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Reading Texts

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Level
Student Names

Cluster 1
Cluster 1
2nd cluster (BS 1)
* Reads one or two words in
environmental print/texts.
*Reads some words in a sentence
correctly.
*Holds a book the right way up.
Differentiates between writing and
pictures.
*Points to words using one-to-one
correspondence when 'reading'.
*Reads some high frequency words
correctly in simple, predictable texts,
e.g. my, I. *Begins to read with fluency
and rhythm when text and image
placement are consistent.

Cluster 4

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

3rd cluster(BS 2)
*Reads one or more sentences correctly
in environmental print/texts. Reads one
or more sentences correctly in a simple
book.
*Uses context to predict meaning in
texts and supplement decoding
attempts.
*Reads words using known letter/sound
relationships.
*Reads a number of 'easy' texts with an
increasing number of high frequency
words and illustrations that provide high
support.
*Begins to develop fluency and
understanding by revisiting familiar
texts.

4th cluster (BS 3)


*Reads all or most of a more challenging
story book.
*Maintains fluency when reading texts
with varied and irregular text and image
placement.
*Pauses or hesitates when meaning is
disrupted when reading.
*Reads aloud with increasingly
appropriate pitch, intonation and fluency
(RR level 5-8).

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

5th cluster
*Reads texts with varied and longer
sentence patterns and several lines of
text per page.
*Demonstrates increased fluency by
recognising and decoding words
automatically when reading familiar
texts.
*Recognises when meaning is disrupted
and attempts to self-correct when
reading.
*Reads fluently and accurately with
attention to punctuation.

6th cluster
*Understands that pathways for reading
literary, factual and screen texts can be
navigated in different ways.
*Self-corrects when meaning is
disrupted e.g. by pausing, repeating
words and phrases, rereading and
reading on.
*Reads aloud with fluency and phrasing,
adjusting pace, volume, pitch and
pronunciation to enhance meaning and
expressions (RR level 16-18).

7th cluster
*Understands text features such as
illustrations, diagrams, tables, maps and
graphs to enhance meaning.
*Automatically integrates a range of
information e.g. meaning, grammar and
letter/sound relationships to read in a
phrased and fluent way.
*Knows that literary, factual and screen
texts need to be 'read in differing ways.
*Responds to punctuation and adjusts
expression to enhance meaning when
reading aloud.

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

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Cluster 7
8th cluster
*Reads increasingly complex texts with
less familiar content and vocabulary and
more extended descriptions.
*Engages with both literary and factual
texts of increasing length and difficulty
for longer periods of time (at least 10
minutes).
*'Reads' texts in different ways to meet
a range of reading purposes.
*Independently monitors reading by
using a variety of self-correction
strategies to maintain meaning.

Cluster 10

Cluster 8
9th Cluster
*Reads for sustained periods (15-20
minutes) and sustains understanding in
longer texts over time, e.g. reading
short novels over several days.
*Uses visual representations, e.g.
photographs, tables, charts to enhance
meaning when reading factual texts.
*Selects and uses the most effective
word identification strategy to maintain
fluency and meaning.
*Demonstrates an awareness of how to
use skimming/ scanning and text
features such as subheading s to locate
specific information.
*Uses screen navigation features when
reading and viewing Internet texts.

Cluster 11

Cluster 9
Cluster 10
* Reads short novels with minimal
illustration, unfamiliar content, settings
and characters and challenging and
unusual vocabulary.
* Adjusts rate of reading to suit text
complexity and reading purpose.
* Uses more sophisticated word
identification strategies to maintain
word and sentence level fluency and
create meaning, e.g. use of homonym,
syllabification, analogy
* Uses topic knowledge, vocabulary
knowledge and context to read unknown
words when engaging with subject texts.
* Chooses a reading path appropriate to
the text (literary, factual, electronic) and
navigates multimodal texts appropriate
to the purpose.

Cluster 12

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 11
* Reads for sustained periods (20-30
minutes) and sustains understanding in
longer texts over time, e.g. reading
short novels over several days.
* Confidently engages with a wide range
of authentic texts, e.g. newspapers, TV
documentaries, websites and chooses
reading pathways appropriate to the
purpose for reading/viewing.
* Monitors reading for accuracy and
meaning and adjusts reading when
difficulties are encountered, e.g. adjusts
speed, rereads and attends to most
important information.
* Manipulates multiple texts that include
a variety of purposes and modes to
locate information for a specific purpose.

Cluster 12
* Reads increasingly longer novels and
subject texts using a range of effective
word identification strategies to
maintain meaning.
* Reads, views and uses a wide variety
of literary and factual, print and
electronic texts with increasing
autonomy, e.g. extended novels and
information texts, video documentaries,
multimedia and performance texts,
graphic material.
* Reads more demanding subject texts
that have increasing levels of
technicality and abstraction.
* Monitors reading for accuracy and
meaning selecting and using appropriate
higher order word identification skills

Cluster 13
* Reads for sustained periods
(30+minutes) and maintains meaning in
longer texts or across a variety of texts
on a single topic over time.
* Adjusts reading rate appropriate to
subject content and purpose.
* Applies technical vocabulary and
content knowledge to create meaning
when reading subject texts of increasing
abstraction.
* Selects and reads texts in ways that
best meet requirements of task.
* Uses multiple reading pathways in a
range of complex texts to locate and
assemble information.
* Applies and further develops
monitoring and self-correcting strategies

* Uses text navigation skills such as


skimming and scanning to efficiently
locate specific information in literary,
factual and electronic texts

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Cluster 13
Cluster 13
Cluster 14
* Reads a wide range of increasingly
complex subject texts for sustained
periods.
* Selects suitable reading pathways to
engage with new content.
* Identifies multiple purposes for which
texts are constructed.

such as knowledge of word origins and


analogy.
* Confidently adjusts the chosen
reading/viewing pathway to achieve the
intended purpose in literary and factual,
print, electronic and multimodal texts.

in subject contexts.
* Applies and further develops fluent and
expressive reading skills in subject
contexts.

Cluster 14

Cluster 15

Cluster 14
Cluster 15
* Independently selects and reads an
increasing volume and range of complex
texts.
* Strategically navigates texts with
speed and efficiency.

Cluster 15
Cluster 16
* Strategically navigates an extensive
volume of texts for a complex task.

Comprehension
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Level

Cluster 1
Cluster 1
2nd cluster(BS 1)
* Gives a sequenced retell of a story
when prompted. Recalls some details
from illustrations in a story book.
Predicts a plausible next event in a
story.
* Is beginning to analyse and evaluate
stories read and viewed by providing
and justifying a personal opinion.
* Talks about information in factual
texts.

Cluster 4

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

3rd cluster (BS 2)


* Begins to understand inferred
meaning. Gives an unprompted
sequenced retell of a story that includes
the beginning, middle and end. Recalls
many details from illustrations in a story
book.
*Builds meaning in factual texts by using
illustrations.

4th cluster(BS 3)
* Interprets meaning by answering an
inferential question correctly.
*Responds to overall meaning in literary
and factual texts by talking about the
central themes.
*Constructs meaning from texts by
making connections between print,
illustrations and diagrams.
*Analyses and evaluates a character's
actions or events in a story through
discussion.
*Builds understandings of a topic by
identifying key facts in texts in print and
onscreen.

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

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Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

5th cluster
*Responds to questions about a
character's actions, qualities, and
characteristics by expressing an opinion
about the character.
*Builds understanding by interpreting
and discussing inferred meanings.
*Interprets information in factual texts,
e.g. using contents page and screen
icons to locate specific information.

6th cluster
*Retells and responds to incidents from
a story book or film with attention to plot
elements such as setting, character,
conflict and resolution.
*Builds understanding of how media
texts can be interpreted.
*Shows awareness that information
about one topic can be sought from a
number of sources, e.g. graphs, posters,
reference texts, websites.
*Analyses and evaluates a character's
actions/motives in a story.

7th cluster
*Responds to texts by referring to prior
experiences.
*Responds to and analyses a text by
discussing a point of view presented in
the text.
*Interprets and responds to texts by
skimming and scanning to confirm
predictions and answer questions posed
by self and others while reading.

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

8th cluster
*Refers to prior knowledge and
experiences to build understanding of a
text.
*Justifies predictions about sections of a
text.
*Builds understanding of a text by using
knowledge of text organisation and
features, e.g. referring to headings and
subheadings to locate information.
*Draws conclusions by using clues in a
text.
*Identifies more than one perspective or
point of view when represented in texts.
*Articulates the main idea and provides
a synthesised retell that captures key
events in texts.
*Creates mental images to capture
ideas.

9th Cluster
*Builds understanding during reading by
discussing possible consequences of
actions and events.
*Interprets texts by recognising and
discussing the difference between literal
and inferred meaning in relation to
information, characteristics, events.
*Builds understanding about the
meaning of a text by actively seeking
information from different parts of a
text.
*Shows an awareness through
discussion that texts can present
different perspectives.
*Analyses the ways ideas and
information are presented by making
comparisons between texts.
*Identifies and interprets main ideas and
important information in a text to
provide an accurate retell of a text.
*Analyses a text by discussing visual,

Cluster 10
* Interprets text by inferring
connections, causes and consequences
during reading.
* Responds to and interprets texts by
discussing the differences between
literal and inferred meanings.
* Interprets the meaning of a text by
seeking further information in other
sections of a text or in different texts.
* Identifies ways texts present different
perspectives.
* Evaluates text accuracy and credibility
by comparing texts on a similar topic.
* Analyses and evaluates the relative
importance of key ideas and information
in a text to construct an overview.
* Responds to and analyses texts by
discussing the ways language structures
and features shape meaning.
* Responds to and interprets texts by
integrating sources of information in

aural and written techniques used in the


text.
*Builds understanding about the
meaning of a text by identifying and
discussing text organisation and
features, e.g. cohesive links.

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Cluster 10

Cluster 11

texts.

Cluster 12

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 11
* Analyses and evaluates the ways that
inference is used in a text to build
understanding.
* Re-examines sections of texts for
evidence to support interpretations and
opinions.
* Evaluates a personal interpretation of
a text by critically re-examining
evidence within the text.
* Responds to themes and issues
evident in texts that present different
perspectives on a given topic or
different points of view in a text.
* Analyses texts to explain and compare
how audience, purpose and context
influence texts.
* Critically analyses and interprets a text
to create a summary that demonstrates
an understanding of the different views
and values represented.
* Analyses and responds to language
and grammatical techniques used to
influence an audience.
* Analyses and compares how
information and ideas are presented in a
range of texts on the one topic.

Cluster 12
* Interprets and critically analyses texts
by responding to inferred meaning
within a text and justifying
interpretations using evidence.
* Reinterprets ideas and issues by
creating innovative personal responses
to ideas and issues in literary texts
through oral, dramatic, written and
multimodal presentations.
* Critically analyses a wide range of
imaginative, informative and persuasive
texts in different forms to compare how
ideas are presented.
* Explains how texts can be interpreted
from a variety of perspective s by
discussing the ways that different views
and values are presented.
* Interprets texts by identifying and
discussing multiple purposes within the
same text.
* Interprets and analyses several
different texts on one topic to present a
summary of information and ideas that
show an understanding of the topic.
* Analyses texts to compare how
language structures and features are
used to position readers and viewers.
* Analyses and evaluates how written
information and visual images shape
meaning by comparing texts on the
same topic.

Cluster 13
* Applies comprehension strategies and
skills including predicting, visualising,
summarising, monitoring, questioning
and making connections, to make
meaning in subject contexts.
* Explores, analyses and responds to
ideas in imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts.
* Judges the value or effectiveness s of
texts according to their purpose and
subject matter.
* Interprets and responds to points of
view in texts with an awareness of
underlying social, cultural and/or
historical values.
* Identifies different interpretations of
and perspectives in texts.
* Analyses and evaluates how texts are
shaped by purpose, audience and
context.
* Identifies an authors point of view with
textual evidence.
* Draws on knowledge of familiar types
of text relevant to subjects to facilitate
understanding of new texts.
* Identifies and infers the meaning of
imagery and symbolism in spoken,
written, visual and multimodal texts.
* Analyses and evaluates the impact of
visual images on the meaning of texts.
* Locates and synthesises information to

draw conclusions from a variety of


sources.

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Cluster 13

Cluster 14

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

Cluster 14
* Consolidates an increasing repertoire
of comprehension strategies.
* Draws on widening personal and
textual experience and knowledge to
make meaning of texts.
* Interprets texts that present
challenging ideas and issues.
* Makes bridging inferences by linking
pronouns, synonyms and other cohesive
devices to clarify and build meaning.
* Compares own opinions and
interpretations of texts with others, and
justifies position with textual evidence.
* Compares and contrasts different
values and opinions presented on similar
content.
* Identifies ways in which authors
position the audience to accept
particular views and perspectives.
* Identifies and evaluates ways in which
authors use language, structures and
textual features to achieve particular
purposes.
* Identifies assumptions, bias and
stereotyping in texts.
* Evaluates the credibility and reliability
of textual sources.

Cluster 15
* Recognises, articulates and reflects on
effectiveness of strategies used to
enhance comprehension.
* Makes reasoned inferences based on
implicit information (including causal
and temporal relationships).
* Explains how and why alternative
interpretations of texts are developed by
particular groups of people.
* Reconsiders the meaning of texts
when exposed to alternative
interpretations.
* Critically evaluates the ways in which
authors use and integrate language,
structures and textual features to
achieve particular purposes.
* Evaluates information from a variety of
sources for credibility, authenticity and
usefulness.
* Uses textual evidence to explain how
the audience is positioned by particular
representations of people, events, ideas
or issues.
* Questions and challenges information
and assumptions in texts.
* Critically analyses texts for different
perspectives and bias.
* Identifies ambiguities and conflicting
messages in texts.
* Critically compares aspects and
qualities of texts.

Cluster 15
Cluster 15
Cluster 16
* Examines different perspectives on
complex issues within and between
texts.
* Explains how interpretations of texts
are shaped by social, cultural and/or
historical contexts.
* Explores and examines alternative
interpretations of texts.

Vocabulary Knowledge
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Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 2
*Knows the meaning of, and when
speaking, can use words that are likely
to be encountered in easy reading texts,
e.g. big, little.
*Names some basic parts of a computer,
e.g. screen, keyboard, mouse, space bar.
*Asks questions to find out meanings of
unfamiliar words.

Cluster 3
* Begins to expand the vocabulary used
to describe everyday events and
experiences.
*Begins to use topic words when
speaking and writing.
*Identifies unfamiliar words and
attempts to use experience and context
to work out word meanings.

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 3
Cluster 3
Cluster 4
*Knows the meaning of commonly used
words in texts read and demonstrates
this knowledge when writing and
speaking.
*Develops beginning understandings
about word families and uses these
understandings when reading and
writing.
*Uses grammar and context of a text to
work out the meaning of an unfamiliar
word.

Cluster 6

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 5
*Uses knowledge and understanding of
topic words when reading, writing and
speaking.
*Accurately uses a range of basic
computer and internet terminology, e.g.
icon, bold, italics, home page.
*Demonstrates awareness that some
words have multiple meanings when
reading, writing and speaking.
*Understands that changing words in a
text can alter the meaning.

Cluster 6
*Demonstrates the use of more precise
vocabulary to describe feelings and
experiences when speaking and writing.
*Shows beginning understanding of the
effects of different words and phrases,
e.g. to create humour, to persuade, to
inform.
*Applies knowledge of base words to
build word families, e.g. move, moving,
remove.
*Independently uses a range of
classroom print resources to enhance
vocabulary, e.g. topic word lists, labels,
etc.

Cluster 7
*Knows the meaning of commonly used
words in increasingly challenging texts
and can demonstrate this knowledge
when reading, writing and speaking.
*Shows beginning understanding of the
effective use of 'word play' to enhance
and enrich meaning, e.g. alliteration,
onomatopoeia.
*Uses knowledge developed about word
families and word origins to understand
the meaning of unfamiliar words, e.g.
rhyming words, synonyms, base words.
*Uses a simple dictionary to check word
meanings.

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

*Uses words and phrases for effect, e.g.


to create images, to add emphasis, to

Cluster 9
*Uses synonyms for a range of common

Cluster 9
Cluster 10
* Demonstrates understanding that

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create atmosphere.
*Draws on topic/content knowledge to
assist in working out the meaning of
unknown words.
*Understands and uses relevant
vocabulary associated with digital
technology, e.g. Web 2.0 tools such as
blogs.
*Recognises that different words can be
used to describe similar concepts, e.g.
everyday or technical language,
synonyms.
*Shows evidence of capacity to improve
vocabulary choices in response to
purpose and audience when reviewing
and editing.

words
*Uses simple content specific vocabulary
in appropriate ways when creating texts.
*Uses relevant vocabulary associated
with digital technology and electronic
texts.
*Understands how prefixes and suffixes
change word meanings.

words can have different meanings in


different contexts.
* Demonstrates expanded content
vocabulary by drawing on a combination
of known and new topic knowledge.
* Shows awareness that there are a
number of ways to work out the
meaning of unknown words.
* Finds the meaning of
unknown/unfamiliar words in reference
sources, e.g. dictionaries, thesauruses.

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Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

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Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 11
* Makes effective word choices in
response to purpose and audience when
creating texts.
* Demonstrates understanding of new
words or new concepts.
* Applies knowledge of prefixes and
suffixes to understand the meanings of
new words and to create new words.
* Refines vocabulary choice in response
to purpose and audience when editing
and reviewing own and peer's writing.

Cluster 12
* Uses new words for known concepts,
e.g. blissful for happy.
*Increasingly uses appropriate content
vocabulary when creating spoken and
written texts about specific topics.
* Accurately uses the vocabulary
associated with digital technology and
electronic texts.
* Draws on knowledge of word origins to
work out meaning of new words.

Cluster 13
* Applies knowledge of root words and
word origins to understand the meaning
of new subject specific words.
* Uses technical vocabulary to explain a
complex concept or phenomenon.
* Selects appropriate vocabulary in
response to context, purpose and
audience.
* Uses a combination of effective
strategies to work out the meaning of
unknown words.

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

Cluster 15

Cluster 13
Cluster 14
* Applies knowledge of non-English
words to infer meaning of unfamiliar
words.
* Uses specialised vocabulary for subject
specific concepts and processes.

Cluster 14
Cluster 15
* Develops deep knowledge about word
meaning in relation to context.
* Uses a range of vocabulary for
precision, clarity, cohesion and effect.
* Explores and uses vocabulary to

Cluster 15
Cluster 16
* Uses effective vocabulary to convey
deep knowledge and understanding.
* Uses and interprets complex, formal,
impersonal language in academic texts.
* Builds an increasingly comprehensive

* Selects vocabulary that expresses


feelings, opinions and judgements.
* Demonstrates an understanding of
nuances and subtleties in words of
similar meaning.
* Demonstrates deliberate choice of
words considering purpose, audience,
context, subject knowledge and
reference resources to clarify meaning.

enhance meaning and create impact.


* Integrates a range of word learning
strategies to determine meaning of
unfamiliar vocabulary.

vocabulary.
* Demonstrates self-reliance in
exploration and application of word
learning strategies.

Aspects of Writing
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Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

2nd cluster (BS 1)


* Clear attempt to write name (may not
be correct spelling). Writes at least one
recognisable word (may not be spelled
correctly) related to a story book that
has been read to them or a picture they
have drawn. 'Writes' from left to right
and leaves spaces between words.
*Attempts to form some letters.
*Talks about intended 'writing' before
attempting to 'write'.
*Talks about own writing and drawing.
*Experiments with computer mouse and
keyboard.

3rd cluster (BS 2)


* Writes first name correctly. Writes a
recognisable sentence, words may not
be spelled correctly, some evidence of
sentence punctuation.
*Draws on both personal and imaginary
experiences to 'write' texts.
*Shows understanding that their 'writing'
conveys meaning.
*Vocalises words to approximate
spelling.
*Begins to develop a simple writing
vocabulary, including some high
frequency words and words of personal
significance.
*Uses simple noun groups and adverbial
phases when writing.
*Begins to demonstrate understanding
of pencil grip, paper placement and
posture.
*Experiments with creating simple texts
on the computer.

4th cluster (BS 3)


* Writes one or more simple sentences;
some words spelled correctly, most
letters formed correctly and evidence of
sentence punctuation.
*Writes to express one or two ideas.
*Reads own text aloud to check that it
makes sense to others.
*Talks about the audience and purpose
for texts being written.
*Attempts to spell high frequency words
that have been taught.
*Produces some compound sentences
using conjunctions to join ideas.
*Uses simple pronoun references.
*Forms most letters correctly.
*Uses correct pencil grip paper
placement, posture and knows how to
self-correct.
*With support, uses computer software
programs to create simple texts.

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

5th cluster
*Selects vocabulary and phrases
modelled by the teacher during whole
class planning to construct own text.
*Engages in the joint production of texts
using a variety of mediums, e.g.
podcasts, digital stories.
*Draws on personal experiences and
topic knowledge to create texts of about
4-5 sentences for a range of purposes.
*Rereads own text to clarify meaning

6th cluster
*Creates longer texts supported by
visual information e.g. diagrams, maps,
graphs on familiar topics for known
audiences.
*Begins to use text features such as
headings and paragraphs to organise
information.
*Demonstrates elementary proofreading
and editing, e.g. circles a word that does
not look right.

7th cluster
*Plans texts by making notes, drawing
diagrams, planning sequence of events
or information etc.
*States purpose and intended audience
before creating texts.
*Spells words with regular spelling
patterns correctly and makes plausible
attempts at words with irregular spelling
patterns.
*Applies spelling generalisations when

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and make some changes to the text.


*Uses sentence punctuation and some
simple punctuation.
*Accurately writes simple and compound
sentences.
*Uses a range of adjectives more
information about nouns.
*Writes lower/upper case letters of
consistent size and formation in NSW
Foundation Style.

*Accurately spells an increasing number


of high frequency and topic words.
*Uses simple punctuation, e.g. full stops,
exclamation marks and question marks.
*Writes a sequence of thoughts and
ideas.
*Experiments with using some complex
sentences to enhance writing.
*Uses a refined pencil grip, correct
posture and paper placement to write
more fluently and legibly.
*Uses computer functions to edit texts.

writing.
*Uses contraction apostrophes and
capitals for proper nouns as well as
other simple punctuation.
*Writes short, connected and sequenced
texts to narrate events or convey
information. *Includes different types of
verbs using appropriate tense and
demonstrates subject verb agreement.
*Uses a computer to produce texts with
graphics.

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

8th cluster
*Creates longer texts (at least one page)
that achieve the intended purpose and
are appropriate for less familiar
audiences.
*Experiments with producing/publishing
texts using an increasing range of
mediums and modes.
*Writing shows evidence of revision,
editing and proofreading.
*Demonstrates a range of spelling
strategies to spell unfamiliar words.
*Uses quotation marks for direct speech
and commas in lists.
*Produces a range of grammatically
accurate sentences.
*Fluently writes letters of consistent size
and formation in NSW Foundation Style.

9th cluster
*Constructs well-sequenced imaginative,
informative and persuasive texts using
language appropriate to purpose and
audience.
*Plans and organises ideas using
headings, graphic organisers, questions
and mind maps.
*Rereads texts during and after writing
to check accuracy, consistency of
meaning and fitness for purpose.
*Structures texts using paragraphs
composed of logically grouped
sentences that deal with a particular
aspect of a topic.
*Uses a variety of spelling strategies to
spell high frequency words correctly.
*Uses simple word processing functions
such as spell check, grammar check.
*Chooses verbs, adverbials, nouns and
adjectivals to express specific ideas and
details.
*Uses joined letters of consistent size.
*Experiments with creating simple
multimodal texts using digital text
creation programs.

Cluster 10
* Draws ideas from personal
experiences, other texts and research to
create imaginative, informative and
persuasive texts for different audiences.
* Shows awareness of the need to justify
opinions with supporting evidence.
* Locates resources and accesses
information when planning.
* Rereads and revises text to check and
improve meaning, deleting unnecessary
information or adding new information.
* Creates meaningful sentences using a
variety of sentence beginnings, including
adverbial and adjectival clauses to
create complex sentences.
* Uses sentence and simple punctuation
correctly.
* Uses morphemic, visual, phonic
knowledge and knowledge of prefixes
and suffixes to spell and edit words.
* Uses grammatical features such as
pronouns, conjunctions and connectives
to accurately link ideas and information.
* Consolidates handwriting that is
consistent in form.

*Writing shows evidence of revision,


editing and proofreading.
*Demonstrates a range of spelling
strategies to spell unfamiliar words.
*Uses quotation marks for direct speech
and
commas in lists.
*Produces a range of grammatically
accurate
sentences.
*Fluently writes letters of consistent size
and
formation in NSW Foundation Style.

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 11 : Aspects of Writing


* Writes coherent, structured texts for a
range of purposes and contexts.
* Deliberately structures language in a
way that creates more cohesive
imaginative, informative and persuasive
texts.
* Shows awareness of accurately
acknowledging sources in relevant texts.
* Refines writing in response to
feedback.
* Selects appropriate language for
purpose, e.g. descriptive, persuasive,
topic, technical, evaluative, emotive,
and colloquial.
* Uses topic sentences and appropriately
organises main and subordinate ideas.
* Experiments with using complex
punctuation to engage the reader and
achieve purpose.
* Applies knowledge of generalisations,
meanings of base words and word parts
(prefixes and suffixes) to spell new
words.
* Writes fluently with appropriate size,

Cluster 12
* Writes sustained texts for a wide range
of
purposes.
* Makes choices about the type and form
of
texts, including combinations of forms
and types, to suit purpose and audience.
* Creates well planned, extended texts
that include more complex and detailed
subject
matter and language features such as
nominalisation.
* Critically reflects on effectiveness of
own/others writing and seeks and
responds to feedback from others.
* Selects some sophisticated and subtle
language features, literary devices (e.g.
irony, humour) and grammatical
features (e.g. modality) to engage and
influence an audience.
* Makes sentence level choices (e.g.
short sentences to build tension;
complex sentences to add detail) using a
variety of sentence beginnings and

Cluster 13
* Creates well-structured and sequenced
texts for imaginative and persuasive
purposes.
* Chooses aspects and combinations of
texts to suit particular purposes and
audiences.
* Creates and develops ideas to explore
a concept or theme.
* Uses paragraphing to structure
information and partition events and
ideas.
* Intentionally constructs a variety of
sentence types including complex
sentences for effect.
* Creates texts with appropriate design,
layout and graphics.
* Self-regulates spelling and applies
spelling knowledge and strategies to
spell complex, subject specific
vocabulary.
* Uses correct and appropriate
punctuation to support meaning.
* Uses a range of editing strategies to
improve clarity and consistency of style.

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

slope and spacing.


* Uses word processing programs
confidently and accurately, integrating
various functions.
* Plans and designs more complex multi
modal
texts.

dependent clauses.
* Uses a range of punctuation to
enhance meaning and clarity, including
the use of brackets to enclose additional
information, quotation marks and
commas to indicate clauses.
* Integrates a range of spelling
strategies and conventions to accurately
spell most words, including words of
many syllables.

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

* Uses legible, fluent handwriting style.

Cluster 15

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

Cluster 15

Cluster 14
* Creates texts that incorporate
substantial, elaborated ideas and
themes.
* Uses, monitors and reflects on
planning strategies to enhance the
effectiveness of a text.
* Tailors writing in response to audience,
purpose and context.
* Identifies and explores different
perspectives and points of view.
* Demonstrates coherency by using a
variety of devices that support readers
to link ideas and establish relationships.
* Selects sophisticated grammatical
structures to enhance quality of writing.
* Creates and manipulates texts that
integrate different modes.
* Makes deliberate language choices for
greater precision and technicality.
* Uses a range of complex punctuation
to support clarity and precision of
meaning.
* Correctly references resources.

Cluster 15
* Creates a range of coherent texts for
imaginative, informative and persuasive
purposes.
* Explores challenging ideas and ethical
dilemmas.
* Uses sophisticated grammatical
features to express complex ideas and
concepts.
* Constructs texts that have a variety of
well developed, effective sentences for
clarity and coherence.
* Manipulates language features and
structures to suit context.
* Applies knowledge of word origins to
spell unknown words.
* Uses complex punctuation strategically
for effect.
* Efficiently revises, edits and proofreads
texts to enhance accuracy and quality.

Cluster 16
* Creates sustained texts that develop
complex themes, concepts and ideas.
* Adapts and innovates on familiar text
forms to create distinctive texts.
* Constructs considered arguments that
explore and analyse a range of different
perspectives on complex and
challenging topics.
* Strategically selects from a range of
resources to create multimodal texts
that incorporate sophisticated design
features.
* Demonstrates control of sophisticated
language features and structures.
* Cites references using conventions
appropriate for purpose.

Aspects of Speaking
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 1
Cluster 1
2nd cluster (BS 1)
* Names a favourite character from a
story that has been read. Shows some
changes to pace and volume for
emphasis when speaking. Uses simple
sentences/phrases when speaking.
*Talks to peers and known adults about
personal experiences.

Cluster 4
Cluster 4
5th cluster
*Provides elaboration to questions
seeking further information.
*Recounts events and experiences in
logical sequence.
*Consistently makes relevant
contributions to class discussions and
asks questions to clarify meaning.
*Uses register and tone according to
purpose and audience.
*Listens and responds to instructions,
information and peer opinions.
*Uses interactive skills to show respect
for the contributions of others during
discussions.

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

3rd cluster (BS 2)


* Provides a simple justification for an
opinion about a favourite character from
a story that has been read. Uses some
extended sentences when speaking.
Consistently speaks in an audible, clear
and confident way. Uses pace and
volume for emphasis when speaking.
*Listens and responds to literary and
factual texts read and viewed.
*Begins to use active listening and turntaking when engaging in more extended
conversations and discussions with
peers and known adults.
*Contributes ideas in small groups and
whole class discussions.

4th cluster (BS 3)


* Provides a detailed justification for an
opinion about a favourite character from
a story that has been read.
*Asks relevant questions using correct
word order and intonation.
*Makes brief oral presentations to the
class.
*Begins to adjust register to suit
audience and situation.
*Views and listens to gain information
for a specific purpose.
*Contributes to structured group or pair
activities involving discussion about
familiar texts/topics.
*Articulates most speech sounds,
(exceptions could be: /r/, /v/, /th/).

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 5
6th cluster
*Plans and presents a brief oral
presentation about a topic to a familiar
audience.
*Adjusts register, tone and volume
appropriate to situation.
*Demonstrates attentive listening across
a range of school contexts e.g.,
assemblies, performances.

Cluster 6
7th cluster
*Expresses a point of view about a
text/topic and listens to and
accommodates the viewpoint of others.
*Plans and delivers short oral
presentations on familiar topics for
audiences beyond the immediate
classroom, e.g. report or message.
*Automatically adjusts speech to suit
different audiences, purposes and
situations.
*Demonstrates attentive listening and
viewing for extended periods of time.
*Stays on task and participates
effectively in longer class and group
discussions.

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 9

8th cluster
*Expresses more detailed ideas and
justifies a point of view about a familiar
texts/topics.
*Automatically adjusts speech to suit
familiar audiences, purposes and
situations.
*Communicates confidently with a range
of less familiar audiences for a wider
variety of purposes.
*Contributes to collaborative group
problem solving to complete a task by
questioning, listening and responding to
the ideas of others and making
suggestions.
*Listens and understands a series of
instructions related to a task and
successfully completes the task.

9th cluster
*Plans and delivers oral presentations on
an extended range of topics for
audiences beyond the immediate
classroom, e.g. assembly presentations.
*Enhances presentations by using some
basic oral presentation strategies such
as using notes as prompts, volume and
change in emphasis.
*Discusses the features of different
spoken texts, e.g. formal versus informal
interactions; persuasive versus
informative.
*Contributes relevant ideas to
discussions, asks questions and
rephrases to clarify meaning.
*Listens attentively, makes appropriate
responses to what others say and
constructively builds on the ideas of
others.
*Uses group discussion protocols, e.g.
turn taking.

Cluster 10
* Provides detail and supporting
evidence in a logical manner when
speaking about opinions and ideas.
* Engages an audience when making
oral presentations by using strategies
such as facial expression, gesture, pause
and repetition.
* Adjusts language used for a similar
purpose but different, less familiar
audiences, e.g. recount of same event to
peer/teacher/principal, code switching.
* Listens attentively and responds
appropriately to spoken and multimodal
texts that include unfamiliar ideas and
information.

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 10

Cluster 11

Cluster 12

Cluster 11
* Appropriately questions the viewer
idea put forward, and expresses
disagreement with sensitivity to the
perspective of others.
* Uses multimedia to enhance meaning
when communicating ideas and
information to others.
* Discusses the use of different registers
for different purposes, audiences and
contexts.
* Logically develops arguments and

Cluster 12
* Effectively sustains a point of view
throughout a discussion or debate,
drawing on a range of sources to provide
justification.
* Analyses, synthesises and evaluates
the views and reasons put forward by
others.
* Plans, rehearses and makes
adjustments to oral presentations for
specific purposes and audiences.
* Refines and expands active listening

Cluster 13
* Expresses opinions to others with
increasing confidence.
* Draws on oral techniques for effective
presentations.
* Makes appropriate use of visual and
multimodal elements to support
presentations.
* Reflects on and refines own spoken
language to suit purpose, audience and
context.
* Uses talk to explore understandings of

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

points of view when planning more


formal oral texts such as speeches and
debates.
* Uses active listening strategies such as
rephrasing ideas and clarifying and
repairing breakdowns in communication.

strategies to include strategies such as


challenging others ideas, providing
feedback and support for others.
* Listens attentively to more lengthy and
challenging spoken and multimodal
texts to gather and evaluate key
information.

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

new concepts, ideas and issues.


* Analyses and discusses the structures
and features of spoken texts in subject
contexts.
* Collaborates effectively in pair and
group work when exploring subject
content, concepts and ideas.
* Asks relevant clarifying questions.
* Listens critically to spoken texts to
discuss and support opinions based on
evidence in the text.

Cluster 15

Cluster 13

Cluster 14

Cluster 15

Cluster 14
* Identifies opinions offered by others,
proposes other relevant viewpoints and
extends ideas in a constructive manner.
* Plans, rehearses and revises oral
presentations.
* Explains how a spoken text has
influenced their thinking.
* Adjusts delivery of spoken texts in
response to audience reactions and
expectations.
* Uses oral techniques effectively to
influence audiences.
* Uses formal language to construct
spoken texts for particular purposes and
audiences.
* Applies appropriate protocols for
participation in group work and
discussions.
* Explains and evaluates the effects of a
spoken text on the audience.

Cluster 15 : Aspects of speaking


* Critically responds to spoken texts
using evidence to justify interpretations.
* Engages and appeals to audience by
using language devices.
* Uses appropriate and relevant
terminology when discussing issues,
ideas, opinions.
* Synthesises arguments in a discussion
to confirm, reject or alter personal
opinion.
* Listens to and interprets increasingly
complex spoken texts on challenging
issues and abstract concepts.

Cluster 16
* Convincingly expresses point of view to
persuade or influence audiences.
* Effectively selects language to
establish and develop relationship with
audience.
* Plans, researches, rehearses and
delivers oral presentations on complex
issues in a range of contexts.
* Creates coherent spoken texts for both
informal and formal contexts for
particular purposes and effects.
* Chooses from a repertoire of oral
techniques to engage audience and
enhance message.
* Recognises that language can include
or marginalise groups of people.
* Evaluates self and peer contributions
and participation in collaborative
activities.
* Listens to, identifies and challenges
attitudes, biases and assumptions in
spoken texts.

Phonics
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 4

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 4

2nd cluster (BS 1)


* Identifies two or more letters
that are the same in words.
Identifies some letters that are
the same in more than one
context. Names some letters in
a given word. Says one of the
sounds for letters in a given
word.
*Writes approximate letters for
some sounds.

3rd cluster (BS 2)


* Identifies all letters that are
the same in more than one
context. Names most letters in
a given word. Says some of the
sounds for letters in a given
word.
*Blends up to three sounds in
words when reading.
*Writes letters to correspond
with single letter sounds.

4th cluster (BS 3)


* Names all letters in a word.
Says most sounds in a given
word.
*Spells unknown words
phonetically with most letters in
the correct sequence.
*Recognises, says and writes
names and common sounds of
alphabet.

5th cluster
*Blends initial consonants with
common vowel patterns or word
families.
*Attempts to read more
complex words using
letter/sound knowledge.
*Uses knowledge of letter
clusters and vowel digraphs to
spell unfamiliar words.

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 7

Cluster 8

Cluster 5
6th cluster
* Segments sounds in
consonant clusters to spell
unfamiliar words. Uses familiar
words and letter clusters to
decode words when reading.

Cluster 6

Cluster 7

7th cluster
*Recognises that common
suffixes in words can have
different sounds, e.g. wanted,
talked.
*Understands that sounds can
be represented in various ways
when spelling words, e.g. meet,
meat.

8th cluster
*Knows common sounds for
vowel digraphs and uses
syllabification when
reading/spelling.
*Uses knowledge of word
identification strategies
including blending, segmenting
and letter patterns when
reading/spelling.

Cluster 8
Students do not need further
phonics instruction.

Phonemic Awareness
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Cluster 3

2nd cluster (BS 1)


* Identifies rhyming words on some
occasions. Identifies words that start
with the same initial sound on some
occasions.
*Says the word when teacher models
onset/rime, e.g. teacher says mmmm/at,
child says mat.

3rd cluster (BS 2)


* Consistently identifies words that
rhyme. Consistently identifies words that
start with the same initial sound.
*Provides a word starting with a given
sound.
*Orally blends two and three sounds to
make a word.
*Segments one-syllable words (up to
three sounds) into separate sounds.

4th cluster (BS 3)


Says the new word when asked to delete
one phoneme (phoneme deletion).
*Says the new word by adding a
phoneme to an existing word (phoneme
addition.)

Cluster 4

Cluster 5

Cluster 6

Cluster 4
5th cluster
* Says the new word when one phoneme
is substituted for another (phoneme
substitution).

Cluster 5
6th Cluster
* Manipulates phonemes (add, delete
and swap) to generate new words, e.g.
swap the /p/ in spin with /k/.

Cluster 6
Students do not need further instruction
in phonemic awareness

Concepts about Print


Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Cluster 1
Cluster 1
2nd cluster (BS 1)
* Identifies one or more capital letters
when prompted. Names a full stop.
Identifies a word in print. Identifies a
letter in print. Indicates left to right.
Points to the first word to read. Indicates
return sweep to left at the end of a line
of text.
* Identifies a letter on a keyboard.
* Knows the difference between letters
and numerals.
* Understands that print conveys
meaning
* 'Reads' storybooks beginning at the
front and finishing at the back of the
book.

Cluster 4
Cluster 4
5th cluster
*Understands that punctuation and
capital letters support meaning.

Cluster 2
Cluster 2
3rd cluster (BS 2)
* Names a full stop and knows its
purpose.
* Identifies a capital letter.
* Identifies the first letter in a word.
* Identifies the last letter in a word.
* Reads left page before right.
* Understands that words and the
spaces between words contribute to
meaning.
*Shows awareness of beginning screen
management skills, e.g. scrolling.

Cluster 5
Cluster 5
Students do not need further concepts
about print instruction.

Cluster 3
Cluster 3
4th cluster (BS 3)
* Identifies a number of capital letters.
* Uses capital letters for names.
* Identifies a sentence.
* Understands that words are read the
same way each time.
*Identifies simple screen functionality,
e.g. buttons, menus.

Counting Sequences - Forward Number Word Sequence


Level

Level 0 - Emergent

Level 1 Initial (10)

Level 2 Intermediate
(10)

Level 0 - Emergent

Level 1 Initial (10)

Level 2 Intermediate
(10)

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Counts to 10 but cannot give the


number after.

Level 3 Facile (10)


Level 3 Facile (10)
Counts to 30 and gives the number
after.

Counts to 10 and gives the number after,


but counts from 1.

Counts to 10 and gives the number after.

Level 4 Facile (30)

Level 5 Facile (100)

Level 4 Facile (30)


Counts to 100 and gives the number
after.

Level 5 Facile (100)


Counts to 1000 and gives the number
after.

Counting Sequences - Backward Number Word Sequence


Level

Level 0 - Emergent

Level 1 Initial (10)

Level 2 Intermediate
(10)

Level 0 - Emergent

Level 1 Initial (10)

Level 2 Intermediate
(10)

Counts backwards from 10 and gives the


number before, but counts from 1.

Counts backwards from 10 and gives the


number before without dropping back.

Level 4 Facile (30)

Level 5 Facile (100)

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Counts backwards from 10-1.

Level 3 Facile (10)


Level 3 Facile (10)
Counts backwards from 30 and gives the
number before without dropping back.

Level 4 Facile (30)


Counts backwards from 100 and gives
the number before.

Level 5 Facile (100)


Counts backwards from a given threedigit number.

Counting Sequences Numeral Identification


Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level 0 - Emergent
Level 0 - Emergent
Identifies all the numerals 1-10.

Level 3 1-100
Level 3 1-100
Identifies the numerals 1-1000.

Level 1 1-10
Level 1 1-10
Identifies all the numerals 1-20.

Level 4 1-1000
Level 4 1-1000
Identifies numerals in the range 1-10000

Level 2 1-20
Level 2 1-20
Identifies the numerals 1-100.

Level 5 1-10000
Level 5 1-10000
Identifies numerals of any size

Level

Counting Sequences Counting By 10s and 100s


Level 0 - Learning to
Level 1 - Initial
Level 2 - Off decade
count by 10s and
Counts by 10s and
counting
100s
100s

Level 3 - Off
hundred counting

Student Names
Level

Level 0 - Learning to
count by 10s and
100s

Level 1 - Initial
Counts by 10s and
100s

Where
to
Next?

Counts forwards and backwards


by 10s to 100. Counts forwards
and backwards by 100s to
1000.

Counts forwards and backwards


by 10s and 5s, off the decade to
100, e.g.2, 12, 22 ...92.

Level 2 - Off decade


counting

Level 3 - Off
hundred counting

Counts forwards and backwards


by 10s, off the decade in the
range of
1-100, e.g. 367, 377, 387, ...
Counts forwards and backwards
by 100s, off the 100, on or off
the decade to 10,000, e.g. 24,
124, 224 ... 924.

Counts forwards and backwards


by 10s and 100s off
the decade or the hundred to or
from any number.

Early Arithmetical Strategies


Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level

Level 0 - Emergent
Level 0 - Emergent
Counts visible items and builds and
subtracts numbers by using materials to
represent each number to find the total
count.

Level 1 - Perceptual
Level 1 - Perceptual
Counts concealed items and visualises
the items that cannot be seen. Counts
from one.

Level 4 Counting On and


Back

Level 5 - Facile

Level 4 Counting On and


Back

Level 5 - Facile

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Uses known facts and other non-countby one strategies, e.g. compensation, to
solve problems.

Uses known facts and other non-countby one strategies, e.g. doubles,
partitioning, to solve problems.

Level 3 Figurative
Level 3 Figurative
Counts on or back to solve problems. A
number takes the place of a completed
count.

Pattern and Number Structure


Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level

Level 0 - Emergent
Level 0 - Emergent
Subitises two.

Level 3 - Multiple
Level 3 - Multiple
Creates a pattern of repeated units and
supplies the missing elements of a
pattern.

Level 6 - Number
properties

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level 6 - Number
properties
Uses symbols to represent
number properties e.g.x + y =
y + x.

Level 1 - Instant
Level 1 - Instant

Level 2 - Repeated
Level 2 - Repeated

Recognises, describes and continues a


repeated pattern of two.

Creates a pattern of repeated units of a


specified size.

Level 4 - Part-whole to 10

Level 5 - Part-whole to 20

Level 4 - Part-whole to 10

Level 5 - Part-whole to 20

Knows number combinations to 20 and


how many more are needed to make 20.

Uses mental strategies to determine


how many more are needed to make
100.

Place Value
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level

Level 0 - Ten as a Count

Level 1 - Ten as a Unit

Level 2 - Tens and Ones

Level 0 - Ten as a Count

Level 1 - Ten as a Unit

Level 2 - Tens and Ones

Can coordinate counting by tens and


ones from the middle of the decade to
find the total or difference of two 2-digit
numbers.

Can solve addition and subtraction


problems mentally using the structure of
tens and ones without a need to
reconstruct the written algorithm.

Can mentally add and subtract


reasonable combinations of numbers to
1000.

Level 3 - Hundreds, Tens


and Ones

Level 4 - Decimal Place


Value

Level 5 - System Place


Value

Level 3 - Hundreds, Tens


and Ones

Level 4 - Decimal Place


Value

Level 5 - System Place


Value

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Uses and understands simple decimals


(to two places), e.g.0.8 is larger that
0.75

Recognises that numbers can be


extended indefinitely in two directions to the left and right of the decimal point.

Understands that numbers can be


positive or negative.

Multiplication and Division


Level

Level 0 Learning to
Make Equal Groups

Level 1 Forming Equal


Groups

Level 2 Perceptual
Multiples

Level 0 Learning to
Make Equal Groups

Level 1 Forming Equal


Groups

Level 2 Perceptual
Multiples

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Uses perceptual counting by ones and


sharing to form groups. Counts each
item in the group by ones.

Uses groups or multiples in perceptual


counting and sharing e.g. rhythmic or
skip counting. Cannot deal with
concealed items.

Equal grouping and counting without


individual times visible. Relies on
perceptual markers to represent each
group.

Level 3 Figurative Units

Level 4 Repeated
Abstract Units

Level 5 Multiplication
and Division and
Operations

Level

Level 3 Figurative Units

Level 4 Repeated
Abstract Units

Level 5 Multiplication
and Division and
Operations

Where
to
Next?

Can use composite units in repeated


addition and subtraction using the unit a
specified number of times. May use skip
counting or a double count.

Level
Student Names

Can coordinate two composite units as


an operation e.g. 3 sixes, 6 times 3 is
18. Uses multiplication and division as
inverse operations flexibly.

Fractions
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?
Level
Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Level 0 Emergent
Partitioning
Forms halves and quarters by repeated
halving.

Level 3 Reforms the


Whole
Can make and recognise equivalent
fractions, e.g. 1/3 = 2/6. Can find sixths
from 1/2 and 1/3.

Level 1 - Having

Investigates thirds and fifths of a whole.

Level 4 Multiplicative
Partitioning
Compares fractional parts and
recognises the need for an equal whole
to do this. Uses fractions as numbers,
e.g. 1/3 is greater than 1/4.

Level 2 Equal Partitions

Recognises that fractional parts can go


beyond one whole, e.g. 4 equal thirds
can be 1 whole and 1 third.

Level 5 Fractions as
Numbers
Uses fractions and decimals to find an
answer to a problem.

Measurement
Level

Level 0 Emergent
Structure

Level 1 Direct Alignment

Level 2 Transitive
Comparison

Level 0 Emergent
Structure

Level 1 Direct Alignment

Level 2 Transitive
Comparison

Student Names
Level
Where
to
Next?

Correctly compares two objects by


placing the objects next to each other.

Correctly compares the size of three or


more objects. Can use the size of one of
the objects to compare the two other
objects.

Uses a number of the same sized and


type of items e.g. pegs or paper clips, to
measure an object. Understands that the
items should be lined up at the same
starting point when comparing lengths.

Level 3 Multiple Units

Level 4 Indirect
Comparison

Level 5 Iterates the Unit

Level

Level 3 Multiple Units

Level 4 Indirect
Comparison

Level 5 Iterates the Unit

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Uses a number of the same sized and


type of items e.g. pegs or paper clips, to
compare the length of two objects.
Understands that the longer the
measuring item the fewer number of
items are needed.

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Level 6 Composite Area

Level
Student Names

Level 6 Composite Area


Understands that volume is made by
putting identical layers (areas) on top of
each other.

Uses a single item repeatedly to


measure a length. Understand that if
you halve the measuring item, you will
need twice as many items to measure.

Level 7 Repeated Layers


Level 7 Repeated Layers
Using efficient methods to determine
perimeter or area of rectangles and
squares as well as the volume of cubes
and rectangular prisms.

Understands that putting identical


shapes next to each other, without gaps
or overlaps, makes a row and that
repeating the row will form an area.