Você está na página 1de 8

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been

fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Dual Inverter Fed Pole-Phase Modulated


Nine-Phase Induction Motor Drive with
Improved Performance
B. S. Umesh, Student Member, IEEE, and K. Sivakumar, Member, IEEE

Abstract Typical value of rated phase voltage of pole


phase modulated multiphase induction motor (PPMMIM)
drives with wider speed range is in the order of few
hundreds of kilo volts. This high value of phase voltage
for high power density applications results in higher dc
link voltage requirement and switch voltage rating of twolevel multiphase inverter. Further, using multiphase space
vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) yields less dc link
utilization. Methods to increase dc link utilization using
SVPWM with offset value of third harmonic order
introduces dominant lower order harmonic currents into
phase windings. One more major problem in high pole
mode of PPMMIMs is higher torque pulsation due to
decrease in phase number. To address these problems
this paper proposes a dual inverter based multilevel
voltage excitation scheme for nine-phase PPMMIM with
1:3 speed ratio. In four-pole mode a simple phase
grouping technique to eliminate lower order harmonic
currents in the phase windings is proposed. In addition
each inverter feeding these phase groups is modulated
using carrier based three-phase SVPWM to achieve higher
dc link utilization. This paper also proposes a multilevel
voltage generation scheme for twelve-pole mode of
operation using carrier phase shifted PWM for inherently
available equal voltage profile coils (EVPCs) with the same
dual inverter structure. The torque ripple using phase
shifted carriers PWM and single carrier PWM are
compared. Finite element method (FEM) model of ninephase PPMMIM is developed in Ansys Maxwell twodimension (2-D) and is co-simulated with three threephase dual inverters in Simplorer environment.
Experimental validation is done for linear and over
modulation case on 9IM fed from three three-phase dual
inverters controlled using Spartan 6 field programmable
gate array (FPGA) board programed in VHDL.
Index Terms Multiphase carrier based space vector
PWM, multilevel multiphase induction motor drive, phase
grouping, pole-phase modulation and performance
improvement

Manuscript received January 19, 2016; revised March 4, 2016;


accepted March 24, 2016.
B. S. Umesh and K. Sivakumar are with the Indian Institute of
Technology
Hyderabad,
India-502285,
(e-mail:
umi_umeshbs@yahoo.com and ksiva@iith.ac.in).

I. INTRODUCTION

ULTIPHASE machines with better power distribution


per phase compared to their three phase counterpart are
found best suitable for high power density application areas
like ship propulsion, high power traction and more electric
aircraft [1]-[3]. The improved reliability due to fault tolerance
[4], high efficiency with reduced torque pulsations because of
lesser space harmonics in the air gap and torque enhancement
by injecting higher order harmonics into phase currents [5]
makes the multiphase machine drives an effective and reliable
solution for high power safety critical applications. On board
battery charger using asymmetrical nine-phase machine [6]
further motivates and stresses the importance to explore the
newer advantages of multiphase induction motors (MIMs).
Employing pole changing techniques to multiphase
machines extends the operating speed and torque over very
wide ranges. In particular pole phase modulation (PPM) [7]
and pole amplitude modulation (PAM) [8] are the two
effective electronic pole changing methods for MIMs without
physical reconnection of phase windings. Using PPM for 9
phase, 15 phase and 45 phase induction motors to achieve 1:3,
1:3:5 and 1:3:9:15 speed ratios are presented in [9]-[12] but,
techniques for achieving good performance over all the speed
ranges needs to be explored.
Multilevel voltage source inverters (VSIs) with better
output voltage harmonic profile handles higher voltages with
voltage limited devices and distributes the total dc link power
among more number of dc sources [13], which makes them
best suitable for high power MIMs. Extending conventional
multilevel inverters for MIMs is done in [14]-[16] but,
addressing the problems like capacitor voltage and neutral
point voltage balancing are more involved.
Integrating these three technologies result in multilevelPPMMIM drives with direct inheritance of combined
advantage of all three technologies. However some challenges
requiring changes in control schemes and topological
modifications for effective operation over all the pole phase
modes needs to be addressed.
Multiphase SVPWM for five phase machine and SVPWM
for multiphase current source inverters presented in [17]-[19]
needs further simplifications in using SVPWM for MIMs. The
15% extra linear modulation range obtained using three-phase
SVPWM [20] reduces to 5.15% in case of fifth harmonic
injected SVPWM [21] and to 1.5% in case of nine-phase

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

TABLE I
SHOWS ALL THE POLE PHASE COMBINATIONS OF NINE PHASE PPM IM WITH PHASE WINDING EXCITATION DETAILS FOR HALF OF THE STATOR PERIPHERY

SVPWM [22]. This is because with increase in number of


phases the magnitude of offset value decreases and makes the
multiphase SVPWM almost equal to sine PWM. Further direct
extension of three phase multilevel converter structure and
SVPWM techniques for MIMs introduces lower order
harmonics into phase voltages and currents [22].
A dual inverter based multilevel voltage excitation scheme
is proposed in this paper for pole phase modulated nine-phase
induction motor (9IM) with appropriate modification to
address the previously discussed challenges. Nine phases of
the 9IM are grouped into three three-phase groups with 40
phase difference between each other. Each three-phase group
is fed from a separate three-phase dual inverter instead of
single nine-phase dual inverter for all the nine phases. Each
dual inverter is modulated using carrier based three-phase
SVPWM which retains the same 15% more dc link utilization
for 9IM. Phase grouping provides no path for circulating
zero sequence currents which eliminates the lower order
harmonics in the phase windings.
In addition an effective method for reducing torque
pulsations in case of 3-phase 12-pole mode of 9IM is
presented in this paper. The inverter legs feeding the
inherently available three EVPCs of an effective phase in 12
pole mode are switched using three phase shifted carriers to
generate more levels in the voltage across the effective phase.
The torque pulsation in case of PWM using single carrier and
phase shifted multiple carriers is compared for the proposed
dual inverter.
Rest of the paper is organized as follows. Phase grouping
details of 9IM for 9-phase 4-pole and 3-phase 12-pole mode
of operation are presented in section II. Simulation details
including the FEM model details of 9IM and co-simulation
with three three-phase dual inverters and results are discussed
in section III. Section IV presents the discussion on
experimental results and setup. The paper is concluded in
section V summarizing the effectiveness of the proposed
technique in performance improvement of the PPMMIMs.
II. PHASE GROUPING DETAILS OF NINE PHASE PPMMIM

to achieve required wider speed and torque ranges. The


decision on pole ratio and number of slots for PPM of 9IM
is done using the generalization of PPM presented in [10].
Accordingly [10] PPM for 9IM with 36 stator slots gives 1:3
pole ratios to operate the motor in 4-pole and 12-pole modes.
The PPM details including the phase angle of input voltage for
each slot, current direction in each slot at a given instant and
pole pitch distribution for half of the stator periphery is shown
in Table I. The up arrow indicates current direction into the
conductor in the slot and down arrow indicates current out of
the conductor at a given instant.
From Table I some inherent provisions which helps in
accomplishing the required topological and PWM
modifications to improve the performance of the 9IM drive
are inferred and tabulated in Table II & III. It is clear from
Table II that there are three three-phase groups in 9IM with
40 phase difference between each other. The zero sequence
voltages of these three-phase groups are also displaced with
40 which leads to circulating currents and brings in the need
of isolation between three-phase groups.
Further, the maximum dc link utilization in case of threephase SVPWM and nine-phase SVPWM is presented in [22]
as a ratio of output
by defining the modulation index
pole voltage and dc link voltage ( ) as given by Equation (1)
for a phase of generic two-level inverter.

The maximum pole voltage obtained using three-phase


SVPWM
and
nine-phase
SVPWM
are
0.577

0.507
respectively [22].
TABLE II
THREE THREE-PHASE GROUPS OF NINE PHASE IM FOR 4-POLE OPERATION

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Phase-a (0)
Phase-d (120)
Phase-g (240)

Phase-b (40)
Phase-e (160)
Phase-h (280)

Phase-c (80)
Phase-f (200)
Phase-i (320)

Basically PPM is pole changing technique wherein the


phase and poles of the MIMs are modulated in particular ratio

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Fig. 1. Dual inverter topology for multilevel operation of pole-phase modulated nine-phase IM. (Bidirectional switches SB1 and SB2 are open for
4-pole operation and are closed for 12 pole operation) (Vdc is the dc link voltage requirement of equivalent three phase two level induction motor
drive)

TABLE III
EFFECTIVE PHASES AND THE RESPECTIVE EVPCS OF NINE PHASE IM FOR
3-PHASE 12-POLE OPERATION

Effect. Phase R

Effect. Phase Y

Effect. Phase B

Phase-a (0)
Phase-d (0)
Phase-g (0)

Phase-b (120)
Phase-e (120)
Phase-h (120)

Phase-c (240)
Phase-f (240)
Phase-i (240)

Compared to the maximum pole voltage obtained using


three-phase sine PWM i.e. 0.5 , extra dc link utilization
of 15.4% and 1.55% is obtained in case of three-phase
SVPWM and nine-phase SVPWM respectively. Accordingly
the nine-phase SVPWM yields 90% less dc link utilization
compared to three-phase SVPWM [22].
On the other hand three phase dual inverter with separate dc
sources generate multilevel voltage across phase windings and
provide no path for circulation of zero sequence currents in to
phase windings [23]. This well-established concept is utilized
in this paper to supply each three-phase group of 9IM with
separate three-phase dual inverter. Thus the maximum pole
voltage of inverters in three-phase Group I shown in Fig.1
using three-phase SVPWM is given by Equation (2).
!

0.577 "

&

'

Compared to the maximum pole voltage obtained using sine


PWM i.e. 0.5
/6 for each inverter in Group I, an extra
15.4% of total dc link utilization is evident for proposed
grouping technique. This is true for 4-pole and 12-pole
operation as three-phase SVPWM is used in both the modes of
operation.
In order to provide return path for all the phase winding
currents in 3-phase 12-pole mode of operation switches SB1
and SB2 are closed. In order to open circuit the path for the
circulating currents between the three-phase group,
bidirectional switches SB1 and SB2 are kept open for 9-phase
4-pole mode of 9IM drive as shown in Fig.1. SB1 is rated to
block difference between zero sequence voltage of group 1
and group 2 whereas SB2 has to block the difference between

zero sequence voltage of group2 and group 3. The isolation


between the two dc links of the dual inverter ensures
elimination of zero sequence currents in the phase windings of
individual three-phase group. Switch SB1 and SB2 open
circuits the path for circulating current due to the phase
difference between zero sequence voltages of the three groups.
Thus the performance under 4-pole mode of 9IM drive for
steady run of propulsion and traction applications with high
speeds is effectively improved using phase grouping.
The high initial torque requirement of propulsion and
traction applications is supplied by operating the 9IM in 12pole mode. In a general high power 3-phase 12-pole induction
motor there are three EVPCs connected physically in series
aiding to form a phase winding. In case of 12-pole operation
of nine-phase PPMMIM also there are three independent
EVPCs. Thus the voltage across the effective phase is the sum
of voltages across individual EVPCs. In case of 3-phase 12pole operation all the phase windings of Group1 becomes the
phase coils of effective phase-R with input voltage of zero
electrical degree. Similarly the phase windings of Group 2 and
Group 3 contribute to effective phase-Y (120 phase) and
effective phase-B (240 phase) respectively as tabulated in
Table III.
The torque ripple in case of 12-pole mode of operation is
higher with two-level voltage excitation due to pronounced
slot harmonics. The reduction in phase number to increase the
number of poles increases the slot harmonics in PPMMIMs
[3]. In order to decrease the torque pulsations an effective
technique which reduces the time harmonics of the phase
voltage by generating more number of voltage levels is
presented in this paper.
The three inverter legs feeding the three EVPCs of an
effective phase are switched using three 60 phase displaced
carriers. Single carrier for all the three EVPCs results only
three levels in the voltage across effective phases whereas
phase shifted carriers give 11-levels in the voltage across
effective phases with reduced time harmonics. This in turn
reduces the torque pulsation significantly for 3-phase 12-pole
operation of 9IM.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

III. FEM SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The FEM 2-D model of 9IM is developed in Ansys
Maxwell 2-D (an electromagnetic design tool) with the design
parameters as follows. The main dimensions air gap diameter
and core length of 9IM are calculated analytically to be
170mm and 220 mm respectively to have 5hp power rating.
The 9IM is wound with a single layer full pitch winding
with pole pitch of nine slots i.e. the slots/pole/phase is equal to
one for both 9-phase 4-pole and 3-phase 12-pole mode of
operation. Number of rotor slots is carefully chosen as 49 to
avoid cogging, crawling and synchronous cups as per the
guidelines given in [24].Triangular meshing is used in the
design of FEM model with concentrated meshing near air gap
to increase the accuracy of the finite element analysis of
9IM. The developed FEM 2D model of 9IM is cosimulated with dual inverter configuration shown in Fig.1 in
Simplorer (associated circuit simulator) environment.
The SVPWM references for each three-phase dual inverter
are generated by adding offset value of third harmonic order to
their respective sine references. This retains the 15% extra dclink utilization for 4-pole operation of 9IM and also avoids
dominant lower order harmonics in phase windings because of
isolation between each dual inverter. The references and the
carriers to generate switching logic for 9-phase 4-pole
operation are as shown in Fig.2. For phase-a switch S1is ON if
reference is greater than the upper carrier and S1 is
complimentarily switched to S1. Switch S11 is ON if phase-a
reference is less than the lower carrier and switch S11 is
complimentary to S11. The logic is same for all other phases
with their respective references.

In case of 3-phase 12-pole operation as mentioned in section II


effective phase-R is formed with three EVPCs. Utilizing these
EVPCs to generate 11 levels in the voltage across the effective
phase is accomplished using phase shifted carriers. The
inverter legs feeding EVPCs of effective phase-R are switched
by comparing single reference of 0 phase with three 60
phase displaced carriers of 2 kHz frequency. The switching
logic is same as 9-phase 4-pole case except the phase angle of
references and carriers. The references and carriers for 3-phase
12-pole mode of operation are shown in Fig.3.
From the earlier discussion the disadvantage of using
SVPWM for multiphase machines without phase grouping is
that it introduces lower order harmonics into phase windings.
This is illustrated in Fig.4 which shows voltage and current
waveforms of phase-a having dominant third harmonics. This
is in case of nine phase dual inverter modulated using carrier
based SVPWM with offset value of third harmonic order to
obtain 15% extra dc link utilization. Similarly offset value of
ninth harmonic order introduces ninth order harmonics in the
phase windings and dc link utilization reduces by 90% [22].
The voltage and current waveform of Phase-a for 4-pole
operation of 9IM with phase grouping and three-phase
carrier based SVPWM for each individual dual inverter is
shown in Fig.5. It is clear that phase grouping by keeping the
bidirectional switches SB1 and SB2 open, eliminates
dominant lower order harmonics in phase quantities whereas
three-phase carrier based SVPWM with offset value of third
harmonic order ensures 15% extra dc link utilization even for
MIMs. Torque response of the 9IM for 4 pole operation is
given in Fig.6 with measure of torque ripple in percentage of
load torque. Torque ripple has reduced considerably due to
three-level voltage supply compared to torque ripple in case of
two-level voltage supply given in [10].

Fig. 2. References and carriers for switching the dual inverters in 9phase 4-pole mode.

Fig. 4. The voltage (top) and current (bottom) waveforms of phase-a


having dominant third harmonic in case of conventional nine phase
dual inverter fed induction motor

Fig. 3. References and carriers (three 60 degree phase displaced


carriers) for switching the dual inverters in 3-phase 12-pole mode.

In 3-phase 12-pole mode operation of 9IM the switches SB1


and SB2 are closed to provide return path for the three phase
currents in all the EVPCs. Fig.7 (a) shows the voltage across
phase-a, phase-d and phase-g which are the contributing
EVPCs to the effective phase-R. The voltage across EVPCs is
a three-level voltage with slight distortion due to the
interaction of phase shifted zero sequence voltages because of
phase shifted carriers. But the summation of voltages of all the
three EVPCs of effective phase-R is 11-level voltage with
improved harmonic profile as shown in Fig.7 (b).

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

programing on XILINX SPARTAN-6 (XC6SLX9) FPGA


hardware digital platform.

Fig. 5. Voltage across (top) and current through (bottom) phase-a


with phase grouping of proposed dual inverter fed nine-phase IM drive

(a)

Fig. 6. The torque response of 9IM for proposed dual inverter fed
nine phase IM drive.

(b)
Fig. 7. Voltage across (a) EVPCs (phase-a (top), phase-d (middle)
and phase-g (bottom)) and (b) effective phase-R for 3-phase 12-pole
operation of nine-phase IM

The torque response of 9IM in case of 3-phase 12-pole


mode of operation is observed for two different PWM
methods keeping the output power of the drive constant. Fig.8
(a) shows the torque response for single carrier three-phase
SVPWM for the three EVPCs of an effective phase producing
a three level voltage across effective phase. Fig.8 (b) shows
the torque response for SVPWM with three 60 phase
displaced carriers for three EVPCs of an effective phase
producing 11-level voltage across the respective effective
phase.
Comparing the Fig.8 (a) & (b) significant reduction in
torque ripple is very evident in case of phase shifted carrier
SVPWM. The speed response of 4-pole and 12-pole mode
operation of 9IM is shown in Fig.9. The flux line
distribution for 4- pole and 12-pole mode operations of 9IM
is shown in Fig.10 (a) & (b) for half of the stator periphery.

(a)

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


A 5 hp 9IM is designed with the specification as
mentioned in Section II is driven by three three-phase dual
inverter to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
The IGBTs based three-phase inverter boards are fabricated in
the laboratory using the IGBT G4BC20S and the associated
gate driver. Six of these three phase inverters are connected to
form three three-phase dual inverters. The six dc links for
these three dual inverters are fabricated using BR1010
rectifiers with filtering capacitors The carrier based SVPWM
for controlling the dual inverters is implemented using VHDL

(b)
Fig. 8. Torque response 3-phase 12-pole mode operation of ninephase IM with (a) single carrier SVPWM and (b) three phase shifted
carriers SVPWM.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Fig. 9. Speed responses of 4-pole and 12-pole mode operation of


nine-phase IM

(a)

(a)
(b)
Fig. 11. (a) The voltage and current of phase-a (Time: 10ms/div,
Voltage: 20V/div and Current:1A/div) and their respective (b) harmonic
spectrums (X-axis: Frequency in Hz and Y-axis: Magnitude as % of
fundamental) for conventional nine-phase dual inverter

(a)
(b)
Fig. 12. (a) The voltage and current of phase-a (Time: 10ms/div,
Voltage: 20V/div and Current: 1A/div) and their respective (b) harmonic
spectrums (X-axis: Frequency in Hz and Y-axis: Magnitude as % of
fundamental) for the proposed phase grouped dual inverter scheme.
(Modulation index
1)

(b)
Fig. 10. Flux line distribution of (a) 9-phase 4-pole and (b)3-phase 12pole mode operation of nine-phase IM for half of the stator periphery

.
The phase-a voltage and the current waveform for 4-pole
mode of the 9IM fed from nine-phase dual inverter having
only two isolated dc sources without phase grouping are
shown with respective harmonic spectrum in Fig.11 (a) & (b).
The dominant lower order harmonics in the phase quantities
when a nine phase dual inverter is modulated using carrier
based SVPWM with a offset value of third harmonic order is
evident from Fig. 11 (b).
The voltage and current waveform of phase-a with their
harmonic spectrum for the proposed scheme in 9-phase 4-pole
mode of operation is shown in Fig.12 (a) & (b) for modulation
index
1. The effectiveness of grouping the phases and
feeding each three-phase group with separate dual inverter
modulated using carrier based SVPWM with offset value of
third harmonic order is evident from the harmonic spectrum
shown in Fig.12. The voltage waveform of phase-a and current
waveforms of phase-a, phase-b and phase-c for
0.4 & 1.3 are shown in Fig.13 (a) & (b).

(a)
(b)
Fig. 13. The voltage waveform of phase-a and current waveforms of
phase-a, phase-b and phase-c for (a)
0.4 (b)
1.3 (time:
10ms/div, Voltage: 50V/div and Current: 1A/div) for the proposed
phase grouping scheme.

In case of 3-phase 12-pole mode of operation of 9IM the


voltage waveforms of three EVPCs contributing to effective
phase-R with harmonic spectrum for one of the EVPC (phasea) for
1 is shown in Fig.14. From the harmonic
spectrum it is observed that harmonics are present at first
center band in the voltage across EVPC. The voltage across
the effective phase-R which is sum of the voltages across the
contributing three EVPCs having 11 voltage levels for
1
is shown in Fig.15 with its harmonic spectrum. The first center
band harmonics are shifted to 2*fs*n harmonic order where fs
is the switching frequency and n is the number of carriers [25].
The shifting of harmonics from first center band to higher
harmonic orders in the voltage across effective phase-R

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

reduces the torque pulsations considerably as shown through


simulation in section III. The voltages across the effective
phase-R for
0.4 & 1.3 with their respective harmonic
spectrum are shown in Fig.16 (a) & (b). The currents through
phase-a, phase-b and phase-c in case of 12 pole mode for
different modulation index are shown in Fig.17 and the
Complete experimental setup is shown in Fig.18.

Fig. 17. The current through phase-a, phase-b and phase-c in case of
0.4 (first),
1
3-phase 12 pole mode of nine-phase IM for
(middle) and
1.3 (last) (time: 5ms/div, Current: 1A/div)

Fig. 14. The voltage waveforms across three EVPCs for


1
(phase-a, phase-b and phase-c) (right) obtained using carrier phase
shifted SVPWM with three 60 degree displaced carriers (time:
10ms/div, Voltage: 50V/div) and its harmonic spectrum for one of the
EVPC (left) (phase-a) (X-axis: Frequency in Hz and Y-axis: Magnitude
as % of fundamental)

Fig. 18.
Complete experimental setup of three three-phase dual
inverters feeding nine-phase IM

V. CONCLUSION

Fig. 15. The voltage across effective phase-R (right) (time: 10ms/div,
Voltage: 50V/div) and its harmonic spectrum (left) showing the
absence of first center band harmonics. (X-axis: Frequency in Hz and
Y-axis: Magnitude as % of fundamental) (Addition of three voltages is
done using MATLab.)

(a)

(b)
Fig. 16. The voltage across effective phase-R (right) and its harmonic
spectrum (left) (X-axis: Frequency in Hz and Y-axis: Magnitude as % of
fundamental) for (a)
0.4 (time: 10ms/div, Voltage: 50V/div) and
(b)
1.3 (time: 7.5ms/div, Voltage: 50V/div) (Addition of three
voltages is done using MATLab.)

The disadvantage of multiphase SVPWM with respect to dc


link utilization and introduction of lower order harmonics in to
phase windings is addressed in this paper. Phase grouping of
nine phases in to three three-phase groups lead to the
advantage of feeding each group from separate three-phase
dual inverter. These dual inverters when modulated using
carrier based three-phase SVPWM with an offset value of
third harmonic order provided 15% extra dc link utilization. In
Comparison with the nine-phase SVPWM with an offset value
of ninth harmonic order, which gives only 1.5% extra dc link
utilization. The dominant lower order harmonics in the phase
currents present in case of conventional nine-phase dual
inverter modulated using SVPWM with an offset value of
third harmonic order are effectively eliminated in the proposed
drive scheme. In case of 3-phase 12-pole mode multilevel
voltage is generated across each effective phase by using
simple carrier phase shifted SVPWM for the EVPCs of an
effective phase using only two extra bidirectional switches.
The reduction in torque pulsation due to the multilevel voltage
across effective phase is considerable compared to the torque
ripple obtained using three-level voltage with single carrier
PWM. The experimental results for different modulation
indices are presented proved the effectiveness of the proposed
scheme over lower and higher modulation index range. The
FEM simulation using Ansys Maxwell 2-D and Simplorer
gives clear analysis of torque ripple, flux line distribution of
the proposed PPMMIM drive. The proposed scheme can be
easily extended to MIMs having phase number in multiples of
three.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2561268, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

REFERENCES
[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

E. Levi, Advances in Converter Control and Innovative Exploitation of


Additional Degrees of Freedom for Multiphase Machines, IEEE Trans.
Ind. Electron. vol.63, no.1, pp.433-448, Jan. 2016.
E. Ganev, "Selecting the Best Electric Machines for Electrical PowerGeneration Systems: High-performance solutions for aerospace More
electric architectures," IEEE Electrific. Mag. vol.2, no.4, pp.13-22, Dec.
2014.
E. Levi, R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, H.A. Toliyat, and S. Williamson,
"Multiphase induction motor drives - a technology status review," IET
Elect. Power Appl., vol.1, no.4, pp.489-516, Jul. 2007.
H. Guzman, F. Barrero, and M.J. Duran, IGBT-Gating Failure Effect
on a Fault-Tolerant Predictive Current-Controlled Five-Phase Induction
Motor Drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.62, no.1, pp.15-20, Jan.
2015.
Michele Mengoni, Luca Zarri, Angelo Tani, Leila Parsa, Giovanni Serra
and Domenico Casadei., High-Torque-Density Control of Multiphase
Induction Motor Drives Operating Over a Wide Speed Range, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 2, Feb. 2015.
I. Subotic, N. Bodo, E. Levi and M. Jones, Onboard Integrated Battery
Charger for EVs Using an Asymmetrical Nine-Phase Machine, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.62, no.5, pp.3285-3295, May 2015.
G.H. Rawcliffe, and B.V. Jayawant,"The development of a new 3:1 pole
changing motor," in Proc. IEEE Power Eng., vol.103, no.9, pp.306-316,
Jun. 1956.
M. Osama and T.A Lipo,"A new inverter control scheme for induction
motor drives requiring wide speed range," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl,
vol.32, no.4, pp.938-944, Jul/Aug 1996.
Baoming Ge, Dongsen Sun, Weiliang Wu, and Fang Zheng Peng,
Winding Design, Modeling, and Control for Pole-Phase Modulation
Induction Motors, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol.49, no.2, pp.898-911,
Feb. 2013.
B. S. Umesh and K. Sivakumar, Multilevel Inverter Scheme for
Performance Improvement of Pole Phase Modulated Multiphase
Induction Motor Drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. vol. 63, no.4,
pp.2036-2043, April 2016.
B. S. Umesh, and K. Sivakumar, 15 phase induction motor drive with
135 speed ratios using pole phase modulation, in Proc. IPEC-2014
(ECCE-ASIA) vol., no., pp.1400-1404, 18-21 May 2014.
B. S. Umesh, and K. Sivakumar, Multiphase induction motor drive with
1:3:9:15 speed ratios for gear free electric vehicle application, in Proc.
IEEE ICIAfS- 2014 vol., no., pp.1-6, 22-24 Dec. 2014.
R. Sudharshan Kaarthik, K. Gopakumar, J. Mathew and T. Undeland,
"Medium-Voltage Drive for Induction Machine With Multilevel
Dodecagonal Voltage Space Vectors With Symmetric Triangles," IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron. , vol.62, no.1, pp.79-87, Jan. 2015.
I. Lopez, S. Ceballos, J. Pou, J. Zaragoza, J. Andreu, I. Kortabarria, and
V.G. Agelidis, Modulation Strategy for Multiphase Neutral-PointClamped Converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron. vol.31, no.2,
pp.928-941, Feb. 2016.
C.A. Reusser, and H. Young, Full Electric Ship Propulsion based on a
Flying Capacitor Converter and an Induction Motor Drive, in Proc.
IEEE ESARS, vol., no., pp.1,6, 3-5 Mar. 2015.
M. Darijevic, M. Jones, and E. Levi, An Open-End Winding FourLevel Five-Phase Drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.vol.63, no.1,
pp.538-549, Jan. 2016.
N. Bodo, M. Jones and E. Levi, A Space Vector PWM with CommonMode Voltage Elimination for Open-End Winding Five-Phase Drives
With a Single DC Supply, IEEE Trans., Ind. Electron., vol.61, no.5,
pp.2197-2207, May 2014.

[18] O. Dordevic, M. Jones and E. Levi, A Comparison of Carrier-Based


and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Three-Level Five-Phase
Voltage Source Inverters," IEEE Trans., Ind. Informat., vol.9, no.2,
pp.609-619, May 2013.
[19] M.A. Elgenedy, A.A. Elserougi, A.S. Abdel-Khalik, A.M. Massoud and
S. Ahmed, A Space Vector PWM Scheme for Five-Phase CurrentSource Converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. vol.63, no.1, pp.562573, Jan. 2016.
[20] Dae-Woong Chung, Joohn-Sheok Kim, and Seung-Ki Sul, Unified
voltage modulation technique for real-time three-phase power
conversion, IEEE Trans., Ind. Appl., vol.34, no.2, pp.374-380, Mar/Apr
1998.
[21] D. Dujic, M. Jones and E. Levi, Analysis of Output Current Ripple rms
in Multiphase Drives Using Space Vector Approach, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron. vol.24, no.8, pp.1926-1938, Aug. 2009.
[22] J. W. Kelly, E. G. Strangas, and J. M. Miller, Multiphase space vector
pulse width modulation, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol.18, no. 2,
pp. 259264, Jun. 2003.
[23] H. Stemmler, and P. Guggenbach, Configurations of high-power
voltage source inverter drives, in Proc. EPE Conf., pp. 714, 1993.
[24] A.K Sawhney, A course in electrical machine design, Dhanpat Rai and
Sons, India, 1984.
[25] D.G. Holmes, B.P. McGrath, "Opportunities for harmonic cancellation
with carrier-based PWM for a two-level and multilevel cascaded
inverters," IEEE Trans., Ind. Appl., vol.37, no.2, pp.574-582, Mar/Apr
2001.
B. S. Umesh (S15) received the B.E. degree in
electrical and electronics engineering from
University
B.D.T
College
of
engineering,
Davanagere, India, in 2007 and M.Tech. degree in
power electronics and drives from National
Institute of Technology, Warangal, India, in 2011.
He is currently pursuing Ph.D. degree in multilevel
inverters for pole phase modulated multiphase
induction motor drives at Indian Institute of
Technology, Hyderabad, India.
His research interests include pole phase modulation of multiphase
induction motor drives and multilevel inverters for multiphase induction
motor drives.
K. Sivakumar (M12) received the B.Tech. degree
in electrical engineering from Sri Venkateswara
University, Tirupati, India, in 2004, the M.Tech.
degree in power electronics and drives from the
National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India,
in 2006 and the Ph.D. degree in the Center for
Electronics Design and Technology, Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, in 2010.
He is currently working as an assistant professor with the
department of electrical engineering, Indian Institute of Technology
Hyderabad, India. His fields of interest are multilevel inverters, openend winding three-phase and multiphase induction motor drives, pulse
width modulation techniques, switched mode power conversion, micro
grids, Power quality and control.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.