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CIE4510: Climate Change: Science &

Ethics
Clouds,aerosols, circulation

Herman Russchenberg
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geoscience

Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

26-11-2014

Stratospheric cooling
Increasing temperature due to UV absorption by ozone: no convection
Increasing CO2 in sparse stratosphere:
more collisions > more absorption > more emission
sparse medium > relatively free emission into space

Increasing CO2 in troposphere

decreasing temperature due decreasing density: convection


Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

26-11-2014

26-11-2014
Screendump
from Edx MOOC MITx: 12.340x Global Warming Science
Challenge the future
Delft
University of
Technology

Storm Uli: January 3, 2012

Challenge the future

Coriolis force
vnorth
Fcor= m ( 2 v )= 2m
sin
veast

y(North)

Fcor
Fcor

x( East)

Fcor

Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

Fcor

26-11-2014

Coriolis force and wind


vnorth
Fcor= m ( 2 v )= 2m
sin
veast

L
Geostrophic wind
Pressure gradient force
Coriolis force

H
Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

26-11-2014

Coriolis force and low air pressure


H
L
Pressure gradient force

Coriolis force
Coriolis force

Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

26-11-2014

Buys Ballot law

No Coriolis force at equator

Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

26-11-2014

A
T
M
O
S

Transport Horizontal mixing time


Related to the Earths atmospheric circulation

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote-sensing of the environment (RSE)

A
T
M
O
S

Transport Vertical mixing time


Related to the vertical
stratification of the temperature
in the atmosphere

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote-sensing of the environment (RSE)

10

Eyjafjallajkull volcano

Lidar observation at Cesar Observatory

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Scattering by molecules and aerosols


2 K
6
>> D : s =
D
3 4
red > blue s ,blue >> s ,red
5

Rayleigh scattering

Optical scattering

D > : s =
D2
4

Angstrom relation=
: N=
s 0 n
Angstrom coefficient n= 0 4
CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Vulcano dust, lidar, Cabauw


backscatter

depolarization

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Blocking of sunlight in stratosphere:


Cooling at surface of 0.5 -1 degree Celsius
CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Clouds and climate


Cooling

Warming
Evaporation cools

Condensation warms

Clouds scatter light


Clouds absorb heat

15

Possible cloud responses to warming


Perturbed Future

Neg. Feedback

Present
Pos. Feedback

Strong Pos. Feedback

Complexity of the problem

Large variety of cloud types


Global information needed
A large range of temporal and spatial scales
A multitude of different physical parameters

Example of broadband sw fluxes


Radiation at the surface

Thin cloud

Radiation at top of the atmosphere

Thick cloud

Greenland melt, July 2012

Impact of thin low level clouds on


surface temperature

Bennartz et al, 2013, Nature

Case study: water clouds


What do we have to know?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cloud thickness
Liquid water content
Droplet size
Number concentration
Vertical profile

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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A
T
M
O
S

The field laboratory: CESAR

Satellites

IDRA

Weather
sensors

213 m
tower

Radiation
sensors

lidar
Wind
profiler

TARA
radars

radiometers

Overview from
the tower (2002)
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote-sensing of the environment (RSE)

Ground-based
remote-sensing
22

Assume a cloud model,


Number of droplets
Expected response of radar
Cloud top

Cloud base

Water content

Expected response of lidar

Typical structure of stratocumulus


CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Ground-based observations and retrievals


Cloud Radar (Z)
Lidar
Microwave Radiometer (LWP)

Model for the


vertical cloud
structure

Radiosondes
Boundaries Thickness (H)
Liquid Water Content Path (LWP)
Extinction - Optical Thickness (COT)
Effective Radius (Reff )
Droplet Number Concentration - (N)

Results

Radar: Kollias and Miller, 2007


LWP: Turner et al., 2007

25/18

Retrieved liquid water content

26/18

Retrieved number concentration

27/18

Radiation concepts
Incoming
radiation
Top of the atmosphere

direct radiation

Scattering layer
Diffuse radiation

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Radiation examples (1 2 April 2005); clear sky


clean

polluted

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Dimming effect of aerosols on global


Dimming
effectradiation
on global radiation
(cloudless sky)

Non-polluted

Polluted

clean

polluted

Polluted skies hide greenhouse warming


CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Radiation examples; cloudy sky


17 juli 2005

29 juli 2005

CIE5140 Climate Change: Science & Ethics

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Question time

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