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Marcus Louis ison


What is a drug??
About drugs
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional
support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed

via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue, causes a

physiological change in the body.In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical
drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance
used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote wellbeing. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from
medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic
synthesis.Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or
on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classesgroups of
related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same
mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related
mode of action, and that are used to treat the same
disease.verification needed The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical
Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification
system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric
code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system.
Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics
Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their
solubility and permeability or absorption properties.
Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function
of the central nervous system, altering perception, mood or
consciousness. They include alcohol, a depressant (and a stimulant in
small quantities), and the stimulants nicotine and caffeine. These
three are the most widely consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide
and are also considered as recreational drugs since they are used for
pleasure rather than medicinal purposes. Other recreational drugs
include hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and some of these
are also used in spiritual or religious settings. Some drugs can cause
addiction and all drugs can have side effects. Excessive use of
stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs
are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on
Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition.


Heroin-As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to

seizures, psychosis, and hallucinations when it is

abused. Heroin injections can also spread diseases
such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis.
This drug is known to cause serious health issues
when it is abused because it interferes with the brains
receptors. Users can become physically dependent on
it very quickly, requiring them to take more and more
to achieve the same high, but too much heroin can lead
to a fatal overdose. Individuals who take heroin always
require professional rehabilitation because the
symptoms of withdrawal may be life-threatening.


Cocaine-Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant

even when taken in small amounts. It induces euphoria,

increases blood pressure, and accelerates the heart
rate. The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart
attacks for some users. The abuse of cocaine is also
known to cause financial, legal, and physical issues.
Due to the severe consequences of using cocaine,
users require immediate professional treatment.

Crack-A potent form of cocaine, crack is often

smoked and suddenly creates an intense euphoric

sensation for a short while. Crack has turned into a
problem because it is cheap and easy to buy and use.
Abusing the substance, however, can lead to
immediate addiction. Abusers are also at risk of
suffering heart attacks and strokes with every use.
Long-term use can cause liver, kidney, and lung
damage. Abusers must seek help in rehabilitation
facilities because the withdrawal symptoms are


Hallucinogens-PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are

hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and hear things that are not real.
While they experience hallucinations with these drugs, users lose touch with reality and enter

mental states of disconnection, as if their bodies and

minds are not working together or connected. Some
users of PCP and LSD enter violent states of psychosis.
Serious injury could occur while hallucinating on these
substances, which have caused permanent neurological
damage in cases of repeated abuse. Withdrawing from
hallucinogens is not easy, and abusers will need
professional treatment in a rehab facility.


Amphetamines-Accelerating the users bodily and

mental functions, amphetamines can cause manic

periods of distress in abusers. These periods are usually
accompanied by extreme paranoia, inexplicable behavior,
and delusions. Some amphetamine abusers become very
violent and attack loved ones unintentionally and could
suffer permanent physical changes in appearance,
irreversible brain damage, and nerve damage.
Amphetamines are harsh, dangerous drugs, and users
need medical attention and safe rehabilitation in
professional facilities.


Marijuana-Marijuana is the most common illegal drug

that is abused, and many people begin using it as a

recreational drug in social situations. Continued abuse of
marijuana can lead to addiction, and the substance can
affect the physical coordination, memory, and mental
functions of users over time. Some users have even lost
relationships, jobs, and homes because they abused the
drug. While it is easy to abuse marijuana, it is not easy to
stop using it, so professional treatment is very important
to refrain from abuse.


Alcohol-Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and social problems, and it

can lead to the destruction of relationships, friendships, and marriages. A lot of alcohol
abusers drink so much that their bodies are unable to handle it. Sometimes this requires that
they are hospitalized for alcohol poisoning. Abusing alcohol over a long period can result in
irreparable heart and liver damage and may lead to the drinkers being arrested for driving
under the influence, public intoxication or other law-related issues. Furthermore, alcohol

abuse can lead to injury or death to the people

around them while they are under the influence.
Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of
delirium tremens, which is a symptom with the
potential to trigger heart failure or stroke.
8. Inhalants-Inhalants are not technically in the
category of narcotics, but people abuse them
and can become addicted to them over time.
Some of the substances that are considered
inhalants include spray paint, butane, and
nitrous oxide that they can inhale to achieve a
high. Inhalants cause euphoric and numb
feelings for a brief while, so repetitive use is
common. It is very risky to abuse inhalants
because they could lead to permanent brain
damage or sudden death. Users must stop
inhaling the substances before damage occurs.

9. Prescription Drugs-The second-most commonly

abused drugs are prescriptions, including everything
from anti-anxiety medications to sedatives and ADHD
pills to anti-seizure medications. The abuse of
prescription painkillers such as Vicodin and
Oxycodone during recovery from injuries is also very
common. Abuse of prescription medications can be
very dangerous if the abusers do not seek treatment.

What Is a Drug Addiction?Addiction is a chronic, often

relapsing brain disease. It causes compulsive drug
seeking and use despite harmful consequences to the
addicted person as well as the people around that person.
The abuse of drugs -- even prescription drugs -- leads to
changes in the structure and function of the brain.

Effects of drug abuse-he

psychological effects of drug
addiction come from the
reason the user is addicted
to drugs, as well as the
changes that take place in
the brain once a person
becomes a drug addict. ...
Other psychological effects
of drug addiction include: 3.
Wild mood swings, depression, anxiety, paranoia,
Drug use hurts the people who
take drugs AND the people
around them, including
families, kids, and babies who
aren't yet born. Drug use hurts
the body and the brain,
sometimes forever. ... the link
between drug use and
HIV/AIDS.he effects of drug
abuse are wide ranging and affect people of all ages. Besides
addiction, drug abuse is linked to a variety of health problems,
including HIV/AIDS, cancer, heart disease, and many more. It is
also linked to homelessness, crime, and violence. Thus, addiction
is costly to both individuals and society.

Disease cause of Drugs

Drug addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that
causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful

consequences to the drug addict and those around them. Drug

addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to
changes in the structure and function of the brain.
Drug addiction is a brain disease. Although
initial drug use might be voluntary, drugs of
abuse have been shown to alter gene
expression and brain circuitry, which in turn
affect human behavior. Once addiction
develops, these brain changes interfere with
an individuals ability to make voluntary
decisions, leading to compulsive drug
craving, seeking and use.The impact of
addiction can be far reaching. Cardiovascular
disease, stroke, cancer, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis,
and lung disease can all be affected by drug
abuse. Some of these effects occur when
drugs are used at high doses or after
prolonged use, however, some may occur
after just one use.For more information on
how various drugs of abuse affect different parts of the body, select an option on the left.The material
in this section can be used freely without permission, with the exception of any text or graphics that
are followed by source information. In those instances, please contact the source name provided to
obtain permission.

How to Prevent Drug Addiction

You recognize that you cannot use drugs and alcohol like others and that you may need
treatment and ongoing support to prevent relapse. Is it possible to prevent drug addiction
altogether? Anything is possible, but if you are
predisposed genetically to addiction your chances are
greater for developing an addiction. This means that if
drug or alcohol addiction runs in your family, then you
too may be at risk for the development of addiction.

Society may try to prevent drug addiction through

education, but if you are already struggling with
substance abuse then you may need treatment to
prevent continued use and consequences. If you are
looking at this page, you probably are questioning
whether or not you have a problem with substance
abuse. In that case, you may need substance abuse
treatment rather than trying to reverse the snowball of

Steps to Help Prevent a Developing Addiction

The best tool against developing an addiction is avoiding drug or alcohol use in the first place.
But thats easier said than done. Many people begin using as young as age 13 and are too
young to realize the damaging impact addiction will have on their lives. If you are lucky to
have recognized the addiction
pattern early, then follow these
steps to prevent developing an

Understand How Alcohol and

Drug Addiction Develops. Alcohol
and drug addiction starts by:
Using addictive drugs (illicit or
prescribed) for recreational
Abusing an addictive prescription
Seeking out intoxication every time you use.
If You Have a Drug or Alcohol Abuse Problem, Get Help Now. Alcohol and drug abuse and
alcohol and drug addiction are defined differently. A person who uses heavily and then can
abruptly stop is considered to be abusing alcohol or drugs. But addiction occurs when the
body requires the alcohol or drugs to stop withdrawal symptoms. The line between abuse and
addiction is not solidly defined because a person may be abusing alcohol and drugs and
experiencing the negative consequences of addiction.
Avoid Temptations and Peer Pressure. You may have heard the expression, Youre only as
good as the company you keep, and in reality, that statement is true. If you have friends or
family members who pressure you to use alcohol or drugs, avoid them. Make new friends who
practice healthier habits, who do well in school, who are motivated at work and who have
goals.Develop goals and dreams for yourself. Remember, alcohol or drug use can turn to
addiction rapidly; no one plans on becoming a drug addict or alcoholic. While in active
addiction, the only goal possible is to get drugs or alcohol to feed the addiction. Regardless of
whether it is abuse or addiction with drugs or alcohol, both require professional addiction
treatment.Find the Support You Need. People struggling with emotional distress are at greater
risk for developing an addiction to drugs or alcohol if they have not developed coping skills. If
you have events or experiences in your past that affect your feelings, find a reliable and
healthy source of support.If you have depression, anxiety, paranoia or other mental health
problems, counseling or therapy and social communities such as religious or spiritual
organizations can help you work through negative emotions and behaviors in a healthy, lifeaffirming manner. Remember that alcohol and drugs in combination with mental health

disorders only make the mental health problem worse. Dont try to self-medicate your feelings
or physical discomfort.Practice Healthier Living Habits. Exercise, eating well and meditation
are excellent ways to avoid using drugs or alcohol. Quite often, the results you feel from living
a healthier lifestyle can help you resist the temptation to use drugs or alcohol to escape. A
healthy body helps you cope with daily stress. If
you have practiced living healthy and managing
stress, a trauma can more easily be
managed.Addiction specialists can advise you
about addiction to drugs or alcohol, mental health
issues and the combination of the two. This
information can help you prevent drug addiction.
Family-based drug or alcohol prevention plans are
also highly effective at helping children avoid the
temptations of drugs or alcohol