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Manifold location inside an afterburner

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Você está na página 1de 7

of the 37th

& 4th International

Conference

on Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid

Power

Proceedings of the

37th National

& 4National

th International

Conference

on Fluid

andand

Fluid

Power

December 16-18, 2010, IIT Madras, Chennai, India.

December 16-18, 2010, IIT Madras, Chennai, India

FMFP10 - CR

- 06

FMFP2010

547

AFTERBURNER

N Maheswara Reddy

Dept of Aerospace Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology

Madras

Chennai 600 036, India

mahesh_jayam@yahoo.com

E G Tulapurkara

Dept of Aerospace Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology

Madras

Chennai 600 036, India

egt@ae.iitm.ac.in

V Ganesan

Dept of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology

Madras

Chennai 600 036, India

vganesan@iitm.ac.in

afterburner is located in a jet pipe downstream of

turbine. The real flow inside afterburner is highly

complex due to presence of struts, diffuser, fuel

manifolds, flame stabilizer, screech holes and

cooling holes (Fig. 1). The flow is turbulent in

nature and has high-pressure gradients and

recirculation. The afterburner works in two modes afterburning and non-afterburning. Analyses of

non-reacting flow and reacting flows have been

presented by Maheshwara Reddy et al. (2008,2009).

In this paper we use the computation technique to

optimize the location of the manifold in the

afterburner.

Ravichandran and Ganesan (1994) conducted

experimental and numerical investigations of threedimensional flow fields in an isothermal model

after burner. Ravichandran and Ganesan (1996)

computed the three-dimensional flow fields and

confirmed the capability of a code based on

SIMPLE algorithm to handle this flow situation.

Most of the previous investigations e.g. Rajkumar

and Ganesan (2003) are restricted to investigation

of simple geometries and ignore the effect of struts,

V-gutter brackets etc and are limited to 600 sector of

afterburner.

As regards the investigations of reacting flows,

Zhang et. al. (1987) developed a numerical method

and a computer code for modeling afterburner spray

combustion based on the Navier- Stokes equations

and finite difference method. The problem was

considered as two-dimensional, axisymmetric flow.

Modified k-! and hybrid eddy break up models

were used to account for the turbulence and

ABSTRACT

An afterburner is used in the engines of military

aircraft as a thrust-augmenting device during

operations like take off, steep climb, quick

acceleration and steep turns. The afterburner is

located in a jet pipe downstream of turbine. The

flow inside an afterburner is highly complex due to

presence of struts, diffuser, fuel manifolds, flame

stabilizer, screech holes and cooling holes. The

flow is turbulent in nature and has high-pressure

gradients and recirculation.

The locations of the fuel manifolds are crucial for

the combustion to be complete and for low levels of

CO emissions. In the present investigation, an

existing afterburner with four fuel manifolds is

considered. The locations of the two inner

manifolds are varied and analysis is carried in ten

different cases. The FLUENT software, with RNG

k-! model for turbulence and PDF model for

combustion is used. The air-fuel ratio is taken as

25:1. The results show that with suitable locations

of the inner manifolds, the concentration of CO

could be reduced from nearly 3700 ppm to 56 ppm.

Keywords : Jet engine; afterburner; reacting flow;

optimization

INTRODUCTION

An afterburner is used in the engines of military

aircraft as a thrust-augmenting device during

operations like take-off, steep climb, quick

acceleration and steep turns. The advantage of an

afterburner is that the weight of the augmented

engine is much less than the weight of turbojet

agreement between the model and the test results

for NOx and CO levels and lack agreement on CO2

due to poor sampling method in combustor. There

is a reduction in the average values of NOx with the

progressive fuel admission in afterburner and the

predicted levels of CO2 and CO match with the

estimated values.

Unaune and Ganesan (2004) carried out reacting

flow analysis in an afterburner using computational

fluid dynamics (CFD). A 600 sector of afterburner is

considered for the analysis. Numerical calculations

are performed using SIMPLE algorithm and RNG

k-!" #$%&'" ()" *)&%" +$," -*,.*'&/0&1" 23&" 0$#.*)-($/"

phenomenon is modeled using probability density

function (PDF) approach. The study revealed that

the pressure loss reduces for leaner mixtures

whereas the pattern factor increases with increase in

air-fuel ratio. Most of the previous investigations

e.g. Rajkumar and Ganesan (2003) and Unaune and

Ganesan (2004) are restricted to investigation of

simple geometries and ignore the effect of struts in

diffuser, V-gutter brackets, metering holes in

bypass region etc. The effect of core inlet swirl is

also neglected. Unaune and Ganesan (2004) have

not considered the effect of compressibility in

reacting flow analysis. In the present analysis all

these effects are taken into account. FLUENT

software is used as a computational platform.

Pressure linked Equations Revised) method

(Patankar (1980)) to solve gas phase conservation

equations and the DROPLET procedure (Patankar

(1980)) for droplet equations were adopted. A solid

triangular bluff-body was considered as flame

holder.

Shu-Hao Chuang and Jiunn-Shean Jiang (1990)

analyzed the diffusion flame of an afterburner as a

function of the air-fuel ratio by employing the

SIMPLE-C algorithm and the turbulence k-! model.

Numerical analysis assumed the flow to be twodimensional axisymmetric, steady state, one-step

chemical reaction with infinitely fast reaction rate

and single phase. Results of the analysis conducted

for various air-fuel ratios showed that the

recirculation zone pattern behind the flame holder is

weakly dependent on air-fuel ratio. Better

combustion efficiency of an afterburner with two

V-gutter flame holders is obtained in a slightly fuellean condition.

Ramana Reddy et.al. (1994) carried out numerical

study of four different combustion models, namely

Arrhenius model, eddy break-up model, k-!-g

model and eddy break-up model with predefined

combustion zone for afterburner combustion. The

results of the flow simulation behind a V-gutter by

the code PHOENICS were in good agreement with

the available experimental data and hence the code

has been used further to simulate afterburner

combustion. The results showed that the Arrhenius

model predicts high reaction rates everywhere and

initiates combustion even before the V-gutter. The

eddy break model and k-!-g model predict

combustion near the V-gutter, the predictions were

in accordance with the expected trends. The eddy

break-up model, which does not need an extra

conservation equation for g, as in case of the k-!-g

model, yields nearly similar results, and can be used

for simulating afterburner combustion.

Haran et.al (1996) attempted to measure and predict

the emission levels during afterburning. The

existing program for constant pressure combustion

calculation in hydro-carbon-air system was used

with modifications for predicting emissions from

TF30-P-3 engine afterburner. The modifications

were based on combustor and afterburner models

and the predicted emission results were comparable

GENERATION

Figure 1 shows the geometry of the afterburner with

details such as core inlet, bypass inlet, struts (8

numbers), fuel manifolds (4 numbers), flame

stabilizer, screech holes, cooling holes and C-D

nozzle. The flame holder has 18 top radial gutters

and 6 bottom radial gutters connected by a ring

gutter. The radial gutters are inclined at 150 to

vertical and the include angle of V in all gutter is

300. Five hundred and sixty seven holes of 6.4 mm

diameter are present in screech rings and two

hundred and thirty four holes of same diameter are

present in four cooling rings. Twelve metering

holes are present to maintain flow through screech

holes and cooling holes during afterburning and

non-afterburning modes. Ten block unstructured

grid has been created using GAMBIT software.

domain after the grid independence study involving

1.425, 1.719 and 2.105 million cells. Fine mesh is

employed near the flame stabilizer where large

gradients in flow variables are expected. Actual

dimensions are not given owing to proprietary

nature of geometry.

y

x

Fig. 1 1800 sector of computational domain with 1.7

million tetrahedral cells

Fuel is injected against exhaust gas flow coming

from turbine through the small diameter orifices

located on ring manifolds such that the liquid jet

enters the gas stream in a transverse direction.

During the penetration process, the air stream tears

the jet apart and small droplets are generated with

diameters typically in the range of 10-100 microns.

Heat transfer from the hot gas stream vaporizes the

small droplets.

Four manifolds are present for supplying fuel and

these are located ahead the V-gutter (cyan color) as

shown in Fig. 2. Manifold number 1 (green color)

is the innermost manifold and is located to ensure

fuel supply to all inner radial gutters. Manifold

number 2 (purple color) is located right behind the

ring gutter to ensure the fuel supply to the wake

region of the ring gutter. Manifolds. No. 3 and No.

4 are located so as to ensure fuel supply to the outer

radial gutters and the space in between. Figure 3

shows the locations of the fuel manifolds in the

midplane of the afterburner.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Core Inlet: Mass flow rate (for 1800 sector) = 43.37

kg/s, Total temperature = 1040 K,

Turbulence intensity = 10 %

Bypass inlet: Mass flow rate (for 1800 sector) = 9.2

kg/s, Total temperature = 517 K, Turbulence

intensity = 5 %

Outlet: Sea level atmospheric pressure = 1.01353

bar

Walls: Adiabatic no-slip boundary condition is

applied on struts, fuel manifolds, gutter and liner.

Interior: To simulate the flow through screech holes

and cooling holes, they are specified as interior

boundary condition (see FLUENT Users guide,

section 6.1.1).

COMPUTATIONAL DETAILS

The flow has been simulated by solving the time

averaged conservation equations for mass,

momentum and energy along with RNG k-! model

and PDF model for combustion. The equations are

omitted for the sake of brevity [see Maheswara

Reddy (2004) for details]. This set of equations has

FLUENT 6 solver.

VALIDATION

For validation purpose the experimental results in a

model afterburner (Ravichandran and Ganesan,

1994) are computed. The model afterburner has a

conical diffuser with an extension pipe of diameter

(D) 200 mm. The V- gutter is placed inside the

pipe. The bulk mean velocity U0 (9.8 m/s) is the

average axial velocity at the inlet of the test section.

Uo and D/2 are used as reference quantities.

1,59,065 tetrahedral cells are employed.

Comparison between computed and experimental

data for the axial velocity profiles in the 30" plane

at distances of x = 70 mm, 80 mm, 90 mm, 105

mm, 120 mm and 240 mm for non-reacting case are

shown in Fig.4. Reasonable agreement between

predicted and experimental data (black color

squares) can be seen. Figure 4 also shows the

results of Suresh and Ganesan (2001) who

employed RNG k-!"#$%&'1"It is seen that RNG k-!"

model (blue color line) gives closer comparison

with experiments. With this confidence the same

code has been used for computation of flow in a

real afterburner and to examine the optimum

location of the fuel manifolds.

Fuel used

: C12H23 (Kerosene)

Sauter mean

diameter

: 25:1

Type of injection

Injection

temperature

: 1000C

: 60 m

Upstream axial 300 cone

spray

non-reacting flow in the afterburner. Maheswara

Reddy et. al. (2009) present results for reacting flow

in the same configuration. Figures 5 and 6 show the

fuel mass flow fraction and total temperature in the

midplane of the original configuration.

Original configuration

radius of pipe at 30o plane

Fig. 6 Plot of Total Temperature (K) at mid plane

for 25:1 Air-fuel ratio Original configuration

The geometry of the afterburner is described in

earlier sections. The fuel injection parameters

specified for 1800 sector of afterburner are:

stations in the afterburner. Numerical results

indicate that the mass fraction of CO at the outlet

Hence, attempts are made in this investigation to

reduce it.

position is found to be the optimum among all the

selected locations. Some details are available in

Maheswara Reddy (2004).

along length of Afterburner for 25:1 Air-fuel ratio

Original configuration

It is seen from Fig.5 that more fuel is trapped near

the axis. Figure 3 shows that fuel manifolds 1 and 2

are located in a region where the flow turns towards

the axis. To gain more insight, the particle trances

from various manifolds are examined. Figure 8

shows the particle traces for manifolds 1 and 2 and

Fig.9 for those from 3 and 4. It is seen that the fuel

injected from manifolds 1 and 2 drift towards

afterburner axis as the flow turns towards the axis

due to the curved shape of the diffuser. The fuel

injected from manifolds 3 and 4 moves parallel to

the afterburner axis (see also Fig.3). These

observations suggest that manifolds 1 and 2 need to

be shifted from their original positions.

Six different locations of No.2 manifold from the

original position were selected for the analysis,

which include (i) 5 mm radial shift i.e. mean

diameter is increased by 5 mm, (ii) 10 mm radial

shift i.e. mean diameter is increased by 10 mm, (iii)

10 mm axial shift, (iv) 20 mm axial shift, (v) 20

mm axial and 5 mm radial shift i.e. mean diameter

is increased by 5 mm from the 10 mm axial shift

and (vi) 20 mm axial and 10 mm radial shift i.e.

mean diameter is increased by 10 mm from the 20

mm axial shift. These locations are shown in

Fig.10.

The fuel distribution for all the above cases is

studied. Fuel is not injected from the no.1 manifold

during the above analysis in order to see the effect

Four different locations of No.1 manifold were

selected for the analysis which include (i) 10 mm

axial shift, (ii) 20 mm axial shift, (iii) 10 mm axial

parameters at different sections along the length of

afterburner

increased by 10 mm from the 10 mm axial shift and

(iv) 20 mm axial and 10 mm radial shift i.e. mean

diameter is increased by 10 mm from the 20 mm

axial shift. These locations are shown in Fig. 11.

Total

pressure Original

loss (%)

configuration

In core region

25.59

In bypass region

15.7

Velocity (m/s) at

916

nozzle exit

Mach number at

1.316

nozzle exit

Total temperature (K)

At core inlet

1061

Just next to struts

1061

After

the

1819

manifolds

After the gutter

1954

End of screech

1923

holes

Just at entry to

1890

nozzle

At outlet

1810

CO mass fraction (ppm)

At core inlet

0.06

Just next to struts

0.0325

After

the

21138

manifolds

After the gutter

11734

End of screech

8699

holes

Just at entry to

6062

nozzle

At outlet

3722

The fuel distribution for all the four cases has been

studied. The optimized location of No.2 manifold is

taken into account in this study. Among four

locations the fourth position is found to be the

optimum location.

Detailed computations were carried out with

manifolds 1 and 2 in their optimum positions.

Figures 12, 13 and 14 show the fuel mass fraction,

total temperature and CO mass fraction in mid

plane respectively. The mass weighted average

values of various parameters at different sections

along the length of afterburner and the nozzle are

presented in Table 1. It is observed that the velocity

and total temperature at the nozzle exit are slightly

higher for the optimized configuration as compared

to the original one. The CO mass fraction has

dramatically decreased to 56 ppm from 3722 ppm

for the original.

Optimized

configuration

25.3

15.4

924

1.314

1061

1061

1838

1995

1959

1929

1843

0.054

0.029

18938

9088

4831

1600

56

with optimized locations of manifolds No.1 and

No.2

with optimized locations of manifolds No.1 and

No.2

and reacting flows in an aero gas turbine engine

afterburner. MS Thesis, IIT Madras.

Maheswara Reddy, N., Tulapurkara, E. G. and

Ganesan, V., 2008. Aerodynamic analysis of flow

inside an aero engine afterburner. Proc of 35th Nat.

Conf on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, Dec.1113, 2008, Bangalore, pp.733-738

Maheswara Reddy, N., Tulapurkara, E. G. and

Ganesan, V., 2009. Analysis of the reacting flow

inside a jet engine afterburner. Proc of 36th Nat.

Conf on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, Dec.1719, 2009, Pune, 84-ANT-pp.17.1-17.9.

Patankar, S. V., 1980. Numerical heat transfer and

fluid flow. Hemisphere Publishers, Washington D.

C.

Rajkumar, M. and Ganesan, V., 2003. Analysis of

non-reacting flow in an aircraft gas turbine

afterburner using finite volume method. Indian

Journal of Engineering & Material Science, 10,

341-352.

Ramana Reddy, M.V., Shembarkar, T. R. and J. J.

Isaac, 1994. Numerical simulation of combustion in

an afterburner. NCABE94, 40-50

Ravichandran M and Ganesan V., 1994.

Aerodynamic flow investigations in an isothermal

model of an afterburner. Experiments in Fluids 17,

59-67

Ravichandran M and Ganesan V., 1996. Isothermal

flow field modelling of gas turbine afterburners. IE

(I) Journal- MC, 77, 67-75.

Shu-Hao Chuang and Jiunn-Shean Jiang, 1990.

Diffusion flame analysis of an afterburner as a

function of the air-fuel ratio, International Journal

for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 11, 303-316.

Suresh D and Ganesan V., 2001. Modeling of

isothermal and reacting flows in an afterburner. 2nd

international SAE India Mobility Conference, IIT

Madras, Chennai, 173-178.

Unaune, S. V. and V. Ganesan., 2004, Flow field

studies in an afterburner. IE (I) Journal-MC, 84,

165-170.

Zhang, X. and H. Chiu., 1987. Numerical modeling

of afterburner combustion. International Journal of

Turbo and Jet Engines, 4, 251-262

optimized locations of manifolds No.1 and No.2

Comparing Figs.5 & 12, 6 &13 and 7 & 14, the

following can be observed as the result of changed

location of manifolds 1 and 2. The influence of the

curved walls of the diffuser is reduced and the fuel

injected from the manifolds 1 and 2 also moves

nearly parallel to the afterburner axis. Hence the

fuel mass fraction is almost uniform over most of

afterburner. The combustion is almost complete and

mass fraction of CO reduced to minimum.

CONCLUSIONS

The reacting flow inside a jet engine afterburner is

analyzed using FLUENT software with RNG k!#model of turbulence and PDF model for

combustion. With given locations of the fuel

manifolds, the CO mass fraction was found to be

high. It was noticed that the curved wall of the

diffuser was influencing the trajectory of the fuel

injected from the inner manifolds. When the

locations of the inner two manifolds were shifted

so that the fuel mass fraction is almost uniform

along the afterburner, the combustion is almost

complete and CO mass fractions reduces to a

minimum.

REFERENCES

FLUENT 6, Users Guide Volumes, Fluent

Incorporated.

Haran, A. P., Parminder Singh, Antonio Davis, and

V. Suresh. 1996. Aerodynamic design tool for

afterburner. NCABE 96.

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