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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Smart Stick Design for Blind Person using Arduino Controller

Jay P. Bhadarka1 Pratikkumar S. Patel2 Yogesh R. Pal3 Hiren S. Parmar4
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Dr. Subhash Technical Campus, Junagadh (Gujarat), India
Abstract In order to help the visually challenged people,
we design a smart stick. Using this stick he/she can walk
more confidently. The smart stick that alerts visuallyimpaired people for obstacles using different sensors are
controlled through arduino controller. In this design arduino
controller plays a major role and we are using various
sensors i.e. Ultrasonic sensor, Smock sensor, Water sensor,
temperature sensor for efficient work of smart stick. As any
of the obstacle detected respective sensor get activated and
the according to specific obstacle different sound pattern is
generated through buzzer. Thus blind person can identify
specific obstacle and according to situation he/she can tack
precaution while travel from one place to another.
Key words: Arduino Controller (ATmega328), Ultrasonic
sensor, Arduino Controller, Temperature sensor (LM 35),
Water sensor, Smock sensor(MQ-2), Buzzer, Smart Stick



Fig. 1: Block Diagram

Vision is the most important part of human physiology as

83% of information human being gets from the environment
is via sight. The 2011 statistics by the World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 285 billion
people in world with visual impairment, 39 billion of which
are blind and 246 with low vision . The traditional and
oldest mobility aids for persons with visual impairments are
the walking cane (also called Smart Stick) and guide dogs.
The most important drawbacks of these stick are necessary
skills and training phase, range of motion and very little
information conveyed. With the rapid advances of modern
technology, both in hardware and software front has brought
potential to provide detection of obstacles.
Walking safely and confidently without any human
assistance in urban or unknown environments is a difficult
task for blind people. Visually impaired people generally
use either the typical white cane or the guide dog to travel
Although the white stick gives a warning about 1 m
before the obstacle, for a normal walking speed of 1.2 m/s,
the time to react is very short (only 1 s). The stick scans the
floor and consequently cannot detect certain obstacles (rears
of trucks, low branches, etc.). Safety and confidence could
be increased using devices that give a signal to find the
direction of an obstacle-free path in unfamiliar or change in
environments. SMART STICK are devices that give off a
warning by buzzer or/and vibrator when an obstacle is in the
way and allow the user to avoid it.

A. Controller Unit
The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller, based on the
ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins
(of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a
16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack,
an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything
needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a
computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC
adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all
preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-toserial driver chip.

We are Implement different types of sensor in stick for
designing this model for blind person they can sense
obstacle in front of her path using ultrasonic sensor, detect
heat using LM 35 (Temperature sensor), detect any type of
gas using Smock sensor and it is also detect water using rain

B. Sensors Unit
There are basic four sensors used in smart stick as follows:
1) Ultrasonic sensor
2) temperature sensor
3) Rain sensor
4) Smock sensor
C. Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit provides the sufficient power to the
different units to make it work. The sensor unit &
microcontroller unit wants the exact 5 volt each.
A. Ultrasonic Sensor
In this article we will use a Parallax Ping sensor with an
Arduino Controller. The Ping sensor is an ultrasonic sensor
which allows you to measure automatically and
continuously distance between moving or stationary objects,
a very handy capability when it comes to create an
autonomous robot.
The principle of work of this sensor is really basic.
It emits a signal, waits for the echo to return and measure
the time to whole process took. Because we know how fast
the sound travel through the air, we can convert the
measured time into distance. Output from the PING sensor

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Smart Stick Design for Blind Person using Arduino Controller

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/524)

is a variable-width pulse that corresponds to the distance to

the target.
B. Temperature Sensor
The LM35-series devices are precision integrated-circuit
temperature sensors, with an output voltage linearly
proportional to the Centigrade temperature. The LM35
device has an advantage over linear temperature sensors
calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a
large constant voltage from the output to obtain convenient
Centigrade scaling.
Lower cost is assured by trimming and calibration
at the wafer level. The low output impedance, linear output,
and precise inherent calibration of the LM35 device makes
interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy.
The device is used with single power supplies, or with plus
and minus supplies. As the LM35 device draws only 60 A
from the supply, it has very low self-heating of less than
0.1C in still air. The temperature-sensing element is
comprised of a delta-V BE architecture.
C. Rain Sensor
This module allows you measure moisture via analog output
pins and it provides a digital output when a threshold of
moisture is exceeded. The module is based on the LM393 op
amp. It includes the electronics module and a printed circuit
board that collects the rain drops. As rain drops are
collected on the circuit board, they create paths of parallel
resistance that are measured via the op amp.
The lower the resistance (or the more water), the
lower the voltage output. Conversely, the less water, the
greater the output voltage on the analog pin. A completely
dry board for example will cause the module to output five

electromechanical lock on a door, which emits a buzz,

indicating that the lock has been moved to the open position.

Fig.2: Structure of Smart Stick

It is based on the use of new technologies to improve
visually impaired person's mobility. Our project based on
temperature detection, obstacle detection and water
detection. It will be real boon for the blind. The developed
prototype gives good results in detecting obstacles paced at
distance in front of the user.
In this figure shown different sensor implement in
different place as they required. In this system we are going
to use an obstacle detection sensor as the heart of the
system. In this module we are going to interface an obstacle
sensor that will keep on emitting a signal generated by the
Arduino. This signal after hitting the obstacle will be
received back. This echo signal collected by the sensor
receiver and based on computing signal thus alerting the
person well in advance about the obstacle.

D. Smock Sensor
In this project, we will go over how to build a smoke sensor
circuit with an arduino Controller. The smoke sensor we
will use is the MQ-2. This is a sensor that is not only
sensitive to smoke, but also to flammable gas. The MQ-2
smoke sensor reports smoke by the voltage level that it
outputs. The more smoke there is, the greater the voltage
that it outputs. Conversely, the less smoke that it is exposed
to, the less voltage it outputs. The MQ-2 also has a built-in
potentiometer to adjust the sensitivity to smoke. By
adjusting the potentiometer, you can change how sensitive it
is to smoke, so it's a form of calibrating it to adjust how
much voltage it will put out in relation to the smoke it is
exposed to.
We had wire the MQ-2 to an arduino so that the
arduino can read the amount of voltage output by the sensor
and sound a buzzer if the sensor outputs a voltage above a
certain threshold. This way, we will know that the sensor is
detecting smoke and we will sound a buzzer alerting a
person such as a homeowner to this fact.
Buzzers are very widespread in usage and are found on an
incredible number of different devices. Buzzers are
frequently employed to give a user or operator an audio
indication of the stage of a mechanical device. For instance,
buzzing someone in refers to opening an

Fig.3: Hardware of Smart Stick

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Smart Stick Design for Blind Person using Arduino Controller

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/524)


By implementing this stick we can able to do Obstacle
detection, Water detection, Temperature sense, can hear the
sound of detected specific obstacle using buzzer as a output.
It can be further enhanced by using VLSI technology to
design the PCB unit. This makes the system further more
compact. Also, use of active RFID tags will transmit the
location information automatically to the PCB unit, when the
intelligent stick is in its range. The RFID sensor doesnt have
to read it explicitly.

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Illinois 60525-5997 USA Phone: 708-354-1040
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We take an opportunity to acknowledge and extend our

heartfelt gratitude to our HOD and the pivot of this
enterprise, Prof. Ritesh B. Vaghasiya who is most
responsible for helping me complete this work. He showed
me different ways to approach the problems and the need to
be persistent to accomplish my goal. His discernment in the
choice of topic, his confidence in me when I doubted myself
and his admirable guidance are some cogent reasons that
make me aver that without his support this thesis would be a
We are also thankful to Director, Head of
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
for cooperation and support to complete this work. We
would also like to express our thanks to DSTC,
JUNAGADH providing necessary facilities. We would also
convey our thanks to HOD, staff members and lab
Communication Engineering for their continues support.
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Copyright(c) 2008, OLIMEX Ltd, All rights reserved,
REV.A - created September 2008
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