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Running head: Literature Review 2

Nicole Pivaro
Literature Review 2
TED 690
Dr. Hanover

Literature Review 2


This literature review is intended to summarize and compare a Northern

Michigan University thesis to TPE domain B. Originally there was no intention
of using a thesis because it was not a published article on an educational
website, but the information was so intriguing to me as a new educator and
backed by sufficient research and references that I chose to use it. The
thesis was written for a masters degree in Michigan in 2012 and includes
research conducted by the author and a partner and references research
from various published studies.
Two masters students collaborated on this thesis to research answers to the
two questions of: How can secondary social studies teachers use effective
differentiation practices to engage all learners while meeting standards?
and How can secondary social studies teachers plan thematic and
integrated thematic units to meet all mandated standards and engage
students in deep, meaningful, and relevant learning tasks? (Raikko, 2012,
9). The 45 pages of research are organized into 4 chapters covering
introduction, review of literature, results and analysis relative to the problem
and recommendations and conclusions. The article begins by polling the
most common instructional techniques in 58 social science classes,
concluding that Although secondary social studies teachers realize the
extent of academic diversity in their classrooms, they fall back on
dissemination of information through traditional teacher- led instruction

Literature Review 2

rather than student-centered approaches which respondents indicated they

see value in but fail to implement routinely (Raikko, 2012, 15). The author
then proceeds to identify teacher-polled reasons for lack of differentiated
instruction, his own research findings on school campuses and cites other
research to support these claims. Readers will find throughout the paper
advice from teachers deemed successful through qualitative data regarding
themes and practices for effective classrooms. The article ends with a
recommended set of differentiation practices and a lesson plan template
created by the author to facilitate differentiation in social science
This article is most helpful for new teachers or teachers looking for fresh
ideas on their current instructional practices. What makes this thesis reliable
is the research transparency. The author goes into detail on the research
techniques used by himself and a partner and mentions the research
techniques of studies that he cites. At one point he even errs caution on a
study due to the sample and time of day that evidence was collected. The
research provided from both struggling and successful social science
teachers is useful, but by far this papers conclusion and recommendations
page is the most useful. It contains 4 themes for implementing
differentiated instruction, the top 10 differentiated strategies with a
description, elements to consider when developing thematic units in social
science (versus chronological), extra lesson planning and instructional

Literature Review 2

technique websites and the authors own lesson plan template based off
their research with a 10th history class.
This is relevant to TPE 2 of domain B, monitoring student learning during
instruction. Examples of monitoring student learning include applying
multiple instructional techniques, differentiating lessons and highlight and
linking key concepts from the standards. This article provides readers with
practice instructional techniques that can be applied in the classroom and
provides research citing differentiated instruction as a positive factor to
student learning and engagement. To meet TPE 2, Candidates
use multiple measures for progress monitoring throughout instruction to
whether all students, including English learners and students with special
needs, are understanding content and making progress toward identified key
concepts from state-adopted academic standards (CTC, 11, 2013). This
article is a strong resource for instructional technique, but since the act of
instruction is the focus, there is not much mentioned on assessment or
progress monitoring in particular.

Literature Review 2


California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. (2008). Cal TPA Candidate

Handbook. Retrieved from http://www.ctc.ca.gov/educator-prep/TPAfiles/CandidateHandbook-AppendixA-TPEs.pdf on January 13, 2017.

Raikko, Blythe. (2012). Characters of Effective and Engaging Secondary

Social Studies Instruction in an Era of Rising Accountability for
Teachers and Students. (Unpublished dissertation). Northern Michigan
University, Marquette, MI.