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` Hist 108 Final Study Guide

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1. In his classical article The Structure of Thinking in Technology, Skomilowski,
discusses the differences between science and technology. What are his main criteria in
differentiating between science and technology?
Sample Answer:
Skomilowskis criteria in differentiating between science and technology are
based on the different functions of science and technology in humans interaction with
nature, and different philosophical foundations of science and technology. In science we
discover natures laws, express them in a mathematical way, find the relationship
between natural phenomena and explain them, and finally enlarge our knowledge about
the universe. [Give an Example, and explain in a few sentences]. Technology, however,
is not a tool to increase our knowledge about nature. In technology we produce artifacts,
and we provide means for constructing objects according to our specifications. In other
words, science concerns itself with what is, but technology concerns itself with what is to
be.
On the other hand, while progress in science is based on new discoveries,
technological progress is based on producing better objects of the same kind efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity, speed or rate of function, reliability, durability, lower
cost, or combination. Science aims at enlarging our knowledge through devising better
and better theories; technology aims at creating new artifacts through devising means of
increasing effectiveness. [Give an Example and explain in a few sentences. Any example
from pre-modern or modern era is fine]
Science examples: Galileo, Netwons Laws, Ensteins relativity
Tech. examples: telephone, automobile,
2. Discuss the development of missile machines from simple bows to the trebuchet in terms
of the technological progress.
NOTE: Progress = better = more durable, reliable, sensitive, faster
1. Bow and Arrow:

a. had restricted power due to: stiffness of bow, length of draw, human limitations
(About 100 lbs).
b. There was progress in range and penetrating power by strengthening the bow
2. Gastrophetes (the one you hump into the ground):
a. Increased power and range more by allowing use of more powerful back muscles
in addition to arm muscles.
3. Bow-catapult:
a. Larger and more powerful since they were stand-mounted and spanned by winch
(crank+handle=leverage). Similar to gastrophetes.
b. Restricted by limited elasticity of the bow (horn or wood) (it can break).
c. 4th century were supplemented with Torsion catapults (more elastic) (used
tightly twisted skeins of hair or sinew). Had pulleys. Two types:
i.
Euthytonon - arrow shooting
ii.
Palintonon - stone throwing
d. Bottlenecks (limits): more powerful = too big and heavy, torsion changed with
atmospheric humidity
4. Trebuchet (revolutionary):
a. Used gravity and angular momentum (more powerful with simpler design = more
faster + reliable).

3. Technology may be defined as purposeful human manipulation of the material world. It


consists of four components. Using the example of the Greek Fire explain those
components.
Four components: These are significant because they were
compartmentalized for secrecy (separate people worked on each component).
1. Matter
Definition: Matter is transformed in some way by exerting power on it
through the medium of some tool or machine using a technique. In the
case of Greek fire, the formula provides only the matter.
Formula = naphtha + quicklime (hydrophobic) + saltpeter (Explosive)
2. Power
The fire
3. A Tool or Machine
Hero's Pneumatica and Vitruvius's De architectura would have provided
enough information to design the caldron, pipes, and siphon. The second
Greek fire tool was the grenade.
4. Technique

The technique itself would have been a secret of almost as much


sophistication as the formula, for without pressure gauges and safety
valves it was surely a delicate task to heat
and pressurize a highly volatile liquid in dark and cramped quarters below
deck in combat without accident.
Technological transfer cannot occur without having all four components together.

4. Explain why technology transfer cannot occur without having all components together.
In this regard, how do you connect secrecy to technology?
NOTE: Components = 1)matter, 2)power, 3)tool/machine, 4)technique
Technology can only function as a system of components. If any component is missing, it
can not be used effectively.
Example: The Bulgars in 814 captured some 36 siphons and a considerable
quantity of Greek fire, but there is no evidence that they knew what to do with it
(they did not have the technique).
Greek fire was a weapon system (formula, cauldron, siphon, ship, crew) made up
of the 4 components of technology.
By using compartmentalized knowledge, the Greeks kept it a secret, also United
States atomic bomb in WWII used this.
Secrecy allows the inventor to prosper, thus develop more technology (papyrophobic).
One could argue that secrecy promotes technological progress.
Leonardo Da Vinci used backwards writing to keep his secrets + allow his success
Therefore, Secrecy is connected with technology through the incompleteness of the
technological system and restricted knowledge
In the 9th century, chaos of succession to the golden throne disrupted the
transmission of the complete secret of Greek Fire forever.
Other attempts to make the fire were never as good as the original

5. A level of pursuit called modus operandi has been defined in the long process from the
theory to practice. Using an example explain this important level.
The third type is the modus operandi level, which is represented by the scientist with an
interest in the solution of the problems presented by the task of getting from theory to practice.

Example
A good example of the modus operandi level is furnished by the activities and the
scientists concerned with making the first atomic bombs. Hahn and Strasmann
discovered in 1938 that neutrons could split the nuclei of uranium. Einstein and
Planck had earlier produced the requisite theories, but it was Enrico Fermi, Lise

Meitner, and others who worked out the method of getting from relativity and
quantum mechanics to bombs which could be made to explode by atomic fission.

6. In technology we try to make better objects of the same kind. What do we mean by the
term better? Give a historical example.
Better
More Durable
More Reliable
More Sensitive
Faster in performing function
Or a combination of all of the above
Example
Henry Ford and his Model T
In, 1908 before introducing the assembly line, Henry Ford made 10,607
Model Ts, $830 each.
He shifted to an assembly line in 1913 and production rose to 300,000 cars
a year.
In 1916 he sold 730,041 Model Ts for $360
In 1924 he produced 2 two million cars of the cars retailing at $290 each

Example 2
Simple Bows Trebuchet

7. What is cross-field applications in science and applied science? Give an example.


Definition: applications: the employment of the practical effects of one science in those
of another.
science usually work upward in fields
corresponding to the integrative levels of the sciences.
Combination achieves more than either part separately
Has accelerated advancement in western culture in the fields of industry, health,
government,and war
Example: Scintilation counters - from physical research - has been used to
measure rate that thyroid gland removes iodine from blood, measure the natural
radioactivity of the body; to determine the extent of ingested radioactive
compounds in the body; to assay the radioactive iron in blood samples.
AGRICULTURE

8. What were the main economic, scientific, technological and cultural consequences of the
establishment of the agriculture-based societies?
A. Economic
a. Exchange of goods and creation of roads
B. Scientific
a. Invention of mathematics
b. Invention of calendar (astronomy)
C. Technological
a. Irrigation
b. Cities
c. Monuments. Examples: Stonehenge in England, Temple of Malta, Pyramid
building, Ziggurats
D. Cultural
a. Invented religions
b. Literatures. Example Epic of Gilgamesh out of Ancient Sumeria about King Uruk
c. Philosophies

9. What were the main sources of mechanical power in pre-modern era? What were their
advantages and limitations?
Levers:

Wedge, Screw, Compound pulley, Wheel&Axle, Inclined Plane


Spring

Bow&arrow, catapult
Windmill = wind or water
Advantage of natural energy = free source, simple make&use
Disadvantages = transfer of energy - must be really close to source

THE ABOVE IS ALL WRONG (with the exception of the windmill). A source of power is not the same as
a labor-saving machine.

Sources of mechanical power:


Manpower
Animal power
Windmill and waterwheel
Advantages/disadvantages:
Manpower - man is limited in strength, but many men together can be strong
Animal power - beasts of burden are stronger than man, still limited in ability
Windmill and waterwheel - can generate lots of usable (free) power, but must
be immediately used and wheels must be built in certain areas which can limit use

10. How do you evaluate the role of Islamic civilization in the history of the Middle Ages?
Islamic Civilizations were essential to the expansion of knowledge and educational
reform throughout Europe and brought about many technological advances.
During the House of Wisdom period in muslim countries they translated
original Latin texts to Arabic. Their recording of all these texts allowed for
preservation of philosophers work from the hellenistic age (much of the original
observation based science concepts like the works of Aristotle) which allowed
for the Translation Movement to occur in 12th century europe where they
translated from Arabic back to the original languages.
1. Survival Technologies for low water environments
a. Qanats, Dams, Noria for irrigation and water transport
b. Persian windmill
c. Spinning wheel first appeared in Iran
2. Fine Technology/Prestige Technology
a. Gardens
i.
Fountains, pumps, water jets
b. Astronomy
i.
Astrolabes, map making tools, clocks
c. Early Automata (Banu Musa Brothers, al-Jazari: book on Mechanical
Devices)
Translation movement - 8th - 10th centuries, House of Wisdom in Bagdad
Almost all Hellenic and Hellenistic texts translated to Arabic
Muslim scholars wrote numerous commentaries explaining and/or
criticizing these works
Solved difficult mathematical equations, developed trigonometry, built
observatories and hospitals
Islamic civilization combined three advantages which were very important in the
Middle Ages:
Provided direct contact with the far east
Preserved Greek materials in science and technology
Pursuit of scientific inquiry
11. Where did the earliest civilizations establish and why? What were the social, economic,
and cultural consequences of the transition from food-gathering to horticulture and
intensified agriculture?
First Civilizations:
Mesoamerica, and Andian region, mesopotamia, Nile valley, Indus river region,
huang ho river region

Distinguish from Neolithic Villages by tasks other than farming


Why? REGULAR FOOD SURPLUS, periodic floods near rivers
Social Outcomes: tasks other than farming:
religious, political, or military leaders. Some were warriors, artisans, and
merchants. And others were servants to the elites or upper classes.
Instead of slaves, they obeyed and worked together to please gods
Centralized political authority & complex bureaucracies to manage surpluses
Developed writing
Example:
6000 years ago, a people called Sumerians began separating land from water and
planting crops in the newly reclaimed wetlands rather than relying on rainwater as
Neolithic farmers had done. In doing so, they created the first civilization
12. There are various theories concerning the methods of delivering construction materials
to the higher levels (courses) in the building process of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Based
on what facts does Martin Isler (in his article On Pyramid Building) reject those theories?
What is his idea and based on what critical facts does he build his own theory?
Linear or spiral ramp is impractical:
1.The building material available would not
support a linear ramp to the height required.
2. The linear ramp may require more time to
construct than the pyramid itself.
3. Any form of spiral ramp requires step-like casing stone for support. Instead,
evidence indicates the casing was cut to rough angle
when placed, affording no purchase for the
ramp on the angled face of a pyramid.
4. It would be extremely difficult to maneuver
large blocks around the many corners created
by a spiral ramp.
5. Any enlargement of the pyramid (as is some- timesthecase)
wouldrequireeitherthelinear
or the spiral ramp to be disassembled and
rebuilt.
6. Both the linear ramp with its accompanying foothold embankments and the
spiral ramp would envelope the pyramid as it rises, preventing accurate alignment
of its faces.
His Theory: Skim

over pictures in On Pyramid Building II

Another way of building a stepped structure,is shown in figures8, 9, and 10. It


may consist of a central core of horizontally laid courses, sur- rounded by a series
of inclined or accretion layers.
Use of external steps to reach each stage of the nucleus
A sighting mast at top level
Stepped nucleus with added angled faces
Moved only By hand or ropes or levering system
Critical Facts:
When the Egyptians formed their first mud brick and used it as a building block,
logically they could be used at steps
Monument builders learned and shared same techniques as predecessors (all
pyramids are note unique)
Method was changed from accretion layered to horizontally stepped (more
efficient maybe)
Limited technology. But good organization

13. According to Roland (in his article: Greek Fire and Defense) science is
papyrophilic, and technology is papyrophobic. Explain these terms based a specific
example.
Science is a papyrophilic enterprise
predicated on the early and complete publication of knowledge.
Publication is the only mechanism of scientific advancement.
Technology is Papyrophobic
Practitioners prosper by keeping their secrets to themselves
Passing on knowledge through apprenticeship
limiting the spread of information through guild restrictions
Preventing at all costs the publication of their techniques.
Example of Papyrophobic
Examples include Leonardo da Vinci who wrote in reverse writing to protect his
inventions.
Samuel Colt protected his naval mine design by applying for a patent and obtaining
confirmation of originality, but withdrawing it before patent
specifications could be published.
Example of papyrophilic-Scientific journals
-Publication of experiment results

14. Who were the main customers of Chinese iron production in pre-modern era? How did
they influence Chinese iron industry?
(Hebei + Henan provinces = iron and coal)
Military
Suits of armor, arrows heads (16 million/yr)
Buddhists
Bells, This influenced the development of casting techniques
Farmers
Ploughs and farm tools

15. How did the Chinese government (~ 1000 AD) interfere with agricultural innovation in
China, and what was the result?
(see question 21)
Since there was a large population in a small area they had to support the growing population
and the Chinese army; an innovation was needed. The government did some land reclamation
schemes but the biggest interference was the introduction of new types of rice from Champa. It
was a fast growing rice that could be planted early and have time for a second crop to be planted
and it could be grown on land where water was limited. So the Chinese government was the first
to employ research and development.
16. Why did writing, mathematics and astronomy develop in agriculture-based societies?
(similar to #8)
Successful agriculture itself depends on accurate timekeeping over long periods of
time. The best way to keep keep track of time was to observe the movement of
celestial bodies. The need for a reliable agricultural system translated into very
sophisticated astronomical models.
Mathematics developed in agriculture based society due to the need to survey land,
and take correct measurements. The surveying was required every year in order to
make sure the proper taxes were paid among other reasons. Mathematics is directly
related to agriculture based societies
17. What is tool/technology complex? Give a historical example.
(Tool/Technology complex is the makeup of tools/technology in a certain region during a
given time period. From the slides, Iran, Iraq, North China, South China, etc.) In these
regions different technologies and tools were used to harness energy, control flooding,
or plant types of crops.

Iran & Iraq: irrigated agriculture


North China: consisted of gears, pulleys, dams, spinning wheel, water wheel,
engineering works consisted of large scale flood control works and canals
Comparing to south east asia at the same time employed more basic technologies

18. How do you describe the Buddhist technology? What were the components of it? What
was its influence on the development of technology?
Mostly prestige technology,
Bells
Statues - bronze buddha 13m tall, 380 tons
Metal structures
Bridge construction / repair
Printing
Technological Development:
Iron - smelting, casting, usefulness of different alloys, other forming techniques,
iron working
Printing - paper making, inks
Civil engineering: building of roads and bridges
19. The Mongol invasions of Persia and the Islamic territories had a deep influence in their
technology. Describe the technological ramifications of those invasions. Also discuss the
technological exchanges occurred during that period.
Influence:
Damages to irrigation canals, qanats led to declines in food production and
population, social turbulence.
Scholars, scientists, engineers migrated west to avoid enslavement/death.
Technological ramifications:
Decline in progress
Destructive effects in learning, technology
Destruction of libraries, educational institutions, observatories, irrigation systems
Spread of some technologies - stirrup/harness making, spinning wheel
Technological Dialogue:
May have been numerous minor inventions

Once the winding wheel was known some form of the spinning wheel may have
been suggested in the minds of people in quite different places
20. How do you describe the term fine technology? What were the main categories of fine
technology in the Islamic period? Why?
Fine Technology is similar to prestige technologies in that it is beyond basic survival
technologies, however fine technologies are more complex mechanisms.
1. Gardens
a. Fountains, pumps, water jets
2. Astronomy
a. Astrolabes, map making tools, clocks
3. Early Automata (Banu Musa Brothers, al-Jazari: book on Mechanical Devices)
These specific fine technologies arose out of the dreams and desires of people with money in
Islamic territories. Most land in Islamic territories was very dry (needed things such as quanants
to retrieve what little water they could get) so water and growing lots of plants was a big luxury.
Because of their desire for oasis like lands people built gardens and fountains to materialize their
dreams.

21. What was the most vital agricultural project that the Chinese government started in the
10th century? Why did they start this project? What were the ramifications?
Early Chinese civilization had developed mainly in the northern part of the country, in the
Yellow River basin.
A movement of farmers to the warmer, wetter southern regions from about 700 AD.
After 907, this movement this trend was accelerated by raiding in the north.
By 1080, instead of the largest part of the Chinese population living in the Yellow River basin,
there were more than twice as many people in the south.
With the southern region being a smaller area of land, it had to feed both a growing
population and the army.
This resulted in a series of innovations in the rice growing areas, which culminated in
very high levels of farm output relative to the land resource available.
The government was active in this and attempted to increase the area under cultivation by
starting land reclamation schemes.
However, the most vital official project was the introduction of a new variety of rice from
Champa, in what is now Vietnam.
This was a quick growing rice which could be planted early, leaving time after it was
harvested for a second crop to grow.

One extra advantage was that it could be grown on land where there was an insufficient
water supply for ordinary rice.
Better ploughs with iron shares and mouldboards had been introduced before 880 AD.
There were also new handtools for weeding , better sickles, a winnowing machine for use after
threshing, and mills for husking and polishing the grain.

22. Give an approximate timetable and a pattern for the diffusion of paper-making (and
employment of water mills in paper making) from China to Europe. Why did the
technology of paper-making have such a rapid development in Europe?
Diffusion of paper:
1. China AD100
2. Central Asia 750
a. Entered the Islamic world after a battle in Central Asia between Chinese forces
and an Arab-led army
b. Chinese prisoners-or war skilled in paper making set up a workshop in
Samarqand, which led workmen to spread it to Baghdad
3. Islamic Countries 790
a.
Chinese paper was made for brushes not for pen
i.
Led to Baghdad making their paper with starch to achieve a
parchment-like surface
ii.
Books became more available which led to paper-making spreading west
b. Water-wheels driving the pulping process start in Baghdad first around 950 AD
4. Spain 1000
a.
Morocco army stabilizes the region allowing Islamic scholars to come,
along with their requirement and increasing demand for paper
5. Europe 1270
a. Paper making came from spain
6. Why did the tech. Of paper-making have such a rapid development in europe?
a.
There were many social and political institutions in Europe, a high demand for books.
There were also major disasters in Islamic areas and in China.
In Islam the act of writing the Quran by hand was regarded as a way to show devotion to
ones faith and printing never caught on. Also early on printing press inks contained alcohol so
they did not print with it and had to find other ink options.

23. What was the impact of Islamic culture on the textile industry? How do you explain the
impact of cultural factors on technology?
Islamic culture requires women to wear large amounts of clothing, this led to the
production of more textile, thus pushing the industry forward.
The heat in some regions required textiles to be made of other lighter less insulating
materials allowing women to cover up without getting heat stroke
Cultural factors play a large role in technology. Examples include: china primarily
being buhddist required large amounts of Iron for bells and Statues.
Islamic lands never produced wine on an industrial scale because of cultural factors
Islamic and jewish cultures never produced a meat industry based on pork or pigs
because they did not eat it.
Islamic prayers required implementation of science to know where and when to
pray

24. For two main reasons, the arrival of Europeans on the mainland of Central America in
the first half of the 16th century led to a disaster. What were the main cultural and
technological consequences of the presence of Europeans in the Central America?
Brought iron, the wheel, the pulley, horses to civilizations that didnt have them
The steep decline in population, and demoralization by conquest, led to decline in
native language and religion

25. What were the main goals behind the development of Automata? List at least 4 reasons,
and explain each.
1. Materialize dreams of man
2. Simulate nature
a. Philosopher engineers wanted to analyze the clockwork of the universe
and understand gods creation and rules. Descartes saw the universe as
matter in motion and wanted to replicate its mechanisms.
3. Domesticate nature
4. Imitate life
5. Control nature
6. Extend mans power over nature

26. Why were astronomical motions so important in the development of automata? Why
did they need to simulate astronomical motions? What was the scientific and technological
impact of astronomical automata?
There was an obvious, regular, orderly connection between the relative position of
celestial bodies and the seasons, so predicting these positions meant more effectively managing
crops. Therefore, the need to simulate astronomical motions was born from the need to predict
seasons and lengths of days for agricultural reasons, to determine when to plant and when to
harvest.
Impact:
Agricultural success
Improved navigation
Calendars
Rituals
The rise of biological automata
Science/technology:
Astronomy, biology, etc
Telescopes, microscopes, etc...

27. For what reasons does Lewis Mumford claim that the mechanical clock was the key
machine of the modern industrial age? Explain each criterion he uses in his argument.
The ambition of inventors was unlimited, their imagination boundless, but of all the
extraordinary machines they conceived and sometimes built, one above all symbolizes the
inventiveness of the age: the mechanical clock.
Lewis Mumfords views on the role of the clock in the evolution of Western Europe:
The clock, not the steam engine, is the key machine of the modern industrail ago. . . at
the very beginning of modern techniques appeared prophetically the accurate automatic
machine:
In its relationship to determinable quantities of energy,
to standardization,
to automatic action,
and finally to its own special product, accurate timing
The clock has been the foremost machine in modern technics: and at each period it has
remained in the lead: it marks a perfection towards which other machines aspire

28. For what reasons did the Chinese lose their technical knowledge of clock making after
the 11th century? Explain each factor.
Clock making was seen as secret technology. Like the coca cola recipe, only a few
people knew exactly how to make clocks. This technological know-how was
eventually lost when the ones who knew how to make them died. (Much like greek
fire) kept secret because technology is papyrophobic
Calendar making and clock making were national secrets, though they had writings
about these procedures, they were not able to be replicated.
Back to back wars cause those who knew the coca cola recipe, to die, resulting in
the loss of crucial components of the assembly/ingredients of the procedure.

29. According to Gimpel, while men in the Middle Ages trained in the liberal arts were not
well versed in mechanisms powered by hydraulic energy, they had a great deal of say in the
mechanisms of astronomical clocks. Why?
While men in Middle Ages trained in the liberal arts had no say in mechanisms powered by
hydraulic energy, they had a great deal of say in the mechanisms of astronomical clocks. Here
was a case where academic science and technology worked hand in hand
This close collaboration between astronomers of the liberal arts and technologists of
the mechanical arts is exceptional in history.
It was the combination of both liberal arts and mechanical arts the produced such great
clocks.
Technologists could get the time of day right, but it was the astronomers that were
relied on to get the orbits of multiple celestial bodies right

30. What is the organization in production and how did this concept appear and found its
way into technology? Based on at least two historical examples explain the first
applications of the systematic division of labor.
Notes:
Comes from Solomon house, Francis bacon
People do jobs based on expertise
Beginning of specialization in science
Before Math, designer, architect, physician all done by one person
Originated from Bacon's philosophy
In 17th century
Time of big journeys
Maps

Bacons method
Leave simple jobs to some people- gather data
Then someone else Translate data
Translate data to maps
Military is another example
Example of mapping Ireland from lecture
Connect to Francis bacon and compartmentalization of labor

31. Why are the astronomical clockwork and biological automata assumed to be
complementary to each other? How do you evaluate the ideas of Rene Descartes in this
regard?
Notes:
Macrocosm- entire universe
Order and law in the universal landscape
Clockwork created by God
Micro - living that have completely different in the physical world that have
different levels of creation, reproduction, methods of creating that the physical
world could not do
Beyond order and law in the physical world that we see in living organisms
makers of automata wanted to simulate what the saw in micro
Created in God's image
Intellectual being
Both cases you need to simulate these categories
Descartes
Matter in motion
Thought that despite all animals are machines
Exception was the human brain
All can be created except mankind using machines
Because humans have something outside physical , but
spiritual
Others believe in to explain like and intelligence you need something
beyond physical
Role was to describe everything physical, but viewed the human brain
could not be explained
Everything was some mechanical system that is global except the human
brain
Only mankind is able to think philosophical
Bugs and animals are just programming

Complementary - but both appear in the same universe, hence


complementary
Physical - no soul
Biological - has soul and life

3 2. From 1500 to 1750 population almost doubled in many parts of Europe and Asia.
Compare and contrast the technological and economic ramifications of this population
increase in China and Europe. Why did the Chinese economy encounter serious problems?
What was the situation in England? What was the British approach to employ labor saving
technologies? Why?
Notes:
Tech is directly connected to society and administration
In china we had a admin based on a single person, emperor,
Transfer of information was vertical from the base up
Every scientific entity had to align with single power
In England we had a distribution of power
Multiple cities, courts, universities
Everyone has their own contributions
Kind of democracy was open to new works and concepts, as opposed
to china and Islamic nations which were more closed
Why parliament?

When pop doubled in china food production, security,


Needed infrastructure provided by the government
Any change in infrastructure was formed in a way that bureaucracy
slowed decision and subsequent implementation
This was not a problem in Europe
Everything had to move through one office
Ex. University
Syllabus change if done alone could take a week while if the
president was asked to verify it would definitely take longer
Rulers viewed people as slaves in a way because they did not care as much about what the
people wanted
Example textile industry in England used aspects of tech from many nations and
combined them to dominate that industry

Example soviet union, before they produced their of aircraft now they buy them
from us
Red experts hired talented people to build (vertical)
Horizontal - leave scientists alone to find their own way

33. Explain Galileos major achievements in the science of mechanics.


Galileo tried to understand how motion occurred and how to express it in a
mathematical way. Galileo introduced the strength of material - physical and chemical
properties which helped bolster the industrial revolution by having a better understanding
of the materials used in machines.

34. Why is Newton considered as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution? How did he
impact the course of science and technology?
Newton opened the way to find basic laws that mankind did not and could not find
before (e.g. thermodynamics).

35. Bacon argues that there are four major hindrances to the advancement of science and
technology. Describe these hindrances. Why are they called idols? Do you think of any
contemporary Idols of the Theater that Bacon might identify if he were writing today?
1. Tribe - Limitations of the human mind and body
2. Theatre- Intellectual systems that control our thoughts
3. Cave- Limitations imposed by education and society
4. Marketplace- Ambiguities resulting from the nature of language
Idols are items meant to represent the heavens and powers beyond humans but are
created by humans. They are called Idols because they seem to be unwavering rules but
they were created because of man not god.
Modern day Idols of Theater could include social media, new sources, education
systems in general. Generally instances where information is being spoon fed rather than
presented with skepticism and a critical eye.
Not going beyond limitations just finding an answer without thinking and going
beyond the text.
36. What is Solomon's House, and how does Bacon describe the organization of this
scientific institute? What are the goals behind the establishment of this imaginary science
institute?

Background: bacon in the 1600s. A time with innovation and discoveries in science. New
concepts arrived. Standard universities didn't have it in the curriculum. By 1610 and 1620s
new discoveries and the new science.
Aristotle. Bacon introduced syllogism from individuals to a general rule.
Goals: promote experimental philosophy
Where is this Solomons house in the readings? I cant find it anywhere in the lecture
slides, or the pdfs he uploaded. It was in the Cardwell article. Pg. 80
From the Cardwell article:
... Furthermore, in his posthumous New Atlantis, he suggested a specific
organization for the advancement of technics. In the utopia he described there was to be
an institution called Solomons House, the purpose of which was to realize the goals that
Bacon had described in his earlier works:
For the several employments and offices of our fellows: we have twelve
that sail into foreign countries, under the names of other nations, for our own we
conceal, who bring us the books and abstracts and patterns of experiments of all
other parts. These we call merchants of light.
We have three collect experiments which are in all books These we call
depredators. (etc)
In essence, Bacon described an institution whose purpose is the broad collection of
knowledge, with the localized function of the advancement in science and technics. The
organizational structure would be similar to that of craftsmen, with prestigious fellows
whose duties include experimentation, analysis, and invention, and novices and
apprentices performing lower-level function while being groomed for advancement.
from wikipedia:
fictional institution where Bacon portrays his vision of the future of human
discovery and knowledge
he envisioned the modern research university in both applied and pure science
from The Scientific Revolution:
For the several employments and offices of our fellows: we have twelve that sail
into foreign countries, under the names of other nations, for our own we conceal,
who bring us books and abstracts and patterns of experiments of all other parts.

these we call merchants of light. we have three that collect experiments which are in
all books. these we call depredators (81)
goal was to have 18 or more salaried fellows whose duties included experimental
investigations, assessing results and using the knowledge gained to make further
practical inventions
there were also novices and apprentices
seems very modern, like a large enterprise with overseas sales and technical
representatives, research and development department and policymaking executives
interestingly, duty of the largest group of Bacons fellows was to bring back useful
inventions from abroad