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1 3.2.

1 Construction Loads
PC1 - Loads during shipping, handling, storing, and erecting
PC2 - Uplift and external pressure from wet concrete
PC3 - Grouting pressure.
3.2.2 Live Loads
LL1 - Wind
LL2 - Snow and/or ice
LL3 - Vehicle loads
EQ1 - Design Basis Criteria (DBC) earthquake
EQ2 - Dam Safety Criteria (DSC) earthquake.
3.2.3 Dead Loads
DL1 - Weight of structure and permanent accessories
DL2 - Weight of water when full or partially full
DL3 - Weight of soil or rock fill or soil surcharge
DL4 - External hydrostatic pressure including flotation
DL5 - Rock loads in tunnels.
3.2.4 Intermittent Loads
DL2 - Filling and draining of penstock.
3.2.5 Service LoadsInternal and External Pressures
In addition to the above-defined loads, the penstock and tunnel liner must
be designed for the following internal and external pressure senrice loads
when applicable. Internal Pressure Loads
PN1: The maximum static head without surge or waterhammer based on
water at the highest reservoir level.
PN2: The maximum static head minus the head loss plus the waterhammer
and surge fora plant operation load rejection (TSV closure, wicket gate, PRV
needle valve, etc.) when all units are operating with normal governor
closure time.
PN3: The minimum static head minus the waterhammer and downsurge
pressures that would occur when all units operate from speed no load (SNL)
to full load acceptance for all units.
PL1: The penstock full of water but at zero surcharge pressure.
PL2: The penstock half full of water.

PEM1: The waterhammer and surge, calculated for final part gate closure to
zero gate position at the maximum governor rate in 2lJa seconds. This
simulates the condition ot the governor cushioning stroke being inoperative.
PEX1: The internal pressure value, which includes full gate closure with
malfunctioning control equipment in the most adverse manner.
PT1: The hydrostatic test condition internal pressure. External Pressure Loads
PL3: The penstock dewatered and subjected to maximum ground water
seepage pressure, or for exposed penstocks, the maximum vacuum that can
be generated by dewatering. Construction External Pressure Loads
PC1: The equivalent external pressure due to wet concrete consisting of the
depth ofthe pour l
times the equivalent density of the concrete.
PC2: The equivalent external pressure due to the grouting of the space
between the concrete and the steel tunnel liner. Temperature Loads
TL1: The loads due to the expansion and contraction from daily and
seasonal temperature variations including construction and hydrotest cases.
TL2: The temperature gradient across the penstock diameter. Sliding and Friction Loads
EJL: The longitudinal loads due to the friction at sliding expansion
joints/mechanical couplings.
SFL: The longitudinal loads due to friction or sliding at the supports.