thousand priests. He alao beat.owed the
llilat,4avapi vibara on thirty thousand 4rri,st,, and 1.4.bAayagaUal& vila,ira on
a aimilar 1&umb11r of prieit~,ae,. Thi, raj,, constructed 1like1oin the Va'ligupattadkagalla, the DighabAhugalla, and the V"1ag6.ma viharas.
Thus thill king having, in the fenour of his devotion, performed, iu various
waya, many acts of piety, at the oloae of his reign of fourteen y-.ra puHd
to heaven.
During the reign of Mahicdla, Nllg', 1urnamed Cora (the marauder), the
110n -,f Vatta 06.mani, leading the life of a robbor, wandered about the
country. Returning after the demise of MahaauJa, he &88umed the monarchy.
From amongst those places at which be bad been denied an aaylum,
during his marauding career, this impious pel'IIOn deatroyed eighteen vihiru,
CcSranaga reigned twelve yean. This wretch wu regenerated in the
Lokantarika bell.
On his demise, the son of Ma11ncuJ.11, named Tiua, reigned three yeara.
The queen Anu\fi., 1,leadl9 as 1111i,on in her rt.1H111tme11U, inflamed with carnal
paasion for a balattho., had (previously) poisoned her own husband 06ran6ga.
Thi, Anu\a poisoned (her son) king Tiaaa also, actuated by her criminal
attachment to the same balattha, on whom ahe beatowed the aove.,ignty.
Thia balattha, named Siva, who had been the senior gate-porter, conferring
on .A.nuJ6. the dignity of queen-comiort, reigned at the capital one year
and two months.
Anu\a, then forming an attachment for a dami\a named Va\uka, and
putting (Siva) to death by meana of poison, raiaed Vatuka to the throne.
Tbia Vatuka, who had formerly been a carpenter in the town, retaining
A.nul_i in the atation of queen-conaort, reigned one year and two month, in
the capital. Thereafter Ana},, becoming acquainted with a firewood carrier,
who served in the palace, and conceiving a puaion for him, putting Vaeuka
to death by meana of poison, bestowed the aovereignty on him. Thia firewood carrier, whoae name WIIII Tiaaa, made A.null the queen-conaort. He
reigned in the capital one year and one month, and conatructed, in that
short interval, a reservoir in the Mah6.mqha garden (which WIIII filled up
in the reign of Dhatuena). Anul' then fixed her aifectiom on a damila
named Ndiya, who held the office of pur6hita brahman, and resolved on
I H !Npbar.H
I HJand."
"alao be."
;, a lioantioa.i woman."

that he reoeived,"
I the II AbhaNfl,llaka."
1 I11.:rt " Jawl-."

I II hfre

t "



gmtifying her lm~t fo1 him, hy administe1ing poiMn dest1'0yed 'l'a the
firewood carrier, and conferred the kingdolll on Niliya. The aaid brahman
Nfliya making her his queen-cnnsort, and uninterruptedly patroniaed by h&r
for a period of six m'>nths. reigned here, in this capital, Anur6dhapura.
Thia royal personage, Anula, then 'forming " p1'0mi8CUOut conMclion with
no lea than thirty-two men, who were in her 110rvioo as balattb.a,despatched
Nlliya also by poison, and administered the government herself for a period
of four months.
The second son of Mahicu!a, named K.Uaka1,11,1i Til!88, who, from the dread
of the 1'8R8ntruent of .A.nu Ja, had absconded. and assumed the garb of a priest,
in due course of time, assembling a powerful force, marched hither, and put
to death the impious Anu\i. This monarch rP,igned twenty-two years. He
erected a great " upusatha. '' hall on the Cetiya mountain, and constructed in
front of it a stone thupa. On the same Cctiya. mountain he himsell: planted
a ho-tree, and built the Pelagarna vihara in the delta of the river ; and there
he also fonned the great canal called Va\1t1akaQl}a., llli well >ll! the great
A'madugga tank, as well as the Bha.yuluppala tank. He built also a rampart,
11even cubits high, and dug a ditch round the capital.
'Being averse to residing in the regal premillOII in which Anu\ri hu.d been
burnt, he constructed a royal residence, removed a short distance therefrom.
Within the town be formed the Paduma.ssara garden.
His mother having (there) cleanRed her (1lante) teeth, and entered the
sacerdotal order of the religion of the vanquisher, he conv,rttd th,ir Ja111ily
palace i11to a lmll/01 tl,t prifBff-Hllt!H qf Iii uu,t/11'.r'H HiHterl,rJot/. From the above
circum11tance, it obtained the appellation of D1mtagcha.
On his demise, hi11 son, the prince named Bl1ittikahhaya. reigned for twentyeight yeat'!I. ThiB monarch being the (Bhitikll) brother of the king Mahadathika, became known in this island as Bhiitika rujli. This righteous
pel'llonage caused the Lobapitiiada to be repaired, and two balllemont corniceledge11 to he constructed at the Mahiithupa. and an " UJJOK&thn " hall at the
Tl}tipjritmn. This ruler of men, remitting the taxes due to him.~elf, caused
to be planted, within a 11pace of one y11jana environing the town, the 11mall
and large jeS11amine plant:ai. 3( Wit/; tl,e .Rm('l'l'H 111()(/uctcl ji'0111 t/,is garden)
th~ .l"1luitld1p<1 1rc1s jfHttJ011e,I, from the pedestal ledge to the top of the
pinnacle, with fmgrunt 'r1al'l,111rlH, four inches thick ; and 't/,rre (be/11:,~11 1/,rse
g,1rla11cls) having studded flowers6 by their Ktalk11 mo~t completely, he made
the th1ipa represent o perfect bouc1uet. On a 11ubi;;equent occasion ho caused
this eetiya to be plastered with a pa.11te made of 7ml t,,,,1, an inch thick; and
in the same manner made it represent a bouquet of flowers (hy studding it
with flowers). Upon another ocCD11ion he completely buried the cctiya, from
the step at its enclosure to the top of the pinnacle, by heaping the space up
with flowel'II ; and then raising the water of the Abhaya tank hy mea1111 of
machinery, he celebrated a festival of wat.er-offering, by pouring the water
on (the flowers which were heaped over) the thupa ; and in the fervour of hi11
devotion, having caused it to be whitewuhed with lime made from pearl
(oy,iter shelltt), brot1ght in a hundred carte, ho covered the cetiya with a
drapery network 11tudded with ,.,, par,dla" 11tonee. In the corners of thit1
network he' 11u11p9nded flowers of gold of the size of a chariot wheel. From

1 "deairous of living as it pleased her,"

"built a convent for the prieateM, his mother, De!U' the l'ellidence of her
I h pwite.''
'The king having plutered the lla.h-ithlipa.""
bu,11rt thereon:

CHAPl'Bk .I..UlV.


(these flowers of gold) t.o the very hue, having 1111pended pearl 1" ltaldpa,,"
and flowers, he made offeringa to thP. Mahi.th6pa.
1( During the peiformane,.qf U,ue ceremoni11) he- heard the chant of 1U..
pri1,thood hymned in the relic receptacle (within the tlnipa); and vowing,
"I will not rile till I have witneaaed it," he laid himself down, fasting, on
the aouth-eut aide (of the digoba). The th,ru, causing a puaage to develop
itHolf, condueled him to thoe relic receptacle. The monarch beheld the whole
of the aplendour of the relic receptacle. He who bad thence returned caued
an ,:r,aet rep,'l!nntation of what ( he had lllffl th,re) to be painted, and made
1off'ering11 tl,er,to: tint, of sweet apices, aromatic drop, vuea (filled with
tlowen), 8gold111 aandalicood, aoo nipi11umt; aecondl;v, having apread pow
dered red lead, ankle deep, in the aquare of the cetiya (he made offerings) of
uppala Howen studded thereon ; thirdly, having filled the whole ooti:,a aquare
with a bed of aromatic 110il, (he made offerings) of uppala flowen atudded in
holes 7rt!f/Ularly >1.arked. out in that bed ; fourthly, 1t.opping up the draina of
the cetiya square, and filling it with cows' milk butter, (he made an o:ffering)
of (an illumination) of innumeraLle lighted wicka made of silk; fifthly, a
similar (offering) with hb1,jfulo 111ill, b11ttftr; sixthly, u. 11imilar (offering) of
tila oil ; seventhly, an offering of an incalculable number of 1ligl,ted lamp
Of the seven o:fferinga t.o the Mahathupa above described, the monarch
caused each to be celeb1'11ted seven time11, on separate o(l!llllion1.
1"1" tl,e llft11tl (apltmlitl mun11er ;n 1nl1icl1 the ioaUr f1Btiool at the IJ/ahdthupa
hml be111 co11tl1J.cted), i1, l1ono11r of the pre-eminent bo-tre,, aliw 1,e c:elebratld
a,in11al!g, 1cit/1out internii11ion, the aolemnft./JPt'al of 11atering the bo-tl'IIJ. Thi,.
(monarc/1) i111:01iably, actuatt1l by pious impulu,, celtbratltl the gr,at ,:i,aleha
( an,iuul) j'tsti-t:11l twmty-eiyM fimtB; und 11ight1,-fo111 tho111an,l Bplendid olm1
ojf11ing,; aiul a grtat j'e,titul at tl1~ J1!a.1,tithupa, with flYTlllltUltics qf all
descriptio,is, tind 11.,wy ki,id of ir1Mtr1n111mlul antl vocal music; and he repaired
daily thrice t.o a11&i&t in the religious services rendered to Buddha. Without
omission he made flower-offerings twice daily, (he gave) alm1 11 to the
dist1'1Bttrl, aa well as the paval'lll}a alms (to the prie11thood); t.o the priest.a he
presented sacerdotal offerings in great profusion, conaiati11g of oil, hf.verage,
and cloths. This king, for the preservation of the aacred edifices in repair,
dedicated lands ; and also provided com1t.antly for the thousand priest&
resident at the Co?tiya mountair,, "Balak& prov.isio1111. 11 Thi1 monarch, in
like manner, at the three apn1tmenta called "Citta,'' "liar.ii," and ":Mucela"
in the palace, and at the Hower chamber (on the niargin of the reae1-voir), &11
well as at the Chattn. apartment, in tbe110 five placea, oonatantly entertaining
priests devote.I to the acquirement of 118.cred le&1niug, out of reverence t.o
religic;n, maintained thcmwith mcerrlota.l -requi11ite11. Whatever the rightll
' " festoons or strings."
One day.''
"arhata 't.idina11 ').. ,
.. a model the1'1.'0f t.o be ma.de of eJa:,."
" anoll'ering of it to the thdpa. He al110 made offerilllf8."
" red and yellow orpiment."
'" on the coloured matting spread."
" w1adhwk" oil." Oil extracted from the seed of the Bnma lati/ulia.
lamps lighted with ailk wioka.''
" Moved thereto by faith, this king held great featival11 at the whitewuhlng
of the thiapa, which was done every :,ear without omiuion, and likewiH at the
wat.ering of the great bodhi tree. Be held twenty-eight great V-itha (Ma.,)
futivala ; eighty.four thousand le..eer ffltltivala, and divera ezhibltfnJ111 of muefo
and dancing in honour of the Mabathupa. He repaired," kc.
at public pl'OC8t!lliom."
ProviBi01111 giwn t.o prieatM on tickets,

11 "



of religion were which preceding kinp had kept up, all theae actB of piety
tbil ~ h , Bhitiya, conatantly obaerved.
Ou the demiae of Bhitiyaiiji, his younger brother llah6cUthika :Mahiuga

reigned for twelve yean. Devoted to acts of piety, be floored (the square)
at the Xahithupa with " ki6jakkha " stones ; enlarged the equare, which wu
atrewed with aand ; and made offeringa of preaching pulpit. t.o all the vihiru
in the iaJand. He cauaed alao a great thdpa to be built on .A.mbatthala.
I TAi, monarch, wing no longw ;,. the priJIIIJ of life, impelled bg int,n,e dotion
to the divin,
Bvddlia), and ,-,Unqvi,king all dt11ire for lii11 pr,rmt
mat,nce, rerigned himat.lf to the undertaking; at1d liati,ig conin1tnctd the cetiya,
he mnained tMrtJ till At completftl it. lie eaullfJtl to b,- dr.po,.itttl at tl,e Jou,
tJtdf'GflCtJB (to the citiya) the four dt.ieriptiona of trtaw.re11, rtsplmdn,t ;,,
N,ptJCIB (a11 M<"ard,). By 111ean, of the n1wt a/.,;iful artijice,11 he had
the cetiya 1111:eloped in a jncelled c01.tt"i#1g, at1d to 11111pe,1d to that cortting
k, mpplied peurh. He cauaed decorations t.o be made for one y6jana around
the 1cetiya, and constructed four entrances, and a street all round it. He
ranged 1hops in each of the 1treets, and in different part& thereof flap,
festoona, and triumphal arches; and having illuminated 3 (thecitiya) all round
with lamps hung in festoons, he cauaed to be kept up a festival, celebrated
with dancea, gymnaatios, and music, instrumental and voc,J.
In order that (pilgrims) might proceed all the way from the Kadamba
river with (unsoiled) washed feet, to the 'n10ttntah1 citiya he had a foot
carpet spread. By the dancers and muaiciana, instrumental as well as vocal,
choruaea were kept up. 6 The king bestowed alms at the four gatea of the
oapit.al,1 throughout the island, and on the wate1s of the ocean, all round
the island within the distance of one y6jana. From the celebrity and
splendour of the featival held at this cretiya,7 it acquired in thia land the
appellation of the " Giribha\11Ja " feBtival. Having prepared almB at eight
different pla.cea for the priesthood who had assembled for that aolemnity,
and called them together by the beat of eight golden drums, there assembled
twenty-four thouand, to whom he supplied alms-offerings, and preaented
six cloths (each) for robes; he releued al110 the imprisoned convicts. By
melDII of barbers stationed constantly at the four gates of the tcwn, he
provided the convenience of being 1ha1'ed. This monarch, without neglecting
any of the ordinances of piety kept up either by the former kings or hh1
brother, maintained them all.
This ruler, altho1gh the proceeding Wll8 protested againat by them, dedicated
himaelf, his queen, bis two aona (Gamani and Tiua) as well as his charger
and state elephant, (as slaves) t.o the priesthood. The sovereign, profoundly
versed in these rites, then made offerings worth aix hund.--ed thollllllld pieces
t.o the priests and worth one hundred thouBBDd to prieateBBeB ; and by having
made these offerings, which were of description acceptable to them, he
emancipated himaelf and the ot.hers from the prieathood.

,a,. (


1 " (At one time) when the a11perBtru.cture (of this c6tiya) was umtable, he,
reprdlea1 of his own life, laid him down at the foot thereof meditaLiq on
the virtues of the great eage, and left not the place until he had aet up the
11tru.cture firmly and completed the c6tiya. At the four entrances t.o the c6tiya he
camed four precioUB "agghikaa " (artificial flower trees/) to be fixed, resplendent
with dinl'II gems, the workmanship whereof was executed by the most sJdllcll
art'Jfloel'II ; and after that he had enveloped the cet.iya with a Jewelled coveriq,
oauaed balls of gold and feetoons of pearbi to be aupended thereon."
2 " o,ttya-Pabbata."
1 .A.dtl, "alonpide thenof."
" 04tiya-Pabbata" (84iriri,a).
Iu,rt "and caused a continuoruo illumination to be kept up."
'Sffiriya at Mihintal,.



Thla aupreme of men built also the Kalanda vihba 1in tha mountain named
.Manlnclga, at K'1Ayanaka.v1,1ika1 ; on the shore of Ku bubbandhana, the Samudda
vihua ; and a vihua at the C6Jan6ga 4movntain in the P1J1dna iale, 111AkA it
in the Huvivakai}1,1ika division (Rbhar.ia). To a certain l!8JD&l}ffll priest, who
preeented some beverage while ho was engaged in the construction of 'tMN
llihdra11, he dedicated (lands) within the circumference of half a y6jana, for
the maintenance of
temple. He bestowed 'on t1ial 11ama1,tira the Pav4avipi vihba; and in like manner the means of maintaiDJDg 'that vihdra.
Thus truly wiae men who have overcome pride and indolence, aubdued
selfish dl'Bires, become sincerely devoted to a Hfe of piety, and acquired a
benevolent frame of mind, having attained an unmual meaaure of (wordly)
prosperity, without exerting it to the prejudice of man.kind, perform great
and various acts of piety.
The thirty-fourth chapter in the Mahbavsa, entitled 111" TAe Eleven Kinp,"
co mposed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


ON the demise of Mahidithika, hi son A'ma,;uja G6manf 11 reigned eight yean
and nine months. He fixed a " chatta " 11on tha ,pire of the Mahathdpa, u
well as cornices on the base and crown of that edifice. He also made reparations at the Lohapas6da and at the " uposatha " hall of the ThdpArama,
11botl, inten111ll11 and to tl1e ezteriors ef t1,ose eclificu. With a two-fol,J object
this 11,onarc/1 comtrt,cud a aupM"b gilt-hall, and he caused also to be built t1,e
Bajn.talim, vil,dra. This munificent king having formed 14in the ,outh1canl tAe
MahdgdmentJi u,nk, dedicated it to the DakkhiQa vihua.
"This n1ler of ,nen, hafJing caused to be plantt.d throughout tAe ialand ""'11
,k,cription of ft'Vit-btaring crtept1s ( which are of rapicl growth), then intardictt.d
the dutn1ction of animal life in all part, thereof. Thi, monarch A'ma,4i, in
tAe tkligJ,t of his heart, filling a diah with melon& and COfJtJring it with a cloth,
pruentea it to the whole prie11thood, calling it " melon jkah." Bia having
tbm filled the dish procured for him the appellation of A'ma,;ic)a G6mani (hi1
individual name being '' Gamanf,'' and " A'Jll&J}da" being another term for
His younger brother, 11the monarch named Kqfjinu Tiasa, putting him to
death, reigned in the capital three yeara. This"'rijrcleoided a controveray,
whioh bad for a long time auspended the performance of religious ceremonies
"and the Maniniga-pabbata vihi.ra."
In B6hatia.
4 Del11.
1 " the vfhm at the PWna isle, and with whose deportment he was pleued."
7 DeltJ.
'' the priesthood."
.Add" on a 11'1nao6ra of that vihira."
"the priesthood."
11 Add " Abhaya."
"' "An .A.OOOllllt of."
11 " over the ohatta "-c1iattatic1attap.
11 "he repaired the inner terrace and inner court, and in each place he built a
auperb gilt-hall and built the Rajata-lena vilwa also."
14 "a tank in the aouthern part of MahAg,ma."
16 These aentenoes should 1'1lJl in the following order :-" Thill ruler of men
prohibited the destruction of animal life throughout the Island. Having oauoed
every kind of fruit-bea.ring creepers to be planted in divers places, king .A.'mao(Jiya
!,gathering the fruit thereof), in the delight of hill heart, filled the bowls of the
pritllltll with melODB, calling it melon-flesh,' and setting the.bowls on stands
made of cloth (' nttha cumba~ ') pl'elklDted them to all the priesthood."
11 the prlnoe."


TRB IIAR!v.1.,a.i..

in the " upo11&tha " hall of the Citiya Giri vihua, an d forcibly aeisin; 1#Ae
rizly priuta u,Ao contvmadau1ly nli,tI tlu, royal autliori,,, impriaoned 1tlw,e

impiau, periona in the ~ira eave, in the Citiya mountain.

By the death of this ~idj,, a11ui monarch 061Abbaya, aon of A'Jll&l)IJa
Gimani, reigned for one yar. This ruler ca111111d to be built the 01\lapllaka
vihara on the bank of the G6oa,ka river, to the aouthward of the eapital.
By hie demiee, hie younger eiater Sivili, the daughter of A'ma94&, reigned
for four monthe ; when a nephew of A'ma~uJa, named l!an6ga, depoeed her
and raised the canopy of dominion in the capital. 0,1 the occaaion of t1&i1
monarch ,,itnting tJ,e Ti11,a tank, accortlhig to pretH:ribMJ form, a gNal body
of Lan,bakaf,a.{a, (a ca,te 10Ao wore ear ornamm1ta), allowing Aim to depart
thither, a,a,n,bletl in the capital. The rqjd mi,,ing thtilHI men tluire ( at the
tank) enraged, ,::,:claimlld, "I v-ilZ teach them subo1-dination;" and in the
neigl,bour/100(1 of the tank, at the Mal&dlk(q,a,for t1&e inw1tigation of t1&eir conduct,
appointi a court con1i1ting ea:clu,i,:ely of (lolll cruu) ca11r/dlas. By this
act tl,e Lan1baka11JJa race being incen,etl, ro,e ir& a body, and aei,ing and
imprisoning tlie rajd in his own palace, administered t1&e go,,,rnmenl tluim11elns. In that crisis, the monarch's conaort (Mabamatta), decking her infant
aon Candamuhb Siva. (in his royal vestments), and consigning the prince to
the charge of her "female ala,,ea, and giving them their instructions, sent him
to the state elephant. The 5slat'"" conveying him thither thus deli~ the
whole of the queen's direetion11 to the state elephant : " This is th, infa,it
11:l,o stootl in tlie ,elation of child to thy z,atro11; it iR preferable that he should
be slain by thee than by hill enemies-do thou7 slay him : this is the queen's

entreaty." Having thua spoke, they dopoaited the infant at the feet of the
elephant. The said state elephant roaring withangoiah, breaking 81,i, cA iins,
and rushing into the palace, burst open the door, although resisted (by the
mob). Having broken open the door of the apartment in which the rajli. waa
concealetl, pJaci11g him on his back, he hastened to Mahatittha. Having
thus enabled the raja to embark in a vessel 10on th,. western coast, the elephant
fled to the Malaya (mountain division of the ialand).11
This monarch having remained three years beyond seas, enlisting a great
force repaired in ships to tho B6ha9a division ; and landing at the port of
Sakkharuobbha, he there, in B6haoa, raised a powerful army. The raji's
state elephant hastened to the said Rohal}& from the sourthern Malaya, and
instantly resumed hill former functions.
Having listened to the " kapijataka " ( or the discourse on the incarnation of
Buddha in the form of a monkey) 11in tT,e fraternity of the thn named
Mah,paduma, who was a 13native of lkat division, resident at Tdladhm ; and
being delighted with his history of the Bodhisatta, he (this raja) enlarged
1 "eixty wicked prie11te who were engaged in a COD11piracy against the king."
u them."
I I}('/e.
\ " In tiuvftnt year of this king's ieign he 'riait.ed the Til8a tank, when a great
namber ,A La.m.bakavvu (who had aooompanied him u att.endant.a) left him
beh,iad.Amd returned to the city. The king, miing hie men, wu wroth; and
(aa *'punishment) he laid on them the taek of trampling down heape of eMtb by
the aide of the tank to eerve u a great thdpa which he intended to build ; and he
aet overseen of the eao,)ala cute over them. This act of (indignity) inoenaed
them; and they rose against the king in a body, seized and imprisoned him in
hill own palace, and themeelvea ad.minilt.ered the government."
"thy master's 10n: he~ia now in prison: bett.er," &c.
'I-rt" therefore."
"through his &table."
.. Dill.
II Atltl ;, by the western OOllllt. ..
II U explained by."
II D,;lr.



the Nagamabi vihm to the ex.tent of a hundred lengths of hi unstrung

bow, and extended ~e thdpa also (of that vihua) beyond its fortner
dimeaaiona. In like manner he e:dended the Tisaa u well u D6ra. tanks.
This riji, putting his army in motion, set out on his campaign. The
Lambakaooa hearing of this proceeding, prepared thelDB8lves for the attack.

Near the Kapallakkha1,14a gate, on the plain of AJwikirapiUhib, they

maintained a conflict with various success. The king's troops being enfeebled
by the Bell voyage, were yielding ground, when the r6.j6. shouting out his own
name, threw himaelf (into the midst of the conftict). The Lamhab9ou,
terrified by this act, pl"Olltrated thelllll8lvea on their breuta. He baviDB
cauaed them to be deca.pitated (on the spot), their heads formed a heap u
high u the spoke of his chariot. When thia exhibition had been made three
timea, the monarch, relenting with compllllllion, called out "Capture them,
without depriving them of life." The victorious monarch then entering the
capital, and having raised the canopy of dominion, set out for the aquatic
featival at the Tiaaa tank (which had been interrupted on the former occasion
by the inaurrection of Lam bab91,111R).
At the close of the aquatic games, this monarch, having resumed his royal
vestments, in.the fu1n888 of his joy, surveyed the splendour of hie rogal state.
It then rose to his recoUection that the Lambaka,.11,ms had been the (former)
destroyers of thAt prosperity. In the impulse of his wrath, he ordered them
to be bound to 1th.8 yoks qf his chariot (with their n011811 Jlierced), and
entered the city, preceding them. Standing 011 the threahold ot'I his palace,
the raji iBBued these order11 : " Officers decapitaf.e them on the threshold."
Ria mother being informed thereof, prevented the decapitation by obse"ing:
"Lord of chariots, the creatures that are yoked to thy car are only oxen;
chop off only their 110111J11 and hoofs ; " accordingly the king had their noses
and the toes of their feet cut off.
The rlija gave unto his (hatthi) state elephant the province in which he
h.id secreted hh.nself. From that circumstance that district obta.ined the
name of Hatth(bhuga. In this manner the monarch l!anlga reigned in
.Anuradhapura full six years.
On the demiee of IJanaga, hiK son, the rij& Candamukha Siva, reigned for
eight years and seven months. Thii,; monarch, having caused the :MavikAragama. tank to be formed, dedicated it to the vihira named IS11&raeamar.ia ; and
the consort of this rltji, celebrated under the 11p11ellation of Damila Dlivr,
dedicated the "1.Jillcige 11,T1ich s111111lierl her JJt-rsonal retinUIJ t.o tJ.e R&me vihara.
Bis younger brother, known by the name of the raja Y888.lalab Tiaaa,
putting the said Candamukha Sim to death at an aquatic festival at the
Tiaaa tank, reigned in the delightful city of Anural.dha.pura, which is the
lovely countenance of Lagk6, for seven year11 and eight month11.
There was a young gate-porter, the son of the porter Datta, named
Subha, who in person strongly resembled the raja. The monarch Ylllla.lalab,
in a merry mood, having decked out the aaid Subha, the m8888nger, i11 the
vestments of royalty, and seated him on the throne,putting the livery bonnet
of the meaeenger on his own head, stationed himself at a palace gate, with
the porter's staff in hia hand. While the ministers of 11tate were bowing
down to him who was seated on the throne, the raja was enjoyinJJ the
deception. He waa in tho habit, from time to time, of indulging in these
(scenes). On a certain occasion (when this fa.roe was repeated), addr888ing
himaeJf to the merry monarch, the m81188nger exclaimed : " How does that
1 IMert "in pain."
1 DtJle.
IfVBrl "the garden gate of." I thmk the word mddt"attb, ued 11everal
tlmee h1 this part of the work, is meant for the palace f11&1d,/i


"pzolta acaraing to her from the villa,re (Haoikara)."



balattha dare to laugh iu my presence ? and succeeded iu getting the king

put to death. The porter Subba thus usurped the 110vereiguty, and adminilltere4 it for six years, under the title of 1Subhtt.
This Subba rijA con11tructed at the two vih6.ras (MaM and Abhaya) a
delightful range of buildings (at each) to serve for parivc\la&, whioh were
named Subharaja pariv~vas. He also built V:uli vihara near Uruv6la; tt?
the east"ard (of the capital) the Ekadvm vih6ra (near the mountain of
that name); and the Nandigamab vihAra on the bank of the (Kacchi)
A certain Lambakw.11,ia youth named Vusbha, resident in the north of the
island, was in the service of a maternal uncle of his, who ,was a chief in
command of the troopH.
It had been thus predicted (by tbo 1nja Ya11alal11k11) : "A pcl'l'IOn of the
name of Va11abha will become king: and the (reigning) king was consequently, at this period, extirpating throughout the island every person
boa1'ing tl1e name of ,Cmiabha. This officer ofstate, saying to himself, "I
ought to give up this Vasabha to tht> king," and having consulted his wife
alao on the subject, early on a oo:-taiu morning repaired to the palace. For
him (the minister) who WM going on the errand, Rho (his wife) placed in the
hands of Vaaabha the betel, &c. (required by him for mastication), omitting
the chuna.m, as thu mea1111 of completely rescuing (Vasabha) from his im1,ending fate. On reaching the palace gate, tho minister, discovering that the
chunam for hiR betel had been forgotten, aont (the lad) back for the chunam.
The wife of the commander revealing the secret to Vnsabha, who had co~e
for the ohunmn, and presenting him with II thousand pieces, enabled him to
escape. Tho, &'\id Vasabha fled to the l\lahiwihim, and WM provided by the
th6m11 there with rice, milk, and clotbing. In a suusequent stage of his
flight, having heard t1,e r1wiou1 w1tligg11i,mll!J 1epeute1l, " The K11t1hi trill
become the l.i11g," m11l p11blfrlu t&s11erted '' l,e ,,:ill tum traitor"; eltttl!ll tl1erl!11t,
e111isti,19 mterprisin!J 1,ie11 in his serYice, he reduced (the neighbouring)
villages to subjectiou ; and thence lmstening 'tu the Ruha1,1a division, progressively subdued tho whole 1:ountry, commencing from Kappalapdva.
This rli.ji, at the head of an efficient force, in the courao of ten years
attacked thu capital. This all-powerful Vasabh.'\1 putting the rli.ja Subha to
death in his own palace, raised the canopy of dominion in the capital. Hia
uncle fell in the conflict, and t!1e raja Vasabha raised 3 Cl,ettl1Ci, the wife of
his uncle, who had formerly protected him, to the dignity of queenoonsort.
Being dcsirou11 of ascertaining tho term of his existence, ho comulted
4a fort1111d-telle1, who replied, "It will last p1-eciaoly twelve years."
monarch presented him with a thoUBl\nd piecea to preaorve that secret
inviolate; and assembling the priesthood, and bowing down to them, he
inquired: "Lords! is it, or is it not, practicable to extend the term of
human existence P" The priesthood replied : " Supreme among men I it is
practicable to preae"e human life from the death which results from
violence (or accident), It is requiaite to make 'pariaa{,vana' offerings; to
endow sacred edifices ; and to provide institutions for the refuge of the
distressed : it ill also requisite to repair edificoa that have fallen into dilapidation ; and having undertaken the vows of the 'pansil' orddr, to p1'8118rVe

' " Subha Raja."

" the words of a leper (who WIii a fortnne-toller) to the el!eot that he would
one day attain HOVereignty, he was elated, and det.erm.lned t.o become a utarauder.

Ba't'lq MOUred enterprlainr men," .to.

1 "horoeoopiat "-AordplllAaAa,
'" Kett.''




them in-.iolate : it ia re!IDiaite on the I npc,aatha' daya that the preacribud

upoutha' ceremoniea ahould be obaerved." The rij6, reaponding " adhu,"
want and did accordingly. Every third year he conferred on all prieata
throughout the ialand the three aacerdotal prmenta. To thoae prita who
were anable to attend, he directed their robea to be aent : he provided alao
milk, aweet rice for twelve eatabliahmenta, and the ordinary alma-offerinp
for mty.foar plaoea. In four different plac he kept up. an illumination
of a thou.and lampa at each ; 1and at the 'tiya mountain, at the Thlip&rima,
at the llah6thdpa, at the '6olrN, 'and on IAt p,a1t of CeUala mountain, al
tlaue HtHJrt.d plac,a A, condruclecl lelt U.iipa, ; and thronghout the island he
repaired dilapidated edifloea. Delighted with the thc'ira reaident at ValliJ"ra
vih'1a, he built for him the great Valligotta vihara. He built alao the
A.Dari vihlra near llrlah6pma, on which he beatowed 4Heligtlma, in
eigAt 1:ar;ua, a, IHll a, a thousand p;ecu. Having oonatructed the lt:uoela
vihira 6an lkal "iA4ra Ae co,tferred Che naoieey of ~ abundant ,oater, of IM
c.a-nal of il'l';gauon ,upplil/ro111, Ike Tis,a'IHJIMll&a moufltain.
,11CtUl tlN
tAtipa at Galambatittha 'in brick,; and to aupply oil and wicb for it,
"upd,alAa " hall, he formed tbe Sahaaaalrariaa tank, and dedicated it thereto.
At the Kumbhigallab vihira he built an " up6aatha " hall ; u alao at the
1aaaraaamal}ab vihira ; and this monarch conatructec1 alao the roof over the
ThdpArlma here (at Anuridhapura). A.t the lla.Mvih6ra he built a 9 mod
pe,;fect range of parivel,,18,11,m and repaired the Oatuaala luJl which had become
dilapidated. He cauaed alao e;zquiaite imagea to be formed of the four
Buddhaa 110/ tht!ir o,on ,:wet stature, aa well u an edifice (to oontain them)
near the delightful ho-tree.
'loe oomort of this monarch oonatructed a bealitiful thdpa, to which ahe
pve 111Nr oum Mlllll, u well u an elepnt roof, or houae, over it. Having
completed the roof over the Thdpldma, thil monarch, at the featival held
on that oocaaion, diatributed 11th, nwltcitUna; unto the bhikkus who were in
progreaa of being instructed in the word of Buddha, the four aaoerdotal
requisite. ; and to the bhikkda who expounded the acripturea, olarifled
butter and ourcla; at the four gatea of the city he distributed alma to
mendicant.a, and medicinal druga to prieata afflicted with di88&8811. He formed
aJao the following eleven tanks :-The H&yetti, Riijuppala, Kulambag&ma,
llrlahhikaviUi, two called l'tlab.6pma, KchAJa (near HahAtittha), Kelidaa,
Cambunhi, Vitamaligana, and Abhiva11cJ.hamna. l!'or the extemion af
cultivation he formed twelve oanala of irrigation; and for the further
protection of the capital, beraiaed the rampart round it (to eighteen cubit.a).
He built alao guard-ho1l888 at the four ptea, and a great palace (for bimaelf).



HTAl, mona1"Ch, llae,;ng /om&l alao ponda in different part, of tk, roual gardffl,
withi11 Ike ca.pital, 1'f!llC s111au in '1,111; and 6y n11an, oj aq'"'1uc"1 conducm

.,,.,.,. lo &Mm.

Thu thia aoveraign Vaaabha, inceaaantly devoted to act.a of piety, having

1 "namely."
" Bodhihoue."
PNBh eent.enoe : " On the peak. of the Cittala mountain (' Bitul-panwa ') he
built ten beautiful thlipu. ...
"eight thouaand kariau' extent of land in Heliglma."
" at Tiaa'Y&4.P,em,uka, he ocmfemid thereon the moiety of the water, of
t.he Alidra O&D&l."
" He made a oovering of tilea for the thdpa."
'"and the upe6tba hall aleo."
" it."
. Dei11.
11 .Dtlltl,
.Atltl "faoiDI' the weat."
11 "the .... of Vutfa."

Ba'fillg laid out the park he kept awem In It, and built many pond& for tham
in the ait7, into which be oaaaed wat.er kl be oonda.ot.ecl by lll9UI of aqll8daot1 ,"
H "




in various ways fw.8lled a pious course of eutence, and thereby escaped the
death (predicted to occur in the twelfth year of his reign), ruled the kin&'
dom, in the capital, for forty-four yean ; and celebrated an equal number of
The (preceding) rij6. Sobba, under the apprehension produced by (the
prediction connected with the usurpation of Vaaabba, had consigned hla only
daughter to the charge of a briclr: maaon, bestowing on her 1tM vesl11Mlnta and
omamenta of royalty suited to her ranlr:. On (her father) being put to
death hy Vaaabba, 1shtJ ga1JtJ up lkutJ article, to th.tJ ma110n (lo pre,erlJtJ Mr oum
dl&Jui,e), Ad6pting h.er 1111 his daughter, he brought her up in his own family.
This girl was in the habit of carrying hla meals to this artificer (wherever he
might be employed). On one of these occaaioDB, obaerving in the Kadamba
forest (a thera) 1 absorbed for the seventh day in the " nir6dha" meditation,
this gifted female presented him with the meal ahe WBII carrying. 'Th.tJNJ
dreeeing another meal, 11he carried it to hor (adopted) father. On being 1111ked
the cause of .the delay, llhe explained to her parent what had taken place.
Overjoyed, he directed that the preaeutation of thia offering should be
repeated again and again. The thora, who w1111 gifted with the power of
diacerninlJ coming events, thus addrellll8<1 the maiden : " When thou attainest
regal proaperity, recollect thia particular spot ; " and on that very day he
acquired "parinibbuti. ''
The rija Vasabha, when his son Vanka.nisika attained manhood, sought for
a virgin 'Mtlowed with tl1t1 p1't!11c1ibed pe111orud tdtl'ib11tt1t. Fortune-ttJllers, who
WtJl'tl g;JttJd, /Jlitk th.e k1w1ol#.lfle of pl"tldicting llie fo1twie11 of fe1mde11, discot1eri11g
11uch a da,a~el in the mason's village, mado the circumsto.noe known to the king.
The raja took steps to huve her brought to him; "nd the m1111on then disclOlled that she was a daughter of royalty, a.nd pl'l>Ved that she was the child
of 6tlie rdjd Subl,a by the 7'1Jtl11t11ie1ita and other e.rtioleK in hiK charge. The
monarch, delighted, bustowed her on his ROn, at a splendid ceremonial of
On the death of Va.aabha, his son Vat\ka.nR11ika 'l'illsa reigned three yeara in
the capital at A.nuradbapnra. This raj6. Va1\ka.n!1Bika. Tiasa. built tbe Mahamangala vilu\ra on the banks of the Go,.ta river.
The queen, :Mahamatt6., bearing in mind the injunction of the thera,
commenced to collect the treasures requisite for constructing a vihara, (In
the meanwhile) on the demise of Vanka.nasika. Ti1111&, his son ~i.b.uk,.
Gamani (succeeded, and) reigned twelve years. This raja, in compliance
with the solicitation of his mot'!Jer, and according to her wish11s, built the
MiLtu vihAra in the Kadamba forest. This well-informed queen-mother,
for the purp088 of purchasing land fqr that 1Jrea.t vibara, gave a thousand
pieces, and built the vihara. He himself (the raj6,) ea.used a thupa to be constructed there entiroly of stone ; and selecting Janda from various parts of
the country, dedicated thoru. for the maintenance of the priesthood ; and
raising the A.bhayuttara thupa, he constructed it uf a greater elevation ; and
8at thefo1,r gtit&J lie reatored the/our ent1't&nc&J to th.efr for11,~r condition.
This monarch, forming the Gamanitissa tank, bestowed it on the A.bbayagiri vihara, for the maintenance of that establishment. He caused a new
coating to be spread on the Maricavani vihara ; he a1ao made a dedication
for the maintenance of its frat.ernity, obtained at a price of one hundred

I II hil robe."
I u the IIIIIIIOII. too& the child, a.nd adopting her," &o.
I1Ut:rt "who had been," "Then."
"thatauited him. Judges of female bea.Lt7, diaooverin, a (beauteous) maiden."
11 Su.bha B&j6.."
' " robe."
"oalllled arches (' iidimuW ') to be built at t.he four rates tllereof."



rhou1BDd pieces. 1H hilt al,o Blmab vihira 1in tM ,,,..,.,,. ditlirion, uul the
Kahl-aana ball in the capital.
On the demiae of Gajablahu, that rijA'a 111 ,allUffl" named Mabellab.N-.
This monarch, IIUl'll&Dled, from hia adwnoed years, Mahallaka Nlip, COD11traaled the following seven nlwu: in the eaatward, the
P,jalab ; in the aoathward, the Kotipabbata ; in the westward, the Udabp68'na ; in the iale of Nligadip11, the 8'lipabbata ; at Bfjapma; the Tenaveli ; in the R6ha\JIL division, the Tobba.1An6ppabbata and Hdli t1ihdraa at
Thna wise men, b7 means of perillba.ble richea, performing manifold aota of
piety, realiae imperi11hable rewards: on ithe other hand, thoae who are rendered weak by their ainful puBiona, for the' gratification of tboee puaion11

commit many tranagreuioDB.

The thirty-fifth chapter in the llahavavsa, ent.itled " The' Twelve Kinp,"
composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous man.

m yean.

BY the demiRe of lfahallanatga, hi11 aon, named Bhatika Ta (1ncceecled,
and) reigned oTer the monarchy of Lagka for twenty-four yean. Tu ruler
built a wall round the Mahbihilra, and having constructed the Gavaratisaa
"Yihira, 1ana forme,l the Jlahagiimani tank, "dedit:altd it to that vihm ; he built
also the vihka named Bhitiyati-. Thi11 mo11arch constructed aJao 11D
"up6aatha" hall at the delightful Thhp&rama, 811 well 811 tJ,, Rat~lta
t,.11,/c. This sovereig11, 10tqually df'tJDttd to hi11 pNJpk, and 11 reepectful to the
min'sten of religion, kept up 1'tl1e mahadt.inan offering& to the prieathood of
both aexee.
By the deatl1 of Bhitika Ti1111 (Til!III the elder brother), Kani\tha Ta&
(Tisea the younger brother) aucceeded, ond reigned 13eigl,tem yean over the
whole of J,agk6.
Pleased with MaMniga thcra of BhutAr&ma, he constructed (for him)lf at
iho Abhayagiri vihara 1A ,,,ptrb gilt edifice. He built, alao, a wall round, and
a great parivel}a at A.bhayagiri j a great parivel}a at ::Maniwma vihm aJao ;
and at. the aame place an edifice over the oetiya ; and in like manner another
at Ambatthala. He repaired the edifice (oomtructed over the c~iya) at
Nigadfpa. Levelling a Bite within the comecrated limitR of t.he :Mahavihm,
this monarch conatructed the range of parivel}all called Kukkutagiri, in the
moat perfect manner. 160n tl,e Joor Bi<le11 of tlie 1q11are ai the Malidvilidtu
t.his ruler CODJltruoted twelve spacious and delightful17 edifieea, splendid in
their appearance. 18 He constructed a covering for the thlapa at the DakkhiQa
vihira, and levelling a Bite within the limits of the Mahimegha garden, he
.constructed a refection-hall there. Taking down the wall of the Mahbibm
on one Bide, he opened a road to Dakkhi\llL vihira. In like manner he built
BhdtArlma vihira, the Ramag61)8.ka, u aJao the vihara of NinAtilllla. In the
1 11 In the latter pan of hw nip he built the,"
.1llicl "during the abort period of hill Nip."
" ud GiriMlilra 'rihm in the interior oountr,."
" Beigna of. n
7 II dedicated."
I IJa/1.
zeadiDg is N#Ae "4die ,lMclpi-rattliet:alfllluwdpl, " the BkaW:pi
t.ank in the Vanni country."
"who ..,. t.ender-hN.rted towazu all belnp."
II I'l&lff'I "prof01llld1J."
11 llgieat."
11 "twenty-eight."
1t Iu,rt "the Bat&na-pl,aida."
II II in a ap1endid DIIUUUlr.'1
II IJau,.
" hrt II aquan,"
Atltl "at the Kabi't'ilub-a."




1outh-eutern direction, the Anutatillll-pabbata Tihlra, 'tlit Ganprljiya, the

Niyflatill&rima, and the PilapiUhi Tihlra. Thie monarch aleo aonetruat.ecl
the Bljamahl vihAra and upa6Batha halle at the following tbrae placee:
vis., Kal"'i vihin, llao4a,lasiri, and at the vihlra called Dubbaladpililla.
By the death of Kavittha TUii, hie eon called Cdlauga (1acoeedecl, and)
reigned two yean. The younger 1'rother of Od\anllp, named Ku44an'p,
putting that nj, to death, reigned one year. Thie monarch daring the
" ElranA!ib famine kept up, without intermieaion, alme-offerinp to the
principal community, consisting of five hundred priests.
The brother of Ku41Janiga'1 queen, named Sirin6p, who wu the miniater
at the head of the military, turning traitor to the king, and 1upported by a
powerful army, approached the capital. Giving battle to the royal army,
and defeating the king, the victor reigned in the oelebrated capital of
.A.Duridbapura for nineteen yean.

Thie monarch having cauaed a " chatta" to be made for the Hahithupa,
had it gilt in a manner moat beautiful to the light ; he aleo rebuilt the L6hapAdda five storiea high, and 1,ub,equmtly a flight of 1tepa at each of the four
entrancu to the great ho-tree. 1 TAi, pe1110nage, 1111,o wa3
regarrQul of tl,e
intue,11 of otAn, a, lie 1m, indijfnmt to Aimaell, llatJing built a " chatta" lwll
at the i,le of Kula,nbatia, celebratm a greatfutiml of offering,.
On the demiae of SirinAga, hie aon Tieaa, who was thoroughly (v6hua.)
convel'llllntwith the principles of jmtice and equity, ruled for twenty-two
yean. 0 Be abolished the (vohara) practice of inflicting torture, which prevailed up to that period in thia land, and thm acquired the appellation of
Vohlraka Tieaa rija.
Having liltened to the diaoo111'1181 of the thha. mva, reaident at Kambupma, he repaired fin edifices. Delighted, alao, with the :Mabitiaaa th4ra
Nlident at the Anura vihlra, he kept up daily abDI for him at MueeJa.


Thia raj, Tillla 'lu.wing cauaed aho to be formed two halla, (ou) al the
Jlalldtiiluira and (another) on ,1111 aoutA-,a,I ,itu of the bo-lHe edifice. and trco
lallia imagu (for them), u well u a ball called the Sattapav',lika, moat
conveniently aituated (within hie own palace), bestowed offerings '(UteN)
worth a thouaand (pieoea) monthly to the prieathood of the llahivihlra,
At the .A.bhayagiri vihlra, the Dakkbir,amdla, the llaricavaUi viblra, the
one bearing the name of Kulatiaaa, at the :Mahiyadgana Tihlra, at the llah!pma, the llah!nAp vihAra, u well u at the Kalyqi, 'and at the thdpaa of
theae eight plaaea, he eaued 'improt,emfflll to be made witl paid labour. The
miniater M:likanlp, in like manner, built walla round the following llix
viblna : the Dakkhi',la, the :MaricavaUi, the Puttabhlp, the I.aauuamaoa,
and the Tiaaa, in the isle of Nqa. He built aho an II up6eatha " ball at the
A.nur&rima vih4ra.
Thie ruler of men a.pending three hundred thouand, out of nmsratial
The Vftulya he1911 originated In &.pt.ember, .A..D. IOII ; .LB. 7H ; m. ,. 4. 10ln the lint,- of the reign of Vohkab Tua.-[Note &f Mr .nwi.e.r.J
1 "at."
. 1 "nbailt."
"Be built the Chat1a Pidda loDd made oirerinp at the inaapntla. '11enof.
Moved b7 oompuaion he nleaaed J1811101111 of good famWea In the ulaad (from
royal Nrricell)." Tbla traulatlon la doubtfull7 renclend., the IMUiDa' of the
word lwla11th1JG fa obeoun.
11 at the two gnat vihuu, and two metal.Ho lmape on libe 8IRIIIII Ilda of the
bodhi tree."
" he."
' D,:le.
the chattu' (' paruola nrmoantills the 1plna ') t.o b e ~ "



devotion to religion, provided for every plaae at which the 1,aered acriptura
~ the maintenanoe (for prit.a) belltowed by almL Thia
patron of religion relieved alao the priellt.a who were in debt from their
ptieuniurg dijfi:ulti,-1, He celebrated the great v6aakba feetival, and diatributed thethree aacerdotal garments among all the priest.areaidentin the ialancl.
By the inatrumentality of the minuter Kapilo., auppreaing the v,tulya
hereay, and punishing the impious members (connected therewith), he
re-eatablished the supremacy of the (true) doctrineB.
This king bad a younger brother J1&med A.bbayan,ga, who bad formed an
att.acbment for hill queen. Being detected in his criminal intereou11e,
dreading hiB brother' reaentment, be fled. Repairing to Bballatittha with
hia confidential attendants, and pretending to be indignant with hia
(brother') father-in-law (Subbadeva, the queen' father, with whom he wu
in league), he maimed him in hia band and feet. In order that he might
produce a division in the rAjA'1 kingdom (in hia own fl.vonr), leaving the aid
(Subhadeva) here (in Layli), and 'cont11,nphwlfllg comparing kim to a dog
(1r.hich M kaz~nMl to kill whm M lMB on tlte z,oint 6/ embarking), accomptinied by hi, mo,t at~l,edfollon:er,, and at that place ( Bhallatitiha) tkrotDing
l,im#lf into a "6Rffl, ( Ablltigarulga) fled to the opposite cout.

The 1&id father-in-Jaw, Subhad6va, repaired to the king, and auuming the
character of a penon attached to him, brought abont II revolt in the country,
(while resident in hi1 court) there. Abbaya, for the purpose of aacertaiaing
the progre1111 made in this plot, sent an emiBBaey over here. (8ubhad6va) on
11eeing this (emi-.ry), removing (the earth) at the foot of an areca tree with
his '' kuntanali," and thereby l00&ening ita roots, pushed the tree down with
hi1.1 snoulder, (to indicate the instability of the l"Ajfl's government), a.nd then
l"<',iling him (for 11 ,-py) ,h~,,c him 1n,11.y. '!'lac emUIIIIU")' returning to Abbaya


ropurtecl wb:Lt bad oco.nuu,d.

Thus &11Certaini11g the atate of affain, levying a large force of damilu for
the purpose of attacking hia brother, he advanced in penon on the capital

The rijA on disoovering thill (conspiracy), together with hiB queen,
inatantly mounting their hor&ea, fled, and repaired to JlfaJaya. Hia brother
pursued the rija and putting him to death in Halaya, and capturing the
queen, retumed to the capital. Thi11 monarch reigned for eight years.
Thia king built a atone ledge round the ho-tree, as well aa a hall in the
aquare of the L6hapWda; and buying cloths with two hundred thouaand
piecea, he bestowed robes on the whole priesthood in the island.
On the demise of Abhaya, Siriniga, the 100 of hiB brother (V6bua) Ti. .,
reigned two yeani in Lagli. This monarch repaired the wall round the great
ho-tree, and built near the hall of the great bo, in the yard atrewed with
aand, t,o the BOUCkiaarrl of the muc6la tree, the aplend.id and delightful
Havaavaua hall.
The prince named Vijaya, the aon of Siriniga, on the demise of hia father,
reigned one year.
'There were three penona of the LambaJau:11,l& race (who wear large ear
1 "Uvea of the saint.a, or the history ol great men,' were read."
The original
ill Ariy11mpM-latld, which ma7 be rendered either wa,. I Ind thla term fre,ueatl7 mentioned in the Arthabt.b&. From the coat.ext in thoee placea I pt.her
that It wu the pl'IIOtioe In ancient t i - in this Island to read In public the
reoorded lives of pat men on lltat.ed oacufom and bed plaoN.



illustrating y the eumple of a d :,g the faithfulneu he required of hill

followen, he embarked on board a v-1 with his faithful friende and.," Ito.
t H beJond."
I H .Now,



m1e B..lv.a,u.

ormments) intimately oonneot.ed together, resident at Jrlahiyagpna, named

Sdgmtiaa, Badghabodhi, and the third 06\bakabhaya. They were
1'Uking along the embankment of the Ti.. tank in their way to preaent
themlelYeB at the king's couri. A certain blind man, from the so1111d of
their tread, thua predicted : " These three 1pet"IOfU are destined to bear the
weigbt of (governing) the land." Abhaya, wbo waa in the rear, bearin(r thia
exclamation, thereupon thu fearleaaly queaQOned him : "Which then of
( our three) dynasties will endure the longeat ?" The person th1111 interrupted
replied, "Bia who waa in the rear." On reoei'ring thiB amnrer, he joined the
other two.
Tlaeae three pel"IOr11, on their reaching the capital, were moat gracioualy
received by thb monarch Vijaya, in whose court they were eatabliahed, and
employed in oflioes of state. Oonapiring together, they put to death the rija
Vija;,a in hia own paJaoe; and two of them raised (the third) Badghatiaaa,
who w1111 at the head of the army, to the throne. The said SadghatiBB&, who
bad u11urped the orown under these oiroumatanoea, reigned four years.
Thia monarch cauaed the " ohatta " on the :Mahft.thupa to be gilt, and he
11et four gems in the 08Jltre of the four emblema of the aun, eaoh of whioh
coat a Jao. He, in like manner, pJaoed a 1 gJaaa pinoaole on the 11pire (to
serve aa a protection againat lightning).
This ruler of men, at the featival hold in honour of thia ohatta, distributed
aix olotha, .or two aeta of saoerdotal garments, to forty thoW1&Dd priest& ; and
having attended to the (andhavinclaka) diacourae in the khandhaka, expounded
by .Mahad6va th6ra, of Dlunabwlaka, and ucertained the merits aooruing
from making offeri11111 of rioe broth, delighted thereat, he oa.used rioe broth
to be provided for the priesthood at the four ga.te11 of the capital, in the moat
convenient and appropriate manner.
Thia r&ja waa in the habit from time to time of visiting the iale of Paoina,
attended by 1/,i, suit.i and ministers, for the purpose of oat.ing jambus. The
inhabitants of that ea11tern iale auffering from (the e:a::tortiona of) theae royal
prosre-, infused poiaon into the jambu11 intended for the djl, (and placed
them) among the rest of the fruit. Having eat those jambus, he died at that
very pJaoe ; and Abhaya oauaed to be installed in the monarchy, Sadgha
b6dhi, who had been raised to the oommand of the army. Renowned under
the title of Siriu.dghab6dhi rija, and a devotee of the pamil order, 6at t.cu,t,
he administered the aovereignty at Auuridhapura for two years. He built at
the :Mahaviha.ra a " salakagga" hall.
Having at that period learned that the people were suffering from the
effect.a of a drought, this benevolent rija,7 throwing himaelf down on the
ground in the aquare of the :Mahathupa, pronounced this vow : "Although I
should saorifioe my life by it, I shall not riae from thi11 spot until, by tAB
intBrpo,ition of tl,,e diva, rain shall have fallen (sufficient) to raise me on its
flood from the earth." Aocordingly the ruler of the land remained prostrate
on the ground ; and the 'dem imtantly poured down hill showers. Thro1111hout the il!Wld the country waa deluged. 10AppreABntling tAa& even then he
would not riae, 11unlil M 111a1 oompletely buoyed up on the surface of the
I II J.orda Of the Ja,nd."
1 IUtJrt "valuable." A""ffl&tlf -JiN l.'W1"N'4f am the wozda in the original.
There hall been aome diaoualon about the meaning of 011111N#llf, I beline
a rinir or a IClt of rings iD the form. of a spire iB what :m-.nt here,
" the women of the palaoe and his." Ptlioa1U11, the flve preoepta or TOWS.
doe-ticket haU.
" whole heart waa moved with oomruafon."

.. rain. aloud."



"" 1111 hewu not."


water,' the officers of the huusehold 11topt up the drains (of the square).
'Being raiaed by the water, this righteous r,j, got up. Iri this manner, thil
all-compassionate pel'IIOn dispolled the horrors of this drought.
Complaints having been preferred that robben were infesting all parts of
the country, this sovereign caused them to be apprehended, and then
privately reloued them ; and procuring tJ1e corpaea of pel'IIOna who had died
natural deaths and casting them into flames, 11upp1'81188d the affliction ocaasioned by the {ravages of the) robben.
A certain yakkha, well known under the appellation nf the " rattakkha"
(red-eyed monster), viaitod this land, and afflicted its inhabitants in various
parts thereof with ophthalmia. People meeting each other, would ellclaim
(to each other), "His eyes are alBO red ! " and i1111tantly drop down dead;
and the monster would without he11itation devour their (corpse11). The dj'
having been informed of thA affliction {of his people), in the depth of hi1
wretchednet!II, took the vow;i of the atta,il order, in his cell of solitary devotion. The monarch vowed : " I will not rise till I have beheld that
{demo.1)."' By the influence of his 11ious merits, the said monster repaired
to him. Then rising, he inquired of him, " Who art thou P" (The demon)
replied : "I nm (the yakkha)." The (r'j') thua addre11aed him : "Why
dost thou devour my subjects? Cease to destroy them." The demon then
said, "Let me h11ve the people of one diatriot at least." On being told, "It
is impo&11ible "; lowering hill demand by degreea, he asked, "Give me then
one (village)." The raji replied, " I can give thee nothing but myself,
devour me." "That is not poaaible" (said the demon) ; and entreated that
" b31i " 5 offerings should be made to him in every village. The ruler of the
land replying, " sidhu," 6all(l throughout the island 'having provided accom71W!l!ition fol' hiJn, at the entrance of every village caused "bali '' to be
offered to him. By thia moan,. the 11:t.nic created by this epidemic was suppreased by the supreme of men, who wa'I endowed with comp,Hion 7in the
utmo~t JM,:fection, and was like unto the light which illuminated the land.
The mini11ter of this raja, named Gothakfcbhn.ya, who held tho office of
treasurer, turning traitor, "jw.1,/rom thll CaJlitt&l to tlM nmthwartl . . The king
abhorring the idea of being the cauae of the den.th of others, 9al80 forsook tM
city, wholly unattended, taking with him only his " p,iriHBavana " (watorstrainer used by devotees to prevent the deatruction, which might otherwise
t11ke place of anim!llcule in the water they drank), A man who was travelling along the road carrying his meal of dreaaed rice with him, over and over
again entroatoo of the rajii to partake of the rice. This benevolent character
having 11trained the w,1,ter ho w:ui to drink, and made his meal ; in order th11t
ho might confer a reward on him (who h.,d presented the repaat), thus
addl'8lllled him: "I am the rija Sa.1,1ghabodhi." Beloved! taking my
head, preaent it to G6thi'tbhllya. ; he will bestow great wealth on thee." The
peaaa.nt declined 10accepti11g th,: 11rl!nnt. The monarch, for the purpose of
benefiting that individual, bequeathing his head to him (by detaching it from
hie shoulder} expired without rising (from the spot on which he had ta.ken
his meal). He presented the head to GuthAbhaya. Astonished (at the
statement made by the peasant) he conferred great wealth on him; and rendered him all the kind offices a monarch could bestow.
I1&1l'rt "BO."
In,ert "Thereupon."
Ailtl, "and laid himself down (on the ground)."
Rice, kc., offered to 11pirit.

' toward,i alI-l1t1i:nga."

"11111,rched against the city from the north."

" left the oit7 b,1 the BOUther D gat.e."
'" " to do llO."




Thia GohAbhaya, known by the title of Mogbava994bhaya, reignod in

Lavk' thirteen yean.

He 1b1cilt a great palace, and at the gato of that '110~ a hall ; a11d
having decorated that ball, from among the 3 prie11t11 there arllll111.bll, ho
entertained' daily one thousand plus eight priests with rice broth, confectionery, and 6tJverg otMr 11acerrlotal requisite. Oa11.8i11g robea to be 11&ade, ke kept
up tM 1naluiddnm1 offering. lle uninterruptedly maintained this 0ob11erVf.ltUJIJ
on eNry t,osntg-firat ,lay. In the Mahavihara he constructed a superb hall of
atone, and the pillan of the Lobapattltda he rearranged in a different order.
At the great ho-tree he added a atone ledge or oornioe (to its parapet wall), a
porch at its 1,oother11 entrance, and at the four corners he pla.ced hexagonal
stone pillan. Having had three stone images of Buddha made, h'l ~
_ them at the three entrances, as well 1\11 11tone altars at the southern ::intrance.
On the western side of tho Mahiviharn he formed a }'adh,na square (for
peripatetic meditation); and throughout the iala.nd he repaired dilapidated
edifioes. In this manner he repaired the edifice built over the Th6pa.r6ma,
u well as the one over Ambe.tthala, 8in 11Jl,ich tl,e thera (Mal,inda had d106lt),
and made improvements at the Maoi116ma edifice. He repaired also the
"up6eatba" halls at the Tbupltr,ma, Ma9is6ma, Marioavatti, and Dakkhil)a
vi.biru. He oonst.ructod nine vi.hiraa, which he called after him11elf, MeghaV&l}ZJlbhaya. Allll8mbling the population of the country, 9 he ceub,at.ed a
great festival of offerings. 11 To thirty tbollll&nd priesta 11he 1n~iited tlio
three saoerdotal garments ; at the same time he celebrated the groat
"veslkha" festival. He bestowed also two setll of aaoerdotal garmentll
annually on the priesthood.
Thia purifier of tho true religion degmded itll impiowi (impugners); and
seizing sixty of the fraternity of A.bhayagiri, who had adopted the Vctulyu.
tenets, and were like thorns unto the religion of the vanquisher, and having
excommunicated them, banished them to the oppol!ite coast.
Then, wu II certain priest, the di110iple of the chief thera of the banished
(aect), a native of Co)a, by namll Sanghamitta, who was p1'0foundly versed
in the rites of the "bhuta" (demon faith). For the gmtification of hit<
enmity against the prieats of the Hahavihara (by whose advice the Abbayagiri priests were banished) he came over to thill land.
Thill 11inlpiou, person, entering the hall in which the priests wero G.811embled
at the Th6pa.r6ma, 13arlarealff!cZ l1i111Helj to the there. of the Sanghapala pari vc\ta,
who was the maternal uncle of the raja Goihilbhaya, and uiii1oki11g lii11, iii tl~
lernM in which, thtJ killg hi11wilf 1001dcl 1111e, aucceeded in or,erco111ill!J liis tMll/3.
( Sa'liglwmitkt.) completely 18gc,ill8Cl the confidence of the rijai. The monarch
becoming greatly attached to him, placed under that prio11t'11 tuition his elde11t
son Jeichatiasa, as well a.a hia younger son Mahascna. He evinced a preference for the second son, and prince Jetthatiua from that cirou11111tance
entertained a hatred against that priest.
On the demise of bis father, Jetthatissa succeeded to the monarchy. For
the purpose of punishing the miuistera who showed a reluctance to attend
the funeral obsequie1J of his father, repairing hi1D118lf (to the place where the
corpse waa deposited), aud nmking his brother lead the proceBSion, he sont the
1 " formed a park.''
1 " park."
" priesthoo,t."
I - r t "there."
"and all aortll of sweet t.hinp, together with robes; and thut1," &c.
"great alD1B-giving tor twenty-one days."
' "northern."
"at the.''
11 Dt'le.
Atla "he p-.ited t.o."
H "rude."
ia "dhn:egarding the worda (nmo11>1tranoea) of,"
11 .Dtlo.
"who 11puke in the name of tbe king."
II "gaining."



corpll8. immudiat.ely behind him ; and then 11lacing theBO ( diaffect.ed m1n111tem) next in the pl"0081111ion, he himself at.ayed to the last. The inst.ant that
his younger brother and the oorpae had paned out, closing the city gates he
seized these disloyal nobles, and tranafixed them on impaling poles around his
father's funeral pile. On account of this deed, he acquired an appellation
11ignifioant of the ferocity of his nature {1DuUlia)-and the priest Sadgba
mitt.a, from tho terror he entertained of the 1111id monarch, immediately aft.er
his ina'.lguration fled from hence to the opposit.e coast ; and in oommu.nicawith 'Sena, was anxiously looking forward for his accession to the throne,
Thill (monarch) completed the construction of the Lohapaaida, which had
been left unfinished by his father, building it Reven stories high, by expending a "ko\i" of treasure on it. Having made there (to that edifice) an
offering of a(" mar.ii") gem, worth sixty lacs, the aaid Jetthati11111 built the
superb MaQ.i hall. He made offerings likewise of two very valuable jewels
to the Mahilthupa, and built three portal arches at the great bo. Constructing a vihi\ra at the Paoin.'l.tiBM mount.a.in, this ruler of the land dedicated it to
the priesthood resident at the five cst.abliabmentil.
This monarch J cHhatissa, removing from the ThupAr6ma the ooll0811al and
beautiful stone statue (of Buddha), which Devmmpiya Ti11111 had set up at
the Thuparima, '6n11hrinm it in the vihm of the Paolnatisaa mountain. ~ Thi,
1'4id lu,vbl(f celebrar.ed thefeativ,il of de1lication, a, wellai, the" vesdL-a" fuei'l)(U.
at the Citi!}" nwan&t,in, 1111&1'6 an offering theNto of the Kdla,aantika tank ; he
b~~lo1re,l also alm, aml 11&ct1rdotal garnUJnta Oil a thoaaand pr, ~t,. The aid
JeHhatissa formed likewise the Alambagami tank.
Tb1s tbis raja reigned twelve yeal'II, performing various act.a of piety
conducive to his mon popu,1,aritg.
Thus the regal 111'.ate, like unto a vessel which is filled with the most
delioioWI sweets mixed with the deadlieat poison, is destined to be productive
of act.a of the purest charity, 111 well as deeds of the greatest atrocity. On no
account should a right.eoue man be covetous of attaining that st.at.e.
The thirty-sixth chapter in the Mahavavsa, ontitled " The Thirteen
Kings," composed' equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

ON the death of J etthatissa, hill younger brother, the riji Mabiafna, reigned

twenty-seven years.
The impioU11 thcra Sa1ighamitta aforesaid, having ascertained the time
appointed for the inauguration of the king, repaired hither' from the opposite
coast. Having celebrated the installation, and in every respect a.tt.ended to
the other pre8Cribed obeervances, bent on the destruction of the Mahivihm,
he thus misled (the king) : "Raja, these priest.a of the Mahivihira uphold an
heterodox vioaya: we observe the (orthodox) vinaya." The monarch thereupon ordained, that whoever should give any alms to a priest of the Mah.vihim would incur a fine of a hundred (piecea ). The Mahivihara fraternity,
plunged into the greatest distr888 by these proceedings, abandoning the
MahavihAra, repaired to Malaya in the RubaQa division. From this circumstance, the MahavihAra having been left unoccupied by the prieeta of the
Mahavihira fraternity, it remained deserted for a period of nine yeara.
' "ICakkhal&."
11 Mahi Beaa."
11 plaoed."
" Be pve the KaJamattib tank to the 06tiya mountain Yillira. BaTing
oelebratea the ftinl of -kha and the dedication. of the Tibin., thia king P,Te
Biz robes each to a thouaan.d priest.,"
1 11 suoll u the building of temples," &o.
I.,.rt II for that purpose,"



This impiomly ignorant thera (Salighamitta) having penuaded the weak

king that " unclaimed property beeame the droits of the ruler of the land ;"
and obtained the aanction of the rij! to deBtroy the Mahhihara, carried into
effect the demolition of the :Mahbihara. A certain minister named Sol)a,
the partisan of the th6ra Salighamitta, and the confidant of the rija, and
certain sbamele1111 :and wicked priaats, pulling down the pre-eminPnt Lc\hap!16da, whioh WIIII seven stories high, as well as variousother edifices, removed
(the materials) from those places to Abhayagiri. 1The Icing laaving IAu,
,:aual all IAe malarial of 11&11 .'tlaluit1ihtim to N tranaport,d, u,,d t!Nm at t"6
Abl&ayagiri, and built a laall for thll ~ption of an i11iage of ]Jud(l/1a; anntlaer

at IAe bo-tru, and a delightful edifice for relica, as well aa a quadrangular

hall; aud repaired the l{ukkutapariv61)a (erected in the reign of Kanitthatieaa). By this impioua proceeding, adopted by the thera Salighamitta, at
this period the Abhayagiri vih!ra attained great 11p)endour.
The minister named Mcghaval)l)Abha.ya, profoundly vaned in all affairs of
,tate, and who had enjoyed tho confidence of the king, ineem1ed at the
destruction of the Mahbih'-ra, throwing oJf his allagirmce, fled to Malaya ;
and tailing a large force there, fortified himself at the Ddrati111a tauk. The
king having aacertained 1tAis circumalancefrom a con.fuk,itial person 10Ao Aarl
comefrom t/ience, repairing to the aeat of war, also fortified hilll88lf.
(Meghava1,11;uibhaya) having reeeiverl a preaent of some delicious beverage
and meat, brought from the Mn.laya division, he thus n1110lved : " Let me not
partake of theae, excepting with the king, who (once) confided in me." He
himself taking this present, and proceeding quite alone, in the night, to the
king' encampment, on reaching it made known the object of his errand. The
r!jA having partaken, in his company, of what he had brought with him, thus
inquired of him : " What made thee turn traitor againat me P" Ho replied,
"On account of tlu, cleatruction of the Mah!vih!ra." The r!j! thUB rejoined:
11 I will re-tlblish the MabivihAra : forgive me my offence."
He thereupon forgave the king. The monarch, acting c,n hiB advice, returned to the
capital The said Meghava1,11.1Abhaya, explaining to the r!j! that he ought to
remain in the province, to collect the .materials (requisite for the reoonatruction of the Hahivihira), did not accompany him to the capital.
There was a certain female, the daughter of a secretary, who waa tenderly
attached to the ra.jiL. Afflicted at the de11truction of the Mahavih!ra, and, in
her anger, resolved on the IUlll8llllination of the thcra who had occasioned that
demolition, 1he formed a plot with a certain artificer; and having e&Ulled
tlN ,aid rr.ckk/18, imJlious, a,ul 11m11ge thirr,, &,righa,nittu, lo be put to ,l,.alb,
10/w,n 1N Wt&B on his way to tl1tl Tluipiii'tima for tlN purpou of pulli11g it d011111;
they also 11,urdered tl1~ 1cickell mini11ter Sd(la.
The aforesaid Mcghava111.u\bhaya collecting the requisite timber, con1tructed numerous parivc9aa at the Mahhiharn.. When this panio had
aubsided, the prieRts who had returned from the vario~ parts (to which they
had fled) were re-established at the .Mahbihara by (M~,ghava1,1911) Abhaya.
1 " By means of the materiala of the many buildings thus removed from. the
Mahhibara, the Abhayagirl Tihf.ra BOOn ftourished, and abounded with numerous
edifleetl. Tbe ruler of the land having joini,d this evil companion, Sanghamitta
th6ra, and his fellow-helper 861), oommitted many eril deeda. Be removed tbe
great at.one etahe of Buddha from the PiicSna Tiaaa-P"bbat. and aet it up at
Abhayagirl. He built there an image-house, a bodhi-houae," &o.
1 "that his (former) friend waa come then."
"tby baring destroyed."
"the author of all tbia horrible miachief, S.dghamitt. th6ra, to be put to
dt.h when, with evil int.ent, ho - at t.hepoiut to deltl07 the Thlipanma; they
slew t.he horrible and savage minillter S6r,a alllo."




The riji having had two brazen images or statues cu~, placed them 1in IA,
Aall of the grat ho-tree ; and though remonatrated againat, in his infatuated
partiality for the then Tiall& of the DakkhinArama fraternity,-'u,lao 1y11tnlolically "iolatld tlae ,aCl'Nlotal,ndes, proucted immoral cliaraclera, and IOal 'Aim,,7/
an impioua p,rson,-conatruoted the Jetavana "Vihua for him, within the
comecrated limits of the garden called J6ti, belonging to the llabl.vihua.
He then applied to the priests (of the Hahivihira) to abandon their consecrated boundaries (in order that ground might be consecrated for the new
temple). The priesiB rejecting the application, abandoned their (the llahi)
vihira. In order, however, to prevent the conaecration attempted by the
interlopers being rendered l'lllid, aome of the prieata ( of the Maht.vihira
establiahment) still concealed themselves in different parts of the premi11811.
Under these circumstances, the MahivihAra was again deserted by the
priesthood for a period of nine months, during which the interloping priests,
not unmindful of their object, persoveringly said, " Let us violate the
con11ecration." Thereafter, when their endeavour to invalidate the comecration waa discontinued, the priests of the llahavihira, returning, re-established
themselves there.
1An acc11aation u-aB brought againat a certain tMra named Tis11a, of having
illtgallg llllized po,BBBBion of tAia 11ihdra; w1iicA is ( ontl o/ tl,e four) ntnm,
,atlllrdotal crimes. Tlae ( cAarge) being 'Willi /oull(led, Ae prt81J'llt6(l l1imse1f at an
a.81ltm,blage of pl"ielltH (for the p1.upoH of undergoi11.g hi11 Mal). .Acco,-dinglg,
tlie chit'/ 111inis~r8 of justice, in comfurmity to tl,e 111e11r.ribtl(l laio11, ultlwugA tlae
rqja was aueru theref.u, rig1lteou11ly acljudged tl,at hll 11lwuld be exptlled from
lhe priesthtJOtl.
T:&i, monarch built the M111;iih1ra vihira ; and demoli11hing a dcvalaya (at
each of those places) built threo v1h61'88: viz., the Gulm1.11;m, the Ekak6villa,
and the Kalanda, at the brahmin village ( of that name); M well as the
Migagama vihara and Oangiscnapabbata. The rija all!O conatructed in the
westward the Dhatusiinapabbata, as well aa a great vihira in the K6kavita
division ; the Ruparnmma and the CulaviHi. Ho conatructed also two
nunnerioa, ~culletl tltl' Ro11tl1em and w,ter,i nipu111ayas. At the temple of the
yakkha Kilave!u. he built a thdpa. Throughout the illland he repaired
numeroue dilapidated edifice&. ~ He ntade ojfering11 tn a t11ou11and prieats qf a
llwusand pi6Ct!11; and to all ti11ilas, tAe recordeis of diBJntlation, robtla annually.
There is no defining the extent of his charity in food c.nd beverage.
To extend cultivation, he formed sixteen tanks : the Mal)ihira at Mahigama, Jallura, Kh/uJli, Mahamal}i, Kokavata, Moraka, Paraka, Kumbilaka,
VAhata, Rattamilako.1,11Jaka., Tiuava, Velaligavitthi, Mahigallaka, Cirav,pi,
llahadaragalla, and KlilapWnaripi : theae were the sixteen tankll. He
formt.d also the great canal called Pabbata, which was fed from the river.
He thus performed 8acttc both of piety and impiety.
Tlie conclusion of tl,11 Jlahdtttt111a.
1 "

on the eastem Bide."

a hypocrite, a dh!Nmbler, a companion of sinners, and a vulpr man," would

be literal.
"A. charge, inYOlving ezoommunication, was brought agalllllt the prieet who

accepted the rihira (built by the king within the limits of the Mab,vlhua)~
The charge being well founded, it was duly inveatigat.ed by a oe.rtaia minister
1umam.ed the Just, who camed hhu to be apelled and disrobed albeit apiut
the wuhes of the king."
"ia the UttarAbhay..eobbha diviafon."
"To a thou-.nd chief priest.a he made olferiap auited to elden at a ooat of a
thousand pi.-; and 11Dto all of them he distributed robes annuallJ."
"many work&"



.A.DO:UTION to him, who is the deified, the 1111Dctifled, the omnillcient,

1upreme BUDDHA !
. Thua this monarch MahAsena, by hi1 connection with ill-disposed pel'IOm,
having performed, during the whole course of hia existence, acts both of
piety and impiety, bia de1tiny (after his death) was according to hia merits.
From this example, a wise man should avoid intercourse with impious
persons, aa if he were guarding bis life from the deadly venom of a serpent.
Hill aon Sirimfghav1q11;1a, who was like unto the r6jA Mandbata, 'endotned
with all prosperity, then became king. Allsembling all the priests of the
Mahavihm, who had been scattered abroad by the measures of Mahlurona,
under the persu1111ion of his impious advisers, and reverentially approaching,
and bowing down to them, he thus benevolently inquired : "What are these
diBRBtrous acts committed by my father, misguided by Salighalll.itta P" The
priests thus replied to the monnrch : " Thy sire endeavoured to violate the
consecration (of the Mahavih6ra), which he failed in accompliahing, by prie11t1
remaining within the consecrated limits ; here 'a lmncll'erl priests established
themselves, eubterraneouely, in the womb of the earth. Those impious
characters, the minister named S611a, and Sadghamitta, mi1guiding the king,
caused this profanation to be done by him. Pulling down the superb
L6hap'8ida, consisting of seven stories, and 3h1Jri11g apartment, of ,various
descriptions, he removed (the materials) thence to the .Abhayagiri. These
aacrilegioua characters BOwed the site of th888 113cred edifices, on which the
four Buddhaa had vouchBBfed to tarry, with the ma11&ka seed. Ponder"
( continued the priests add1'81111ing tbemaelves to the rija) "on the consequences
of unworthy RBBOCiations." On hearing this account of hi11 pa.rent's misconduct, appalled at the result.a of evil communications, he restored all that
had been destroyed by bia father there (in that capital).
In the first place, he rebuilt the LcSbapasada, exhibiting in Sihala, the
model of the superb palace of the raja Mabapanada.. He rebuilt alao the
pariv~9aa which had been demolished, and restored to the servant.a of those
religious establishments the lands they had held for their se"ices. The
ruidence (oft"hB prieata) whicl, had been de11trmJetl by his jC&tlie, ana the illjudging mini,ter, becaU8e they 1ce,e ,q,amtely built, lie ,:econ1tr11ctetl ;,, a ro10
in re,t.oring the "ilidra.
This ruler of men completed all 5tliat r,miainerl impe,:fect of the Jotivana
vihAra which had been ,Ymmded by his father. Subsequently, this monarch
having made himself fully acquainted with the particulars connected with the
tMra Mahinda, the son of the 7 J/rmi of saints (Buddha) ; and the rijli glorying in the merits of him who had been the means of converting this island,
thus meditated : " .Most aBBuredly the thera bas been a supreme (benefactor)
of the land ; " and causing a golden image of 8hi111 to be made, and rendering it
every honour,-on the seventh day of the first quarter of the month of
kattika, he removed it to the edifice called the Th6rambaat Ambatthala ;
and leaving (there the image of) the th&a during the eighth day, then on
the ninth day 1188embling a great concourse of people, like unto the heavenly
hoet, compoaed of the royal retinue and of the inhabitants of the capital,
leaving at home thoae alone reqnisite for guarding their own houB88 ; and
having, 9by dellJ)Cttcli.ing inesaen9er11 tl1roulio11t Lt1-o.kci, called together all the
1 "in conferring,"
1 "aeven."
Lit. " The vihara& whioh had been but. 1par&el.f inhabit.ad by ISIIOn Of hia
miaguided fat.her having at.opped the auprliea, he cauaed to bi.' deJll!ely occupied."
" the work in."
" left imperfect."
'" lord,"
"hi& 11tAture,"

CHAP'rKit xxxvn.

priest., 1and k,.eping up during the period of thtir detention tMr, tl,c
mahdddnan, he celtbrattd a festival by the collective aicl of e1ll then
pt,ople, ne,,er st,rpaaaecl before. He himself led the proceuion' of this
(inspired) teacher of the island, the illustrious son of the divine
teacher (Buddha), in the same manner that the king of d6vas (Sakka)
preceded the divine teacher in his 'prooreaa to the Devaluka. He
had the city and the rood to the cctiya at Ambatthala. decorated,
in the same manner that the road from Vcsali to Savatthi waa orn11mented 1(in the abm,e-ment.ione1l progress of Rutldha); and 8i'n order that
he might e:ehibil lo the people the procession of this tMra,-ili the same manner
that Asolca, the thera's father, sending a ,nisaion to tlui Aho9an9a 11wuntain, hatl
conclucted the thera Moggaliputt.atisaa to ( Pupph11pura) 1li11trib11ting allllR in
the way to the afflicted, to vagrants, and mendicants, and 1celebrated for the
accommodation of the priests the four sacerdotal requisites,-this gifted
(monarol~) also, in the presence of this immense congregation of people,
lifting up the golden image of the them, descended from the rocky peak (of
Ambatthaln.); he himself leading the proce11Sion surrounded by a number of
priests, and dazzling like the golden mountain M6ru, enveloped in the
brilliant fleecy clouds of II bright season, in the midst of the 8Kltirasdgara
ocean. Such 11s was the entrance of the supreme of the universe (Buddha)
into VesAiinagara, to expound the (9Rm:an) 11utta; this raji made II similar
exhibition to the people in the present instance.
This monarch, thus rendering every mark of reverence to the festival,
approached iu the evening the Sotthiyakam vihara, which had been built by
hilD!lf'lf ne11r the eastern gate. He there detained for three days the image of the
son of the vanquisher. Having then ordered the city to be decorated, on the
twelfth day, 19in the same 111anner tlv.d in aforetime the divine teacher entered the
citg of Rtijagaha, bringing this image out of the Sotthiyakara viMra, he conveyed it in a solemn procession through the city, which wn.s like unto a grellt
ocean, to the Mohavihara; and kept it for three months in the precincts of the
ho-tree. With the same ceremonials 11 (tluJ multitude) conducted it to the city,
and there, near the royru residence, in the south-east direction, he built an edifice for thut imoge. This fearleBB and profoundly wise monarch, having caused
imagea to be mode of lHhiya and the other (theras who bll.d accompanied
Mahinda), phced them also there. He11 made provision for the mointenance
of this establishment, and commanded that a splendid festival should be
celebrated 11nnually in a manner similar to the present one. 13 The rdjti,"" M hall
1 " throughout Lavka., and relieved the prisoners from the jails of the city, he
gave a great almsgiving to 1111 the people, and oelebmted a festival with a
pomp of power that was never surpt\.llil8d before.''
1 " proceeded to meet."
IM1rt" to meet (the image)."

" visit.."


" like untothe thera'11 father, As6ka, in welcoming there the thlira Moggaliputta, the king distributed."
' "provided."
" milky."
" Ratana."
11 " like unto the city of Rijagnha on the oocasion of the Master's first entry
11 " he."
'" I 1111crt " placed guards over it, and."
11 " And the kings of his house do up to thiil day maintain that festival in
obedience to his command, without omitting aught of the ceremonial. He
ordained that the image (of Ma.hinda) should be taken from the city into the
lllahavihara on the Pava(raoa day (the conolW!ion of the Vaesa), and offerings
made thereto on the 13th 'day ot the moo.1 every year. And he built stone OOl'IUOIIII
and beautiful walls also at the Abhaya alld Tlllll!l-V11,1111bha vilw'aB 1111 well u at
the bodhi tree."




made Uai1provirion /or 1M perpetuation of IM/,atiw,1,, nan unto tlai, day" il ii hpt
up toU1aout omillion. He inatitultld a /satif}{ll to be held at Uus II pt.i!HfflJJa "
(eonclu1ion) of 11 11a1,a" annuaUy, on zoluch o~ion (then imagos) _,., carrwifrom Uus cily to lhs M'aluit,iluira, He b11ilt a protecting IOall round t1u
'lliluira called AbAayatiua, and added a ,tons co,-nice to the .flight of ,eep, al '11s

In the ninth year of hia reign, a certain brahmii.n prinoeu brought the
DithAdhAtu, or tooth-relict of Buddha, hither from Kr.litiga., under the oircumstancea aet forth in the D6.th6.dhatuvagaa,:t: The monarch receiving
charge of it hi1DBelf, and rendering thereto, in the moat reverential manner,
the highest honoun, deposited it in a casket of great purity made of " pha.lika"
atone, and lodged it in the edifloe called the Dhammacakka, built by
Dev/mampiya Ti111111.1
Iu the firat place, the raji, expending a lac, in the height of bis felicity,
celebrated a DathidhAtu festival, and then he ordained that 'a siniilcr festii-al
should be annually celebrated, tranaferring the l'fllic in proceBBion to thtJ .A uhayagiri llil&dra.

This monarch constructed eighteen viharu ; and formed, out of compasaion for living CTea.tui'ell, tanks also, which should perpetually contain water ;
and having celobmted a festival at the ho-tree, and performed other equally
eminent aots of 1,iety, in the twenty-eighth year of his reign fulfilled the
deatiny prescribed by hie deserts.
Bia younger brother, prince JeUhatiaaa, then raised the chatta in La.gkli..
He was a skilful carver. Thie monarch having executed several arduous
undertakings in painting:and carving, himself taught the art to many of his
aubjects.4 6Pmsuant to the ,lfrection of Iii, fi1the,, he sculptured a statue of
IJwldl,a, in a ma11nsr ,o ea:quirila tl1at it migl,t b, in/errnl that he Wt&B i111pired
for the tad:. Fo, that statUtJ, having also 111a(le a beautiful altar and a gilt
.edijke, he su1moml.led it with a chatt,a, aml i11laitl it 1oith ir,ory in various ways;
and having administered the government of LaykA for nine years, and
performed many acts of piety, he also fulfilled the destiny due to him.
Bia son Buddhadua then became king: he was a mine of virtue and an
ocean of riches. 8Bg the perfection of hi, policy he randeMl tlds (cupital) to
IAe inl,abilant, ,if this land, like unlo Uus heauenly A'lakamantld, the city of
Endowed with wisdom, piety, and virtue, and imbued with
boundleaa benevolence ; and thereby attaining the ten virtues of royalty, and
eacaping from the four "aga.ti," he adminiatered justice, and protected the
people by the four meana that that protection ought to be extended. Thia

The period Mahanima flourished, This festival is not observed now.

temple at Kandy ; and a.t present in
my otBoial oust.ody.
:t: This work ia extant, to which two sections hHe been subsequently added,
briDging the history of the t.ooth-relio down to the middle of the last century.[Note, 1171 Mr. TIH'IWIH'o]
1 Atltl " in the royal park.
Thenceforward that house received the name of
1 "nine lacs."
"it 1hould be taken every year to the A.bhaJ'lliri vibira. and a. BimilaT festival
oelebrated in honOlll' thereof."
AM "who, under his d.beotioDII, did likewise."
" Ke IIOUlptured a beautiful likenme of the Bodhisatta, so perfect that it seemed
aa If It had been executed by npematural power ; and also a throne, a ~ I ,
and a at.ate-zoom with IIOIDe beautiful worb in ivory made therefor."
"By every meaDB in hfa power he eD111red the happiD818 or the inhabitant& of
the laland, and t.ook 1111greatoareof the city as V-9vav11, the god of wealth, t.oot
of hla clt7, .A.'lakamaud4."

t The relic now deposited in the Milig6va


monarch exemplified to the people, in his own person, the conduct of the
B6dhiuttu ; and he entertained for mankind at large the compallllion that
a parent feels for his children. The indigent ho rendered happy by distribution of richos among them; and he protected the rioh in their property and
life. 'rhis wise (ruler) patronised thu via-tuous, discountenanced the wicked.,
and comforted the diseased by providing medical relief.
On a certain day, the rnjl, while proceeding along the high road, mounted
on his elephant to bathe at the Ti11a tank, saw in the neighbourhood of the
Puttabhiga viM.m a 'mahdntiga, on a white ant's hill, stretched out straiglal
cu a 11ole, and ll:l:tendtd on liis back, aujfering from 110111.e internal complainl.
T1,,.re11pon, on pe1-cefrin9 t1,;,, the monm-ch tlurn-ght, " 8111ely this ndgti is suffering
/1-ora ao,mi disease ;" and descending from his state elephant, and approaching
the distreBBed mahhniga, thus Addl'CB86d him : '' :Mahiniga, 1it is only on the
road that I bl!C(tnl4' a,na,-e of tl1y caire. Thou art unquestionably highly gifted ;
but as thou art also addicted to fits of rage, on sudden impulses, on that
account it is impo111ible for mo to 4a111nuit,elt thoe and treat thy complaint.
Yet without 6approach.in9 thee, I can effect nothing. What is to be done?"
On being thus addressed, the hooded monarch (cobra de capello) thoroughly
pacified, inserting his heB<i a.lone into n. hole in tho anthill, extended hi11118lf.
Then approaching him, and drawing his instrument from its case, ho opened
the niga's storn!l.ch ; and extracting tho diseased 1111rt, and applying an
eflicMious remedy, hi' instantly cured the snake. (The rajfl.) then thus
meditated: "My administration must be most excellent; elen the animal
creation recognisos that I am a most compassionating person." The snake
finding hin111elf cured, prosonted a superlatively valu.,.ble gem of his, as an
offer:ng to the king, and the raja set that gem in the eye of the stone image
(of Buddha) in the Abhayagiri vihira.
A certain priest, 8inlw hcul constmitlg subsisf.l as a 111enclicant, in the course
of his alms pilgrimage through the village ThusavaUika, received some boiled
rice which hl\d become dry. Procuring also milk which had already
engendered worms, he ate his meal. Innumerable worms being produced
thereby, they gnawed his ontmils. Thereupon repairing to the raji he stated
hill complaint t.o him. The king inquired of him," Whatn.ro thy symptoms;
n.nd where didllt thou t.'1.ko food P" lie replied, "I took my meal at t.ho
village Thusavanika, mixed with milk." The raja ~o11u1-ved, 11 There must
have been worms in tho milk." On the same day n. horse was brought,
afflicted with a complaint, which required his blood vosscls to be opened. The
rlija performed that operation, and taking blood from him administered it to
the priest. After waiting awhile ho ol>Borved, 11 That wa.s horse's blood.''
On baa.ring this, the pri011t throw it up. The worms were got rid of with the
blood, and he recovered. The rii.ja then tbus addressed tho ~deligl1t,,,d priest :
11 By one puncture of my own surgical illlltrumeut, both the priest afflicted
with worms and the horse have been cured ; surely this medical science is s.
wonderful one I"
A. certain person, while drinking some water, swallowed the spawn of a
"lying on his back (al if) to e:s:poao his ailment, whioh was tumour on the
belly. The great and good king concluded that the nip was 1uffei:ing from some
dileue," &c. This verse (63) oontaim a play on the ,vord W1a1ld114ga, whioh ii
applied to the elephant, the ting, and the cobra. .All4gaf'd flUJluJ/ldga, here meau
barmleu and ezoellent penon, and are epithets applied to tho JdDir.
"I know the reuora of thy oomiq."
t U touch."
I u tc,CLOh.i.Dg."
' "then knew that."
De~. Atlll " in the impulae of his Joy."



water aerpent, whence a. wa.ter serpent was engendered, which gm.wed hie
entraila. Thie individua.l, tortured by this visitation, had rooourae to the rlj, ;
and the monarch inquired iuto the particulars of his cue. Aacertaining that
it was a serpent in his atomaeh,1 causing him to be bo.thed and well rubbed,
1antl providing him with a well-furnished bed, 1htJ k6pt Ai,n in it aioaka for
uv,n ,l<,yR. Thereupon ovoroomo (by his 4p1'fJviou1 1uffsring11) he fell aound
asleep with his mouth open. (The rija) placed on his mouth a piece of meat
with a string tied to it, In conaequence of the aavour which exhaled therefrom, the serpent rising up, bit it, and attempted to pull it into (the patient's)
stomach. 5ln,tantlg drawing bim ont by the string, 8m1d cal'efully tliu119aging
(tlui urpe,t J tAerefron,, and placing it in water, contained in a veael, (the rija)
made the following remark: " Jivaka was the physician of the supreme
Buddha, and he knew the science. But 7m/1rd wonderful atimi did 1M evBr
render to the world 1 Ila pe1for111,1Jd no cu1'1! equal &o tl1is. ln my ctt11B, tU I
tltJHJtB 111yulf without acru1>lo with equal r:Baljor tha benefit of all, 11,y 111/Jt'it i11
1 Sin1ilarly ( by his nlt,flical 11kill) lu-. 1'1!ncle1e,l a Cha1Jd1ila woman ()/ llelloligama, 1cho 11,a11 born l,al"ren, 11reunmd 11e11e11 times, witho11t Bub111itting luir to any
perBOnal inconvenience. Thero was a certain priest 9110 llflDtJl't!ly a.fllictt.d ,oitl,
rluiuinaUc aff11cUon11, th,d 1che11tJ11t1r he 11t.ood lu,. "'"" w, crooAetl r111 a " gopd,uu,i "
rafter. This giftt,d (kin!]) relieved him from his affliction. In another cue,
of a man who had 10 drank some water which had the spawn of frogs in it, an
egg, entering tho nostril, ascended into tho head, and being hatched became a
frog. Thero it attained its full growth, and in rainy weather it croaked, and
gnawed the head of the priost. The rajl1, splitting open the head and
extracting the frog, and reuniting the severed parts, quickly cured the w...und.
Out of benevolcnco entertained towards the inhabitants of the island, the
aovereign provided hospitals, and appointed medical practitioners thereto, for
all villages. The rRj' having composed the work "Smtthasar;igaha,"., containing the 11 10Aole medical science,11 ordained that there sbou]d be a physician
for every twice five (ten) villages. 11He Bl!t :iaitle twenty royal villages for the
maintenance of thoao physicians ; Hand appointed medical practitioners to
attend 16Ai11 elephants, 11ii11 horses, and 17Ais army. On the main road, for the
reception of the ~crippletl, tlcformetl, anrl dutitutll, he built asylums in various
places, provided with the means of subsisting (those objects). Patronising
the ministers who could expound thG doctrines of the faith, ho devotedly

This work, which is composed in theSanRkrit langungo, is still extant. Native

medloal practitioners profoRij to comult it.-[ ..,,,tti 1,y .'llr. Turn,,ur.]
1 "he caused him to fut for 1111von days ; and."
" provided."
1 "Then dexterously."
"what greater skill than this did he exhibit to the world although he al110, in
all lonng-kindJlellll, performed similar ootll, Oh, how great is my good fortune!"
""Likew~ he att.ended on a Ca1,1(J'1a woman of Helloliglma, who, for the
aeventh time, waa in great travail, and aaved her together with the child tha.t
waa in the womb." The original word 11H1//1.agabbh.a moans a bad prelMIJltation of
the fmtus ea.wring difficult delivery.
" whoeo limba were stiffened with a rheumatic affection, and while be waa laid
up 118 straight 118 a rafter, this gifted king," kc.
11 "substance of all."
IIUIJrt" hurriedly."
19 I'llln-t " circulated it among the physicians of the ialaa.d for their future
ttnldanoe. He," &c.
11 "and set apart one-twentieth of the ::,rodw,e of 8.eld.t."
11 DIIZt1,
11 "on."
11 "a the."
11 " lame and the blmd,"



attended to their doctrines, and, in various parts, provided the maintonanoes

required by the 01:poundom of. the faith. 1Ea,,iestlg disoolecl to t/,e 1r,e?fare of
ma11leind, disgu.iainu hi'!'11elf by uatlieriny hi, cfotk t1p bf,t11Jeen ( kia legs), iw
nJ!ortkd relief to every afflict.ad person be met.
Subsequently, on a certain occasion, the rij1i. wa11 moving in a prooosaion,
arrayed in royal 1tate, and e1corted by his army, like unto Vwva surronndc,1
by hie heavenly h01t ; when a cerl.ain 'JJerson uj/1,ictttl ioitli a culw1eo1111 co11111lai11t, who had formed an enmity a.gt\in1t the rli.ji\. in a former. exist.once,
beholding him thu1 endowed with regal 1>rosperity, and rOBplondcnt with the
pomp of royalty, enraged, 1truck tho ea,th with his hand, and loudly venting
opprobrioua language kept 11triking tho ground with his staff. ThiR ,mperlativoly wiBO (ruler) noticing this improper proceeding from afar, thus (meditated) : 3" I rese11t not llu1 kall'ecl borne me by cmy pe1,011, This is an anim01ity
engendered in a former existence ; I will extinguish it :" and g3ve these
directions to one of his attendants : "Go to that leper, aml 4tlio1"0u91,ly iJl/0111~
thyuif wl,ut his wi1l1es be." lie went a.ccordingly, and seating him110lf near the
leper, aa if he were n. friend of his, inquired of him what had enmged him so
much. Ho disclOBOd all. " This ]Juddhadiisa (in a .former existence) wu my
slave ; by the morit ~ his piety he is now born a king. To insult me, he is
parading before mo in ata.to on an elephant. Within a fei.o rltt1J8 h~ will htJ in
n,y pt>WtJr, I 1oill thlln makll l1im ,,maible qf his re1d position, by subjecting him
to every degradation tlmt slaves are expOBed to. Even if he should not full
in~ my hands, I will cauRo him to bo put to death, and will 8s11ck hi11 -bl00tl.
Thilf'i1nprecation will be b1'0119ht about at no remote periocl."
(The messenger) returning reported these particulars to the monarch.
Tlu.t wiso per,ionage, being than quite convinced, remarked, " It is tho enmity
engendered in II former existence ; it is .proper to allay tho animosity of an
exnsperatod person ";7 and g1we 'the,11 instructions to tho said attendant :0 " Do
thou take especial care of him." Returning to the loper again, in the
ch.'Lracter of a friend, he said : " All this time I have been thinking of tho
mOA.ns of putting the rAja. to death, which I have been prevented effecting
from the want of an accomplice. By securing your nssista.nce in liia 1111111111sination, I shall ho ablo to n.ccomplish this much-desired wish : come away;
residing in my house, render me thy aid. Within a few days I will myself
take his lif,p." After having thus explained himself, he conducted the leper
to his own house, and provided him with the most luxurious moans of bathing
and anointing hii1 body ; fine clothe for raiment ; savoury food for his
eub11istence ;10 and on 11, delighted bud, 11 becrnl{f11ll9 clticnmlttl, he ar,vmgecl that a
lovely /emafo offu11r:i,mtin9 che&l'1a1 slmulrl recline.
After he h.i.d been ontertainod in this manner for some days, (the me1111onger) having satisfied him,wlf th1,t this happy {loper), restored to the enjoyment of health, w1111 brought to a tractable frame of mind ; H11till, hmce,oel',
1oitl,lwlclinu tl,e infor11u1tionfo1 t11:o 01 th1ee di.iys; (1ct lmt) he pruented ltim
1 " This mm of great compl\lllliou was wont to carry hid ca.'IC of (surgioal)
instruments within the follhi of hi11 cloth (in hi11 waidt), and alford relief," &c.
1 " leper."
" I do not remember having dono harm to 1111y buing. Surely thi.to," &;o,
"ucertain the et.ate of hi11 mind.''
""if he 1bould f11ll into my hand, I will make him know him11elf."
"certainly suck up his blood. Thou sbalt see it in a few da.fil ,''
Atltl "by 110D1edevice."

1,l.tftl II Baying."
11 I - r l "charming females to atterd on him."
11 " well prepared with comfortable bedding and linen, he caased him to lie down."
,. "lie a. before him food and other daillt.i.ful things."


Ttllt IIAHJ..VAfllA.

that they were provided by the raja. B9 thi, mMHB tk

(munuer ), who rend4!rm him tliesc o.et, of khulne,11, 111ct:eedl in pacif11ing
Aim; and by degrees he beCRme a most devoted subject to the dja. On a
certain occaaion, on hearing (a false rumour) that the king waa put to death,
his heart rent in twain.
'Tim the rdjd, for tht/l'ture nir-dicc,l treati,unt nf thti dist',WMB ,oith tohich the
bodiea of the peoz>le of this lancl might 1,e lljflict.ed, provrited 1,hysicians.
He built at the MaMvihlra the pariv,h.ia called Mura,3 in height twentyfive cubits, and conspiclinns from its upper story ; and 1to the priests reaident
there, who could propound tho doctrine'!, ho provided6 servnntR to attend on
them and ,kclicatecl to
the t100 ,illrt(Jf.8 &1111m,a and Golt1JHirm, ,u ,oell a11
vihtiras, pa1irti1n, the foul' saccr<lnt.tl requi~ite, most fully, and tanks, refection
halls, and imago11.
In the reign of this rltjil, a certain prie11t, 7pl'nfm.imlly 11'-rs'-tl in th.c doctl'ine11,
translated the Sutto.s (of the Pitu.kattaya) into the Sih:u.'\c language.
He had eighty sons, mli,,nt, energetic, well-formed, n.nd of engaging
appearance, to whom be gn.vo the n.'\mcs of the eighty (contemporary) dillciples of Buddha. The ra.jl\, Bmldh.,.dasa, 11urrounded by his son11, who were
called Sariputta., and so on (after thl)11e eighty diRCiplos), was a11 conspicuous
1111 tbo supreme, royal, Buddha (n.ttcndod by his di11ciple11).
Thus this ruler of men, Duddhn.dMa, having provided for the welfare of
the inhabitants of tho island, passed 'to tl,e Dernl,r/.-ci in the twenty-ninth
year of his reign.
His eldest son, Upatissa, t wlto was endowed. with every royal virtue, constantly devoted to acts of piety, and pre-eminently bcnovolcnt, became king.
Avoiding the ten impious courses, the ri1jn con:ormed to the ton r,:ou11
coul'IIOB; and fulfilled both his duties as a ml)narcb, and the ten probationary
courses of religion. To all the four quartors (of hi11 dominion,) the rajR.
extended hi11 protection, I\CCor<ling to the four protective rules ; and provided
the 'principal "Zms-n.ffe1i119R from the royn.l sto1es. He built extensive store11
n.nd alms-houso11 for the crippled, for pregnant women, for the blind, and the
In the northern direction from the lfa1\gala cctiya. ho constructed a t.bupa,
18imaue aparlnwit,, and an imn.gc.
"Tl,i11 11ijri rtdoptcd t/1ia eoilr11r. ;,,_ tl,e
,,., mllQl,, saying


Several portio1111 of t.ha other t,wo 1livi11ions all!O of the Pit1,katta.yn. have been
translated into the Sivhaleao language, which a.lone a.ro oon11ulted by the prioat.11
who are nnaoqua.intllll with I'lili.
t The individual name of Snriputta. before he became one of Buddhas
diB0ipl011.-[l\"i1tr11 b11 ,l/i', Tnl'n1>111.]
1 " Be refu!ed them two or throe times, but being entroa.ted by the mesBOnger
part.ook of them at last."
1 " In this manner it wu that the king treated the diseases perta.ining to the
bodJ and to the mind."
1 Generali,, called the Mayura Parivooa, or l',lonara Piriv'...,a, the remains of
which still aiat.
r-rt "dedicated to it tho two villo.ges Bamai;ia and Gola.panu. To" &c.
r-rt "food and."
" He alao built vihdt1111 and parin1.1ns a.bounding with the four monut.io
" by name Mahal; Dhamma.kath[."

into paradise" or heaven. Tidira, S. Tri11i,11.

"llilah.i;pili alms-hall with food."
11 an imagc-honao."
11 Ut. 11 This king ~nstrueted them, :noroovor, by (the labonr of) hoJB, tn
whom he gave oonfeotiou.ory(as wages), S7i.Dg, 'Let DOt mea be 11rmoc:e11aril7)





,~elation o/ucuring the attachmmt of Ai, 11,ibj, H, '1uMl t:11nfocliorwy al.o

prepared, trh;cA h, cauud lo b, dialribueI by th, youlh11 in m, nilt.

In variou11 parts of his kingdom he executed the following unexampled

worb of piety : the B6juppala, Gijjhahup., Pokkharapuaya, V610._,

.AmbuUhi, and the Goo<Jig6ma tanb; 1111 well u the KhaQcjar6ji vih6ra and
tank, which should constantly contain water.
11'Ai, indJ"idual (be/<M A, uecmidl tke thron,), whiltJ it waa J)OUl'ing roltll
rain, pa,Nd a u:holll nigl1t in aoliturk, a,atl on Aia blld. TA, mini,tllf' AarJing
aac1ll'tailllld tha& &his proceeding toaa in&endetl for tli, injury of tJ,e p,opl,, caUNtl
Aim lo lM broughc to tAll royal fl(mlm, and illlprisonecl him. In t'lllentmen& of
thia proclJl!tling M clid not (on Aisucce,aion) i11ftict wig penalty on hi, ,ubject,,
In his reign the ialand waa afflicted with drought, diaeaae, and diatl'81111.
This benevolent pel'l!On, who was like unto a luminary which expels the darkne11 of sin, thus inquired of the prieats: "Lords! when tho world W8I overwhelmed ,rith the misery and horrors of a drought, was then nothing done by
Buddha (in his time) for the alleviation of the world P'' They then
pountled the "Gallg6ruhar,ia Butta" ( 3of Buddha). Having listened thereto,
causing a perfect image (of Buddha) to be made of gold, for the tooth-relic,
and placing the atone refection dish of the divine teacher filled with water
on the joined hands of that (imago), and miaing that image into his etate ear
be went through the ceremony of recehing "11ila," ~1ohich co1!{llf'r con,oluUon
on all lir,ing beb,g; and ma.do the multitude also submit to the 111.me ceremony, and distributed alms. Having decorated the capital like unto a
heave11ly city, surrounded by all the priests resident in the ialand, he
deBCended into the ma.in at.reet. Thero the al!llcmbled priellts chaunting forth
the "Ratanaautta," and at the same time sprinkling water, 'at't'U"f/ffl thdmselr,es in tlie street at the entl of 1tl1ich t]u, JJf.l.lt1ce 11:w1 situullltl; tmcl continul
th1ougliout the tAt'llll diviaio1,a of the night to 11erumbulttte rowul it, encloaing ,oall.
,I t thll rising o/ tJ,e ,un a tol'rent of ruin <leacentlr.rl ctB if it u,ould cleaw t/ie
earth. All the Bick and crippled sported about with joy. The king then
iBBued the following command : " Should there at any timo be another affliction of drought and 11ickne11B in this ialand, do ye ob1:1Crve the like ceremonies."
70,l visiting thll celiya 0 (in the ntidst of the in1m1lation), oblllll"Oing ant and
otker in11ect11 struggU11g on tliejlo()(l 1citl1 theftath(,rB of a z,eacock', tuil, ,wellping
t/111111 to11:ai'<ls thll 11mrgi11 (nf tl16 cetiya), All enublt.tl these (inrect,) to reacNtJ


Suppoaed to be tho Ruvanvfli.-(Ncitr. b'!I JI,. Tt,11111111.]

"(On one occaaion) when, (in consequence of a leak) mi, bed wu wetting while
the min was pouring down, ho pasllfld the whole nJght thereon (without oa.using
the leak to be stopped) lC11t the workmen be put into trouble. The minil!ter (of
the king's household) having come to know thereof conducted (enticed) him t.o
the royal park, and (in hia absence from the palace) covered the house (stopping
the leak in the roof). Thua this king Inflicted not on other beings any suffering
on IICOOUD.t of himself (for the aake of his own comfort)." The original la Tff1
obscure from it.a ezceeding brevity, as the parentheses in this :rendering will ah.ow.
1 "set forth tho circumstance that gave rise to the preaching of."
1 "by."
'marched in procesaion in the neighbourhood of-the palaoe, along the 1tnet
and near the wlllla, and oontinued walking round (the city) throughout the t.hree
division of the night."
" At the break of day the great clouds poured down rain upon the earth."
" lie was wont to visit the edtiya and, with a (broom made of the) peaoook'a
tail, 1weep away auta and other inseot.e from the aidea thereof, 111,ying, Let them
get down to the ground gently'; and ~hen taking a chauk tilled with water he
would walk about and wuh (the et.aim left b7 them en the white pluter of the .



tMlllfflNI; and r.onlinuing hi, proee,rion M ,prinldl 10t.ller, a, A, ~ .

from Ai, claw.
He constructed to the aouth-wellt of bis palace an up6aatha hall, a hall for
the image of Buddha1 surrounded by an enolosing wall, 'and formed a gardtm.
On the fourteenth and fifteenth days of each half month, 'a, 'IIN!ll
on IM
eigAlA and
daya of each quam,., f'fflNing IM WOIDB of 1M " ala1nl " ortkr-,
and -undtrgning 1M ceremoniu of tAe up6,at1ia, M tarrittl tMre on tl&oae ocearion,;
and during the whole of bis life he subsisted on the alms prepared for the
priesthood (without indulging in more luxurious food); he bad been alao in
the habit of setting aside rice, formed into lumps, for the squirrels which
frequented bis garden ; which is continued unto this day.
Thi, benevolent (monarch) on suing a culprit camttl allla1J to undergo hia
sentence, procuring a corpae from the cemetery, and throwing it into a
cauldron, and bestowing money on the offender, allowed him to eacape in the
night ; and at the rising of the sun, as if incenaed against th-! criminal,
boiled the corpse.
He celebrated 6a greatfeathtrl for all the cetiyaa in the island; and made a
11111tal COIX!ring, ornanwmtecl with golit, for the thupa at the Thdp&rAma.
Having completed a 1-eign of forty-two yeara, without having 7i,i a aingle
inBfalau indulgttl i11 a flt, of fl8tioity, confining hi11111elf to ceremonies of piety,
he departed to be associated with the chief of the devaa.
His consort, who 9oUfJAI to AmM c1.erished hin,, caiued Aim to be put lo deatl,
by 1116t111S of his youiige, brotAer AfaAd11d1na, by plunging a weapon into him, in
an unfrequented spot. During the lifetime of the late king thia younger
brother had been a priest. On the 11881188ination of the rijl, throwing of' his
robes, bebecame the sovereign; and made the queen, who bad put his elder
brother to death, his own consort.
He founded 0an asylum for the diucued, and k,,pt up tlie al1na-olfering1for
tM prie11t/1ood. In the diuision of th1J Koti mountain,, 1.1t the LJAadvdraralaggdma, he built tAree 'OiAdrctB, and conferred them on the priests of the
Abhayagiri establishment. 11 Dy the aforesaid queen a 'DiAara icas built at lh
DhumaraH:Ar, mountain for the ,cl,.i,naatic priuts.
This (monarch), devoted to deeds ofcha.rity and piety, repaired dilapidated
viMraa ; and was a constant contributor towards the maintenance of religion.
11.A. brahman youth, born in the neighbourhood of the terrace of the great
bo-tree (in Magadha), accomplished in,.the "vijja" and "sippa ;" 13 who bad
achieved the knowledge of the three " vMaa," and poaaelllled 14great aptitud, in



' In1e1t "and a beautiful park."

i Dele.
""and the eighth days thereof, as well as on the u:traoldinary -.on (~h4riya pakkha) he would atriotly conform himself to the eight. preoepta, and
tarry there, behaving himself holily."
" Thi11 king, whDllfl mind shrunk with horror at the eight of a culprit brought."
"great festivals.''
"golden pinnacle and covering."
'" spent one moment in vain."
" works."
" wa." intimate with his younger brother Hahlmima, cauaed him to be air.in
by plunging a weapon into him."
11 " hoapitala for the aiok and aupported the lllahApMi alms-hall.
He built the
three viharaa, Lohadvlu-a, Ralagi;1m111, and Ko$ipaaqvana."
11 "He built a vihua at the Dhdmarakka mountain and gave it t.o the Th6av6df
(Jlalivihara) brotherhood by means of his queen."
11 I111ert "(In those days)."
11 I111el't "and kila. ',"
"a perfect knowledge of philosophy and religion, and waa well vened in all
the oontroveniea of the day, wand.em over J'ambud(pa aa a diaputant anxioua
for oontroveny. Having arrived at a certain vihua (and taken lodginp) he
wu rehearsing at night the aphoriDlll of Pataftjali ID all Uleir perfection ud



aua;,.;ng acguire,llfflU; inck/atigabk a. a ,ehi1111iu.tic di,111ttant, and l&ilnHf/

a llehi11n&atic 1oantlenr owr Jambtuflpa, utabli,W Aim88lf, in Ute clumu:t,r o/ 11
di,putant, in a CM"lain " ; ~ , and was in Ute habit qf r,lu,aning, by nigAt and
by day, u,ieh clapal lu&nd,, a cli,oour,e u,l&ich Ae Aad leamecl, psr/tJCI in aU ila
con1pone11.t pa.re., and 1U11tai1&1d throughout in Ute ,am, lqftg ,train. A certain

maha thn, B6vata, becoming acquainted with him there, and (aaying to
himself}, " This individual ia a peraon of profound knowledge ; it will be
worthy (of me) to convert him;" inquired," Who is this who ia braying like
an au P" (The brahman) replied to him, 1" Thou can,t define, then, the
meaning conveyed in the bray of U11811." On (the th6ra) rejoining, 11'1 COIi
~ ii;"' he (the brahman} 3e:elubitl the a:e.nt qf Ute lenou,luJg. Ae po,8tJlltJfi.
(The thera) criticised 81'.Ch of his propoaitiona, and pointed out in what
re11pect they were fallacious. He who had been thua refuted aaid, 11 Well
then, deaoend to thy own creed ;" and he propounded to him a paaaage from
the "Abhidhamma" (of the Pilakattaya). He (the brahman) could not
divine the signification of that (p&llll&gO); and inquired, "Whose 4manta ia
this ?'' " It ia Buddha's manta." On hia exclaiming, " Impart it to me ;
(the thera) replied, "Enter tho aaoerdota.1 order." He who waa desiroua of
acquiring the knowledge of the Pilabttaya,6 subsequently coming to thia
conviction : "Thia ia the aole road (to aalvation) ;'' became a convert to that
faith. A.a he waaaa profound in his (gh6ea) eloquenoe aa Buddha himself,
they conferred on him the appellation of Buddhagh6sa (the voice of
Buddha); and throughout the world he became as renowned aa Buddha.
Having there (in Jambudipa)composed an original lt'ork called" RancSda:,a ;"
he, at the same -time, wrote the ohapter called "Atthasalini " on the
Dharn108Adgani (one of the commenta.riea on the A.b~idham.ma).
Bbata. thera then obaorving that he was desirous of und~ing the
compilation of a "Paritt.aUbakathi " (a general commentary on the Pipkattaya), thus addreaaed him: "The text alone (of the Pipkattaya} has been
preBerved in this land : the A.UhakathA arc not extant here ; nor ia there any
version to be found of the 7va,la (1chi1J11111) com11letti. The 8ighal8118
A.Uhakath, are genuine. They are compoaed in the Sighalese language
by the inspired and profoundly wil!8 llahinda, who had previously consulted
the discourses of Buddha, authenticated at the three convocations, and the
dill88rtations and arguments of Siriputta and othen ; and they are extant
among the Siuhaleae. Repairing t.hither, s.nd studying the same, translate
(them) according to the rules of the grammar of the llrlit.gadhaa. It will be
an aot conducive to the welfare of the whole world."
Having boon thus adviaed, this eminently wise personage rejoicing therein,
dopartod from thenoe, and vi11ited thia island in the reign of this monarch
(Mahanan1a). On reaching the Mahhihira (at Anurfidhapnra)8 be entered
thu Mahapadhana hall, 8el&e moat aplen,lid qf tlie apa1t111,nt, in tM tJiluim, and
listened to the Sighalese A.Uhakathl, and the Th6ravada, from tho beginning
to the end, expounded by the thcra Sallghapila ; and 18btJcame tltoroughl1
contJint:ed tltat IMy convqtJd Ute true meaning qf the doctrinu of Ute lord of
dl&amma. Thereupon. paying rcoenntial rupeet to Ute priutltood, A, thaa
petitioned : " I am desirous of tnmalating the AUhakathi ; give me aooeea to
1 " I do know."
What, knoweat thOll."
1ald down hia propoaltlona."
4 Manta - Mantra, divillion of the vedas.
I I,utJrl U entered the cmler, and,"
'" -nrioul eXpOBitiona of the teaohera,"
1 /kl,,
I""1rt " the home of 1111 ,oocl men."
19 11 bavlng decided on the true meaning of the dootrillel of the lord of Dbamma,
he oaued the priellthood 1lo - b l e there, aml."





all yuur books." 'l'he prioathood, for the purpose of teeting hia qualiflcatio111,
gave only two g,thi, saying : 11 Hence prove thy qualification ; having
aatiafled ounelve1 on thia point, we will then let thee have all our boob,"
From the1& (taking two gathi for hi1 text), and conaulting the Pita)mttaya
topther with the A.Ubakath', and oondenaing them into an abridged form,
he oompoll8d the 'commtm.tnry oalled the " Viauddhimagp.'' Thereupon,
having auembled the pri&1thood who had accquired a thorough knowledge
of the doctrin of Buddha at the bo-tree, ho commenced to read out (the
work he had compoll8d). The dovatb, in order that they might make hi1
(Buddhaghou.'1) gift.a of wiadom celebrated an:ong men, rendered that book
invisible. He, however, for a 18COnd and third time recompol&d it. When
he waa in the act of producing his book for the third time, for the purp011e
of 'propmmding it, the d6vatu restored the other two copiea alao. The
(Ull8JY\bled) pri&1ta then read out the three boob aimultaneou11ly. In tho11e
three veraiona, neither in a signification nor in a Bingle misplacement by
traupo1ition-nay, even in the tha 3conti-ot:ersi68 and in the tu.t (of the
Pi'3kattaya)-waa there in the measure of a vel'IO, or in the letter of a word,
the alighut variation. Thereupon the prieathood rejoicing, again and again
fervently shouted forth, saying, " Moat auuredly this ii Metteyya (Buddha)
himaelf ;" and made over to him the boob in which the Pitakattaya were
recorded, together with the AHhakath,. Taking up his 1'811idonce in the
118Cluded Gaathikam vihara at A..nurl&dhapura, he tranalated, according to tho
grammatical rules of the l\Ugadhas, which is the root of all languages, the
whole of the Siybaleao Aithakathll (into Pali). This proved an achievement
of the utmost consequ11nce to all langu1,go11 11poken by the human race.
All the tllema a,ul ioo,,,u hell\ this compilation in the same e11t,mation as the text (of tho Pitakattaya), Thereafter, the objects of hi11 millllion
having been fulfilled, he returned to Jambudipa, to worship at the bo-tree
(at Uruvela in Magadha).
Mah,n,ma having pel'formed varioWI act.a of piety, and enjoyed (bis royal
state) for twenty-two year11, departed according to his deser~.
I All theao rulers, though all-powerful and endowed with tho utmost pro11perity, failed in ultim,itely over,:oming the power of death. I,et wise men
therefore, bearing in mind that 1ul mankind are subject to death, overcome
their de11ire for richca and life.
The thirty-sevontb chapter in tho :Mahavagsa, entitled " The" Seven
Kings," composed equally for the delight and affliotion of righteous men.

HA11.bbu had a 11011 named Sotthisena, born of a dami!a 'co,11,ort; by tliti
,ama quten 1111 bad al110 a dm19hte1 ctcllerl &rig/id. Thi1 Sotthisena, who then
1uooeeded to the monarchy, was put to death on the very day (of his
aooeuion) by the aaid prinC81111 Salighll; who immediately, by beat of drums,
oonferred it on her own husband, Jantu, who held the office of chattagllhaka.
He formed the Ohattagahaka tank, and died within that year.
Hil confidential miniater7 then privately buming hil oorpae within the
precinct of the palace, and deciding that a oertain powerful individual, who
Thia ill the Pili venion of the .\.Uhakathi. now ued b7 the Buddhiata of
Cey]on.-[.1,ite b'!I Jlr. T1er11111v.]
1 11 reheal'lling."
1 "Th6riy1 teaohen."
The t..chl-n or doot<>n of the M:abi.vihara fraternity,
'Iu11rt "Reigna of."
'"woman; and alao adanghter named Sai\gha born of Ida queeD."

'l1111:rt ua man of peat cllllDiag."



had been a plunderer of orope, Wllll worthy of being nilecl to the monarohy,
plaoecl him on the throne ; but kept him a1ao oonftned within the palaoe, and
giving it oat that the riji waa suffering from aiokn81181hilDNlf adminiatered
the government.

At a certain featiwl the populace c1amoro118ly called out, " If we have a

king, let him 1aho10 him,iif." On bearing this call, the monarch arrayed himself in regal attire ; 1b11t fouling tlmt no 11ttiu ekphant tea /ort,,coming for
Aim (to carry l&im in prott,aion), nw1tio11in!J, "Buel& an e1'ip,,ant t1Jill 1uit me,"
amt /or tAe 1,:hit6 elqihant 1"1J1 at tha tooth-relic lenipli. On tM mu8tJl&fllf'
deliNring the king' order, 11111 eleplia11t ob,yed. (The f'lfid) mounting l&im
moi,d in proce88ion tl&,-origl& tM capital, and pa,eing out of tfae ea,tem gale,
orckred an encampment to be formed rd tht.jir,st cdtiya; ancl 1,e built a triumphal arcl& 1oithin ,,,, .rquare qf tha ..l[al&d cdtiyr,, fornlel.l by tl,e u,all ornam,nted
,,,itl&jlgure, qfek111&ant,. Kittaena having performed may acts of piety died
withia the year.
A IM!rtain dami!a, named Piu)C,u, landing from the oppoaite oout, put
Mittuena to death in the field of battle, and 1111urped the kingdom of Lagkl.
All the principal nativea fled to Roha.\111 ; and the dami!as e11tabli1hed their
power on thia (the A.nuridhapura) aide of the river (Mahfi.v6Iukfl).
Certain members of the H.Sriyan dynuty dreading the power of the
(usurper) Subha, tho balattba, bad aettled in various parts of the countey,
concealing themselves. Among them, there was a certain landed proprietor
named Dhatua6na, who had establiahed himaelf at Na11divapi. Bia aon
named Dathl, who lived at the village A.mbiliyiga, had two sons, Dhit11114na
and Silatiaaabodhi, of unexceptionable deacent. Their mother' brother
(kahlnlma), devoted to the cauae of religion, continued to reside (at A.nur6dhapura) in his eaoerdotal character, at the edifice built by the miniater
Dighuandana. 0 The youth Dhatuaena became a priest in hi fraternity, and
on a certaa day while he wu chaunting at the foot of a tree a shower of
rain fell, and a nlga aeeing him there encircled him in hia folds and covered
him and hia book with hia hood. His uncle obaerved thia; and a certain
prie,t, jealous theJ't()/, contenipt11oualy heaped aome rubbish on hia head, but
he was not disconcerted thereby. His uncle noticing thia circumstance alao,
4came t,o tlii11 conclw1ion: " This is an ill1111trious (youth) destined to be a
king ; " 6and aoyillg to hilliself, "I muat wa.toh over him," 'conducted him to
the vihlra ; 7and tlm11 addre88ing Aim : " Belo11ed, do not onlit, night or day, to
impl'Ollll tl&y,elf in what tl&ou sl&oulde,t aequii'e," rmdered hi116 accomplisl&,d,
Minilter of D.SVimampiya Tisea: dtle p. 65.-[Nite by JI,, T111111111r.]
"come forth and show himaelf to 111."
1 "and when the elephant wae brought to him (to ride on, he would not
have him, but) aaid This elephant bellt.11 me not,' and lltlDt for the white
elephant kept at the tooth-relic temple. On being t.old that It wa1 the king'
command the elephant came (waa brought up7). And he (the king) mount.ed him
and :rode through the oityln pl'008118ion, and commanded thatheshould(infuture)
be at.a.tioned at the Patbama 06tiya out.side the eaatem gate. He built triumphal
arohes in the elephant rampart.a of the three great o6tiyu."-The PilJ,.,.U,
a later S1vhaleae hiatory, givea a d.ilferent veraion of thia inoident. It etatea that
the king went t.o the tooth-relio temple t.o worahip, and ordered that the lltate
elephant 1hould be bzought up for him to return, Seeing that there wu IIOll18
delay in doing ao he waa augl'7, and in hia wrath called on ~ efBtr7 ot an
elephant, made of brick and mortar, that waa kept in the court of the temple, to
carry him. It obeyed, and t.ook the king on it.a baok t.o hia palace I
"On another ooouion a certain prieet who wu angry with him luug."
1 Dtl11.
"llllld t.o himaelf."
"I1111rrt "a.nd."
'"IIB1UII',' I must render thil,outh aooompliahedat the 0 ~ vihAra;' all4


lmtruot.ed him."

Pa9,Ja having heard of this, aent his memengen in the night, commanding,
"Baise him." The th6ra, foreeeeing in a dream (what wu to happen), aent
bim away. While they were in tbe act of departing, the meuenger surrounded the pariveoa, but could not find them. Th8118 two escaping,
r9aehed the great river G6,;ia in the southward, which was flooded ; and,
although anxious to C1"088,1 they were stopped (by the rapidity of the stream).
'( Ma1ilin6ma) tlma apoat1opAiaing tlu rfrer: "0 ri11er, a, tliou hast arrtlstI our
into a la~, equally delay him liere ;" the7'6Upon,

progru,, do tliou., spreading out

together with the prince, descended int.o the stream. A nags. rAji, observing
tbeee two persons, presented them his back to
upon. Having got
across, and conducted the prince to a secluded residence, and having made
bis repast on some milk-rice which had been offered to him, he presented
tbe residue, with the refection dish, to the prince. Out of respect for the
tbera he turned the rice out on the ground (in order that he might not eat
out of the same dfah with him) and ate it. The th6ra then foresaw that
this individual would J>Ollll8ll8 hi1D11elf of the land.
The rtji Pa1>1Ju died after a reign of five years, His son Piirinda, 8tmtl
thirdly his younger brother Khudda Parinda, administered the government;
'bul a conatant u,arjaN IOa8 1cept up by Dhdt11,11i1ui, lumu,ing tltll wltole population which luul 11ot attached itlUlif (to him).
DMtus6na protected (his own) people, and waged war against (the
111urper) rija. That "iinpious charactel' dying in the sixteenth year of bis
reign, the other third indiv;dual became king. Dhktua6na, carrying on an
active warfare against him also, succeeded in putting him t.o death, likewise,
within two months.
After the demise of this Iring, the damija Dathiya was rajd. for three ywn,
when he also was put to death by Dh11tu11ena. The damija Pf~hiya then
(aucoeeded), and in the course of his warfare with Dhitus6na waa killed in
seven months. The dami!a dynasty th'3n became extinct.
There:.ipon the monarch Dhatusena became the riji of Lagka. With the
co-operation of his brother, he' entirely extirpated the damilas, who bad
been the devastators of the island 8 bg their 11ar;ou, atrata(lll11ll-by having
eneted twenty-am fort,, a,ul incu,antly waged 11Jar in the laiid; and re-estal>liahed peace in the country, and happin888 among ita inhabitants. He
rest.ored the religion also, which had been set aside by the foreigners, t.o ita
former ascendency.
&me of the native, of rank, mak a, well a, fem ale, had f0f"1M,t/, connection,
with the damila,. Indignant at tlu1 chfection, and ,aying, " Thue per1on,
neither ~ t I me nor our religion, (the rqja) conji,cating tl~ir utate,
bntowl them on thou who atlhered to him. All the nobility who bad fled to
B6bava rallied round him ; on whom be conferred, with due discrimination,
every protection and honour ; but more e11peoially gratified those devoted
officers who had peraonally shared his own adversities.


Irt,ert "quickly."

"The thera. obeemng (to the prinoe) 'Aa thia river hae am11ted our progn11111
do thou likewiae arreet ite ooune by forming a ta.Dk here.' "
"died in the third year of his reign, and,"
' "and oppreaaed all the people who were on the Bide of D~twi6na."
"king, having done both good and evil, died."
"then Tiritara."
' IUtlrt "after having ereot,ed twenty-one forts and c.rried on a warfare by
ftl'ious etnt.agema."

And the king wu wroth with thoH nobles and landlords who joined the
damitu, uying, 'They neither cared for we nor for their religion;' and he took
their lands from them and made them keepel'II thereof." That ia, made them
aerf of the land over which they we~ lord11 before.




Damming up the great riYer (M'ahbilukA), 1aqd tl,,,.,bg /ol'1ning ftelda poa.-iecl of unfailing irrigation, Ao butowd tAo,n on th p1'ieatB nititleil to tlM
,r,,a, alma, for tho purJIOB6 of 1u1,plging IMm lfJitA " lllili " riCIJ. Thie wiae
ruler founded also h011pitala for cripplea and for the sick. Ho formed an
embankment aoross the Guoa river 4ilwluding the Krilm'tipi ta11k. Employing
Ai, a'l"lliy tliorein, Ae re,tored the Jlalulvi1irirll, a11 trtll a, the edifice of the botree, lrendaring it moat beautiful to behold. Like unto DhammAac'.ika, having
thoroughly gratified the prieatll by fully providing them with the four ll808rdot.al requiaitea, he held a con vocation on the Pitakkatta111. He built eighteea
vihuu for the 7fraterrnUe, who Awl compo,ed tlle "tMratldtld; a11d t.o enaul'e
.fall crop, in 1/ie iBland, he fol'lneil al,o eightten tanl11 at (tl,o,e plac.ta): ,~;,s., at
the Kalavapi 81ank, a vihrim of that nmne, alBO the Kdtipusa, the Dakkhln"
girl, the VacJcJhamlna, Pa.nnavallab, the Bhallataka Paaa1UJ1Jim1a; in tli,
mountain ,livision, the Dh6.tmi11a, the 18 ,Vm1gu11et/,t11iarlti; tot/,,. 11ortlnrartl, the
Dhritu,ena; to the WRhaartl, tl,e Ka11,bu.vitu.; in the aamc direction tbe
Antaram~ri II at Atttil/,i th11 Dhdtu,li,m; the Kas,iapittliilr6, at the 1nountuin of
t/,.it nm"e '; in Ruhar;ia, the Dlyag!ma, the Sllave.r;i_a, and Vibhisana vih6.raa, u
wellu the Bhillivlu.111, vihira11. These, be it known,are the eighteen. In the same
manner, this ruler of men having constructed alllO eighteen small tanks and
vihal'RII, viz., the Pndu.laka, lhmbalattbi, the lfah6datta, &c., beatowed on
the BDmo partiea. Pulling down the Maynrapariv6\la which was twenty-five
cubit& high, he reconstructod an edifice "twr.nlg cubits high. 11A.s8i9ni11g tlie
taak to p1h1C1J Sina he rm18f!tl the fo111t/1 of tl,e jielil,i td K,iltmipi, two hundred
in tiuml,er, which 1oer11 form,uly JJroducti11e, to be t'l'11tore1l to cultimtio11. He made
improVP.ments at the Liihapl&s;"ula, which WDI! in a dilapidated state. 14 At th,
tlwei prineipal tAupt1s 1,e e1tcte.tl cli1lllw1. He celebrated a festival for the purpose of watering the supreme ho-tree, like unto the 1>si11uni1 festival of the
ho-tree held by Dev6.nampitiya Ti8811. He there made au offering of aixteen
brazen Rtat~, of virgins lu1vbig tl1e 1101oer qf locomotion ,-0 i;/1e hel,l ttlHO a Je,tiwd
of i11a11f!UruUon in honour of the ,Urine ,age. From the pt'riod that the ho-tr.
had been planted, the rulers in LDyka have be!d such a ho-festival evol'7
twelfth year. t
The word is lit.emlly rendered. It is po11sibly a clerical error.

t This festival is no longer celebrat.ed, and has probably been diacontinued from
the period that Anuridhapura oeaaec1 to be the aer.t of government.-[ lt'otr, by
1 11 he formed."
lllr. .7'ur1111111.]

11 and bestowed on the prieethood alms of ' silli' rice at tho Mahipali
"the Kl,,{avapi (Kalav~va) tank by putting up.'
"He improved the Mahavihara by adding regullll' walks thereto, and
" Theriya priests, and endowed them with lands, and alllo formed eighteen
tanll:a in the island. These are the viharu, namely."
" vihara."
" Dhatus6na-pabbata in the Puanasinna divieion."
'"" Mayhailgana ; the ThlipaviMhi ; the northern Dhatuaena ; the eaatera B'.am
11 "tweuty-one,"
11 the Att&Jhi; the KauapiUhi Dhil.twiena,"
11 " Be made over to Ktimaraaena a portion of the half (of hia ownintereet.) in tbe
Kl.lavflpi (tauk) and two hundred Aelde, and restored the former produotiveneM
(of the landa aituate there).''
11 Dele.
.. "and zepaired the decayed ohattaa of the three great thiipaa."
,. "me1ill.l tzougha (for holding water, to water the b6dhi tree)." Turnour'a Pili
text has laHdyo imtead of lld-rar", which acoounts for hi11 wrong tranalation.
The worde in the original are dhdt1U11dl11Aa-11d'l'd110. Nava here meana a oiatern,
in the ahape of the bull or a ship, I prJ&ume.
17 "He alao ca11118d the imap of t.he gnat aage (there) to be adomecl and



Causing an image of :MaH Mahinda to be made, and conveying it to the

edifice (Ambom6laka), in which the thera's body had been bumt, in' order
that be might celebrate a great festival there ; and that he might also promulgate the contents of the 0 Dfpavagsa, distributing a thousand piecea, he
oouaed it to be read aloud thoroughly. He ordered also sugar to be distributed
among the priests asaembled there. (On thi& OCCIU!ion) calling to his recollect
tion tbe priest '(/01'11ltrly) 1-eaident in tlie aame t,ilidm 11:itl& Aimulf, who had
heaped dirt on his head, he did not permit him to participate in these bene6ta.
He made many repain at the Abhayagiri vihha, and for the atone statue of
Buddhl\ an edifice with an llu11artment (for the image). On the gem set in
the eye of the image of the dhine teacher by Buddhadua being lost, this
(raja), ~bi a aimila, mam1er, fm11ml the eye 11:itk tlte '' clnilar11an;" jewel (a
pt&l't of liia reg1d head di-esa).
T~ sup1"B11&e curly locks (of tliat ir11age he repn!
aei1ttd) by a profu~io11 of sapphil'es; in tlte same manner tlil! "unna,a" lock qf
l1u.ir ( i11 tlie fiireheu.d beticee11 thtt eges) by ( a thi-ead of) gold; ai1d lie JRade o.fferi1101 (thertto) of goltlen robes; a11d also, composed of gold, afoot cloth, a.flower
and a splt11di1l lump, us 1cell aa innun&trable cloth, of vuriou, colour,. In the
inw.ge a1m1t1111mt /,e con1tr11cttd 111an11 ,plemlid cetiya1, ,,here thert1 also 1,:en
(iliuigts of Bodtlhisuttua),
For l/1e 91,mite 11t,,tue of B111ldha, a, 11:ella, for tlie atattre of the i;at,iour Of
tl1e v,01ld, culled tl1e " l1iaa111bham," lie conve1ted his "chtilamani" head
orntm&e!lt ( i11to the 0t11a111t11t 11laced on the head of Buddha's Btat11e, l"t!/Jreffllti11g
tl,e ra1111 of glo111); a11d i11 the 111u1111er befo1e tle11cribell ( at the featiml of illaug11mtion) in 1"Bga1'fl to the image 11u11iecl tl1e Abl,isekn, lie im,eBted tl1ese (iwtge,
flbw) teitk tl1tfr ,q11ip111ent11. To the B6dhiaattat Metteyya, he built an edifice
to the southward of the ho-tree, and invested (hiR hruigc-) wH.h every regal ornament ; and directed that guards ahould be stationed at the distance of one
y6jana all round it. He caufled the viharaa to be 5paillttrl n:ith omu111e,1tal
bordtr, of the 1iai11t callttl the '' dMla," as 1,:tll aR the superb edifice of the
gt'f,llt bo, expending a lac thereon. .A.t the Th(1piirima he repaired the thupa
and held a festival; he also repaired the dilapidations of the temple of the
tooth-relic. He made an offering to the "D6thidbitu 8(tootA-1elic) of a
cu,ket thickly studded with radient gems and 7.fio1uer11 qf gold; and held a
festival of offering& in honour of the tooth-relic. He bestowed also in11um
rable robeli and other offerings on all the 'priests rel!ident in the ialand. dtt
made improvements at the several vihma. At each of those places he caused

The Hab,Vllll&OB& ; whether brought down to this period, or only to the end of
the reign of Ma.h'84na, to which alone the Tilta extends, there i8 no me&na of
t The Buddha who is to appear ne:1:t, to complete the Bve Buddha& of the
pr,!1181lt "Ma~bhaddakappa."-[.i\'iltc, lly J/r. 1#rn,111r.]
1 Del11.
'.Add "although he was a zeeident of his (the king"s) vibAra."
" open ball,"
"ca118ed the eyes to be aet with two aoellent jewels ; also the halo, the creat,
and the curled hair to be thickly studded wii.h blue aappbires. He made etrerinp
also of an excellent band of gold, an ' u1>oaloma ' ~rnament (repn,aenting
the curled hair on the forehead of Buddha), a golden robe, a net-work for
the feat, a lotu, an ucellent lamp, aud olotba of dive111 colQun without number.
At the Bahumaugala o6ti,a he built image-ho111e11, and added images of the Bodhl111,tt,u to the ICi.laaela (" Black atone') sta.tue of the Muter, To the Rt.atue of the
Lozd of the world, called Upaaumbha, he made a halo and oreat, and aliio to the
statue of Buddha called A.bhiseka the ornaments aforementioned,"
"surrounded with walb oaJled the Dlutur,ji, and built."
"of a tooth-relic casket and a halo (circlet),"
"golden lotUlleB ll8t with a pzofusion of preoious atones."

oHAPT&B xxxvm.


the enoloBiag wall of the edilloe to be beautifully pJatered. At the three

principal 'tiyu. having had the white plastering renewed, he made a golden
"cbatta " for each, u well as a " oambata " of glaaa.
On the llahbilmra being deatroyed by the impious MahWna, the priest.a
of the Dbammaruoi aeot had settled at the cetiya mountain. Being
duirou, of nbuiltling, and co'tftrring on tAe t"'ravdda priute ( tA, opponente
of tl,uclai,matica), tAe A mbaUhala "iluira ( at tAe Ctitiga mountain), anti hi"lt
al,o ,olicited by IAem to tl&aC effect, tAe monarch butowsd it on tl&em.
Having celebraud afutitJOJ. in lao1IOW' qf t1&e "Dtitluidatu" relic at th, dlidication qf a nietaZ tliala, la, 1eept up offering, (of rice), prepared from lffl
amwaama ofgrain; and, lilM unto tlae unaurpa,aed Dltammaa61.-a',, conatructing
ill~ houau both within and without tluJ cnpital, 1uJ made offering, to tlaoatJ image,
of BwltJlta alao. Wko is IAel'fJ, who i11 able, bg a wrbal tkacription aloiM, to NI
forth in dWJ ortkr all hi, pious tkl, I
NOTB.-For the remainder of this Chapter see Part n., pagea:1:xi:1:-mii.

1 .Abha)'llgiri fraternity;
" HaviJll' repaired the Ambattha.la. vihara (at the Cetiy~ mountain) the king
wu de11irom of oonforriJll' it on the Th6ravada brethren (the M~vihua fra,
ternity), but beiDI' entnated by them (the Dha.mmaruoia) he gave it to them
(allowed them to retain it.)"
" He oaueed an oval ciatern of bronze to be made for the aervioe of the relics ;
and JDllde provision for the giviJll' of alllll out of twenty &mUDalllll of flelda,
This king, with whom none but Dhammlaob could compare, builtand dedioated
templ and imageB both imide and 011G11ide the city. Who oan ct.oribe in detail
all the good cleedl that he had done 7 It is only a mere 011tline that hu been aet
fmt.11. 1utre."