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ATP Exam A320 Part I / Seif Mostafa ElSebai (Questions are highlighted)

English Test

Warm-up questions

1. Speeds and Takeoff

a. Define the following Takeoff speeds:
i. VMCG: Velocity of Minimum Control on Ground
The minimum speed at which an aircraft is defined to be controllable
(lateral excursion lower than 30
ft) via rudder action after an engine failure on ground. Mainly depends on
engine thrust, thrust moment
(lateral position of thrust vector by reference to the CoG), pressure altitude.
Operational use: Per regulations. If a failure occurs before reaching VMCG,
the takeoff must be
interrupted (note: setting thrust to idle on the remaining operative engine in
case of failure will rapidly
restore lateral control)
V1: Decision Speed
The maximum speed at which a rejected takeoff can be initiated in the event
of an emergency. Also the
minimum speed at which a pilot can continue a takeoff after an engine
Operational use: Go/No-Go decision speed; V1 is the maximum speed at
which the crew is ensured to
stop the aircraft within the limits of the runway. If an engine failure is
detected after V1, the takeoff
must be continued. This implies that the aircraft must be controllable on
ground. Therefore V1 is always
greater than VMCG. (note: the time taken into account between engine
failure and pilot recognition is 1
second). V1 speed is entered by the crew in the MCDU during flight
preparation and is represented by a
1 on the speed scale of the PFD during takeoff acceleration.
VMU: Velocity of Minimum Unstick
The speed at which the aircraft first lifts off while pitching the aircraft up to
the maximum (tail on the
runway for aircrafts that are geometrically-limited, all A3xx except the A318)
Operational use: None (certification only)
VR: Rotation Speed
The speed at which the pilot initiates the rotation at the appropriate rate
(about 3/s)

Operational use: Rotation initiation. The rotation speed ensures that, in the
case of an engine failure, liftoff is still possible and V2 is reached at 35 ft at
the latest. Note: may not be less than V1 and 1.05 VMCA.
VR is entered in the MCDU by the crew during the flight preparation
VLOF: Lift Off Speed
The calibrated airspeed at which, during the rotation phase, aircraft first
becomes airborne (lift
weight). May not be less than 110% of VMU in the all-engines operating
conditions (108% for Airbus that
are geometrically limited)
Operational use: Only an aerodynamical parameter
V2: Takeoff Safety Speed
The minimum speed that needs to be maintained up to acceleration altitude
in the event of an engine
Operational use: Flight at V2 ensures that the minimum required climb
gradient is achieved and that the
aircraft is controllable (++). Always greater than VMCA. Must be reached at
35 ft above runway at the
latest. Must be entered by the crew during flight preparation and is
represented by a magenta triangle
on the speed scale In normal operative TO, V2+10 provides a better climb
VMCA: Velocity of Minimum Control in the Air
The minimum speed at which full ruder action associated to a 5-degree bank
angle (on the live engines
side) will make possible to fly a constant heading in case of engine failure
causing thrust asymmetry
Operational use: Ensures a constant heading can be maintained in case of
engine failure
b. Which of these speeds shall be entered by the crew during flight preparation?
Explain how they are displayed on Airbus PFD
i. V1, Vr, V2

a. What stands ETOPS180 for?
b. How can an air company gain ETOPS certification?
i. Max 2 engine fails during the last 100.000h flight hours with this a/c and
engine type
ii. Aircraft modification (see c.)
c. What modifications (at least 2) must an a/c have to gain ETOPS certification
i. Starter cooling equip within the engines
ii. Defibrillators
iii. Extra oxygen
iv. Cabin crew special training

3. When using GPU/PPU for engine start at the gate, where should the
GPU be placed? Why? (FCTM 040 Taxi)
a. Left hand side of a/c
b. Engine 2 should be started first to power up yellow hyd system (Parking Brake) and
green hyd sys (Nose wheel steering and PTU)
c. If taxiing only with one engine, which engine should be running / shut down and
i. Engine 1 should be running to maintain green hyd system for NWS and
ii. Yellow system electrical pump should be on (ALT/PARK BRK) and to avoid
PTU operation

4. When should a go around be initiated? (Name at least 3 reasons) (FCTM

170 Go Around)
i. There is a loss or a doubt about situation awareness
ii. If there is a malfunction which jeopardizes the safe completion of the
approach e.g. major navigation problem
iii. ATC changes the final approach clearance resulting in rushed action from the
crew or potentially unstable approach
iv. The approach is unstable in speed, altitude, and flight path in such a way that
stability will not be obtained by 1000 ft IMC or 500 ft VMC.
v. Any GPWS, TCAS or windshears alert occur
vi. Adequate visual cues are not obtained reaching the minima
b. How is a go around executed within the A320 and what happens on the ND when
FADEC detects the go around setting?
i. T/L to TO/GA
ii. Flap 1 or greater
iii. MAP flightplan will become the active flightplan

5. You enter a runway for backtrack (See picture below) With no turn
surface available, are you able to turn your Airbus 180 at the end of
the RWY for takeoff using asymmetric thrust? (Runway is dry)
i. Yes. 8 piano keys indicate a with of 100 ft.
ii. Airbus FCTM 02.040 Normal operations / Taxi indicate a min RWY with
necessary of 99 ft for a half turn using asymmetric thrust.

1. Calculation
Ref: Airbus In Flight Performance
QRH 4.02 / Rev 38 SEQ 230
1. You are approaching EDLW RWY 24.
a. You plan a landing with conf 3, landing manually (No Autoland)
b. Landing weight will be 60 tons
c. Auto brake is inoperative
d. Runway covered with compacted snow
e. Just prior to touchdown you see your IAS is 10 Kt higher than planned
Can you land on that runway?
Answer is NO
LDA RWY24 EDLW is 1700m
LDR conf 3 with 60 tons LW is 1530m on compacted snow
Adding 16% due to 10 kt higher touchdownspeed makes 1530m * 1,16 = 1774,8m

2. Calculation
You are planning a flight from Dusseldorf (EDDL) to Sharm el Sheikh (HESH) with tourists. Dispatch
relays the flight plan to you:
-N0452F370 COL UZ738 RIDSU UL607 MOMUK Y326 BEMKI Z999
EET/EDUU0013 LOVV0043 LIMM0049 LDZO0105 LYBA0146 LAAA0152 LGGG0207
HECC0321 RVR/75
The ground distance is stated with 1950 NM. Dispatch tells you to expect a headwind component of
50 knots over the flight in diameter.
1950 NM + 50 kt headwing = ~ 2250 NM flight distance