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Potassium Salts Drug Study

In making a Drug Study, the following elements must be present: Generic Name and the
Brand name (not all brands, just the brand used by the patient), Action, Indication,
Pregnancy Category, Drug Classification, and Contraindication, Adverse Effect, Drug
interaction and Nursing Consideration/Intervention. Most clinical instructors preferred this
to be in a long bond paper in printed or handwritten with paper in landscape.

Potassium salts
Brand Name: potassium acetate, potassium chloride
Pregnancy Category C
Drug class: Electrolyte
Therapeutic actions
Principal intracellular cation of most body tissues, participates in a number of
physiologic processes--maintaining intracellular tonicity, transmission of
nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle,
maintenance of normal renal function; also plays a role in carbohydrate
metabolism and various enzymatic reactions.
Indications
Prevention and correction of potassium deficiency; when associated with
alkalosis, use potassium chloride; when associated with acidosis, use
potassium acetate, bicarbonate, citrate, or gluconate
Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias due to cardiac glycosides (IV)
Contraindications
Contraindicated with allergy to tartrazine, aspirin (tartrazine is found in
some preparations marketed as Kaon-Cl, Klor-Con); severe renal impairment
with oliguria, anuria, azotemia; untreated Addison's disease; hyperkalemia;
adynamia episodica hereditaria; acute dehydration; heat cramps; GI
disorders that delay passage in the GI tract.
Adverse effects
Rash, Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, GI obstruction, GI
bleeding, GI ulceration or perforation
Hyperkalemia--increased serum K+, ECG changes (peaking of T waves, loss
of P waves, depression of ST segment, prolongation of QTc interval)
Tissue sloughing, local necrosis, local phlebitis, and venospasm with injection

Drug Interactions:
Increased risk of hyperkalemia with potassium-sparing diuretics, salt
substitutes using potassium
Nursing considerations
Arrange for serial serum potassium levels before and during therapy.
Administer liquid form to any patient with delayed GI emptying.
Administer oral drug after meals or with food and a full glass of water to
decrease GI upset.
Caution patient not to chew or crush tablets; have patient swallow tablet
whole.
Mix or dissolve oral liquids, soluble powders, and effervescent tablets
completely in 38 oz of cold water, juice, or other suitable beverage, and
have patient drink it slowly.
Arrange for further dilution or dose reduction if GI effects are severe.
Agitate prepared IV solution to prevent "layering" of potassium; do not add
potassium to an IV bottle in the hanging position.
Monitor IV injection sites regularly for necrosis, tissue sloughing, phlebitis.
Monitor cardiac rhythm carefully during IV administration.
Caution patient that expended wax matrix capsules will be found in the
stool.
Caution patient not to use salt substitutes.