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6/4 Switched Reluctance Motor Modeling using MATLAB

R. Saravana Kumar, R. Vignesh Prabhu

Abstract
Switched Reluctance Motors (SRMs) double salient structure makes its magnetic
characteristics highly nonlinear. The motor flux linkage appears to be a nonlinear function of
stator currents as well as rotor position, as does the generated electric torque. Apart from the
complexity of the model, the SRM should be operated in a continuous phase-to-phase switching
mode for proper motor control. The torque ripple and noise as a result of this commutation are
the other two awkward issues which have to be tackled. All these make the control of the SRM a
tough challenging. This Paper attempts to investigate the modeling of the switched reluctance
motor. From the 6/4 SRMs structure dimensions the motor was modeled using MagNet
(Infolytica Corporation) v6.1, Through Finite Element Method the motor parameters were
extracted and utilized in the Matlab v7.3 for simulation of the drive circuit. Apart from the
parameter extraction of SRM by FEM, this Paper focuses on specific model simulation of a 6/4
SRM using Matlab. Generic model limits the operation of the motor completely into its linear
flux region. The specific model attains its magnetic characteristics highly nonlinear. The motor
flux linkage appears to be a nonlinear function of stator currents as well as rotor position. So a
sophisticated model of SRM was obtained. Simulated results by using specific model supported
the IEEE reference papers results.
Keywords:

Switched

Reluctance

Motor,

nonlinear,

Modeling,

FEM,

Matlab.

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1. INTRODUCTION
The switched reluctance motor exhibits desirable features including simple construction, high
reliability and low cost. Recently, following the development of power electronics [1]-[5], the interest
in SRM has risen year after year, even though it also has some bad performance, for example low
power factor, large torque ripple and that the rotor position must be detected. So, the optimum design
of the SRM has not been clarified fully [3]. Several papers have reported on the analysis of SRM [6][11]. Most of the papers present only the static characteristics.
In this paper, we present a new method for modeling the SRM and for calculation of dynamic
characteristics of SRM. Based on this, the analysis of dynamic characteristics of SRM can be done
using MATLAB or general-purpose
circuit simulation program SPICE. The reluctance of SRM is variable following the rotor position;
the FEM analysis was applied to estimate the inductance depending on the rotor position. The
calculated results quantitatively agree with the experimental ones. For optimum design, however, it is
necessary to improve the preciseness of the calculated values. In this paper, a new method for SRM is
presented.
2. FUNDAMENTAL OPERATION
The schematic diagram of the SRM used in this paper was shown in Fig.1. The pole number of the
stator and the rotor are 6 and 4, respectively. The core material is MU3 and let the relative
permeability be 1000 [12]. Fig2 is the driving circuit of the SRM. A three phase transistor converter is
used for the circuit.

Fig.1 Structure of SRM

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Property

Attribute

Stator pole arc s

30 deg

Rotor polr arc r

32 deg

Stack length

100mm

No.of.windings/phase 1000turns
Table 1: SRM Dimension

Fig.2 SRM Drive Circuit


1.4
1.2

Inductance (H)

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

Rotor Position, (deg)

Fig.3 Inductance Vs Rotor Position Curve

2.1. Reluctance Estimation Using Magnetic Field Analysis


A FEM program, Magnet has been used for magnetic field analysis and the sweep distance is set to
100mm. Consider that only phase A has been excited when the rotor rotates by 90 deg. Now let the
rotor position be , which is 0deg when the rotor is in the aligned position relative to the phase A stator
pole as shown in fig.2.
Then we calculate the magnetic co energy from -30deg to +30deg on every single step. The winding
inductance of the phase A is maximum at =0deg and is minimum at =30deg.
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It is well known that the magnetic co energy and the reluctance can be related as equation (1).
W=1/2L ()i2

( 1)

Where w is the magnetic co energy, I is the exciting current, L() is the reluctance and is the rotor
position, So the reluctance can be obtained for every single degree from -30 deg to +30deg.The result
of the reluctance as a function of in the case of i = 2A is shown in fig.3.It can be obtained from fig.3
that the reluctance increases from (-30 deg to 0) negative degrees to zero, remains constant and
decreases with increasing and after =30 deg, the reluctance appears constant. The outcome of the
flux density is maximum at =0deg and is minimum at 30deg and are shown in fig.4. The curves in
fig.3 can be expressed with Fourier series and then we can analyze the operation of SRM based on the
circuit and motion equations.
2.2. Calculation of Torque
The torque is given by the inductance and exciting Current in equation (2).
=1/2i2dL()/d

(2)

From the above relation, reluctance torque occurs if we turn on the excitation current when the rotor
is in the position where dL()/d is positive. Clearly the torque and the reluctance depend on . The
calculated value and the measured value of static torque under four exciting current values are shown
in fig.5.

=00

=300

Fig.4 FEM analysis results

Torque,T (Nm)

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5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

10

15

20

25

Rotor position, (deg)


1A

1.5A

2A

2.5A

Fig.5 Static Torque Characteristics

Fig.6 Flow Diagram

Fig.7. Main Circuit of SRM

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3. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of SRM using MATLAB:


Fig.6 shows the flow diagram for the calculation, when the rotor position is given, a gate signal of
the IGBT of the driving circuit is determined, and the exciting currents of the SRM are calculated in
the main circuit. From the currents and differential of the inductance dL()/d , we obtain the motor
torque . When the load torque L is given, we can obtain the angular velocity w based on motor
equations. The integral of gives the rotor position .
In the MATLAB simulation [13], above calculations are carried out [11].Fig 7 shows the SRM main
circuit. In the figure, RA, RB&RC are the resistance of the windings of the phase A, B& C respectively,
LA,LB&LC are inductance of the windings, and change with the rotor position in the same manner as
shown in fig( 3 ).

Fig.8 Dynamic Characteristics of SRM

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4. RESULTS
The results of dynamic characteristics of analysis of SRM when load torque is 0.1 Nm is shown in
fig.8. Fig.9 shows the characteristic of torque-speed. The relation between the load and speed of
rotation is inverse proportion.

Fig.9 Torque Speed Characteristics


5. CONCLUSION
We propose a new and useful model to analyze the dynamic characteristic of SRM. The essential term
is the estimation of the reluctance of SRM. The proposed method holds good with experimental ones
fig.3.The novel modeling of SRM developed here is useful for optimum design of SRM as we can
calculate readily and accurately the dynamic characteristics of SRM by the method.
REFERENCE
[l] T.A. Lipo and Yue Li, "The CFM-A New Family of Electrical Machines," Proceeding of
International Power Electronics Conference, pp. 1-9, 1995.
[2] D.A. Staton, W.L. Soong and T.J. Miller, "Unified Theory of Torque Production in Switched
Reluctance and Synchronous Reluctance Motors," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,
vo1.3 1, No.2, pp. 329-337, 1995.
[3] R.C. Becerra, M. Ehsani and T.J E. Miller, "Commutation of SR Motors," EEE Transactions on
Power Electronics, vo1.8, No.3,
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[4] P. J. Lawrenson, J. M. Stephanson, P. T. Blebkinsop, J. Corda, and N.N.Fulton, Variable-speed


switched reluctance motors, IEE Proc., pt. B,vol. 127, pp. 253265, 1980.

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dynamic characteristics of switched reluctance motor based on SPICE, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol.
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[12 Static 2D Analysis, Infolytica Corporation.
[13] www.Mathworks.com
AUTHORS
R. Saravana Kumar
R. Vignesh Prabhu

saravana4787@gmail.com 9994353065
vigneshprabhu1@gmail.com 9944203222

Final Year EEE


Sethu Institute of Technology,
Pulloor, Kariyapatti,
VirudhuNagar District ,TamilNadu-626106.
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