Você está na página 1de 307

The Clash

The Complete Guide

Contents
1

Background

1.1

Punk rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Precursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.3

Early history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.4

Second wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.1.5

Schism and diversication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.1.6

Legacy and later developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.1.7

Revival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.1.8

In the mainstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.1.9

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.1.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.1.11 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.1.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

Main article

34

2.1

The Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

2.1.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

2.1.2

Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

2.1.3

Legacy and inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

2.1.4

Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

2.1.5

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.1.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.1.7

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.1.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

2.1.9

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

2.1.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

The members

47

3.1

Joe Strummer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

3.1.1

Biography and career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

3.1.2

Marriages and relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

3.1.3

Documentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

ii

CONTENTS

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.1.4

Musical equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

3.1.5

Mural in New York City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.6

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.7

Selected lmography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.8

In other media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

3.1.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

3.1.10 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.1.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Mick Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.2.1

Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.2.2

The Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3.2.3

General Public . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

3.2.4

Big Audio Dynamite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

3.2.5

Recent projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

3.2.6

Musical equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

3.2.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

3.2.8

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

3.2.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

Paul Simonon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

3.3.1

Biography/History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

3.3.2

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

3.3.3

Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

3.3.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

3.3.5

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

3.3.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

Topper Headon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

3.4.1

Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

3.4.2

The Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

3.4.3

After the Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

3.4.4

Drumming style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

3.4.5

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

3.4.6

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

3.4.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

Keith Levene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

3.5.1

Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

3.5.2

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

3.5.3

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

3.5.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

3.5.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

Terry Chimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

3.6.1

69

Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

3.7

3.8

3.9

iii

3.6.2

Personal life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

3.6.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

3.6.4

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3.6.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Rob Harper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3.7.1

Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3.7.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

3.7.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Nick Sheppard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.8.1

Life and career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.8.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.8.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.8.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Vince White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

3.9.1

Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

3.9.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

3.9.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

3.9.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Other personnel

73

4.1

Bernard Rhodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

4.1.1

Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

4.1.2

Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

4.1.3

Recent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

4.1.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

4.1.5

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

4.1.6

Web, journals and magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

4.1.7

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

4.1.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

Mikey Dread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

4.2.1

Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

4.2.2

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

4.2.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

4.2.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

Don Letts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

4.3.1

Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

4.3.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

4.3.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

Bill Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

4.4.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

Guy Stevens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

4.5.1

82

4.2

4.3

4.4
4.5

Early life and career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

CONTENTS

4.6

4.5.2

Sue and Island Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

4.5.3

Later activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

4.5.4

Death and legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

4.5.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

4.5.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Sandy Pearlman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

4.6.1

84

Biography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[18]

4.6.2

Production credits

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

4.6.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

4.6.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

Tymon Dogg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

4.7.1

Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

4.7.2

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

4.7.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

4.7.4

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

4.7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

Mick Gallagher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

4.8.1

Early band work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

4.8.2

Ian Dury and the Blockheads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

4.8.3

Other work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4.8.4

Personal life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4.8.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4.8.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

Gary Barnacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4.9.1

Biography and career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

4.9.2

Lists of collaborations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

4.9.3

Discography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

4.9.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

4.9.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

4.9.6

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

4.9.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

4.10 Pennie Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


4.10.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.10.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.11 Ellen Foley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.11.1 Early life and career

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

4.11.2 Broadway, lm and television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


4.11.3 Personal life

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

4.11.4 Filmography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


4.11.5 Discography

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

CONTENTS

4.11.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


4.11.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.12 Caroline Coon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.12.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.12.2 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.12.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.12.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.13 Steve Bell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.13.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.13.2 Cartoonist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.13.3 Awards, books and exhibitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.13.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.13.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.13.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.14 Futura 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.14.1 Exhibitions and Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.14.2 Appearances in other media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.14.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.14.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.15 Ray Lowry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.15.1 Life and work

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.15.2 The Ray Lowry Foundation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.15.3 Selected bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


4.15.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.15.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5

Associated acts
5.1

5.2

5.3

111

The 101ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


5.1.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.1.2

Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.1.3

Band line-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.1.4

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

5.1.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

5.1.6

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

London SS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.2.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.2

Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.3

Later bands featuring members of The London SS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

5.2.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Big Audio Dynamite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


5.3.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

5.3.2

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

vi

CONTENTS

5.4

5.3.3

Discography

5.3.4

Other information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

5.3.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

5.3.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

The Latino Rockabilly War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


5.4.1

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Havana 3am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


5.5.1

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.5.2

Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.5.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

The Mescaleros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


5.6.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.6.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

5.6.3

Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

5.6.4

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.6.5

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.6.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.6.7

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.6.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Carbon/Silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.7.1

Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

5.7.2

Band members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

5.7.3

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

5.7.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

5.7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

The Good, the Bad & the Queen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


5.8.1

Album history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

5.8.2

Band name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.3

Further plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.4

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.5

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.6

Chart performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.8.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Rock Against Racism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


5.9.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

5.9.2

Love Music Hate Racism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.9.3

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.9.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.9.5

Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.9.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

CONTENTS

vii

5.10 Concerts for the People of Kampuchea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


5.10.1 Concerts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.10.2 Selected set lists

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

5.10.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


5.10.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.11 Burning London: The Clash Tribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.11.1 Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

5.11.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


5.11.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6

Films
6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

130

''Rude Boy'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


6.1.1

Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

6.1.2

Songs performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

6.1.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

6.1.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

''The Clash: Westway to the World'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


6.2.1

Appearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

6.2.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

6.2.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

''Lets Rock Again!'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


6.3.1

DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

6.3.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

6.3.3

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

''Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


6.4.1

Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.2

Critical reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.3

Box oce performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.4

Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.5

Soundtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

6.4.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

''Concert for Kampuchea'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134


6.5.1

Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

6.5.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

6.5.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

6.5.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

''D.O.A.: A Rite of Passage'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


6.6.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

6.6.2

DVD release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

6.6.3

Cast (in alphabetical order) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

6.6.4

Songs performed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

viii

CONTENTS

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.6.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

6.6.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Punk: Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


6.7.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.7.2

Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.7.3

DVD Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.7.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

''Walker'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6.8.1

Plot synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.8.2

Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

6.8.3

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

6.8.4

Soundtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

6.8.5

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

6.8.6

DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

6.8.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

6.8.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

''Straight to Hell'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140


6.9.1

Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

6.9.2

Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

6.9.3

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.9.4

Release and reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.9.5

Soundtrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.9.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

6.9.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

6.10 ''Candy Mountain'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


6.10.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.10.2 Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.10.3 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.10.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6.10.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
6.11 ''Mystery Train'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
6.11.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
6.11.2 Cast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
6.11.3 Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
6.11.4 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
6.11.5 Critical reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
6.11.6 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.11.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.12 ''I Hired a Contract Killer'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.12.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

CONTENTS

ix

6.12.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


6.12.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7

Albums
7.1

7.2

150

''Capital Radio'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


7.1.1

Capital Radio E.P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

7.1.2

Capital Radio Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

7.1.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

7.1.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

''The Clash'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151


7.2.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

7.2.2

Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

7.2.3

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

7.2.4

1979 US version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

7.2.5

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

7.2.6

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

7.2.7

Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

7.2.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

7.2.9

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

7.2.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


7.3

7.4

7.5

''The Cost of Living'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


7.3.1

Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

7.3.2

Charts

7.3.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

''Give 'Em Enough Rope'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


7.4.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.4.2

Critical reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.4.3

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.4.4

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.4.5

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

7.4.6

Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

7.4.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

7.4.8

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

''London Calling'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


7.5.1

Recording and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

7.5.2

Music and lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

7.5.3

Artwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

7.5.4

Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

7.5.5

Reception and legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

7.5.6

Planned lm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

7.5.7

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

7.5.8

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

CONTENTS
7.5.9

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

7.5.10 Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


7.5.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
7.5.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
7.5.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
7.6

''Sandinista!'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
7.6.1

Background and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

7.6.2

Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

7.6.3

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

7.6.4

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

7.6.5

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

7.6.6

Chart positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

7.6.7

Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

7.6.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

7.6.9

Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

7.6.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


7.7

''Combat Rock'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


7.7.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

7.7.2

Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

7.7.3

Mixing and editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

7.7.4

Music and lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

7.7.5

Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

7.7.6

Reception and inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

7.7.7

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

7.7.8

Rat Patrol from Fort Bragg track list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

7.7.9

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

7.7.10 Chart positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171


7.7.11 Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.7.12 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.7.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
7.7.14 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
7.8

''Cut the Crap'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


7.8.1

Background and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

7.8.2

Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

7.8.3

Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

7.8.4

Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

7.8.5

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

7.8.6

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

7.8.7

Chart positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

7.8.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

7.8.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

CONTENTS

xi

7.8.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


7.9

''Concerts for the People of Kampuchea'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


7.9.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

7.9.2

Album track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

7.9.3

Rockestras personnel

7.9.4

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

7.9.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

7.10 ''The Story of the Clash, Volume 1'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177


7.10.1 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
7.10.2 Liner notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
7.10.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.10.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.10.5 Certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.10.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.10.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11 ''Clash on Broadway'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11.1 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11.2 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11.3 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11.4 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.11.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.12 ''The Singles' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.12.1 Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

7.12.2 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179


7.12.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.13 ''Super Black Market Clash'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
7.13.1 Black Market Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
7.13.2 Super Black Market Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
7.13.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.14 ''From Here to Eternity: Live'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.14.1 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.14.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
7.14.3 Album notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.14.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.14.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.15 ''Live at Bonds Casino'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.15.1 Setlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
7.15.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.16 ''The Essential Clash'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.16.1 The This Is Radio Clash track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.16.2 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

xii

CONTENTS
7.16.3 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.16.4 DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.16.5 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.16.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
7.17 ''Singles Box'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
7.17.1 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
7.17.2 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.17.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
7.18 ''The Singles' (2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.18.1 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.18.2 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.18.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19 ''Live at Shea Stadium'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.1 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.2 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.19.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.20 ''Sound System'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.20.1 Remastering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.20.2 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
7.20.3 Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

7.20.4 Bonus DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191


7.20.5 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7.20.6 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7.20.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
7.20.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.21 ''5 Album Studio Set'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.21.1 Remastering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.21.2 Track listing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

7.21.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192


7.22 ''The Clash Hits Back'' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
7.22.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
7.22.2 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
7.22.3 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
7.22.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
8

Songs
8.1

195

Bankrobber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.1.1

Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

8.1.2

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

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xiii

8.1.3

Robber Dub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

8.1.4

Rockers Galore... UK Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

8.1.5

Appearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

8.1.6

Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

8.1.7

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

8.1.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

8.1.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

8.1.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

Brand New Cadillac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


8.2.1

Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

8.2.2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

8.2.3

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

The Call Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


8.3.1

Re-releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

8.3.2

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

8.3.3

Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

8.3.4

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

8.3.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

8.3.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Career Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198


8.4.1

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

8.4.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Clampdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
8.5.1

Analysis of lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

8.5.2

Analysis of music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.3

Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.4

Popular reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.5

Rock Band music gaming platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.6

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.7

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.8

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

8.5.9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Clash City Rockers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201


8.6.1

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

8.6.2

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

8.6.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

8.6.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Complete Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


8.7.1

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

8.7.2

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

8.7.3

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

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CONTENTS

8.8

8.9

8.7.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

8.7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

English Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203


8.8.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

8.8.2

Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

8.8.3

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

8.8.4

Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

8.8.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Every Little Bit Hurts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204


8.9.1

Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

8.9.2

Alicia Keys version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

8.9.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

8.9.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

8.10 Garageland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204


8.10.1 Writing and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
8.10.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.10.3 Appearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.10.4 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.10.5 Tributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.10.6 Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.10.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.10.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.11 Groovy Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.11.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.11.2 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.11.3 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.11.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.12 The Guns of Brixton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.12.1 Origins and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.12.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.3 Lyrics and meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.4 Return to Brixton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.5 Live performances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.6 Covers and samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.7 Other legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.8 Chart history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.9 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
8.12.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.12.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.12.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.13 Hitsville UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

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xv

8.13.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210


8.13.2 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.13.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.14 I Fought the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
8.14.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.14.2 Bobby Fuller Four version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.14.3 The Clash version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.14.4 Hank Williams, Jr. version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
8.14.5 Dead Kennedys version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
8.14.6 Other versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
8.14.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
8.14.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15 I'm So Bored with the USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15.1 Song information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15.3 Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.15.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
8.16 Jail Guitar Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.16.1 Jail Guitar Doors initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.16.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.16.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.16.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.17 Janie Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.17.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.17.2 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
8.17.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.17.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.17.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.18 Junco Partner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.18.1 Early recordings
8.18.2 Later versions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

8.18.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217


8.18.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.19 Know Your Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.19.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.19.2 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.19.3 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.19.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.19.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.20 London Calling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

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CONTENTS
8.20.1 Writing and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.20.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.20.3 Artwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.20.4 Reissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.20.5 Chart success and critical reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.20.6 Notable appearances and covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.20.7 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.20.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.20.9 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.20.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.20.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.21 Londons Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.21.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.21.2 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.21.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.22 Lost in the Supermarket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.22.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.22.2 Music and lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.22.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.22.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.22.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.23 Louie Louie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.23.1 Original version by Richard Berry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.23.2 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
8.23.3 Answer songs and sequels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
8.23.4 Louie Louie compilations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
8.23.5 Lyrics investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
8.23.6 Cultural impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
8.23.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
8.23.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
8.23.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
8.23.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
8.24 The Magnicent Seven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
8.24.1 The Magnicent Dance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
8.24.2 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.24.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.24.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.24.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.24.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.25 The Man in Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.25.1 Other recorded versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

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8.25.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235


8.25.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.26 Police and Thieves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.26.1 Junior Murvin version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.26.2 The Clash version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.26.3 Other versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.26.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.26.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.26.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.27 Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.27.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.27.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.28 Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.28.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.28.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.28.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.29 Rock the Casbah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.29.1 Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
8.29.2 Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
8.29.3 Music video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
8.29.4 Single . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
8.29.5 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.29.6 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.29.7 Chart performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.29.8 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.29.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.29.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
8.30 Should I Stay or Should I Go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.1 Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.3 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.4 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.30.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.31 Spanish Bombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
8.31.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
8.31.2 Music and lyrics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

8.31.3 Performers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


8.31.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
8.31.5 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
8.31.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

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CONTENTS

8.32 Straight to Hell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244


8.32.1 Writing and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.32.2 Lyrical themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.32.3 Musical style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.32.4 Alternative version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.32.5 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.32.6 Uses in media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.32.7 Covers and samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.32.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.32.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.32.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.33 This Is England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.33.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.33.2 Lyrics and meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.33.3 Reception and release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.33.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.33.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.33.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.34 This Is Radio Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.34.1 7-inch release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.34.2 12-inch release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.34.3 Track listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.34.4 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.34.5 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.34.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.34.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.34.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.35 Tommy Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.35.1 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.35.2 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.35.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.35.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.36 Train in Vain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.36.1 Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.36.2 Meaning and inspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.36.3 Formats and track listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.36.4 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.36.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
8.36.6 Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
8.36.7 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
8.36.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

CONTENTS

xix

8.36.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251


8.37 Washington Bullets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
8.37.1 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
8.38 "(White Man) In Hammersmith Palais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
8.38.1 Inspiration and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
8.38.2 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
8.38.3 Critical reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
8.38.4 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
8.38.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
8.38.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
8.38.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
8.39 White Riot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.1 Inspiration and composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.2 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.3 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.4 Cover versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.5 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.39.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
8.39.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
9

Discography and lists


9.1

256

Discography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
9.1.1

19771978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

9.1.2

19791982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

9.1.3

1983present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.4

Studio albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.5

Live albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.6

Compilations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.7

Extended plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.8

Singles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.9

Video albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

9.1.10 Film/documentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257


9.1.11 Music videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
9.1.12 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
9.1.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
9.1.14 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
9.2

9.3

Films and Documentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260


9.2.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

9.2.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
9.3.1

Band members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

xx

CONTENTS

9.4

9.3.2

Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

9.3.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

9.3.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
9.4.1

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

9.4.2

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

9.4.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

9.4.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

10 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

264

10.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264


10.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
10.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Chapter 1

Background
1.1 Punk rock

1.1.1 Characteristics
See also: Punk subculture

For the 2009 play by Simon Stephens, see Punk Rock


(play).

Philosophy

Punk rock (or simply "punk") is a rock music genre


that developed in the United States, United Kingdom,
and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other
forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music,
punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk bands typically use short or
fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing
styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY
ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute
them through informal channels.
The term punk was rst used in relation to rock music
by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe
garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such
as Television and the Ramones in New York City, and the
Sex Pistols, the Clash, and the Damned in London were
recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement.
The following year saw punk rock spreading around the
world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in
the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root
in local scenes that tended to reject association with the
mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of clothing and adornment (ranging from deliberately oensive T-shirts, leather jackets, spike bands
and other studded or spiked jewelry to bondage and S&M
clothes) and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.

The Ramones' 1976 debut album laid down the musical


blueprint for punk,[1] while its cover image had a similarly formative inuence on punk visual style.[2]

The rst wave of punk rock was aggressively modern,


distancing itself from the bombast and sentimentality
of early 1970s rock.[3] According to Ramones drummer
Tommy Ramone, In its initial form, a lot of [1960s] stu
was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the
likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had
endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that
what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock 'n' roll.[4] John Holmstrom, founding editor of
Punk magazine, recalls feeling punk rock had to come
along because the rock scene had become so tame that
[acts] like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock
and roll meant this wild and rebellious music.[5] In critic

By the beginning of the 1980s, faster, more aggressive


styles such as hardcore (e.g. Black Flag) and street punk
(e.g. the Exploited) had become the predominant mode
of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired
by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations,
giving rise to post-punk and the alternative rock movement. At the end of the 20th century, punk rock had been
adopted by the mainstream, as pop punk and punk rock
bands such as Green Day, the Ospring and Blink-182
brought the genre widespread popularity.
1

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

Robert Christgau's description, It was also a subculture


that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian ower-power silliness of hippie myth.[6]
Technical accessibility and a DIY spirit are prized in punk
rock. In the early days of punk rock, this ethic stood
in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded
as the ostentatious musical eects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.[7] Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. According to
Holmstrom, punk rock was rock and roll by people who
didn't have very much skills as musicians but still felt the
need to express themselves through music.[5] In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a nowfamous illustration of three chords, captioned This is a
chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band.[8]
The title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band
Stimulators, Loud Fast Rules!" inscribed a catchphrase
for punks basic musical approach.[9]
Some of British punk rocks leading gures made a show
of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and
the broader culture it was associated with, but their own
most celebrated music predecessors: No Elvis, Beatles
or the Rolling Stones in 1977, declared the Clash song
1977.[10] The previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural Year Zero.[11] Even as nostalgia was
discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan No Future";[3]
in the later words of one observer, amid the unemployment and social unrest in 1977, punks nihilistic swagger was the most thrilling thing in England.[12] While
self-imposed alienation" was common among drunk
punks and gutter punks, there was always a tension
between their nihilistic outlook and the radical leftist
utopianism[13] of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, Punk
rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able
to do what we want to do.[14]
The issue of authenticity is important in the punk
subculturethe pejorative term "poseur" is applied to
those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the
underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that attaining authenticity in the punk identity
can be dicult"; as the punk scene matured, he observes,
eventually everyone got called a poseur.[15]

Musical and lyrical elements


Punk rock bands often emulate the bare musical structures and arrangements of 1960s garage rock.[16] Typical
punk rock instrumentation includes one or two electric
guitars, an electric bass, and a drum kit, along with vocals. Songs tend to be shorter than those of other popular
genres. Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional

Johnny Rotten and Steve Jones of the Sex Pistols

rock 'n' roll verse-chorus form and 4/4 time signature.


However, later bands have often broken from this format. In critic Steven Blushs description, The Sex Pistols
were still rock'n'roll ... like the craziest version of Chuck
Berry. Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It
wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what
songwriting is supposed to be. Its its own form.[17]
Punk rock vocals sometimes sound nasal,[18] and lyrics
are often shouted instead of sung in a conventional sense,
particularly in hardcore styles.[19] Shifts in pitch, volume,
or intonational style are relatively infrequent.[20] Complicated guitar solos are considered self-indulgent and unnecessary, although basic guitar breaks are common.[21]
Guitar parts tend to include highly distorted power chords
or barre chords, creating a characteristic sound described
by Christgau as a buzzsaw drone.[22] Some punk rock
bands take a surf rock approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. Others, such as Robert Quine, lead guitarist of the Voidoids, have employed a wild, "gonzo" attack, a style that stretches back through the Velvet Underground to the 1950s recordings of Ike Turner.[23] Bass
guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential
approach is a relentless, repetitive forced rhythm,[24] although some punk rock bass playerssuch as Mike Watt
of the Minutemen and Firehoseemphasize more technical bass lines. Bassists often use a pick due to the rapid
succession of notes, which makes ngerpicking impractical. Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often
have a minimal set-up. Compared to other forms of rock,
syncopation is much less the rule.[25] Hardcore drumming
tends to be especially fast.[19] Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape
recorders[26] or simple four-track portastudios. The typical objective is to have the recording sound unmanipulated and real, reecting the commitment and authenticity of a live performance.[27]
Punk rock lyrics are typically frank and confrontational;
compared to the lyrics of other popular music genres,
they frequently comment on social and political issues.[28]
Trend-setting songs such as the Clashs "Career Opportunities" and Chelsea's Right to Work deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life.[29] Espe-

1.1. PUNK ROCK

The Clash, performing in 1980

cially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage


and shock the mainstream.[30] The Sex Pistols "Anarchy
in the U.K." and "God Save the Queen" openly disparaged the British political system and social mores. Antisentimental depictions of relationships and sex are common, as in Love Comes in Spurts, written by Richard
Hell and recorded by him with the Voidoids. Anomie,
variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hells "Blank
Generation" and the bluntness of the Ramones Now I
Wanna Sni Some Glue, is a common theme. Identifying punk with such topics aligns with the view expressed
by V. Vale, founder of San Francisco fanzine Search and
Destroy: Punk was a total cultural revolt. It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it
that had never been done before by any generation in such
a thorough way.[31]

3
'look' with various dierent styles based on these designs. Young women in punk demolished the typical female types in rock of either coy sex kittens or wronged
blues belters in their fashion.[36] Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from Siouxsie Sioux's
bondage gear to Patti Smiths straight-from-the-gutter
androgyny.[37] The former proved much more inuential
on female fan styles.[38] Over time, tattoos, piercings, and
metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of punk fashion among both musicians and fans, a style of adornment calculated to disturb and outrage.[39] Among the other facets of the Punk
Rock scene, a punks hair is an important way of showing
their freedom of expression.[40] The typical male punk
haircut was originally short and choppy; the Mohawk later
emerged as a characteristic style.[41] Along with the mohawk, long spikes have been associated with the punk
rock genre.[40]

Visual and other elements


For more details on this topic, see Punk fashion.
The classic punk rock look among male American musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket,
and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the
1950s associated with the rockabilly scene and by British
rockers of the 1960s. The cover of the Ramones 1976
debut album, featuring a shot of the band by Punk photographer Roberta Bayley, set forth the basic elements
of a style that was soon widely emulated by rock musicians both punk and nonpunk.[2] Richard Hells more androgynous, ragamun lookand reputed invention of
the safety-pin aestheticwas a major inuence on Sex
Pistols impresario Malcolm McLaren and, in turn, British
punk style.[32][33] (John D Morton of Clevelands Electric
Eels may have been the rst rock musician to wear a
safety-pin-covered jacket).[34] McLarens partner, fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, credits Johnny Rotten
as the rst British punk to rip his shirt, and Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious as the rst to use safety pins,[35]
although few of those following Punk could aord to
buy McLaren and Westwoods designs so famously worn
by the Pistols, so they made their own, diversifying the

British punks, circa 1986

The characteristic stage performance style of male punk


musicians does not deviate signicantly from the macho postures classically associated with rock music.[42]
Female punk musicians broke more clearly from earlier
styles. Scholar John Strohm suggests that they did so by
creating personas of a type conventionally seen as masculine: They adopted a tough, unladylike pose that borrowed more from the macho swagger of sixties garage
bands than from the calculated bad-girl image of bands
like the Runaways.[37] Scholar Dave Laing describes
how bassist Gaye Advert adopted fashion elements associated with male musicians only to generate a stage
persona readily consumed as sexy.[43] Laing focuses
on more innovative and challenging performance styles,
seen in the various erotically destabilizing approaches of
Siouxsie Sioux, the Slits' Ari Up, and X-Ray Spex' Poly
Styrene.[44]
The lack of emphatic syncopation led punk dance to deviant forms. The characteristic style was originally the
pogo.[45] Sid Vicious, before he became the Sex Pistols
bassist, is credited with initiating the pogo in Britain as

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

an attendee at one of their concerts.[46] Moshing (Slam


Dancing) is typical at hardcore shows. The lack of conventional dance rhythms was a central factor in limiting
punks mainstream commercial impact.[47]
Breaking down the distance between performer and audience is central to the punk ethic.[48] Fan participation
at concerts is thus important; during the movements rst
heyday, it was often provoked in an adversarial manner
apparently perverse, but appropriately punk. Firstwave British punk bands such as the Sex Pistols and
the Damned insulted and otherwise goaded the audience
into intense reactions. Laing has identied three primary
forms of audience physical response to goading: can
throwing, stage invasion, and spitting or gobbing.[49] In
the hardcore realm, stage invasion is often a prelude to
stage diving. In addition to the numerous fans who have
started or joined punk bands, audience members also become important participants via the scenes many amateur periodicalsin England, according to Laing, punk
was the rst musical genre to spawn fanzines in any signicant numbers.[50]

1.1.2

and the Stooges.[54] In the early 1970s, certain rock critics began to speak of the mid-1960s garage bands (as well
bands that they considered continuing in their line, such
as MC5 and the Stooges) as a genre that they called punk
rock.[55][56] However, since the advent of New York and
London scenes of 1975-1978 and the subculture that grew
out of them, the term has become most commonly applied to music emerging after 1974. Sixties garage bands
are now typically described as garage rock, or, especially
in the case of their immediate successors, proto-punk.[57]

Precursors

1960s progenitors

The Kinks onstage during a Dutch TV appearance in April 1967

See also: Garage rock, Proto-punk, Mod (subculture), From England in 1964, largely under the grip of the
mod youth movement and beat group explosion, came the
and Beat music
In the early- to mid-1960s, garage rock bands, often Kinks' hit singles, "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and
All of the Night, both inuenced by Louie, Louie.[58]
They have been described as predecessors of the whole
three-chord genre. For instance, the Ramones 1978 'I
Don't Want You,' was largely Kinks-inuenced.[59] In
1965, the Who progressed from their rst single, "I Can't
The 10-note ri from "Louie, Louie"
Explain, a virtual Kinks clone, to "My Generation".
recognized as punk rocks progenitors, began springing Though it had little impact on the American charts, the
cerebral mix
up around North America. The Kingsmen, from Port- Whos mod anthem pre-gured the kind of[60]
of
musical
ferocity
and
rebellious
posture
that would
land, Oregon, had a hit with their 1963 cover of "Louie,
characterize
much
of
the
later
British
punk
rock
of the
Louie", considered by some as punk rocks dening "ur1970s.
John
Reed
describes
the
Clashs
emergence
as a
[51]
text". The iconic song was originally written and pertight
ball
of
energy
with
both
an
image
and
rhetoric
remformed by Richard Berry as an ode to the lovelorn conobsession,
fessions of a drunken Jamaican sailor and displays Latin iniscent of a young Pete Townshendspeed
[60]
The
Who and
pop-art
clothing,
art
school
ambition.
inuences, with its El Loco Cha-Cha ris that were
fellow
mods
the
Small
Faces
were
among
the
few rock
later pared down to a more simple and primitive rock ar[61]
elders
acknowledged
by
the
Sex
Pistols.
rangement in the Kingsmens version providing a stylistic
model for countless garage rock bands to come.[52][53] After the Beatles rst appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show,
and then with the subsequent string of other successful British acts, the garage band phenomenon gathered
increased momentum. The minimalist sound of many
garage rock combos was inuenced by the harder-edged
wing of the British Invasion, exemplied by groups such
as the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. After 1967, U.S.
garage rock began to fall out of favor, but the raw sound
and outsider attitude of groups, such as the Sonics, the
Seeds, the Remains, the Standells, and the Shadows of
Knight predicted the style of later bands such as MC5

The garage and beat phenomenon was not exclusive to


North America and Great Briton.[62][63][64][65][66] Various
countries experienced grass-roots rock movements which
essentially served as counterparts to what was happening in the North America and Britain, several of which
are sometimes retroactively referred to as Nederbeat
(Netherlands), Uruguayan Invasion (Uruguay), or Group
Sounds (Japan), or in other cases as beat or garage
rock.[63][64][65][66] Australia and New Zealand had active
beat/garage scenes, procuring a host of bands, such as the
Missing Links whose brazenly primitivistic Wild About
You would be covered a decade later by compatriots,

1.1. PUNK ROCK

the Saints.[67][68] There were numerous garage rock bands


in India during the 1960s, perpetuating the style even
into the early 1970s.[64] Los Saicos out of Peru recoded
1965s Demolicion, which is a notable early example of
protopunk.[69] AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted
that The guitars sound like nothing so much as fountains
of sparks, the drums have a tribal post-surf throb, and
the vocals are positively unhinged and These guys were
a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at
the time.[70] The garage and beat boom dissipated in the
late 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts, carried its inuence into the 1970s, seizing on its protopunk elements,
but brandishing them with greater intensity.

At the Coventry club in the New York City borough of


Queens, the Dictators used rock as a vehicle for wise-ass
attitude and humor.[74] In Boston, the Modern Lovers,
led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman,
gained attention with a minimalistic style. In 1974,
an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around
the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square.
Among the leading acts were the Real Kids, founded
by former Modern Lover John Felice; Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose frontman had
been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few
months in 1971; and Mickey Clean and the Mezz.[75] In
1974, as well, the Detroit band Deathmade up of three
African-American brothersrecorded scorching blasts
of feral ur-punk, but couldn't arrange a release deal.[76]
Late 1960s to mid 1970s
In Ohio, a small but inuential underground rock scene
emerged, led by Devo in Akron and Kent and by CleveSee also: Glam punk
lands Electric Eels, Mirrors and Rocket from the Tombs.
In August 1969, the Stooges, from Ann Arbor, pre- In 1975, Rocket from the Tombs split into Pere Ubu and
Frankenstein. The Electric Eels and Mirrors both broke
up, and the Styrenes emerged from the fallout.[77]
Britains Deviants, in the late 1960s, played in a range
of psychedelic styles with a satiric, anarchic edge and
a penchant for situationist-style spectacle presaging the
Sex Pistols by almost a decade.[78] In 1970, the act
evolved into the Pink Fairies, which carried on in a
similar vein.[79] With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David
Bowie made artice and exaggeration centralelements,
again, that were picked up by the Sex Pistols and certain other punk acts.[80] The Doctors of Madness built
on Bowies presentation concepts, while moving musically in the direction that would become identied with
punk. Bands in Londons pub rock scene stripped the
music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-inuenced
rock 'n' roll. By 1974, the scenes top act, Dr. Feelgood,
was paving the way for others such as the Stranglers and
Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Among the pub rock bands that formed that year
was the 101ers, whose lead singer would soon adopt the
name Joe Strummer.[81]
Iggy Pop, the godfather of punk

miered with a self-titled album. According to critic


Greil Marcus, the band, led by singer Iggy Pop, created
the sound of Chuck Berry's Airmobileafter thieves
stripped it for parts.[71] The album was produced by John
Cale, a former member of New Yorks experimental rock
group the Velvet Underground. Having earned a reputation as the rst underground rock band, the Velvet Underground inspired, directly or indirectly, many of those
involved in the creation of punk rock.[72]
In the early 1970s, the New York Dolls updated the original wildness of 1950s rock 'n' roll in a fashion that
later became known as glam punk.[73] The New York
duo Suicide played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of the Stooges.

Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far aeld as Dsseldorf, West Germany, where
punk before punk band NEU! formed in 1971, building
on the Krautrock tradition of groups such as Can.[82] In
Japan, the anti-establishment Zun Keisatsu (Brain Police) mixed garage-psych and folk. The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least
once including onstage masturbation.[83] A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly
by the Stooges and MC5, was coming even closer to the
sound that would soon be called punk": In Brisbane, the
Saints also recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty
Things, who had made a notorious tour of Australia and
New Zealand in 1975.[84]

6
Etymology
Between the late 16th and the 18th centuries, punk was a
common, coarse synonym for prostitute; William Shakespeare used it with that meaning in The Merry Wives of
Windsor (1602) and Measure for Measure (1603-4, published 1623 in First Folio).[85] The term eventually came
to describe a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum,
or a ruan.[86] As Legs McNeil explains, On TV, if you
watched cop shows, Kojak, Baretta, when the cops nally
catch the mass murderer, they'd say, 'you dirty Punk.' It
was what your teachers would call you. It meant that you
were the lowest.[87] The rst known use of the phrase
punk rock appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March
22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New
Yorks anarcho-prankster band the Fugs. Sanders was
quoted describing a solo album of his as punk rock
redneck sentimentality.[88] In the December 1970 issue
of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock
musicians, ironically referred to Iggy Pop as that Stooge
punk.[89] Suicides Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a punk mass for the
next couple of years.[90]

Patti Smith, performing in 1976

Dave Marsh was the rst music critic to employ the term
punk rock: In the May 1971 issue of Creem, he described ? and the Mysterians, one of the most popular 1960s garage rock acts, as giving a landmark exposition of punk rock.[91] Later in 1971, in his fanzine
Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about what I have
chosen to call punkrock bandswhite teenage hard
rock of '6466 (Standells, Kingsmen, Shadows of Knight,

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND
etc.)".[92] Robert Christgau writing for the Village Voice
in October 1971 refers to mid-60s punk as a historical
period of rock-and-roll.[93] Lester Bangs would use the
term punk rock in several articles written in the early
1970s to refer to mid-1960s garage acts. In his June
1971 piece in Creem, Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung, he wrote, then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the
Yardbirds sound and reducing it to this kind of goony
fuzztone clatter. ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were
the best days ever.[94] In several places in a 1971 article in Who Put the Bomp, Bangs refers to Britains the
Troggs and bands of their ilk as punk.[95] In June 1972,
the fanzine Flash included a Punk Top Ten of 1960s
albums.[96] By that December, the term was in circulation
to the extent that The New Yorker's Ellen Willis, contrasting her own tastes with those of Flash and fellow critic
Nick Tosches, wrote, "Punk-rock has become the favored
term of endearment.[97] In the liner notes of the 1972 anthology LP, Nuggets, musician and rock journalist Lenny
Kaye, later a member of the Patti Smith Group, used variations of the term in two places: rst punk rock, in the
essay liner notes, to describe the genre of 1960s garage
bands, and then, later, classic garage-punk, in the trackby-track notes, to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the
Shadows of Knight.[98][99] In the January 1973 Rolling
Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented Punk
rock at its best is the closest we came in the '60s to the
original rockabilly spirit of Rock 'n Roll ...[100] In February 1973, Terry Atkinson of the Los Angeles Times, reviewing the debut album by a hard rock band, Aerosmith,
declared that it achieves all that punk-rock bands strive
for but most miss.[101] Three months later, Billy Altman
launched the short-lived punk magazine, which pre-dated
the better-known 1975 publication of the same name,
but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts. [102][103]
In May 1974, Los Angeles Times critic Robert Hilburn reviewed the second New York Dolls album, Too Much Too
Soon. I told ya the New York Dolls were the real thing,
he wrote, describing the album as perhaps the best example of raw, thumb-your-nose-at-the-world, punk rock
since the Rolling Stones' Exile on Main Street.[104] Bassist
Je Jensen of Bostons Real Kids reports of a show that
year, A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review,
calling us a 'punk band.' ... [W]e all sort of looked at each
other and said, 'Whats punk?'"[105]
By 1975, punk was being used to describe acts as diverse
as the Patti Smith Group, the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce
Springsteen.[106] As the scene at New Yorks CBGB club
attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing
sound. Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement
street rock"; John Holmstrom credits Aquarian magazine with using punk to describe what was going on at
CBGBs.[107] Holmstrom, McNeil, and Ged Dunns mag-

1.1. PUNK ROCK


azine Punk, which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term.[108] It was pretty obvious that
the word was getting very popular, Holmstrom later remarked. We gured we'd take the name before anyone
else claimed it. We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip
it down to rock 'n' roll. We wanted the fun and liveliness
back.[106]

1.1.3

Early history

North America
New York City The origins of New Yorks punk rock
scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s
trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered on the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich
Village, where the New York Dolls performed.[111] In
early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the
CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. At its core was
Television, described by critic John Walker as the ultimate garage band with pretensions.[112] Their inuences ranged from the Velvet Underground to the staccato guitar work of Dr. Feelgood's Wilko Johnson.[113]
The bands bassist/singer, Richard Hell, created a look
with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black
leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual
style.[114] In April 1974, Patti Smith, a member of the
Mercer Arts Center crowd and a friend of Hells, came
to CBGB for the rst time to see the band perform.[115]
A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take
on rock 'n' roll. On June 5, she recorded the single "Hey
Joe"/"Piss Factory", featuring Television guitarist Tom
Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scenes do it yourself (DIY) ethic and has often
been cited as the rst punk rock record.[116] By August,
Smith and Television were gigging together at another
downtown New York club, Maxs Kansas City.[114]

7
the Stooges to the Beatles and the Beach Boys to
Hermans Hermits and 1960s girl groups, the Ramones
condensed rock 'n' roll to its primal level: "'1-2-3-4!'
bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm.[117] The band played its rst gig at
CBGB on August 16, 1974, on the same bill as another new act, Angel and the Snake, soon to be renamed
Blondie.[118] By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long.[119] When I rst saw the Ramones, critic
Mary Harron later remembered, I couldn't believe people were doing this. The dumb brattiness.[120] The Dictators, with a similar playing dumb concept, were recording their debut album. The Dictators Go Girl Crazy!
came out in March 1975, mixing absurdist originals such
as Master Race Rock and loud, straight-faced covers of
cheese pop like Sonny & Cher's "I Got You Babe".[121]
That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-monthlong weekend residency at CBGB that signicantly
raised the clubs prole.[122] The Television sets included
Richard Hells Blank Generation, which became the
scenes emblematic anthem.[123] Soon after, Hell left
Television and founded a band featuring a more strippeddown sound, the Heartbreakers, with former New York
Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. The pairing of
Hell and Thunders, in one critical assessment, inject[ed]
a poetic intelligence into mindless self-destruction.[32] A
July festival at CBGB featuring over thirty new groups
brought the scene its rst substantial media coverage.[124]
In August, Televisionwith Fred Smith, former Blondie
bassist, replacing Hellrecorded a single, Little Johnny
Jewel, for the tiny Ork label. In the words of John
Walker, the record was a turning point for the whole
New York scene if not quite for the punk rock sound
itselfHells departure had left the band signicantly
reduced in fringe aggression.[112]
Other bands were becoming regulars at CBGB, such as
Mink DeVille and Talking Heads, which moved down
from Rhode Island. More closely associated with Maxs
Kansas City were Suicide and the band led by Jayne
County, another Mercer Arts Center alumna. The rst
album to come out of this downtown scene was released
in November 1975: Smiths debut, Horses, produced by
John Cale for the major Arista label.[126] The inaugural
issue of Punk appeared in December.[127] The new magazine tied together earlier artists such as Velvet Underground lead singer Lou Reed, the Stooges, and the New
York Dolls with the editors favorite band, the Dictators, and the array of new acts centered on CBGB and
Maxs.[128] That winter, Pere Ubu came in from Cleveland and played at both spots.[129]

Early in 1976, Hell left the Heartbreakers; he soon


formed a new group that would become known as the
the most harshly uncompromising
Out in Forest Hills, Queens, several miles from lower Voidoids, one of [130]
That April, the Ramones debut
bands
on
the
scene.
Manhattan, the members of a newly formed band adopted
album
was
released
by
Sire
Records; the rst single was
a common surname. Drawing on sources ranging from
Facade of legendary music club CBGB, New York

8
"Blitzkrieg Bop", opening with the rally cry Hey! Ho!
Lets go!" According to a later description, Like all cultural watersheds, Ramones was embraced by a discerning
few and slagged o as a bad joke by the uncomprehending
majority.[131] At the instigation of Ramones lead singer
Joey Ramone, the members of Clevelands Frankenstein
moved east to join the New York scene. Reconstituted as
the Dead Boys, they played their rst CBGB gig in late
July.[132] In August, Ork put out an EP recorded by Hell
with his new band that included the rst released version
of Blank Generation.[133]
Other New York venues apart from CBGB included the
Lismar Lounge (41 First Avenue) and Aztec Lounge (9th
Street).[134]
At this early stage, the term punk applied to the scene
in general, not necessarily a particular stylistic approach
as it would laterthe early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of inuences. Among them,
the Ramones, the Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and the
Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct
musical style. Even where they diverged most clearly, in
lyrical approachthe Ramones apparent guilelessness at
one extreme, Hells conscious craft at the otherthere
was an abrasive attitude in common. Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet
come to dene punk rock.[135]
Other U.S. cities Chickasha, Oklahoma gave birth to
avant garde, glam-punk bands Victoria Vein and the
Thunderpunks in 1974 and Debris in 1975 whose selfreleased underground classic Static Disposal was released
in 1976. The album has been touted as an inspiration by
numerous bands including Scream, Nurse With Wound,
the Melvins and Sonic Youth.[138][139][140] In 1975, the
Suicide Commandos formed in Minneapolis. They were
one of the rst U.S. bands outside of New York to play in
the Ramones-style harder-louder-faster mode that would
dene punk rock.[141] Detroits Death self-released one
of their 1974 recordings, Politicians in My Eyes, in
1976.[76] As the punk movement expanded rapidly in the
United Kingdom that year, a few bands with similar tastes
and attitude appeared around the United States. The rst
West Coast punk scenes emerged in San Francisco, with
the bands Crime and the Nuns,[142] and Seattle, where the
Telepaths, Meyce, and the Tupperwares played a groundbreaking show on May 1.[143] Rock critic Richard Meltzer
cofounded VOM (short for vomit) in Los Angeles.
Meanwhile, in Los Angeles, performer Alice Bag formed
the punk music group the Bags in 1977. Alice inuenced
the Hollywood punk scene by incorporating Mexican and
Chicano musical culture into her music through cancin
rancherawhich translates to country song and is associated with mariachi ensemblesas well as estilo bravo,
a wild style of performance often seen in punk.[144] In
Washington, D.C., raucous roots-rockers the Razz helped
along a nascent punk scene featuring Overkill, the Slickee
Boys, and the Look. Around the turn of the year, White

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND
Boy began giving notoriously crazed performances.[145]
In Boston, the scene at the Rathskelleraectionately
known as the Ratwas also turning toward punk, though
the dening sound retained a distinct garage rock orientation. Among the citys rst new acts to be identied
with punk rock was DMZ.[146] In Bloomington, Indiana,
the Gizmos played in a jokey, raunchy, Dictators-inspired
style later referred to as frat punk.[147]
Like their garage rock predecessors, these local scenes
were facilitated by enthusiastic impresarios who operated nightclubs or organized concerts in venues such as
schools, garages, or warehouses, advertised via inexpensively printed yers and fanzines. In some cases, punks
do it yourself ethic reected an aversion to commercial success, as well as a desire to maintain creative and
nancial autonomy.[148] As Joe Harvard, a participant
in the Boston scene, describes, it was often a simple
necessitythe absence of a local recording industry and
well-distributed music magazines left little recourse but
DIY.[149]
Australia
At the same time, a similar music-based subculture was
beginning to take shape in various parts of Australia. A
scene was developing around Radio Birdman and its main
performance venue, the Oxford Tavern (later the Oxford
Funhouse), located in Sydneys Darlinghurst suburb. In
December 1975, the group won the RAM (Rock Australia
Magazine)/Levis Punk Band Thriller competition.[153]
By 1976, the Saints were hiring Brisbane local halls to
use as venues, or playing in Club 76, their shared house
in the inner suburb of Petrie Terrace. The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in
other parts of the world. Ed Kuepper, co-founder of the
Saints, later recalled:
One thing I remember having had a really
depressing eect on me was the rst Ramones
album. When I heard it [in 1976], I mean it was
a great record ... but I hated it because I knew
wed been doing this sort of stu for years.
There was even a chord progression on that album that we used ... and I thought, Fuck.
Were going to be labeled as inuenced by the
Ramones, when nothing could have been further from the truth.[154]
On the other side of Australia, in Perth, germinal punk
rock act the Cheap Nasties, featuring singer-guitarist Kim
Salmon, formed in August.[155] In September 1976, the
Saints became the rst punk rock band outside the U.S.
to release a recording, the single "(I'm) Stranded". As
with Patti Smiths debut, the band self-nanced, packaged, and distributed the single.[156] "(I'm) Stranded had
limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as a groundbreaking record.[157] At the insis-

1.1. PUNK ROCK


tence of their superiors in the UK, EMI Australia signed
the Saints. Meanwhile, Radio Birdman came out with a
self-nanced EP, Burn My Eye, in October.[158] Trouser
Press critic Ian McCaleb later described the record as the
archetype for the musical explosion that was about to
occur.[159]
United Kingdom
By 1975 the movement was already well established in
London and had been growing for a number of years, with
non-gigging and recording bands like the Flowers of Romance who went on to gain near mythical status. Inspired
by music from the Velvet Underground, Iggy Pop and
early David Bowie at one point the band featured Sid Vicious, Marco Pirroni and Viv Albertine, who later joined
the Slits. Following a brief period unocially managing
the New York Dolls, Briton Malcolm McLaren returned
to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had
witnessed at CBGB. The Kings Road clothing store he coowned, recently renamed Sex, was building a reputation
with its outrageous anti-fashion.[163] Among those who
frequented the shop were members of a band called the
Strand, which McLaren had also been managing. In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Another
Sex habitu, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the
job. Adopting a new name, the group played its rst gig
as the Sex Pistols on November 6, 1975, at Saint Martins School of Art[164] and soon attracted a small but ardent following.[165] In February 1976, the band received
its rst signicant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones
declared that the Sex Pistols were not so much into music as they were chaos.[166] The band often provoked
its crowds into near-riots. Rotten announced to one audience, Bet you don't hate us as much as we hate you!"[167]
McLaren envisioned the Sex Pistols as central players in
a new youth movement, hard and tough.[168] As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members embodied an attitude into which McLaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material,
pop history,...youth sociology.[169]

9
aected its musical style"instantly nearly every band
speeded up.[172] On July 4, they played with the Flamin'
Groovies and the Stranglers before a crowd of 2,000 at
the Roundhouse.[173] That same night, the Clash debuted,
opening for the Sex Pistols in Sheeld. On July 5, members of both bands attended a Ramones gig at Dingwalls
club.[174] The following night, the Damned performed
their rst show, as the Sex Pistols opening act in London. In critic Kurt Loder's description, the Sex Pistols
purveyed a calculated, arty nihilism, [while] the Clash
were unabashed idealists, proponents of a radical leftwing social critique of a sort that reached back at least
to ... Woody Guthrie in the 1940s.[175] The Damned
built a reputation as punks party boys.[176] This London scenes rst fanzine appeared a week later. Its title,
Snin' Glue, derived from a Ramones song. Its subtitle
armed the connection with what was happening in New
York: "+ Other Rock 'n' Roll Habits for Punks!"[177]
Another Sex Pistols gig in Manchester on July 20, with
a reorganized version of Buzzcocks debuting in support,
gave further impetus to the scene there.[178] In August,
the self-described First European Punk Rock Festival
was held in Mont de Marsan in the southwest of France.
Eddie and the Hot Rods, a London pub rock group, headlined. The Sex Pistols, originally scheduled to play, were
dropped by the organizers who said the band had gone
too far in demanding top billing and certain amenities;
the Clash backed out in solidarity. The only band from
the new punk movement to appear was the Damned.[179]
Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands
formed, often directly inspired by the Sex Pistols.[180]
In London, women were near the center of the scene
among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted
Siouxsie and the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the allfemale the Slits. There were female bassists Gaye Advert
in the Adverts and Shanne Bradley in the Nipple Erectors. Other groups included Subway Sect, Eater, the Subversives, the aptly named London, and Chelsea, which
soon spun o Generation X. Farther aeld, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. In
Durham, there was Penetration, with lead singer Pauline
Murray. On September 2021, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the four primary British groups
(Londons big three and Buzzcocks), as well as Pariss
female-fronted Stinky Toys, arguably the rst punk rock
band from a non-Anglophone country. Siouxsie and
the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festivals rst night; that same evening, Eater debuted in
Manchester.[181] On the festivals second night, audience
member Sid Vicious was arrested, charged with throwing a glass at the Damned that shattered and destroyed a
girls eye. Press coverage of the incident fueled punks
reputation as a social menace.[182]

Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of McLaren and


friend of the Sex Pistols, was similarly aiming to make
stars of the band London SS. Early in 1976, London
SS broke up before ever performing publicly, spinning
o two new bands: the Damned and the Clash, which
was joined by Joe Strummer, former lead singer of the
101'ers.[170] On June 4, 1976, the Sex Pistols played
Manchesters Lesser Free Trade Hall in what came to be
regarded as one of the most inuential rock shows ever.
Among the approximately forty audience members were
the two locals who organised the gigthey had formed
Buzzcocks after seeing the Sex Pistols in February. Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, the Some new bands, such as Londons Alternative TV, EdinFall, andin the 1980sthe Smiths.[171]
burghs Rezillos, and Leamington's the Shapes, identied
In July, the Ramones crossed the Atlantic for two London with the scene even as they pursued more experimental
shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene and music. Others of a comparatively traditional rock 'n' roll

10

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

1.1.4 Second wave


By 1977, a second wave of the punk rock movement was
breaking in the three countries where it had emerged, as
well as in many other places. Bands from the same scenes
often sounded very dierent from each other, reecting
the eclectic state of punk music during the era.[192] While
punk rock remained largely an underground phenomenon
in North America, Australia, and the new spots where
it was emerging, in the UK it briey became a major
sensation.[193][194]

The Sex Pistols' "Anarchy in the U.K." postera ripped and


safety-pinned Union Flag.[183] Jamie Reid's work had a major inuence on punk style and contemporary graphic design in
general.[184]

North America
The California punk scene was in full swing by early
1977. In Los Angeles, there were the Weirdos, the Zeros, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, the Germs, X,
the Dickies, Bags, and the relocated Tupperwares, now
dubbed the Screamers.[199] San Franciscos second wave
included the Avengers, Negative Trend, the Mutants, and
the Sleepers.[200] the Dils, from Carlsbad, moved between
the two major cities.[201] The Wipers formed in Portland,
Oregon. In Seattle, there was the Lewd.[202] Often sharing gigs with the Seattle punks were bands from across the
CanadaUS border. A major scene developed in Vancouver, spearheaded by the Furies and Victorias all-female
Dee Dee and the Dishrags.[202] the Skulls spun o into
D.O.A. and the Subhumans. The K-Tels (later known as
the Young Canadians) and Pointed Sticks were among the
areas other leading punk acts.[203]

bent were also swept up by the movement: the Vibrators,


formed as a pub rockstyle act in February 1976, soon
adopted a punk look and sound.[185] A few even longeractive bands including Surrey neo-mods the Jam and pub
rockers the Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and
the calculated confrontationalism of the early Who, the
British punks also reected the inuence of glam rock
and related bands such as Slade, T.Rex, and Roxy Music.[186] One of the groups openly acknowledging that In eastern Canada, the Toronto protopunk band Dishes
[204]
inuence were the Undertones, from Derry in Northern had laid the groundwork for another sizable scene,
and a September 1976 concert by the touring Ramones
Ireland.[187]
had catalyzed the movement. Early Ontario punk bands
In October, the Damned became the rst UK punk included the Diodes, the Viletones, Battered Wives, the
rock band to release a single, the romance-themed "New Demics, Forgotten Rebels, Teenage Head, the Poles, and
Rose".[188] The Vibrators followed the next month with the Ugly. Along with the Dishrags, Torontos the Curse
We Vibrate and, backing long-time rocker Chris Sped- and B Girls were North Americas rst all-female punk
ding, Pogo Dancing. The latter was hardly a punk song acts.[205] In July 1977, the Viletones, Diodes, Curse, and
by any stretch, but it was perhaps the rst song about Teenage Head headed down to New York City to play
punk rock. On November 26, the Sex Pistols "Anarchy Canada night at CBGB.[206]
in the U.K." came outwith its debut single the band succeeded in its goal of becoming a national scandal.[189] By mid-1977 in downtown New York, punk rock was alJamie Reid's anarchy ag poster and his other design ready ceding its cutting-edge status to the anarchic sound
Mars, spearheads
work for the Sex Pistols helped establish a distinctive of Teenage Jesus and the Jerks and
[207]
of
what
became
known
as
no
wave,
although several
[184]
punk visual aesthetic.
On December 1, an incident
original
punk
bands
continued
to
perform
and new ones
took place that sealed punk rocks notorious reputation:
The
Cramps,
whose
core mememerged
on
the
scene.
On Thames Today, an early evening London TV show,
bers
were
from
Sacramento,
California
by
way
of Akron,
Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was goaded into a verhad
debuted
at
CBGB
in
November
1976,
opening
for the
bal altercation by the host, Bill Grundy. Jones called
Dead
Boys.
They
were
soon
playing
regularly
at
Maxs
Grundy a dirty fucker on live television, triggering a
[208]
The
Mists
formed
in
nearby
New
JerKansas
City.
[190]
Two days later, the Sex Pistols,
media controversy.
sey.
Still
developing
what
would
become
their
signature
the Clash, the Damned, and the Heartbreakers set out
they
on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the B movieinspired style, later dubbed horror punk, [209]
made
their
rst
appearance
at
CBGB
in
April
1977.
UK. Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners
in response to the media outrage following the Grundy Leave Home, the Ramones second album, had come out
in January.[210] The Dead Boys debut LP, Young, Loud
confrontation.[191]

1.1. PUNK ROCK

11

a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to
come by.[225] Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew
intense: On January 4, 1977, The Evening News of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam ight.[226] In
February 1977, the rst album by a British punk band
appeared: Damned Damned Damned (by the Damned)
reached number thirty-six on the UK chart. The EP Spiral
Scratch, self-released by Manchesters Buzzcocks, was a
benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the
countrys punk movement.[227] The Clash's self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number twelve; the single "White Riot" entered the top forty.
In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controThe Mists developed a "horror punk" style in New Jersey.
versy (and number two on the singles chart) with "God
Save the Queen". The band had recently acquired a new
and Snotty, was released at the end of August.[211] Octo- bassist, Sid Vicious, who was seen as exemplifying the
ber saw two more debut albums from the scene: Richard punk persona.[228]
Hell and the Voidoids rst full-length, Blank Generation,
Scores of new punk groups formed around the United
and the Heartbreakers L.A.M.F.[212] One track on the latKingdom, as far from London as Belfast's Sti Little Finter exemplied both the scenes close-knit character and
gers and Dunfermline, Scotlands the Skids. Though most
the popularity of heroin within it: "Chinese Rocks"
survived only briey, perhaps recording a small-label sinthe title refers to a strong form of the drugwas writgle or two, others set o new trends. Crass, from Essex,
ten by Dee Dee Ramone and Hell, both users, as were
merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with
the Heartbreakers Thunders and Nolan.[213] (During the
a committed anarchist mission, and played a major role
Heartbreakers 1976 and 1977 tours of Britain, Thunders
in the emerging anarcho-punk movement.[229] Sham 69,
played a central role in popularizing heroin among the
Londons Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South
punk crowd there, as well.)[214] The Ramones third alShields in the Northeast combined a similarly strippedbum, Rocket to Russia, appeared in November 1977.[215]
down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became
The Ohio protopunk bands were joined by Cleve- known as street punk. These expressly working-class
lands the Pagans,[216] Akrons Bizarros and Rubber City bands contrasted with others in the second wave that
Rebels, and Kents Human Switchboard. Bloomington, presaged the post-punk phenomenon. Liverpools rst
Indiana, had MX-80 Sound and Detroit had the Sil- punk group, Big in Japan, moved in a glam, theatrical
lies. The Suburbs came together in the Twin Cities direction.[230] The band didn't survive long, but it spun
scene sparked by the Suicide Commandos. The Feederz o several well-known post-punk acts.[231] The songs
formed in Arizona. Atlanta had the Fans. In North Car- of Londons Wire were characterized by sophisticated
olina, there was Chapel Hills H-Bombs and Raleighs Th' lyrics, minimalist arrangements, and extreme brevity.[232]
Cigaretz.[217] The Chicago scene began not with a band By the end of 1977, according to music historian Clinton
but with a group of DJs transforming a gay bar, La Mere Heylin, they were Englands arch-exponents of New MuVipere, into what became known as Americas rst punk sick, and the true heralds of what came next.[233]
dance club. The Crucied, Tutu and the Pirates and SilAlongside thirteen original songs that would dene clasver Abuse were among the citys rst punk bands.[218] In
sic punk rock, the Clashs debut had included a cover of
Boston, the scene at the Rat was joined by the Nervous
the recent Jamaican reggae hit "Police and Thieves".[235]
Eaters, Thrills, and Human Sexual Response.[217][219] In
Other rst wave bands such as the Slits and new enWashington, D.C., the Controls played their rst gig in
trants to the scene like the Ruts and the Police interspring 1977, but the citys second wave really broke the
acted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating
following year with acts such as the Urban Verbs, Half
their rhythms and production styles. The punk rock pheJapanese, D'Chumps, Rudements and Shirkers.[220] By
nomenon helped spark a full-edged ska revival moveearly 1978, the D.C. jazz-fusion group Mind Power had
ment known as 2 Tone, centered on bands such as the
transformed into Bad Brains, one of the rst bands to be
Specials, the Beat, Madness, and the Selecter.[236]
identied with hardcore punk.[217][221]
June 1977 saw the release of another charting punk album: the Vibrators Pure Mania. In July, the Sex Pistols
third single, "Pretty Vacant", reached number six and the
United Kingdom
Saints had a top-forty hit with "This Perfect Day". ReThe Sex Pistols' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy was cently arrived from Australia, the band was now considthe signal moment in British punk's transformation into ered insuciently cool to qualify as punk by much of

12

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND
tuting Australias second wave were Johnny Dole & the
Scabs, the Hellcats, and Psychosurgeons (later known as
the Lipstick Killers) in Sydney;[243] the Leftovers, the
Survivors, and Razar in Brisbane;[244] and La Femme,
the Negatives, and the Babeez (later known as the News)
in Melbourne.[245] Melbournes art rockinuenced Boys
Next Door featured singer Nick Cave, who would become
one of the worlds best-known post-punk artists.[246]
Rest of the world

The stark cover design of Wire's debut LP, Pink Flag, symbolized
the evolution of punk style.[234]

the British media, though they had been playing a similar brand of music for years.[237] In August, the Adverts
entered the top twenty with Gary Gilmores Eyes. As
punk became a broad-based national phenomenon in the
summer of 1977, punk musicians and fans were increasingly subject to violent assaults by Teddy boys, football
yobbos, and others. A Ted-aligned band recorded The
Punk Bashing Boogie.[238]
In September, Generation X and the Clash reached
the top forty with, respectively, Your Generation and
"Complete Control". X-Ray Spex' "Oh Bondage Up
Yours!" didn't chart, but it became a requisite item for
punk fans.[239] In October, the Sex Pistols hit number
eight with "Holidays in the Sun", followed by the release of their rst and only ocial album, Never Mind
the Bollocks, Heres the Sex Pistols. Inspiring yet another
round of controversy, it topped the British charts. In December, one of the rst books about punk rock was published: The Boy Looked at Johnny, by Julie Burchill and
Tony Parsons.[240]
Australia
In February 1977, EMI released the Saints debut album,
(I'm) Stranded, which the band recorded in two days.[241]
The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and
Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington
Town Hall.[242] Last Words had also formed in the city.
The following month, the Saints relocated again, to Great
Britain. In June, Radio Birdman released the album
Radios Appear on its own Trafalgar label.[158]
The Victims became a short-lived leader of the Perth
scene, self-releasing "Television Addict". They were
joined by the Scientists, Kim Salmon's successor band
to the Cheap Nasties. Among the other bands consti-

Meanwhile, punk rock scenes were emerging around the


globe. In France, les punks, a Parisian subculture of Lou
Reed fans, had already been around for years.[248] Following the lead of Stinky Toys, Mtal Urbain played its
rst concert in December 1976.[249] In August 1977, Asphalt Jungle played at the second Mont de Marsan punk
festival.[250] Stinky Toys debut single, Boozy Creed,
came out in September. It was perhaps the rst nonEnglish-language punk rock record, though as music
historian George Gimarc notes, the punk enunciation
made that distinction somewhat moot.[251] The following
month, Mtal Urbains rst 45, Panik, appeared.[252]
After the release of their minimalist punk debut, Rien
dire, Marie et les Garons became involved in New
Yorks mutant disco scene.[253] Asphalt Jungles Deconnection and Gasolines Killer Man also came out before the end of the year, and other French punk acts such
as Oberkampf and Starshooter soon formed.[254]
1977 also saw the debut album from Hamburgs Big Balls
and the Great White Idiot, arguably West Germanys
rst punk band.[255] Other early German punk acts included the Fred Banana Combo and Pack. Bands primarily inspired by British punk sparked what became
known as the Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW) movement.
Vanguard NDW acts such as the Nina Hagen Band and
S.Y.P.H. featured strident vocals and an emphasis on
provocation.[256] Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s, NDW attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience, including both participants
of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads. These opposing factions were mutually attracted
by a view of punk rock as politically as well as musically...'against the system'.[256]
Scandinavian punk was propelled early on by tour dates
by bands such as the Clash and the Ramones (both
in Stockholm in May 1977), and the Sex Pistols tour
through Denmark, Sweden and Norway in July the same
year. The band Briard jump-started Finnish punk with
its November 1977 single I Really Hate Ya"/"I Want
Ya Back"; other early Finnish punk acts included Eppu
Normaali and singer Pelle Miljoona. The rst Swedish
punk single was Vrdad kldsel"/"Frbjudna ljud released by Kriminella Gitarrer in February 1978, which
started an extensive Swedish punk scene featuring act
such as Ebba Grn, KSMB, Rude Kids, Beskarna, Liket
Lever, Garbochock, Attentat, and many others. Within a

1.1. PUNK ROCK

13

couple of years, hundreds of punk singles were released As hardcore became the dominant punk rock style, many
in Sweden.[257]
bands of the older California punk rock movement split
[268]
Across North America, many other rst and secIn Japan, a punk movement developed around bands play- up.
ond
wave
punk bands also dissolved, while younger musiing in an art/noise style such as Friction, and psych punk
cians
inspired
by the movement explored new variations
[258]
acts like Gaseneta and Kadotani Michio.
In New
on
punk.
Some
early punk bands transformed into hardZealand, Aucklands Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles
core
acts.
A
few,
most notably the Ramones, Richard Hell
[217] [259]
were followed by the Enemy of Dunedin.
I.
Punk
and
the
Voidoids,
and Johnny Thunders and the Heartrock scenes also grew in other countries such as Belgium
breakers, continued to pursue the style they had helped
[260]
(the Kids, Chainsaw),
the Netherlands (the Suzannes,
the Ex),[261] Spain (La Banda Trapera Del Ro, Kaka De create. Crossing the lines between classic punk, postpunk, and hardcore, San Franciscos Flipper was founded
Luxe),[262] and Switzerland (Nasal Boys, Kleenex).[263]
in 1979 by former members of Negative Trend and the
Indonesia was a part of the largest punk movement in Sleepers.[269] They became the reigning kings of AmerSoutheast Asia, heavily inuenced by Green Day, Ran- ican underground rock, for a few years.[270]
cid, and the Ospring. Young people created their own
broke up in June 1978 while touring
underground sub-culture of punk, which over time de- Radio Birdman
[158]
the
UK,
where
the early unity between bohemian,
veloped into a style that was completely dierent to the
middle-class
punks
(many
with art school backgrounds)
[264]
original movement.
and working-class punks had disintegrated.[271] In conPunk emerged in South Africa as direct opposition to trast to North America, more of the bands from the origthe conservative apartheid government and racial seg- inal British punk movement remained active, sustainregation enforcement of the time.[265] Bands like Wild ing extended careers even as their styles evolved and diYouth and National Wake led the way in the late 1970s verged. Meanwhile, the Oi! and anarcho-punk moveand early 1980s, followed by Powerage and Screaming ments were emerging. Musically in the same aggresFoetus from Durban and Toxik Sox in Johannesburg in sive vein as American hardcore, they addressed difthe mid 1980s.[266]
ferent constituencies with overlapping but distinct antiestablishment messages. As described by Dave Laing,
The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived
from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most
1.1.5 Schism and diversication
characteristic of the Vibrators and Clash. ... It became
essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as
a 'punk band' now.[272] In February 1979, former Sex
Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in
New York. If the Sex Pistols breakup the previous year
had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and
its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death
of Vicious signied that it had been doomed from the
start.[273]

Flipper, performing in 1984

By 1979, the hardcore punk movement was emerging


in Southern California. A rivalry developed between
adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock
crowd. Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual,
overly violent, and musically limited. In Los Angeles, the
opposing factions were often described as Hollywood
punks and beach punks, referring to Hollywoods central position in the original L.A. punk rock scene and
to hardcores popularity in the shoreline communities of
South Bay and Orange County.[267]

By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had


split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. On one side were
new wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while
some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and
anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun o an array of subgenres.[277]
Somewhere in between, pop punk groups created blends
like that of the ideal record, as dened by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: a cross between Abba and the
Sex Pistols.[278] A range of other styles emerged, many
of them fusions with long-established genres. The Clash
album London Calling, released in December 1979, exemplied the breadth of classic punks legacy. Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it
went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records
ever.[279] At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer
Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes di-

14

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

minished the variety of music that could once be heard into regular rotation. However, the music was often deat many punk gigs.[192] If early punk, like most rock rided at the time as being silly and disposable.[287]
scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and
Oi! scenes were signicantly more so, marked in part by
the slam dancing and moshing with which they became Post-punk
identied.[280]
Main article: Post-punk
New wave
During 197677, in the midst of the original UK punk
movement, bands emerged such as Manchesters Joy DiMain article: New wave music
In 1976rst in London, then in the United vision, the Fall, and Magazine, Leeds Gang of Four,
and Londons the Raincoats that became central postpunk gures. Some bands classied as post-punk, such as
Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, had been active
well before the punk scene coalesced;[290] others, such
as the Slits and Siouxsie and the Banshees, transitioned
from punk rock into post-punk. A few months after the
Sex Pistols breakup, John Lydon (no longer Rotten)
cofounded Public Image Ltd. Lora Logic, formerly of XRay Spex, founded Essential Logic. Killing Joke formed
in 1979. These bands were often musically experimental,
like certain new wave acts; dening them as post-punk
was a sound that tended to be less pop and more dark and
abrasivesometimes verging on the atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wireand an anti-establishment posture
Debbie Harry performing in Toronto in 1977
directly related to punks. Post-punk reected a range
States"New Wave was introduced as a comple- of art rock inuences from Captain Beefheart to David
to Krautrock and, once again, the
mentary label for the formative scenes and groups Bowie and Roxy Music
[11]
Velvet
Underground.
also known as punk"; the two terms were essentially
interchangeable.[281] NME journalist Roy Carr is credited
with proposing the terms use (adopted from the cinematic French New Wave of the 1960s) in this context.[282]
Over time, new wave acquired a distinct meaning:
Bands such as Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB
scene; the Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; the
Go-Gos in Los Angeles; and the Police in London that
were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating
dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished
production were specically designated new wave and
no longer called punk. Dave Laing suggests that some
punk-identied British acts pursued the new wave label
in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves
more palatable to concert bookers.[283]

Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians,


journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geo Travis of Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of
Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s.[291] Smoothing the edges of
their style in the direction of new wave, several post-punk
bands such as New Order (descended from Joy Division)
and the Cure. crossed over to a mainstream U.S. audience. Bauhaus was one of the formative gothic rock
bands. Others, like Gang of Four, the Raincoats and
Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as signicant inuences on modern popular culture.[292]

Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion


into more pop-oriented, less dangerous styles, new
wave artists became very popular on both sides of the
Atlantic.[284] New wave became a catch-all term,[285]
encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone ska, the
mod revival inspired by the Jam, the sophisticated poprock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic
phenomenon typied by Ultravox, synthpop groups like
Tubeway Army (which had started out as a straight-ahead
punk band) and Human League, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone beyond punk before
punk even properly existed.[286] New wave became a pop
culture sensation with the debut of the cable television
network MTV in 1981, which put many new wave videos

A number of U.S. artists were reclassied as post-punk;


Televisions debut album Marquee Moon, released in
1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the
eld.[293] The no wave movement that developed in New
York in the late 1970s, with artists such as Lydia Lunch
and James Chance, is often treated as the phenomenons
U.S. parallel.[294] The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as postpunk.[295] One of the most inuential American postpunk bands was Bostons Mission of Burma, who brought
abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly
experimental musical context.[296] In 1980, Australias
Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their
name to the Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick

1.1. PUNK ROCK


Cave and the Bad Seeds. Led by the Primitive Calculators, Melbournes Little Band scene would further explore
the possibilities of post-punk.[297] Later alternative rock
musicians found diverse inspiration among these postpunk predecessors, as they did among their new wave
contemporaries.[298]
Hardcore
Main article: Hardcore punk
A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast,

15
buted that year as a hardcore band. They were followed
by the Cro-Mags, Murphys Law, and Leeway.[307] By
1983, St. Paul's Hsker D, Willful Neglect, Chicagos
Naked Raygun, Indianapolis's Zero Boys, and D.C.'s the
Faith were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and
ultimately more melodic directions.[308] Hardcore would
constitute the American punk rock standard throughout
the decade.[309] The lyrical content of hardcore songs is
often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values, as in Dead Kennedys celebrated "Holiday in Cambodia" (1980).[303]
Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston's SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada's 7 Seconds rejected the selfdestructive lifestyles of many of their peers, and built
a movement based on positivity and abstinence from
cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, and casual sex.[310]

Skate punk innovators also pointed in other directions:


Big Boys helped establish funkcore, while Venice, California's Suicidal Tendencies had a formative eect on
the heavy metalinuenced crossover thrash style. Toward the middle of the decade, D.R.I. spawned the superfast thrashcore genre. Both developed in multiple
locations.[311] Sacramentos Tales of Terror, which mixed
psychedelic rock into their hardcore sound, were an early
inuence on the grunge genre.[312] D.C.'s Void was one of
Bad Brains at 9:30 Club, Washington, D.C., 1983
the rst punk-metal crossover acts and inuenced thrash
[313][314]
aggressive beats, screaming vocals, and often politically metal.
aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States and Canada. The rst maOi!
jor scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk
[299]
developed in Southern California in 197879,
initially around such punk bands as the Germs and Fear.[300] Main article: Oi!
The movement soon spread around North America and
internationally.[301][302][303] According to author Steven Following the lead of rst-wave British punk bands
Blush, Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of Amer- Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s secondica. Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these wave units like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, the
horrible suburbs to save them from the 'reality' of the Exploited, Anti-Establishment and the 4-Skins sought
cities and what they ended up with was this new breed to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level
of monster.[17]
following.[317][318] For that purpose, they believed, the
Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having music needed to stay accessible and unpretentious,
[319]
made the rst recordings in the style, were Southern in the words of music historian Simon Reynolds.
Californias Middle Class and Black Flag.[302][303] Bad Their style was originally called real punk or street
Brainsall of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any punk; Sounds journalist Garry Bushell is credited with
eralaunched the D.C. scene.[301] Austin, Texas's Big labelling the genre Oi! in 1980. The name is partly deBoys, San Franciscos Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver's rived from the Cockney Rejects habit of shouting Oi!
each song, instead of the time-honored
D.O.A. were among the other initial hardcore groups. Oi! Oi!" before
[320]
1,2,3,4!"
They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen,
Descendents, Circle Jerks, Adolescents, and T.S.O.L. in
Southern California; D.C.'s Teen Idles, Minor Threat,
and State of Alert; and Austins MDC and the Dicks.
By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not
only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well.[306] A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jerseys Mists
and Adrenalin O.D., and local acts such as the Nihilistics, the Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. Beastie
Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, de-

The Oi! movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words
of the Business guitarist Steve Kent, trendy university
people using long words, trying to be artistic ... and losing touch.[322] According to Bushell, Punk was meant
to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of
them were not. But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. In the places where [these bands] came from, it was
harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much
quality music.[323] Lester Bangs described Oi! as politi-

16

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

Crass were the originators of anarcho-punk.[330] Spurning the


cult of rock star personality, their plain, all-black dress became
a staple of the genre.[331]
Strength Thru Oi!, with its notorious image of British Movement
activist and felon Nicky Crane[321]

cized football chants for unemployed louts.[324] One


song in particular, the Exploiteds Punks Not Dead,
spoke to an international constituency. It was adopted as
an anthem by the groups of disaected Mexican urban
youth known in the 1980s as bandas; one banda named
itself PND, after the songs initials.[325]
Although most Oi! bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white
power skinhead following. Racist skinheads sometimes
disrupted Oi! concerts by shouting fascist slogans and
starting ghts, but some Oi! bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived
as the middle-class establishment.[326] In the popular
imagination, the movement thus became linked to the
far right.[327] Strength Thru Oi!, an album compiled by
Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy,
especially when it was revealed that the belligerent gure on the cover was a neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence
(Bushell claimed ignorance).[321] On July 3, a concert at
Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring the Business,
the 4-Skins, and the Last Resort was rebombed by local
Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi
gathering.[328] Following the Southall riot, press coverage
increasingly associated Oi! with the extreme right, and
the movement soon began to lose momentum.[329]

Anarcho-punk
Main article: Anarcho-punk
Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! and American hardcore movements. Inspired by Crass, its Dial
House commune, and its independent Crass Records label, a scene developed around British bands such as
Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conict, Poison Girls,
and the Apostles that was concerned as much with anar-

chist and DIY principles as it was with music. The acts


featured ranting vocals, discordant instrumental sounds,
primitive production values, and lyrics lled with political and social content, often addressing issues such
as class inequalities and military violence.[332] Anarchopunk musicians and fans disdained the older punk scene
from which theirs had evolved. In historian Tim Goslings
description, they saw safety pins and Mohicans as little
more than ineectual fashion posturing stimulated by the
mainstream media and industry.... Whereas the Sex Pistols would proudly display bad manners and opportunism
in their dealings with 'the establishment,' the anarchopunks kept clear of 'the establishment' altogether.[333]
The movement spun o several subgenres of a similar
political bent. Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Other groups in the
movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the
extreme style known as crust punk. Several of these
bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as the Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! groups such
as the Exploited and bands from father aeld like Birminghams Charged GBH, became the leading gures in
the UK 82 hardcore movement. The anarcho-punk scene
also spawned bands such as Napalm Death, Carcass,
and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s dened
grindcore, incorporating extremely fast tempos and death
metalstyle guitarwork.[334] Led by Dead Kennedys, a
U.S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands
as Austins MDC and Southern Californias Another Destructive System.[335]

Pop punk
Main article: Pop punk
With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s
bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what

1.1. PUNK ROCK


became known as pop punk.[336] In the late 1970s, UK
bands such as Buzzcocks and the Undertones combined
pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punks speed
and chaotic edge.[337] In the early 1980s, some of the
leading bands in Southern Californias hardcore punk
rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than
was typical of their peers. According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion layered their pissed
o, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies";
Descendents wrote almost surfy, Beach Boysinspired
songs about girls and food and being young(ish)".[338]
Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands.
Bands that fused punk with light-hearted pop melodies,
such as the Queers and Screeching Weasel, began appearing around the country, in turn inuencing bands like
Green Day and the Ospring, who brought pop punk
wide popularity and major record sales. Bands such as
the Vandals and Guttermouth developed a style blending
pop melodies with humorous and oensive lyrics. Eventually, the geographically large midwest U.S. punk scene,
anchored largely in places like Chicago and Minneapolis,
would spawn bands like Dillinger Four who would talk
a catchy, hooky pop-punk approach and reinfuse it with
some of punks earlier grit and fury, creating a distinctive
punk rock sound with a regional tag. This particular substrate still maintains an identity today. The mainstream
pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock devotees; in critic Christine Di
Bellas words, Its punk taken to its most accessible point,
a point where it barely reects its lineage at all, except in
the three-chord song structures.[339]

Other fusions and directions


From 1977 on, punk rock crossed lines with many other
popular music genres. Los Angeles punk rock bands laid
the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: the Flesh
Eaters with deathrock; the Plugz with Chicano punk; and
Gun Club with punk blues. The Meteors, from South
London, and the Cramps, who moved from New York to
Los Angeles in 1980, were innovators in the psychobilly
fusion style.[340] Milwaukees Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while the Pogues
did the same on the other side of the Atlantic, inuencing
many Celtic punk bands.[341] Hardcore punk was combined with hip hop, creating rapcore.[342][343][344][345][346]
Other bands pointed punk rock toward future rock styles
or its own foundations. New Yorks Suicide, L.A.'s the
Screamers and Nervous Gender, Australias JAB, and
Germanys Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft were
pioneers of electropunk. The Ex, from the Netherlands,
were in the art punk vanguard.[347] Chicagos Big Black
was a major inuence on noise rock, math rock, and
industrial rock. Garage punk bands from all oversuch
as Medway's Thee Mighty Caesars, Chicagos Dwarves,
and Adelaide's Exploding White Micepursued a ver-

17
sion of punk rock that was close to its roots in 1960s
garage rock. Seattles Mudhoney, one of the central
bands in the development of grunge, has been described
as garage punk.[348]

1.1.6 Legacy and later developments


Alternative rock
Main article: Alternative rock
The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound
or brought its outsider spirit to very dierent kinds of
music. The original punk explosion also had a longterm eect on the music industry, spurring the growth
of the independent sector.[349] During the early 1980s,
British bands like New Order and the Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and new wave developed
both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche.
Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural
identity.[350] In the United States, bands such as Hsker
D and their Minneapolis protgs the Replacements
bridged the gap between punk rock genres like hardcore
and the more melodic, explorative realm of what was then
called "college rock".[351]
A 1985 Rolling Stone feature on the Minneapolis scene
and innovative California hardcore acts such as Black
Flag and Minutemen declared, Primal punk is pass.
The best of the American punk rockers have moved on.
They have learned how to play their instruments. They
have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are
more than shouted political slogans. Some of them have
even discovered the Grateful Dead.[352] By the end of the
1980s, these bands, who had largely eclipsed their punk
rock forebears in popularity, were classied broadly as
alternative rock. Alternative rock encompasses a diverse
set of stylesincluding gothic rock and grunge, among
othersunied by their debt to punk rock and their origins outside of the musical mainstream.[353]
As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, which
had grown out of the no wave scene, and Bostons Pixies
started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to
capitalize on the underground market that had been sustained by hardcore punk for years.[354] In 1991, Nirvana
emerged from Washington States grunge scene, achieving huge commercial success with its second album,
Nevermind. The bands members cited punk rock as a key
inuence on their style.[355] Punk is musical freedom,
wrote singer Kurt Cobain. Its saying, doing, and playing
what you want.[356] Nirvanas success opened the door to
mainstream popularity for a wide range of other left-ofthe-dial acts, such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers, and fueled the alternative rock boom of the early
and mid-1990s.[353][357]

18

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

Emo
For more details on this topic, see Emo.
In its original, mid-1980s incarnation, emo was a less musically restrictive style of punk developed by participants
in the Washington, D.C. area hardcore scene. It was originally referred to as emocore, an abbreviation of emotive hardcore.[358] Jimmy Eat World took emo in a radioready pop punk direction,[359] and had top ten albums in
2004 and 2007.

Heavy metal
Main article: Heavy metal music
In the beginning, the heavy metal created by Judas Priest
was music of slow tempos and little aggression. When
punk rock exploded in '77 in the music scene mainstream,
many bands like Motrhead (pioneer NWOBHM) combine the dense sound of heavy metal with dirt and speed
of punk rock creating a new movement called New wave
of British heavy metal where many bands were inuenced
by many punk bands like Sex Pistols, the Damned and
Ramones, among other bands. From this new style of
Carrie Brownstein, performing with Sleater-Kinney in 2005
heavy metal, they grew others even more aggressive styles
but always inuenced by punk rock, like Speed metal
(much inuenced by punk rock and NWOBHM), Thrash
metal (inuenced by hardcore punk and speed metal),
Death metal (which combined the thrash metal and Dbeat) and Black metal (inuenced by death metal and
Horror punk).
The Riot Grrrl movement, a signicant aspect in the formation of the Third Wave feminist movement, was organized by taking the values and rhetoric of punk and
Queercore
using it to convey feminist messages.[361][362] In 1991, a
concert of female-led bands at the International Pop UnFor more details on this topic, see Queercore.
derground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded
the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Billed as Love
In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around Rock Revolution Girl Style Now, the concerts lineup
a number of punk bands with gay, lesbian, bisexual, or included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7,
genderqueer members such as God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy and Mecca Normal.[363] The riot grrrl movement foreDivision, Team Dresch, and Sister George. Inspired by grounded feminist concerns and progressive politics in
openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation such general; the DIY ethic and fanzines were also central elas Jayne County, Phranc, and Randy Turner, and bands ements of the scene.[364] This movement relied on media
like Nervous Gender, the Screamers, and Coil, queer- and technology to spread their ideas and messages, creatcore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative ing a cultural-technological space for feminism to voice
music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of their concerns.[361] They embodied the punk perspective,
prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual taking the anger and emotions and creating a separate
rights. The movement has continued into the 21st cen- culture from it. With riot grrrl, they were grounded in
tury, supported by festivals such as Queeruption.[360]
girl punk past, but also rooted in modern feminism.[362]
Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and
Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the
Riot grrrl
queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the indie/punk
band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Bikini Kills lead singer,
For more details on this topic, see Riot grrrl.
Kathleen Hanna, the iconic gure of riot grrrl, moved on
to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998.[365]

1.1. PUNK ROCK

19
Following the lead of Bostons Mighty Mighty Bosstones
and two California bands, Anaheim's No Doubt and Long
Beach's Sublime, ska punk and ska-core became widely
popular in the mid-1990s. By 1996, genre acts such as
Reel Big Fish and Less Than Jake were being signed to
major labels. The original 2 Tone bands had emerged
amid punk rocks second wave, but their music was much
closer to its Jamaican roots"ska at 78 rpm".[371] Ska
punk bands in the third wave of ska created a true musical fusion between the genres. ...And Out Come the
Wolves, the 1995 album by Rancidwhich had evolved
out of Operation Ivybecame the rst record in this
ska revival to be certied gold;[372] Sublimes self-titled
1996 album was certied platinum early in 1997.[368] In
Australia, two popular groups, skatecore band Frenzal
Rhomb and pop punk act Bodyjar, also established followings in Japan.[373]

Green Day and Dookie's enormous sales paved the way for
a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the
following decade.[374] With punk rocks renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community
that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream.[370]
They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing
Billie Joe Armstrong of Green Day, performing in 1994
on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a
system that punk was created to challenge.[375] Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977,
1.1.7 Revival
when the Clash was widely accused of selling out for
signing with CBS Records.[376] The Vans Warped Tour
By the 1990s, punk rock was suciently ingrained in and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even
Western culture that punk trappings were often used to further into the U.S. mainstream.[377]
market highly commercial bands as rebels. Marketers
capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to
such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automo- 1.1.8 In the mainstream
bile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was like
punk rock.[366] Along with Nirvana, many of the leading By early 1998, the punk revival had commercially
grunge artists of the early 1990s acknowledged the inu- stalled,[380] but not for long. That November, the Oence of earlier punk rock acts. With Nirvanas success, springs Americana on the major Columbia label debuted
the major record companies once again saw punk bands at number two on the album chart. A bootleg MP3 of
as potentially protable.[367]
its rst single, "Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)", made it
onto
the Internet and was downloaded a record 22 milIn 1993, Californias Green Day and Bad Religion were
[381]
lion
timesillegally.
The following year, Enema of
both signed to major labels. The next year, Green Day
the
State,
the
rst
major-label
release by pop punk band
put out Dookie, which became a huge hit, selling nine
Blink-182,
reached
the
top
ten
and sold four million
million albums in the United States in just over two
[368]
In January 2000, the
copies
in
under
twelve
months.
[368]
Bad Religions Stranger Than Fiction was ceryears.
albums
second
single,
"All
the
Small
Things", hit the
[369]
tied gold.
Other California punk bands on the inBillboard
Hot
100.
While
they were
sixth
spot
on
the
dependent label Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist
[379]
viewed
as
Green
Day
acolytes,
critics
also
found
Brett Gurewitz, also began achieving mainstream popteen
pop
acts
such
as
Britney
Spears,
the
Backstreet
Boys,
ularity. In 1994, Epitaph released Lets Go by Rancid,
and
'N
Sync
suitable
points
of
comparison
for
Blink-182s
Punk in Drublic by NOFX, and Smash by the Ospring,
[382]
The bands Take O Your
each eventually certied gold or better. That June, Green sound and market niche.
(2001)
and
Blink-182 (2003) respecPants
and
Jacket
Days "Longview" reached number one on Billboard's
tively
rose
to
numbers
one
and
three on the album chart.
Modern Rock Tracks chart and became a top forty airThe
New
Yorker
described how the
In
November
2003,
play hit, arguably the rst ever American punk song to do
giddily
puerile
act
had
become
massively
popular with
so; just one month later, the Osprings "Come Out and
the
mainstream
audience,
a
demographic
formerly
conPlay" followed suit. MTV and radio stations such as Los
[383]
sidered
untouchable
by
punk-rock
purists.
Angeles KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands
crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air Other new North American pop punk bands, though often critically dismissed, also achieved major sales in the
its videos.[370]

20

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

rst decade of the 2000s. Ontarios Sum 41 reached the


Canadian top ten with its 2001 debut album, All Killer,
No Filler, which eventually went platinum in the United
States. The record included the number one U.S. Alternative hit "Fat Lip", which incorporated verses of what
one critic called brat rap.[384]

Metropolis Video
PVC clothing
GoNightclubbing

1.1.10 References
[1] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas, The Ramones: Biography,
Allmusic. Retrieved on October 11, 2007.
[2] Bessman (1993), pp. 48, 50; Miles, Scott, and Morgan(2005), p. 136.
[3] Robb (2006), foreword by Michael Bracewell.
[4] Ramone, Tommy, Fight Club, Uncut, January 2007.
[5] McLaren, Malcolm, Punk Celebrates 30 Years of Subversion, BBC News, August 18, 2006. Retrieved on January 17, 2006.
[6] Christgau, Robert, "Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral
History of Punk, by Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain
(review), New York Times Book Review, 1996. Retrieved
on January 17, 2007.
Justin Sane and Chris#2 of Anti-Flag, performing in 2006

[7] Rodel (2004), p. 237; Bennett (2001), pp. 4950.

The eect of commercialization on the music became an [8] Savage (1992), pp. 280281, including reproduction of
the original image. Several sources incorrectly ascribe
increasingly contentious issue. As observed by scholar
the illustration to the leading fanzine of the London punk
Ross Haener, many punk fans "'despise corporate punk
scene, Snin' Glue (e.g., Wells [2004], p. 5; Sabin [1999],
rock', typied by bands such as Sum 41 and Blink
[385]
p. 111). Robb (2006) ascribes it to the Stranglers' in182.
At the same time, politicized and independenthouse fanzine, Strangled (p. 311). In fact, Strangled,
label punk continued to thrive in the United States. Since
which only began appearing in 1977, evolved out of Side1993, Anti-Flag had been putting progressive politics at
burns (see, e.g., "Strangled". Xulu Brand Comics. Rethe center of its music. The administration of George W.
trieved 2009-03-19.)
Bush provided them and similarly minded acts eight years
of conservative government to excoriate. Rise Against [9] Blush (2001), pp. 173, 175. See also The Stimulators
Loud Fast Rules 7 Killed By Death Records (September
was the most successful of these groups, registering top
21, 2006).
ten records in 2006 with The Suerer & the Witness and
two years later with Appeal to Reason. Leftist punk band [10] Harris (2004), p. 202.
Against Me!'s New Wave was named best album of 2007
[11] Reynolds (2005), p. 4.
by Spin.[386]
Elsewhere around the world, "punkabilly" band the Living End became major stars in Australia with their selftitled 1998 debut.[387]
The Yeah Yeah Yeahs's album Mosquito has been classied as art-punk.[388]

1.1.9

See also

List of First wave punk bands


List of First wave punk musicians
List of Second wave punk bands
List of punk rock festivals
Timeline of punk rock
Latino punk

[12] Jeries, Stuart. A Right Royal Knees-Up.


Guardian. July 20, 2007.

The

[13] Washburne, Christopher, and Maiken Derno. Bad Music.


Routledge, 2004. Page 247.
[14] Kosmo Vinyl, The Last Testament: The Making of London
Calling (Sony Music, 2004).
[15] Traber, Daniel S. (2001). L.A.'s 'White Minority': Punk
and the Contradictions of Self-Marginalization. Cultural
Critique. 48: 3064. doi:10.1353/cul.2001.0040.
[16] Murphy, Peter, Shine On, The Lights Of The Bowery: The Blank Generation Revisited, Hot Press, July 12,
2002; Hoskyns, Barney, Richard Hell: King Punk Remembers the [ ] Generation, Rocks Backpages, March
2002.
[17] Blush, Steven, Move Over My Chemical Romance: The
Dynamic Beginnings of US Punk, Uncut, January 2007.

1.1. PUNK ROCK

21

[18] Wells (2004), p. 41; Reed (2005), p. 47.

[47] Laing 1985, p. 34.

[19] Shuker (2002), p. 159.

[48] Laing 1985, p. 82.

[20] Laing (1985), p. 58; Reynolds (2005), p. ix.

[49] Laing 1985, pp. 8485.

[21] Chong, Kevin, The Thrill Is Gone, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, August 2006. Retrieved on December
17, 2006.

[50] Laing 1985, p. 14.

[22] Quoted in Laing (1985), p. 62

[52] Pareles, Jon (January 25, 1997). Richard Berry, Songwriter of 'Louie Louie,' Dies at 61. New York Times. The
New York Times Company. Retrieved April 27, 2016.

[23] Palmer (1992), p. 37.

[51] Sabin 1999, p. 157.

[25] Laing (1985), pp. 6163

[53] Avant-Mier, Roberto (2008). Rock the Nation: Latin/o


Identities and the Latin Rock Diaspora, p. 99. Routledge,
London. ISBN 1441164480.

[26] Laing 1985, pp. 11819.

[54] Sabin 1999, p. 159.

[27] Laing 1985, p. 53.

[55] Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung.


Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. pg.
8, 56, 57, 61, 64, 101: reprints of articles which appeared
in 1971 and 1972, that refer to garage bands such as the
Count Five and the Troggs as punk"; pg. 101 associates
Iggy and Jonathan of Modern Lovers with the Troggs
and their ilk (as being punk); pg. 112113 speak of the
Guess Who as punkthe Guess Who had made recordings (i.e. their hit version of Shakin' All Over, 1965) as a
garage rock outt in the mid-1960s; pg. 8 makes a general
statement about punk rock (garage) as a genre: "... then
punk bands started cropping up who were writing their
own songs but taking the Yardbirds sound and reducing
it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I
think those were the best days ever."; pg. 225 is a reprint
from article which appeared in late-70s, that refers back
to garage bands as punk

[24] Laing 1985, p. 62.

[28] Sabin (1999), pp. 4, 226; Dalton, Stephen, Revolution


Rock, Vox, June 1993. See also Laing (1985), pp. 27
32, for a statistical comparison of lyrical themes.
[29] Laing (1985), p. 31.
[30] Laing (1985), pp. 81, 125.
[31] Savage (1991), p. 440. See also Laing (1985), pp. 2732.
[32] Isler, Scott; Robbins, Ira. Richard Hell & the Voidoids.
Trouser Press. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
[33] Strongman (2008), pp. 58, 63, 64; Colegrave and Sullivan
(2005), p. 78.
[34] See Weldon, Michael. Electric Eels: Attendance Required. Cleveland.com. Retrieved December 19, 2010.
[35] Young, Charles M. (October 20, 1977). Rock Is Sick
and Living in London. Rolling Stone. Archived from the
original on September 14, 2006. Retrieved October 10,
2006.
[36] Habell-Pallan, Michelle (2012). Death to Racism and
Punk Rock Revisionism, Pop: When the World Falls
Apart: Music in the Shadow of Doubt. p. 247-270.
Durham : Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822350996.
[37] Strohm (2004), p. 188.
[38] See, e.g., Laing (1985), Picture Section, p. 18.
[39] Wojcik (1997), p. 122.
[40] Little, Joseph (August 10, 2011). A History of Punk
Music and its Eect on British Culture and Society.
rockandrollreport.com. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
[41] Wojcik (1995), pp. 1619; Laing (1985), p. 109.
[42] Laing (1985), pp. 89, 9798, 125.

[56] Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in


Punk Rock. PM Press. Oakland, CA 2015. pg. 2223.
Laing writes that the term, punk rock was used generically (i.e. as to designate a genre) in the early 70s to
describe mid-1960s garage rock bandshe quotes Greg
Shaw from the late 70s referring to how it was used in
the early 70s to designate the genre: Punk rock in those
days was a quaint fanzine term for a transient form of mid60s music ... Pg. 21 recognizes a strand of punk that
started long before the mid 70s, but this view is not intended to be late-70s retrospectivism, but rather, based
on testimony from early 70s critics, as the next two pages
emphasize. Pg. 23 emphasizes that the development of
the punk aesthetic started with the early 70s critics (although the actual subculture would not manifest until the
mid 70s).
[57] G. Thompson, American Culture in the 1980s (Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1910-0,
p. 134.

[43] Laing (1985), p. 92, 88.

[58] Kitts, Thomas M. Ray Davies: Not Like Everybody Else.


Routledge. 2007. Pg. 41

[44] Laing (1985), pp. 89, 9293.

[59] Harrington (2002), p. 165.

[45] Laing (1985), pp. 34, 61, 63, 8991.

[60] Reed (2005), p. 49.

[46] Laing (1985), p. 90; Robb (2006), pp. 15960.

[61] Fletcher (2000), p. 497.

22

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND

[62] Bangs, Lester (2003). Marcus, Greil, ed. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (First ed.). New York: Ancor
Books, a division of Random House Inc. pp. 5657, 61,
64, 101. ISBN 0-679-72045-6.

[68] Cockington, James (2001). Sunshine Sounds. Long


Way to the Top: Stories of Australian Rock & Roll. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).
pp. 210211. ISBN 978-0-7333-0750-8.

[63] Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About


You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New
Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 79, 1135. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
Also see: Everett Trues Australian Garage Rock Primer
(website)Trues Australian Garage Rock Primer

[69] Punk Musics Origins Traced To A Surprising Place.


The Hungton Post. Retrieved 2015-11-20.

[64] Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). 1, 4. India Psychedelic (First


ed.). India: Harper Collins. pp. 10, 51. ISBN 978-935029-837-4. On pages 10 and 51 the author says that the
term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is
garage bands. Source B: New Book on Indias 1960s
1970s Rock Scene: Highly explosive out of time garagepunk from India!". Combustibles. Nissim Ezekiel. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
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Empire & Beyond. AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All
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(Review)". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 24, 2015. Source C:
Unterberger, Richie. Trans-World Punk Rave-Up, Vol.
12: AllMusic Review. AllMusic. AllMusic, a division
of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
Source D: Unterberger, Richie. The Syndicats: Artist
Biography. AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media
Network, LLC. Retrieved July 10, 2015. Source E: Unterberger. Simla Beat: 19701971 (Review)". AllMusic.
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Retrieved July 24, 2015. Source F: Unterberger, Richie.
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July 18, 2015. Source G: Lymangrover, Jason. Los
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America: AllMusic Review. AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved July 10,
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[66] Palao, Alex. Get Me to the World on Time: How the
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discusses the role of garage outside of America.
[67] Marks, Ian D. and McIntyre, Iain. Wild About You:
The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand.
Verse Chorus Press. Portland, London, Melbourne.
2010 ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4 pg. 7 (McFarland introduction: garage-punk/R&B/pscyh to describe various
groups from the time of which the Missing Links are the
rst mentioned), pg. 87 (punk pioneers), pg. 98 (describing band appearance in photo: the denitive Australian punk image of all)

[70] Demolicin!: The Complete Recordings Allmusic review


[71] Marcus (1979), p. 294.
[72] Taylor (2003), p. 49.
[73] Harrington (2002), p. 538.
[74] Bessman (1993), pp. 910.
[75] Andersen and Jenkins (2001), p. 12. Vaughan, Robin
(June 612, 2003). Reality Bites. Boston Phoenix. Harvard, Joe. Mickey Clean and the Mezz. Boston Rock
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says it all. The hippies wanted to be nice and gentle, but
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[79] Unterberger (1998), pp. 8691.
[80] Laing 1985, pp. 2426.
[81] Robb (2006), p. 51.
[82] Neate, Wilson. NEU!". Trouser Press. Retrieved 200701-11.
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[84] Unterberger (2000), p. 18.
[85] Dickson (1982), p. 230.
[86] Leblanc (1999), p. 35.
[87] Quoted in Leblanc (1999), p. 35.
[88] Shapiro (2006), p. 492.
[89] Bangs, Lester, Of Pop and Pies and Fun, Creem, December 1970. Retrieved on November 29, 2007.
[90] Nobahkt (2004), p. 38.
[91] Shapiro (2006), p. 492. Note that Taylor (2003) misidenties the year of publication as 1970 (p. 16).
[92] Gendron (2002), p. 348 n. 13.

1.1. PUNK ROCK

23

[93] Christgau, Robert (October 14, 1971). Consumer Guide [108]


(20)". Village Voice. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
[109]
[94] Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung.
Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. pg. 8. [110]
Taken from article, '"Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor
Dung, which appeared in June 1971 edition of Creem [111]
refers to garage bands such as the Count Five as punk
[112]
rock
[95] Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung.
Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003.
Reprint of article, James Taylor Marked for Death
which appeared in Creem, in winter-spring edition, 1971,
that refers to garage the Troggs and similar bands as
punk on pg. 56, 57, 58, 61 (punko), and 64.

Taylor (2003), pp. 1617.


Valentine 2006, p. 54.
Valentine 2006, pp. 5255.
Savage 1991, pp. 8690, 5960.
Walker (1991), p. 662.

[113] Strongman (2008), pp. 53, 54, 56.


[114] Savage (1992), p. 89.
[115] Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 102.

[116] Patti SmithBiography. Arista Records. Archived


from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007[96] Taylor (2003), p. 16.
10-23. Strongman (2008), p. 57; Savage (1991), p. 91;
Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 511; Bockris and
[97] Willis, Ellen, Into the Seventies, for Real, The New
Bayley (1999), p. 106.
Yorker, December 1972; reprinted in Williss Out of the
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11416. Italics in original.
[118] Gimarc 2005, p. 14.
[98] Kaye, Lenny. Original liner notes for Nuggets LP. (Elektra, 1972): rst he uses the term punk rock to describe [119] Bessman (1993), p. 27.
genre of 60s garage bands: The name that has been unocially coined for them"punk rockseems particu- [120] Savage 1991, pp. 13233.
larly tting in this case... then later, in the track-by-track
notes, he uses the term, garage punk to describe a song [121] Deming, Mark. ""The Dictators Go Girl Crazy!" (review)". Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
by the Shadows of Knight as classic garage punk
[99] Houghton, Mick, White Punks on Coke, Let It Rock. [122]
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[123]
[100] Shaw, Greg (January 4, 1973). Review of Nuggets.
Rolling Stone.

Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 119.


Savage (1992) claims that Blank Generation was written
around this time (p. 90). However, the Richard Hell anthology album Spurts includes a live Television recording
of the song that he dates spring 1974.

[101] Atkinson, Terry, Hits and Misses, Los Angeles Times,


February 17, 1973, p. B6.
[124] Strongman (2008), p. 96; Savage (1992), p. 130.
[102] Laing, Dave (2015). One Chord Wonders: Power and
Meaning in Punk Rock (Second ed.). Oakland, CA: PM
Press. p. 23. Laing mentions original punk magazine.
He indiactes that much punk fanfare in early 70s was
in relation to mid-60s garage rock and artists perceived as
following in that tradition. The rst issue of punk magazine (1973) had a picture of a 60s garage rock band (which
appears to be the Seeds) on the front cover ().

[125] Campbell (2008), p. 362.

[106] Savage (1991), p. 131.

[133] Richard HellAnother World/Blank Generation/You


Gotta Lose. Discogs. Retrieved 2007-10-23. Buckley
(2003), p. 485.

[126] Walsh (2006), p. 27.


[127] Savage (1991), p. 132.

[128] Walsh (2006), pp. 15, 24; for Punk, Wayne County, and
punk homosexuality, see McNeil and McCain (2006), pp.
27275; Savage (1992), p. 139; for CBGBs closing in
2006, see, e.g., Damian Fowler, Legendary punk club
[103] Sauders, Metal Mike. Blue Cheer More Pumice than
CBGB closes, BBC News, October 16, 2006. Retrieved
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of garage rock acts the Other Half and the Sons of Adam,
then later protopunk/heavy rock band, Blue Cheer. He [129] Savage (1992), p. 137.
refers to an album by the Other Half as acid punk.
[130] Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 249.
[104] Hilburn, Robert, Touch of Stones in Dolls Album, Los
[131] Isler, Scott; Robbins, Ira. Ramones. Trouser Press. ReAngeles Times, May 7, 1974, p. C12.
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[105] Harvard, Joe, Real Kids, Boston Rock Storybook. Retrieved on November 27, 2007. Archived December 26, [132] Adams (2002), p. 369; McNeil and McCain (2006), pp.
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[107] Savage (1991), pp. 130131.

24

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22. Gook, Ben (2007-08-16). ""Great Australian AlWhen people talk about the punk scene at CBGB, they
bums The Saints (I'm) Stranded [DVD review]" ".
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mean the Sunday matinee performances. For $5 ... Aztec
Lounge This is only partly punkthe bar crowd is actu[157] Staord (2006), pp. 5776.
ally friendly.
[158] McFarlane (1999), p. 507.
[135] Walsh (2006), p. 8.
[159] McCaleb (1991), p. 529.
[136] Heylin (2007), p. 380. Heylin dates the Hot Wire My
[160] Unterberger (2002), p. 1337.
Heart single to 1976.
[137] Hannon (2009), p. 18. Hannon suggests Hot Wire My [161] Gimarc (2005), p. 41
Heart came out in January 1977 or shortly thereafter.
[162] Marcus (1989), p. 8.
[138] Debris - OklahomaRock.com.
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[140] Brady, Karen Chickasha Express Star(2010)
[141] Unterberger 1999, p. 319.

[164] Gimarc (2005), p. 22; Robb (2006), p. 114; Savage


(1992), p. 129.
[165] "The Bromley Contingent", punk77.co.uk. Retrieved on
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[142] Unterberger 1999, p. 426.

[166] Savage (1992), pp. 151152. The quote has been incorrectly ascribed to McLaren (e.g., Laing [1985], pp. 97,
127) and Rotten (e.g., Punk Music in Britain, BBC, October 7, 2002), but Savage directly cites the New Musical Express issue in which the quote originally appeared.
Robb (2006), p. 148, also describes the NME article in
Habell-Palln, Michelle (2012). "'Death to Racism and
some detail and ascribes the quote to Jones.
Punk Revisionism: Alice Bags Vexing Voice and the Unspeakable Inuence of Cancin Ranchera on Hollywood
[167] Quoted in Friedlander and Miller (2006), p. 252.
Punk, Pop When the World Falls Apart: Music in the
Shadow of Doubt, p. 250. Duke University Press Books, [168] Quoted in Savage (1992), p. 163.
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[147]

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[152] Raftery, Brian. The 30 Essential Punk Albums of 1977.
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Gimarc, George (1997). Post Punk Diary, 1980


1982. New York: St. Martins. ISBN 0-312-16968X.

Hebdige, Dick (1987). Cut 'n' Mix: Culture, Identity


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0-415-05875-9

Gimarc, George (2005). Punk Diary: The Ultimate


Trainspotters Guide to Underground Rock, 1970
1982. San Francisco: Backbeat. ISBN 0-87930848-6.

Hess, Mickey (2007). Is Hip Hop Dead?: The Past,


Present, and Future of Americas Most Wanted Music
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Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning BritainThe History of UK Punk 19801984 (London: Cherry Red
Books). ISBN 1-901447-24-3
Goodlad, Lauren M. E., and Michael Bibby (2007).
Introduction, in Goth: Undead Subculture, ed.
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Gosling, Tim (2004). "'Not for Sale': The Underground Network of Anarcho-Punk, in Music
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Heylin, Clinton (1993).


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ISBN 1-899598-01-4
Jackson, Buzzy (2005). A Bad Woman Feeling
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James, Martin (2003). French Connections: From
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ISBN 1-86074-449-4

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Klein, Naomi (2000). No LOGO: Taking Aim at the
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Laing, Dave (1985). One Chord Wonders: Power
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Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-33515065-9.
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ISBN 0-02-036361-3
Leblanc, Lauraine (1999). Pretty in Punk: Girls
Gender Resistance in a Boys Subculture (New
Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press). ISBN
0-8135-2651-5
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978-0-275-98925-5
Marcus, Greil, ed. (1979). Stranded: Rock and Roll
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McGowan, Chris, and Ricardo Pessanha (1998).
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31
Miles, Barry, Grant Scott, and Johnny Morgan
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Myers, Ben (2006). Green Day: American Idiots &
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Nobahkt, David (2004). Suicide: No Compromise
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O'Hara, Craig (1999). The Philosophy of Punk:
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32
Robb, John (2006). Punk Rock: An Oral History
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Savage, Jon (1992). Englands Dreaming: Anarchy,
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Simpson, Paul (2003). The Rough Guide to Cult Pop:
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Spencer, Amy (2005). DIY: The Rise of Lo-Fi Culture (London: Marion Boyars). ISBN 0-7145-31057
Spitz, Marc (2006). Nobody Likes You: Inside the
Turbulent Life, Times, and Music of Green Day
(New York: Hyperion). ISBN 1-4013-0274-2
Spitz, Marc, and Brendan Mullen (2001). We Got
the Neutron Bomb: The Untold Story of L.A. Punk
(New York: Three Rivers Press). ISBN 0-60980774-9

CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND
Staord, Andrew (2006). Pig City: From the Saints
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Stark, James (2006). Punk '77: An Inside Look
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Strohm, John (2004). Women Guitarists: Gender
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Strongman, Phil (2008). Pretty Vacant: A History of
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St. Thomas, Kurt, with Troy Smith (2002). Nirvana: The Chosen Rejects (New York: St. Martins).
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Taylor, Steven (2003). False Prophet: Field Notes
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Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. San
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Unterberger, Richie (1998). Unknown Legends of
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Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More. San Francisco: Backbeat. ISBN 0-87930-534-7.
Unterberger, Richie (1999). Music USA: The Rough
Guide. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828421-X.
Unterberger, Richie (2002). British Punk, in
All Music Guide to Rock: The Denitive Guide to
Rock, Pop, and Soul, 3d ed., ed. Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, and Stephen Thomas Erlewine (San Francisco: Backbeat). ISBN 0-87930653-X
Valentine, Gary (2006). New York Rocker: My Life
in the Blank Generation with Blondie, Iggy Pop, and
Others, 19741981. New York: Thunders Mouth.
ISBN 1-56025-944-2.
Walker, Clinton (1982/2004) Inner City Sound
(Portland, Oregon: Verse Chorus Press) ISBN 1891241-18-4
Walker, Clinton (1996) Stranded (Sydney: Macmillan) ISBN 0 7329 0883 3

1.1. PUNK ROCK


Walker, John (1991). Television, in The Trouser
Press Record Guide, 4th ed., ed. Ira Robbins (New
York: Collier), p. 662. ISBN 0-02-036361-3
Walsh, Gavin (2006). Punk on 45; Revolutions on
Vinyl, 197679 (London: Plexus). ISBN 0-85965370-6
Weinstein, Deena (2000). Heavy Metal: The Music
and Its Culture (New York: Da Capo). ISBN 0-30680970-2
Wells, Steven (2004). Punk: Loud, Young & Snotty:
The Story Behind the Songs (New York and London:
Thunders Mouth). ISBN 1-56025-573-0
Wilkerson, Mark Ian (2006). Amazing Journey:
The Life of Pete Townshend (Louisville: Bad News
Press). ISBN 1-4116-7700-5
Wojcik, Daniel (1995). Punk and Neo-Tribal Body
Art (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi).
ISBN 0-87805-735-8
Wojcik, Daniel (1997). The End of the World as We
Know It: Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America
(New York: New York University Press). ISBN 08147-9283-9

1.1.12

External links

Fales Library of NYU Downtown Collection


archival collection with the personal papers of NYC
punk gures.
A History of Punk 1990 essay by rock critic A.S.
Van Dorston
We Have to Deal With It: Punk England Report,
by Robert Christgau, Village Voice, January 9, 1978
Black Punk Time: Blacks in Punk, New Wave
and Hardcore 1976-1984 by James Porter and Jake
Austen and many other contributors Roctober Magazine 2002

33

Chapter 2

Main article
2.1 The Clash

in the perception of what is possible in the music industry, from subject matter to authenticity to quality control
[4]
The Clash were an English punk rock band that formed to price ceilings.
in 1976 as part of the original wave of British punk.
Along with punk, their music incorporated elements of
reggae, dub, funk, ska and rockabilly. For most of their 2.1.1 History
recording career the Clash consisted of Joe Strummer
(lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Mick Jones (lead guitar, lead Origins: 197476
vocals), Paul Simonon (bass guitar, vocals) and Nicky
Topper Headon (drums, percussion). Headon left the Before the Clashs founding, the bands future members
group in 1982, and internal friction led to Joness depar- were active in dierent parts of the London music scene.
ture the following year. The group continued with new John Graham Mellor sang and played rhythm guitar in the
pub rock act the 101'ers, which formed in 1974. By the
members, but nally disbanded in early 1986.
time the Clash came together two years later, he had alThe Clash achieved commercial success in the United ready abandoned his original stage name, Woody MelKingdom with the release of their self-titled debut al- lor, in favour of Joe Strummer, a reference to his rudibum, The Clash, in 1977. Their third album, London mentary strumming skills on the ukulele as a busker in
Calling, released in the UK in December 1979, earned the London Underground. Mick Jones played guitar in
them popularity in the United States when it was released protopunk band London SS, which rehearsed for much
there the following month. It was declared the best album of 1975 without ever playing a live show and recording
of the 1980s a decade later by Rolling Stone. In 1982 only a single demo. London SS was managed by Bernard
they reached new heights of success with the release of Rhodes, a sometime associate of impresario Malcolm
Combat Rock, which spawned the US top 10 hit "Rock McLaren and a friend of the members of the McLaren
the Casbah", helping the album to achieve a 2 Platinum managed band, the Sex Pistols. Jones and his bandcertication there. Their nal album, Cut the Crap, was
mates became friendly with Sex Pistols Glen Matlock
released in 1985.[1]
and Steve Jones, who would assist them as they tried out
The Clashs politicised lyrics, musical experimentation, potential new members.[5] Among those who auditioned
and rebellious attitude had a far-reaching inuence on for London SS without making the cut were Paul Sirock, and alternative rock in particular.[2] They became monon, who tried out as a vocalist,[6] and drummer Terry
widely referred to as The Only Band That Matters, Chimes. Nicky Headon drummed with the band for a
originally a promotional slogan introduced by the groups week, then quit.[7][8] After London SS broke up in early
record label, CBS. In January 2003, shortly after the 1976, Rhodes continued as Joness manager. In Februdeath of Joe Strummer, the bandincluding original ary, Jones saw the Sex Pistols perform for the rst time:
drummer Terry Chimeswere inducted into the Rock You knew straight away that was it, and this was what it
and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine was going to be like from now on. It was a new scene,
ranked the Clash number 28 on their list of the 100 great- new valuesso dierent from what had happened beest artists of all time.[3]
fore. A bit dangerous.[9] At the instigation of Rhodes,
Critic Sean Egan summarised what made them excep- Jones contacted Simonon in March, suggesting he learn
so he could join the new band Jones was
tional by writing, They were a group whose music was, an instrument
[6]
Soon
Jones, Simonon on bass, Keith Levorganising.
and is, special to their audience because that music inene
on
guitar
and
whoever
we could nd really to play
sisted on addressing the conditions of poverty, petty in[10]
Chimes was asked to authe
drums
were
rehearsing.
justice, and mundane life experienced by the people who
dition
for
the
new
band
and
got
the
job, although he soon
bought their records. Moreover, although their rebel
[11]
quit.
stances were often no more than posturing, from The
Clashs stubborn principles came a fundamental change The band was still searching for a lead singer. Chimes re34

2.1. THE CLASH


calls one Billy Watts (who seemed to be, like, nineteen
or eighteen then, as we all were) handling the duties for
a time.[12] Rhodes had his eye on Strummer, with whom
he made exploratory contact. Jones and Levene had both
seen him perform and were impressed as well.[13] Strummer, for his part, was primed to make the switch. In
April, he had taken in the opening act for one of his
bands gigsthe Sex Pistols. I knew something was up,
Strummer later explained:

So I went out in the crowd which was fairly


sparse. And I saw the futurewith a snotty
handkerchiefright in front of me. It was immediately clear. Pub rock was, 'Hello, you
bunch of drunks, I'm gonna play these boogies
and I hope you like them.' The Pistols came
out that Tuesday evening and their attitude was,
'Heres our tunes, and we couldn't give a ying fuck whether you like them or not. In fact,
we're gonna play them even if you fucking hate
them.'"[14]

On 30 May, Rhodes and Levene met surreptitiously with


Strummer after a 101'ers gig. Strummer was invited to
meet up at the bands rehearsal location on Davis Road.
After Strummer turned up, Levene grabbed his guitar,
stood several inches away from Strummer, looked him in
the eye and then began playing Keys to Your Heart, one
of Strummers own tunes.[15]
Rhodes gave him 48 hours to decide whether he wanted
to join the new band that would rival the Pistols.
Within 24 hours, Strummer agreed.[16] Simonon later remarked, Once we had Joe on board it all started to come
together.[10] Strummer introduced the band to his old
school friend Pablo LaBritain, who sat in on drums during
Strummers rst few rehearsals with the group. LaBritains stint with the band didn't last long (he subsequently
joined 999), and Terry Chimeswhom Jones later referred to as one of the best drummers in their circle
became the bands regular drummer.[17] In Westway to
the World, Jones also says, I don't think Terry was ocially hired or anything. He had just been playing with
us.[18] Chimes did not take to Strummer at rst: He
was like twenty-two or twenty-three or something that
seemed 'old' to me then. And he had these retro clothes
and this croaky voice.[12] Simonon came up with the
bands name after they had briey dubbed themselves the
Weak Heartdrops and the Psychotic Negatives.[19][20] He
later explained the names origin: It really came to my
head when I started reading the newspapers and a word
that kept recurring was the word 'clash', so I thought 'the
Clash, what about that,' to the others. And they and
Bernard, they went for it.[19]

35
Early gigs and the growing scene: 1976
After rehearsing with Strummer for less than a month, the
Clash made their debut on 4 July 1976, supporting the Sex
Pistols at the Black Swan in Sheeld. The band apparently wanted to make it on-stage before their rivals in the
Damnedanother London SS spinomade their own
scheduled debut two days later. The Clash would not play
in front of an audience again for another ve weeks.[21][22]
Levene was becoming disaected with his position in the
group. At the Black Swan, he approached the Sex Pistols
lead singer, John Lydon (then going by Johnny Rotten),
and suggested they get a band together if the Pistols ever
broke up.[23]
The night after their debut, the band members along with
most of the Sex Pistols and much of the rest of Londons
inner circle of punks showed up at Dingwalls club to
attend a concert by New Yorks leading punk rock band,
the Ramones. Afterward came the rst example of the
rivalry-induced squabbling that was to dog the punk scene
and undermine any attempts to promote a spirit of unity
among the bands involved.[24] Simonon got into a scufe with J.J. Burnel, the bass player of the Stranglers. A
slightly older band, the Stranglers were publicly identied with the punk scene, but were not part of the inner
circle centred on the Sex Pistols.[24]
With Rhodes insisting that the band not perform live
again until they were much tighter, the Clash rehearsed
intensely over the following month. Strummer later described how seriously the band devoted itself to forging
a distinct identity: We were almost Stalinist in the way
that you had to shed all your friends, or everything that
you'd known, or every way that you'd played before.[25]
Strummer and Jones shared most of the writing duties
"Joe would give me the words and I would make a song
out of them, Jones later said.[26] Sometimes they would
meet in the oce over their Camden rehearsal studio to
collaborate directly.[24] According to a later description
of Strummers, Bernie [Rhodes] would say, 'An issue,
an issue. Don't write about love, write about whats affecting you, whats important.[27]
Strummer took the lead vocals on the majority of songs;
in some cases he and Jones shared the lead. Once the
band began recording, Jones would rarely have a solo lead
on more than one song per album, though he would be
responsible for two of the groups biggest hits. On 13
August, the Clashsporting a paint-spattered "Jackson
Pollock" lookplayed before a small, invitation-only audience in their Camden studio.[28] Among those in attendance was Sounds critic Giovanni Dadamo. His review
described the band as a runaway train ... so powerful,
they're the rst new group to come along who can really
scare the Sex Pistols shitless.[29]
On 29 August, the Clash and Manchesters Buzzcocks
opened for the Sex Pistols at The Screen on the Green
the Clashs rst public performance since 4 July. The

36
triple bill is seen as pivotal to the British punk scenes
crystallisation into a movement,[30] though NME reviewer
Charles Shaar Murray wrote, The Clash are the sort
of garage band that should be speedily returned to
the garage, preferably with the motor still running.[31]
Strummer later credited Murrays comments with inspiring the bands composition Garageland.[32]
In early September, Levene was red from the Clash.
Strummer would claim that Levenes dwindling interest
in the band owed to his supposedly extravagant use of
speed, a charge Levene has denied.[33][34] Levene and
Lydon would form Public Image Ltd. in 1978. On 21
September, the Clash performed publicly for the rst
time without Levene at another seminal concert: the 100
Club Punk Special, sharing the bill with the Sex Pistols,
Siouxsie and the Banshees and Subway Sect.[35][36][37]
Chimes left in late November; he was briey replaced by
Rob Harper as the Clash toured in support of the Sex Pistols during Decembers Anarchy Tour.[38]
Punk outbreak and UK fame: 197779
[S]igning that contract did bother me a lot. I've been turning it over in my mind, but now I've come to terms with it.
I've realised that all it boils down to is perhaps two-years
security ... Before, all I could think about was my stomach ... Now I feel free to thinkand free to write down
what I'm thinking about ... And lookI've been fucked
about for so long I'm not going to suddenly turn into Rod
Stewart just because I get 25.00 a week. I'm much too
far gone for that, I tell you.[39]
Joe Strummer, March 1977
By the turn of the year, punk had become a major media phenomenon in the UK. On 25 January 1977, the
Clash signed to CBS Records for 100,000, a remarkable
amount for a band that had played a total of about thirty
gigs and almost none as a headliner.[40] As Clash historian
Marcus Gray describes, the band members found themselves having to justify [the deal] to both the music press
and to fans who picked up on the critics muttered asides
about the Clash having 'sold out' to the establishment.[41]
Mark Perry, founder of the leading London punk periodical, Snin' Glue, let loose with what he would later
call his big quote": Punk died the day the Clash signed
to CBS.[42] As one band associate described it, the deal
was later used as a classic example of the kind of contract that no group should ever signthe group had to
pay for their own tours, recordings, remixes, artwork, expenses ...[43]
Mickey Foote, who worked as a technician at their concerts, was hired to produce the Clashs debut album, and
Terry Chimes was drafted back for the recording. The
bands rst single, "White Riot", was released in March
1977 and reached number 34. The album, The Clash,
came out the following month. Filled with ery punk
tracks, it also presaged the many eclectic turns the band

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE


would take with its cover of the reggae song "Police and
Thieves". "[A]midst the Sex Pistols inertia in the rst
half of 1977, the Clash found themselves as the agwavers of the punk rock consciousness, according to music journalist and former punk musician John Robb.[44]
Though the album charted well in the UK, climbing to
number 12, CBS refused to give it a US release, believing
that its raw, barely produced sound would make it unsalable in that market.[45] A North American version of the
album with a modied track listing was released in 1979,
after the UK original became the best-selling import album of the year in the United States.[46]
Chimes, whose career aspirations owed little to the punk
ethos, had left the band again soon after the recording
sessions. He later said, The point was I wanted one
kind of life and they wanted another and, like, why are
we working together, if we want completely dierent
things?"[47] As a result, only Simonon, Jones and Strummer were featured on the albums cover, and Chimes was
credited as "Tory Crimes. Strummer later described
what followed: We must have tried every drummer that
then had a kit. I mean every drummer in London. I
think we counted 205. And thats why we were lost until
we found Topper Headon.[48] Headon, who had played
briey with Joness London SS, was nicknamed Topper
by Simonon, who felt he resembled the Topper comic
book character Mickey the Monkey.[49] An excellent musician, Headon could also play piano, bass and guitar. The
day after he signed up, he declared, I really wanted to
join the Clash. I want to give them even more energy than
they've gotif thats possible";[39] interviewed over two
decades later, he said his original plan was to stay briey,
gain a name for himself, and then move on to a better
gig.[50] In any event, Strummer later observed, Finding
someone who not only had the chops, but the strength and
the stamina to do it was just the breakthrough for us.[51]
In May, the band set out on the White Riot Tour, headlining a punk package that included the Buzzcocks, Subway Sect, the Slits and the Prefects.[52] The day after a
Newcastle gig, Strummer and Headon were arrested for
stealing pillowcases from their hotel room.[53] That same
month, CBS released "Remote Control" as the debut LPs
second single, defying the wishes of the band, who saw
it as one of the albums weakest tracks.[54] Headons rst
recording with the band was the single "Complete Control", which addressed the bands anger at their record
labels behaviour. It was co-produced by famed reggae
artist Lee Scratch Perry, though Foote was summoned
to ground things a bit and the result was pure punk rock.
Released in September 1977NME noted how CBS allowed the group to bait their mastersit rose to number 28 on the British chart and has gone on to be cited as
one of punks greatest singles.[55][56] In February 1978,
the band came out with the single "Clash City Rockers".
June saw the release of "(White Man) In Hammersmith
Palais", which surprised fans with its ska rhythm and arrangement.

2.1. THE CLASH

37

Before the Clash began recording their second album,


CBS requested that they adopt a cleaner sound than its
predecessor in order to reach American audiences. Sandy
Pearlman, known for his work with Blue yster Cult,
was hired to produce the record. Simonon later recalled,
"[R]ecording that album was just the most boring situation ever. It was just so nitpicking, such a contrast to the
rst album ... it ruined any spontaneity.[57] Strummer
agreed that it wasn't our easiest session.[58] Although
some listeners complained about its relatively mainstream
production style, Give 'Em Enough Rope received largely
positive reviews upon its November release.[59][60] It hit
number 2 in the UK, but it was not the American breakthrough CBS had hoped for, reaching only number 128
on the Billboard chart. The albums rst UK single, the
hard rocking "Tommy Gun", rose to number 19, the highest chart position for a Clash single to date. In support of
the album, the band toured the UK supported by the Slits
and the Innocents. The series of concertsthere were
more than thirty, from Edinburgh to Portsmouthwas
promoted as the Sort It Out Tour. The band subsequently
undertook its rst, largely successful tour of North America in February 1979.[61]

ever recorded.[65] Its nal track, a relatively straightforward rock and roll number sung by Mick Jones called
"Train in Vain", was included at the last minute and thus
did not appear in the track listing on the cover. It became their rst US Top 40 hit, peaking at number 23 on
the Billboard chart. In the UK, where Train in Vain
was not released as a single, London Calling's title track,
stately in beat but unmistakably punk in message and
tone, rose to number 11the highest position any Clash
single reached in the UK before the bands break-up.

Changing style and US breakthrough: 197982

Around the turn of the year, the band members attended


a special private screening of a new lm, Rude Boy; part
ction, part rockumentary, it tells the story of a Clash
fan who leaves his job in a Soho sex shop to become a
roadie for the group. The movienamed after the rude
boy subcultureincludes footage of the band on tour, at
a London Rock Against Racism concert, and in the studio
recording Give 'Em Enough Rope. The band was so disenchanted with it that they had Better Badges make buttons
that declared I don't want RUDE BOY Clash Film.[70]
On 27 February 1980, it premiered at the 30th Berlin International Film Festival,[71] where it won an honourable
mention.[72]

The iconic cover of London Calling[62]

In August and September 1979, the Clash recorded


London Calling. Produced by Guy Stevens, a former
A&R executive who had worked with Mott the Hoople
and Trac, the double album was a mix of punk rock,
reggae, ska, rockabilly, traditional rock and roll and
other elements possessed of an energy that had hardly
agged since the bands early days and more polished
production.[63] The title of the track also happened to be
heavily inuenced by the BBC World Service call signal
and the panic that resulted in Three Mile Island nuclear
scare.[64] It is regarded as one of the greatest rock albums

Released in December, London Calling hit number 9 on


the British chart; in the United States, where it was issued in January 1980, it reached number 27. The cover
of the album, based on the cover of Elvis Presley's selftitled 1956 debut LP, became one of the best known in
the history of rock.[62] Its image, by photographer Pennie
Smith, of Simonon smashing his bass guitar was later
cited as the best rock 'n roll photograph of all time by
Q magazine.[66][67] During this period, the Clash began
to be regularly billed as The Only Band That Matters.
Musician Gary Lucas, then employed by CBS Records
creative services department, claims to have coined the
tagline.[68] The epithet was soon widely adopted by fans
and music journalists.[69]

The Clash had planned to record and release a single every month in 1980. CBS balked at this idea, and the
band came out with only one singlean original reggae
tune, "Bankrobber", in Augustbefore the December release of the 3-LP, 36-song Sandinista! The album again
reected a broad range of musical styles, including extended dubs and the rst forays into rap by a major rock
band. Produced by the band members with the participation of Jamaican reggae artist Mikey Dread, Sandinista!
was their most controversial album to date, both politically and musically.[73] Critical opinion was divided, often within individual reviews. Trouser Press's Ira Robbins described half the album as great, half as nonsense and worse.[74] In the New Rolling Stone Record
Guide, Dave Marsh argued, "Sandinista! is nonsensically
cluttered. Or rather seems nonsensically cluttered. One
of the Clashs principal concerns ... is to avoid being
stereotyped.[75] The album fared well in America, charting at number 24.[76]

38
In 1981, the band came out with a single, "This Is Radio Clash", that further demonstrated their ability to mix
diverse inuences such as dub and hip hop. They set to
work on their fth album in September, originally planning it as a 2-LP set with the title Rat Patrol from Fort
Bragg. Jones produced one cut, but the other members
were dissatised. Production duties were handed to Glyn
Johns, and the album was reconceived as a single LP,
and released as Combat Rock in May 1982. Though lled
with obeat songs, experiments with sound collage, and
a spoken word vocal by Beat poet Allen Ginsberg, it contained two radio friendly tracks. The leado single in
the US was "Should I Stay or Should I Go", released in
June 1982. Another Jones feature in a rock and roll style
similar to Train in Vain, it received heavy airplay on
AOR stations. The follow-up, "Rock the Casbah", put
lyrics addressing the Iranian clampdown on imports of
Western music to a bouncy dance rhythm. (The singles
were released in the opposite order in the UK, where they
were both preceded by "Know Your Rights".) The music
for Rock the Casbah was composed by Headon, who
performed not only the percussion but also the piano and
bass heard on the recorded version.[77] It was the bands
biggest US hit ever, charting at number 8, and the video
was put into heavy rotation by MTV. The album itself
was the bands most successful, hitting number 2 in the
UK and number 7 in the US.
Disintegration and break up: 198286
After Combat Rock, the Clash began to disintegrate.
Headon was asked to leave the band just before the albums release because heroin addiction was damaging his
health and drumming.[78][79] Chimes was brought back
to drum for the next few months. The loss of Headon,
well-liked by the others, exposed growing friction within
the band. Jones and Strummer began to feud. The band
opened for the Who on a leg of their nal tour in the US,
including a show at New Yorks Shea Stadium.
Though the Clash continued to tour, tension continued
to increase. In early 1983, Chimes left the band after the Combat Rock Tour because of in-ghting and
turmoil. He was replaced by Pete Howard for the US
Festival in San Bernardino, California, which the Clash
co-headlined, along with David Bowie and Van Halen.
The band argued with the events promoters over inated ticket prices, threatening to pull out unless a large
donation was made to a local charity. The group ultimately performed on 28 May, the festivals New Music
Day, which drew a crowd of 140,000. After the show,
members of the band brawled with security sta.[80] This
was Jones last appearance with the group: in September 1983, he was red. Shortly thereafter, he became a
founding member of General Public, but left that band as
they were recording their rst album.

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE


new guitarists. Howard continued as the drummer. The
reconstituted band played its rst shows in January 1984
with a batch of new material and launched into the selfnanced Out of Control Tour, travelling widely over the
winter and into early summer. At a striking miners benet show (Scargills Christmas Party) in December 1984,
they announced that a new album would be released early
in the new year.
The recording sessions for Cut the Crap were chaotic,
with manager Bernard Rhodes and Strummer working in
Munich. Most of the music was played by studio musicians, with Sheppard and later White ying in to provide guitar parts. Struggling with Rhodes for control of
the band, Strummer returned home. The band went on a
busking tour of public spaces in cities throughout the UK,
playing acoustic versions of their hits and popular cover
tunes.
After a concert in Athens, Strummer went to Spain to
clear his mind. While he was abroad, the rst single from
Cut the Crap, the mournful "This Is England", was released to mostly negative reviews. CBS had paid an advance for it so they had to put it out, Strummer later
explained. I just went, 'Well fuck this, and fucked o
to the mountains of Spain to sit sobbing under a palm
tree, while Bernie had to deliver a record.[14] However,
critic Dave Marsh later championed This Is England as
one of the top 1001 rock singles of all time.[81] The single
has also received retroactive praise from Q magazine and
others.
This Is England, much like the rest of the album
that came out later that year, had been drastically reengineered by Rhodes, with synths and football-style
chants added to Strummers incomplete recordings. Although Howard was an adept drummer, drum machines
were used for virtually all of the percussion tracks. For
the remainder of his life, Strummer largely disowned
the album,[79] although he did profess that I really like
'This Is England' [and album track] 'North and South' is
a vibe.[14] In early 1986, the Clash disbanded. Strummer later described the groups end: When the Clash
collapsed, we were tired. There had been a lot of intense
activity in ve years. Secondly, I felt we'd run out of idea
gasoline. And thirdly, I wanted to shut up and let someone else have a go at it.[82]
This period of disintegration which feature interviews
with members of the Clash is the subject matter of Danny
Garcias book and lm, The Rise and Fall of the Clash.[83]
Collaborations and reunions: 1986present

After the break-up, Strummer contacted Jones in an effort to reform the Clash. Jones, however, had already
formed a new band, Big Audio Dynamite (B.A.D.), that
had released its debut late in 1985. The two did work
Nick Sheppard, formerly of the Bristol-based band the together on their respective 1986 projects. Jones helped
Cortinas, and Vince White were recruited as the Clashs out with the two songs Strummer wrote and performed

2.1. THE CLASH

39

for the Sid and Nancy soundtrack. Strummer, in turn,


cowrote a number of the tracks on the second B.A.D. album, No. 10, Upping St., which he also co-produced.[14]
With Jones committed to B.A.D., Strummer moved on
to various solo projects and screen acting work. Simonon
formed a band called Havana 3am. Headon recorded a
solo album, before once again spiraling into drug abuse.
Chimes drummed with a succession of dierent acts.

the 1970s Clash B-side Jail Guitar Doors with Billy


Bragg. The song is the namesake of a charity founded
by Bragg which gives musical instruments and lessons
to prison inmates. Jones, Headon, and Bragg were
backed by former inmates during the session, which was
lmed for a documentary about the charity, Breaking
Rocks.[87] Simonon and Jones were featured on the title track of the Gorillaz album Plastic Beach in 2010.
This reunion marked the rst time the two performers had
On 2 March 1991, a reissue of Should I Stay or Should
I Go gave the Clash its rst and only number 1 UK sin- worked together in over twenty years. They later joined
Gorillaz on their world tour for the remainder of 2010.[88]
gle. That same year, Strummer reportedly cried when he
learned that Rock the Casbah had been adopted as a In July 2012, Strummers daughters, Jazz and Lola, gave a
slogan by US bomber pilots in the Gulf War.[84]
rare interview to discuss the upcoming tenth anniversary
In 1999, Strummer, Jones and Simonon cooperated in of their fathers passing, his legacy and the possibility of a
compiling of the live album From Here to Eternity and Clash reunion had their father lived. Jazz said There was
video documentary Westway to the World. On 7 Novem- talk about the Clash reforming before he died. But there
ber 2002, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame announced had been talk for years and years about them reforming.
that the Clash would be inducted the following March.[85] They had been oered stupid amounts of money to do it,
On 15 November, Jones and Strummer shared the stage, but they were very good at keeping the moral high ground
it would
performing three Clash songs during a London benet and saying no. But I think if Dad hadn't died,
[89]
have
happened.
It
felt
like
it
was
in
the
air.
[76]
show by Joe Strummer and the Mescaleros. Strummer,
Jones and Headon wanted to play a reunion show to coincide with their induction into the Hall of Fame. Simonon
did not want to participate because he believed that playing at the high-priced event would not have been in the
spirit of the Clash. Strummers sudden death from a congenital heart defect on 22 December 2002 ended any possibility of a full reunion. In March 2003, the Hall of Fame
induction took place; the band members inducted were
Strummer, Jones, Simonon, Chimes and Headon.[76]
In early 2008, Carbon/Silicon, a new band founded by
Mick Jones and his former London SS bandmate Tony
James, entered into a six-week residency at Londons Inn
on the Green. On opening night, 11 January, Headon
joined the band for the Clashs Train in Vain. An encore followed with Headon playing drums on Should
I Stay or Should I Go. This was the rst time since
1982 that Headon and Jones had performed together on
stage.[86]

On 9 September 2013 in the UK (and a day later in the


US), the Clash released Sound System, a twelve-disc box
set featuring their studio albums completely re-mastered
on eight discs with an additional three discs featuring
demos, non-album singles, rarities and B-sides, a DVD
with previously unseen footage by both Don Letts and
Julien Temple, original promo videos and live footage,
an owners manual booklet, reprints of the bands original 'Armagideon Times fanzine as well as a brand new
edition curated and designed by Paul Simonon and merchandise including dog tags, badges, stickers and an exclusive Clash poster. Both Mick Jones and Paul Simonon
oversaw the project including the re-masters. The box set
came in a package shaped as an 80s ghetto blaster. The
box set was accompanied by 5 Album Studio Set, which
contains only the rst ve studio albums (excluding Cut
the Crap), and The Clash Hits Back, a 33-track, two-CD
best of collection sequenced to copy the set played by the
band at the Brixton Fair Deal (now the Academy) on 19
July 1982.[90][91]

In a 3 September 2013 interview with Rolling Stone, Mick


Jones discussed the band reuniting saying it likely would
have never happened. Jones said There were a few moments at the time I was up for it (Hall of Fame reunion
in 2003), Joe was up for it. Paul wasn't. And neither,
probably, was Topper, who didn't wind up even coming
in the end. It didn't look like a performance was going
to happen anyway. I mean, you usually play at that ceremony when you get in. Joe had passed by that point, so
we didn't. We were never in agreement. It was never at
a point where all of us wanted to do it at the same time.
Most importantly for us, we became friends again after
the group broke up, and continued that way for the rest of
the time. That was more important to us than the band.
Grati commemorating Joe Strummer
Jones also stated that the Sound System box set was the last
Jones and Headon reunited in September 2009 to record time he will ever be involved in the bands releases. I'm

40

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE

not even thinking about any more Clash releases. This is the crowd than to tolerate barbed wire that was meant to
it for me, and I say that with an exclamation mark. Jones fend o that crowd. This is more or less what the Clash
said.[92]
were about: ghting the good ght that few others would
[8]
On 6 September 2013 the three surviving members of ght.
the classic lineup (Mick Jones, Paul Simonon and Topper Headon) reunited again for an exclusive BBC Radio
6 Music show to promote their legacy and the release of
Sound System.[93]
In an October 2013 interview with BBC 6Music, Jones
conrmed that Strummer did have intentions of a Clash
reunion and in fact new music was being written for a
possible album. In the months prior to Strummers death,
Jones and Strummer began working on new music for
what he thought would be the next Mescaleros album.
Jones said We wrote a batch - we didn't use to write one,
we used to write a batch at a time - like gumbo. The idea
was he was going to go into the studio with the Mescaleros
during the day and then send them all home. I'd come in
all night and we'd all work all night. Jones said months
had passed following their work together when he ran into
Strummer at an event. Jones was curious as to what would
become of the songs he and Strummer were working on
and Strummer informed him that they were going to be
used for the next Clash album.[94]

2.1.2

Politics

The Clashs music was often charged with left-wing ideological sentiments.[95] Strummer, in particular, was a
committed socialist. The Clash are credited with pioneering the advocacy of radical politics in punk rock,
and were dubbed the Thinking Mans Yobs by NME.[96]
Like many early punk bands, the Clash protested against
monarchy and aristocracy; however, unlike many of their
peers, they rejected nihilism.[46] Instead, they found solidarity with a number of contemporary liberation movements and were involved with such groups as the AntiNazi League. On 30 April 1978, the Clash played the
Rock Against Racism concert in Londons Victoria Park
for a crowd of 50100,000 people;[97] Strummer wore
a T-shirt identifying two left-wing revolutionary groups:
the words Brigade [sic] RosseItalys Red Brigades
appeared alongside the insignia of West Germanys Red
Army Faction.[98][99]
The moment that best exemplies the Clash ... took
place in August 1977, at a music festival in Liege, Belgium. The band was playing before 20,000 people and
had been under re from a crowd that was throwing bottles at the stage. But that wasn't what bothered lead
singer Joe Strummer. What enraged him was a 10-foothigh barbed-wire fence strung between concrete posts
and forming a barrier between the group and the audience ... [He] jumped from the stage and attacked the
fence, trying to pull it down ... The Clash were the only
performers at the show who tried to do anything about
the obstacle. They were more willing to run the risk of

Rock historian Mikal Gilmore


Their politics were made explicit in the lyrics of such
early recordings as White Riot, which encouraged disaected white youths to riot like their black counterparts; "Career Opportunities", which addressed the alienation of low-paid, routinised jobs and discontent over the
lack of alternatives; and Londons Burning, about the
bleakness and boredom of life in the inner city.[100] Artist
Caroline Coon, who was associated with the punk scene,
argued that "[t]hose tough, militaristic songs were what
we needed as we went into Thatcherism".[101] The scope
of the bands political interests widened on later recordings.
The title of Sandinista!
celebrated the left-wing
rebels who had recently overthrown Nicaraguan despot
Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and the album was lled
with songs driven by other political issues extending far
beyond British shores: "Washington Bullets" addressed
covert military operations around the globe, while The
Call-Up was a meditation on US draft policies.[102][103]
Combat Rock's "Straight to Hell" is described by scholars
Simon Reynolds and Joy Press as an around-the-worldat-war-in-ve-verses guided tour of hell-zones where
boy-soldiers had languished.[103]
The bands political sentiments were reected in their resistance to the music industrys usual prot motivations;
even at their peak, tickets to shows and souvenirs were
reasonably priced.[46] The group insisted that CBS sell
their double and triple album sets London Calling and
Sandinista! for the price of a single album each (then
5), succeeding with the former and compromising with
the latter by agreeing to sell it for 5.99 and forfeit all their
performance royalties on its rst 200,000 sales.[104] These
VFM (value for money) principles meant that they were
constantly in debt to CBS, and only started to break even
around 1982.[1]

2.1.3 Legacy and inuence


In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Clash number 28 on
its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time,[105] and
in 2010, the band was ranked 22nd on VH1s 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[106] According to The Times, the
Clashs debut, alongside Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres
the Sex Pistols, is punks denitive statement and London Calling remains one of the most inuential rock
albums.[99] In Rolling Stone's 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, London Calling ranked number 8,
the highest entry by a punk band. The Clash was number
77 and Sandinista! was number 404.[107] In the magazines 2004 list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time,
London Calling ranked number 15, again the highest

2.1. THE CLASH

41

Stripes and the Strokes evince the Clashs inuence.[119]


Among the many latter-day British acts identied as having been inspired by the Clash are Babyshambles, the Futureheads, the Charlatans and Arctic Monkeys.[118] Before M.I.A. had an international hit in 2008 with "Paper
Planes", which is built around a sample from Straight
she referenced London Calling on 2003s
Jake Burns of Sti Little Fingers, the rst major punk to Hell, [118]
A cover of "The Guns of Brixton" by Ger"Galang".
band from Northern Ireland, explained the records imman punk band Die Toten Hosen was released as a sinpact:
gle in 2006.[120] A version by reggae legend Jimmy Cli
with Tim Armstrong from Rancid was scheduled for re[T]he big watershed was the Clash
lease in November 2011.[121] American-Irish punk band
albumthat was go out, cut your hair, stop
Dropkick Murphys released a cover of the song on Anti
mucking about time, y'know. Up to that point
Heroes vs Dropkick Murphys in 1997.[122][123]
we'd still been singing about bowling down
In June 2009 Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band
California highways. I mean, it meant nothing
opened their concert in Hyde Park, London, with 'London
to me. Although the Damned and the Pistols
Calling'. The concert was later released on DVD as Bruce
were great, they were only exciting musically;
Springsteen and the E Street Band: London Calling - Live
lyrically, I couldn't really make out a lot if it
in Hyde Park. Bruce Springsteen, Little Steven, Dave
... [T]o realise that [the Clash] were actually
Grohl and Elvis Costello performed the same song at the
singing about their own lives in West London
Grammys in 2003 as a tribute to Joe Strummer who died
was like a bolt out of the blue.[109]
the year before. In 2009 Springsteen & the E Street Band
The Clash also inspired many musicians who were only even covered Strummers Coma Girl while in 2014 and
loosely associated, if at all, with punk. The bands em- along with Tom Morello, they opened some of their shows
brace of ska, reggae and Englands Jamaican subculture on the High Hopes Tour with "Clampdown".
for any song by a punk band. Four other Clash songs
made the list: Should I Stay Or Should I Go (228),
Train in Vain (292), Complete Control (361), and
White Man in Hammersmith Palais (430).[56] London
Calling ranked number 48 in the magazines 2008 list of
the 100 Greatest Guitar Songs of All Time.[108]

helped provide the impetus for the 2 Tone movement


that emerged amid the fallout of the punk explosion.[110]
Other musicians who began performing while the Clash
were active and acknowledged their debt to the band
include Billy Bragg and Aztec Camera.[111] U2's the
Edge has compared the Clashs inspirational eect to
that of the Ramonesboth gave young rock musicians
at large the sense that the door of possibility had swung
open.[112] He wrote, The Clash, more than any other
group, kick-started a thousand garage bands across Ireland and the UK ... [S]eeing them perform was a lifechanging experience.[3] Bono has described the Clash as
the greatest rock band. They wrote the rule book for
U2.[113]
In later years, the Clashs inuence can be heard in American political punk bands such as Rancid, Anti-Flag, Bad
Religion, NOFX, Green Day, and Rise Against as well as
in the political hard rock of early Manic Street Preachers.[114] Californias Rancid, in particular, are known as
incurable Clash zealots.[115] The title track of the bands
album Indestructible proclaims, I'll keep listening to that
great Joe Strummer!"[116]

The band has also had a notable impact on music in the


Spanish-speaking world. In 1997, a Clash tribute album
featuring performances by Buenos Aires punk bands was
released.[124] Many rock en espaol bands such as Todos
Tus Muertos, Caf Tacuba, Maldita Vecindad, Los Prisioneros, Tijuana No, and Attaque 77 are indebted to the
Clash.[125][126][127] Argentinas Los Fabulosos Cadillacs
covered Should stay or should I go!",London Calling's
Revolution Rock and The Guns of Brixton and invited Mick Jones to sing on their song Mal Bicho.[127]
The Clashs inuence is similarly reected in Parisfounded Mano Negra's politicised lyrics and fusion of
musical styles.[128][129]
The bands 1982 hit, Should I Stay or Should I Go,
is featured in multiple episodes of the 2016 Netix
sci- drama series, Stranger Things, which is set in
1983.[130][131][132]

2.1.4 Members
Main article: List of the Clash band members

The Clashs involvement with Jamaican musical and


production styles has inspired similar cross-cultural efforts by bands such as Bad Brains, Massive Attack, Classic line-up
311, Sublime and No Doubt.[117] They are credited with
Joe Strummer lead vocals, rhythm guitar
laying the groundwork for LCD Soundsystem's punkfunk.[118] Jakob Dylan of the Wallowers lists London
Mick Jones lead guitar, backing vocals
Calling as the record that changed his life.[99] Bands
identied with the garage rock revival of the late 1990s
Paul Simonon bass guitar, backing vocals
and 2000s such as Swedens the Hives, Australias the
Vines, Britains the Libertines, and Americas the White
Nicky Topper Headon drums, percussion

42

2.1.5

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE

Discography

Main article: The Clash discography


Studio albums
The Clash (1977)
Give 'Em Enough Rope (1978)
London Calling (1979)
Sandinista! (1980)
Combat Rock (1982)
Cut the Crap (1985)

2.1.6

See also

The Clash Wikipedia book


The Clash on lm

2.1.7

Sources

Buckley, Peter, ed. (2003). The Rough Guide to


Rock (3d ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 184353-105-4. OCLC 223842562.
Campo, Alberto (1998). Clash. Florence, Italy:
Giunti Editore. ISBN 88-09-21509-5. OCLC
8809215095.
Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk
Rock Explosion. New York: Hawthorn. ISBN 08015-6129-9. OCLC 79262599.

Gimarc, George (2005). Punk Diary: The Ultimate


Trainspotters Guide to Underground Rock, 1970
1982. San Francisco: Backbeat. ISBN 0-87930848-6. OCLC 60513159.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Johnstone, Nick (2006). The Clash Talking": The
Clash in Their Own Words. London: Omnibus
Press. ISBN 1-84609-400-3. OCLC 466967080.
Letts, Don (director) (2001) [2000]. The Clash:
Westway to the World. Sony Music Entertainment.
ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.
Reynolds, Simon; Press, Joy (1996). The Sex Revolts: Gender, Rebellion, and Rock 'n' Roll. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674-80273-X. OCLC 30971390.
Robb, John (2006). Punk Rock: An Oral History (4th ed.). London: Ebury Press. ISBN 0-09190511-7. OCLC 0091924677.
Salewicz, Chris (2006). Redemption Song: The Ballad of Joe Strummer. New York: Faber and Faber.
ISBN 0-571-21178-X. OCLC 238839364.
Savage, Jon (1992). Englands Dreaming: Anarchy,
Sex Pistols, Punk Rock and Beyond (US ed.). New
York: St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-08774-8.
OCLC 318418456.
Strongman, Phil (2008). Pretty Vacant: A History of
UK Punk. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. ISBN
1-55652-752-7. OCLC 173299117.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2d ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 1903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2004). Let Fury Have the


Hour: The Punk Rock Politics of Joe Strummer (1st
ed.). New York: Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025625-7. OCLC 56988650.
2.1.8
Eddy, Chuck (1997). The Accidental Evolution of
Rock'n'Roll: A Misguided Tour through Popular Music. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-807416. OCLC 35919230.
Egan, Sean (2014). The Clash: The Only Band That
Mattered. Maryland: Rowman & Littleeld. ISBN
978-0-8108-8875-3.
Ferraz, Rob (August 2001). Joe Strummer & The
Clash Revolution Rock. exclaim.ca.
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.

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[2] Strummers lasting culture Clash (STM). Entertainment.
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[5] Robb 2006, pp. 130132.
[6] Gray 2005, p. 72.

2.1. THE CLASH

43

[7] Gray 2005, p. 56.

[31] Salewicz 2006, p. 162.

[8] Gilmore, Mikal (3 March 2011). The Fury and the


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[32] Letts 2001, 24:2324:43.

[9] Robb 2006, p. 151.

[33] Robb 2006, pp. 215216.


[34] Savage 1992, p. 220.

[10] Rowley, Scott (October 1999). Paul Simonons rst ever


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[35] Gray 2005, pp. 164166.

[11] Gray 2005, p. 79.

[36] Robb 2006, pp. 216223.

[12] Strongman 2008, p. 103.


[13] Robb 2006, pp. 192, 193.

[37] The Clash Sex Pistols 100 Club Festival. blackmarketclash.com. Archived from the original on 4 November
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[38] 1976 The Clash Live. blackmarketclash.com. Retrieved 31 December 2007.

[15] keithleveneinterview - MUDKISS FANZINE. Mudkiss.com. Retrieved 2014-04-17.

[39] Coon 1977.

[16] According to band biographer Marcus Gray (2005),


Bernie phoned him a day ahead of schedule, and demanded an answer there and then (p. 127). In Westway to the World, Jones conrms the 48-hour deadline,
while Strummer says it was he who made the call after just
24 (11:3411:40). Jones elsewhere gave a dierent account, according to which Strummer was originally given
24 hours to decide, and Rhodes called after just eight
(Robb 2006, p. 194).

[40] Gray 2005, p. 216.


[41] Gray 2005, p. 217.
[42] Gray 2005, p. 218.
[43] Roadent, quoted in Strongman 2008, p. 199.
[44] Robb 2006, p. 325.
[45] Gimarc 2005, p. 61.

[17] Letts 2001, 17:1617:22.

[46] Henke, James (3 April 1980). There'll Be Dancing In


The Streets: The Clash. Rolling Stone: 3841.

[18] According to Gray (2005), Rhodes asked Chimes to rejoin


(pp. 13334).

[47] Letts 2001, 18:0918:16.

[19] Interviewer: Unknown; Presenter: Kurt Loder. MTV


Rockumentary.
http://www.londonsburning.org/art_
mtv_rockumentary_1.html. London, England. MTV.
Missing or empty |series= (help)
[20] Topping 2004, p. 12.
[21] Gray 2005, p. 143.
[22] Loder, Kurt (13 March 2003). The Clash: Ducking
Bottles, Asking Questions. MTV News. Retrieved 17
November 2007.
[23] Robb 2006, p. 196.
[24] Gray 2005, p. 144.
[25] Letts 2001, 14:5715:08.
[26] Robb 2006, p. 326.
[27] Savage 1992, p. 232. Joness later take on the matter:
Bernie had a hand in everything. Not the lyricshe
didn't help with the lyrics. He didn't tell us not to write
love songs, as the myth goesthats kind of simplied
version of it. He told us to write what we knew about
(Robb 2006, p. 197).
[28] Robb 2006, pp. 195197.
[29] Strongman 2008, p. 133.
[30] Robb 2006, pp. 212215.

[48] Letts 2001, 30:3030:41.


[49] Gray 2005, p. 244. Gray misspells the characters name
as Micky.
[50] Letts 2001, 38:0738:11, 38:3338:35.
[51] Letts 2001, 38:3538:44.
[52] Robb 2006, pp. 329339.
[53] Robb 2006, p. 338.
[54] Strongman 2008, pp. 201202.
[55] Strongman 2008, pp. 203204.
[56] The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. RollingStone.
9 December 2004. Archived from the original on 20
November 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
[57] Letts 2001, 42:4342:56.
[58] Ferraz 2001.
[59] Gray 2005, p. 291292.
[60] Marcus, Greil (25 January 1979). The Clash: Give 'Em
Enough Rope. Rolling Stone. Archived from the original
on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
[61] Kozak, Roman (3 March 1979). Surprisingly Few
Clashes Noted As the Clash Tours the Nation. Billboard:
103.

44

[62] Kerley, Paul (17 June 2010). London Calling cover honoured. BBC/6 Music. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
[63] Metzger, John (November 2004). The Clash London
Calling 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition. The Music
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[65] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. London Calling Review.
allmusic.com. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
[66] Battersby, Matilda (16 June 2010). London Calling:
Tracey Emin and friends pay tribute to the Clashs 'ocial war artist'". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 17 June
2010.
[67] Gray 2005, p. 503.
[68] Diehl, Matt (2007). My So-Called Punk (Macmillan), p.
187.
[69] Norris, Chris (21 July 1997). Cult Cash Clan. New
York.
[70] Gray 2005, p.334. For image of button, see The Clash
Pins. WWWhatsup Online Pinstand. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
[71] Gray 2005, p. 334.
[72] Prizes & Honours (1980)". Internationale Filmfestspiele
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[73] Jaee, Larry (1987). The Politics of Rock (Popular Music
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[74] Clash. Trouser Press. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
[75] Marsh, Dave. The Clash. In Dave Marsh and John
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[76] The Clash. Induction. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
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2007.
[77] Gray 2005, p. 380.
[78] Letts 2001, 1:07:111:08:09, 1:08:591:09:54..
[79] Cromelin, Richard (31 January 1988). Strummer on
Man, God, Law and the Clash. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 November 2007.

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE

[84] Revolution Rock: Documentary Pays Tribute to Clash


Frontman Joe Strummer. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 February 2008. Archived from the original
on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
[85] Vineyard, Jennifer (7 November 2002). AC/DC, Clash,
Police To Be Inducted Into Rock Hall Of Fame. MTV.
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[86] The Clashs Mick Jones and Topper Headon reunite after 25 years. NME. UK. 14 January 2005. Retrieved 15
January 2005.
[87] Billy Bragg teams up with Clash"-ers Mick Jones &
Topper Headon for Jail Guitar Doors"". Denver Thread.
21 September 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
[88] Gorillaz 'thrilled' to work with The Clash. Digital Spy.
24 February 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
[89] Lena Corner (28 July 2012). Our dad, Joe Strummer,
remembered | Life and style. London: The Guardian.
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[90] Michael Hann (21 May 2013). The Clash to release new
box set of remastered albums and rarities | Music. London: theguardian.com. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
[91] Sound System: Music. Amazon.com. 25 May 2013.
Retrieved 1 September 2013.
[92] Andy Greene (2013-08-30). Mick Jones on Clash Box
Set | Music News. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-0417.
[93] I Clash si riuniscono per una notte alla BBC Radio | Radiomusik musica e programmi radio live. Radiomusik.it.
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[94] The Clash - Mick Jones: 'Secret Joe Strummer Tunes
Could Have Sparked The Clashs Comeback'". Contact
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[95] The Clash (JHTML). Retrieved 17 November 2007.
[96] McCarthy, Jackie (22 December 1999). White Riot.
Seattle Weekly. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
[97] Gray 2005, pp. 277278.
[98] Hazan, Jack; David Mingay, Ray Gange, Joe Strummer,
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[99] Joe Strummer. The Times. UK. 24 December 2002.
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[80] Gray 2005, p. 398.


[100]
[81] Marsh, Dave (1989). The Heart of Rock & Soul: The 1001
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[102]
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[103]
[83] ,author= Danny Garcia publisher= Thin Man Press, London. ASIN 956247326.
[104]

Gray (2004), pp. 145146, 158159, 169171.


Gilbert 2005, p. 190.
Gray (2004), pp. 355356
Reynolds & Press 1996, p. 72.
Gray (2004), p. 349.

2.1. THE CLASH

45

[105] 100 Greatest Artists: The Clash | Rolling Stone Music | [128] Buckley 2003, p. 367.
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[129] Campo 1998, p. 5.
[106] VH1 Listed 100 Greatest Artists Of All Time. Today24News. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
[130] Gidick, Sarah (August 3, 2016). 5 Things to Know
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[131] Reed, Ryan (August 1, 2016). Hear 'Stranger ThingsStereogum. 30 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
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[110] D'Ambrosio 2004, p. 298.
[132] Coates, Tyler (August 1, 2016). The Stranger Things
[111] Gray, Chris (24 December 2002). Fans Mourn Passing
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[112] Stockman, Steve (2005). Walk On: The Spiritual Journey
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[113] D'Ambrosio 2004, p. 262.
[114] D'Ambrosio 2004, pp. 192, 251, 257, 298, 318319.
[115] Kot, Greg (4 September 2003). Rancid: Indestructible".
Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008.
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[116] Milner, Greg (25 September 2003). Punk Survivors
Keep Up the Fight. Spin. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
[117] D'Ambrosio 2004, p. 257.
[118] Ten Modern Bands Inspired by The Clash.
List.com. Retrieved 28 August 2009.

Short-

[119] D'Ambrosio 2004, pp. 262263.


[120] Single'The Guns Of Brixton (Unplugged)'". Die Toten
Hosen. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
[121] Rachel, T. Cole (11 August 2011). Progress Report:
Jimmy Cli. Stereogum. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
[122] Dropkick Murphys The Guns Of Brixton (The Clash
Cover)". NME.
[123] Anti-Heroes and Dropkick Murphys Split at Discogs
[124] Lannert, John (29 March 1997), Latin Notas: Manzanera
to Attend Latin Confab, Billboard, p. 33.
[125] Lannert, John (1 November 1997), Latin Notas: IFPI
Looks to Harmonize Sales Data, Billboard, p. 42; Linhardt, Alexander Lloyd (16 October 2003). Album Review: Caf TacubaCuatro Camino". Pitchfork. Retrieved 28 August 2009. Birchmeier, Jason. Caf
TacubaBiography. Allmusic. Retrieved 28 August
2009. Careaga, Roberto (17 January 2009). Claudio
Narea: El hombre que perdi todo por Los Prisioneros.
La Tercera. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
[126] Campo 1998, p. 6.
[127] Eddy 1997, p. 181.

2.1.9 Further reading


Clash, The (2008). The Clash: Strummer, Jones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN
1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.
Egan, Sean (2014). The Clash: The Only Band That
Mattered. Maryland: Rowman & Littleeld. ISBN
978-0-8108-8875-3.
Garcia, Danny (2013). The Rise And Fall Of The
Clash. London: Thin Man Press. ISBN 978-09562473-2-2.
Green, Johnny & Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A
Riot of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
Gruen, Bob & Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Kaye, Lenny; Lester Bangs; Kosmo Vinyl (2000)
[1991]. Clash on Broadway (2nd ed.). New York:
Sony Music. OCLC 54426634.
Lowry, Ray (2007). The Clash. Warwick: AnISBN 1-906283-36-2.
OCLC
gry Penguin.
165412921.
Miles, Barry (1981). The Clash. London and New
York: Omnibus Press. OCLC 7676911.
Needs, Kris (2005). Joe Strummer and the Legend
of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0-85965-348X. OCLC 53155325.
Quantick, David (2000). The Clash. Kill Your
Idols. London: Unanimous. ISBN 1-903318-03-3.
OCLC 59417418.

46

CHAPTER 2. MAIN ARTICLE

Smith, Pennie (1980). The Clash: Before and After. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-80169-0.
OCLC 8034340.
Tobler, John & Barry Miles (1983). The Clash.
London and New York: Omnibus. ISBN 0-71190288-7. OCLC 21335564.

2.1.10

External links

Ocial website
The Clash. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
The Clash Website
The Clashs channel on YouTube
Legacy Recordings Ocial Site
Documentary of The Clash on YouTube by Google
Play

Chapter 3

The members
3.1 Joe Strummer
Strummer redirects here. For those who strum stringed
musical instruments, see strummers.
John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 22 December 2002), known by his stage name Joe Strummer, was
a British musician, singer, actor and songwriter who was
the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead vocalist
of the Clash, a punk rock band that was formed in 1976 as
part of the original wave of British punk. Their music also
incorporated elements of reggae, ska, dub, funk, rap, and
rockabilly. The Clash were one of the most prominent
of the emerging bands in the UK punk rock scene, with
their second album, Give 'Em Enough Rope (1978) reaching number 2 on the UK charts. Soon after, they began
achieving success in the US, starting with London Calling
(1979), and peaking with 1982s Combat Rock, reaching
number 7 on the US charts and being certied 2 platinum there. The Clashs politicised lyrics, musical experimentation, and rebellious attitude had a far-reaching
inuence on rock, and alternative rock in particular.[1]
His musical experience included his membership of the
101ers, Latino Rockabilly War, the Mescaleros and the
Pogues, in addition to his own solo music career. Strummers work as a musician allowed him to explore other
interests, which included acting, creating lm scores for
television and movies, songwriting, radio broadcasting,
and a position as a radio host. Strummer is one of the
iconic gures of the British punk movement.

in the Scottish Highlands, was a nurse. His father,


Ronald Mellor, was a British foreign service diplomat born in Lucknow, India. Ronald Mellor had an
Armenian maternal grandfather and a German Jewish paternal grandmother.[2] The family spent much time moving from place to place, and Strummer spent parts of his
early childhood in Cairo, Mexico City, and Bonn. At the
age of 9, Strummer and his older brother David, 10, began boarding at the City of London Freemens School in
Surrey. Strummer rarely saw his parents during the next
seven years.
[A]t the age of nine I had to say good-bye
to them because they went abroad to Africa
or something. I went to boarding school and
only saw them once a year after that the
Government paid for me to see my parents
once a year. I was left on my own, and went to
this school where thick rich people sent their
thick rich kids. Another perk of my fathers
job it was a job with a lot of perks all the
fees were paid by the Government.
Joe Strummer[3]

He developed a love of rock music listening to records by


Little Richard and the Beach Boys as well as American
folk-singer Woody Guthrie.[4] (Strummer would even go
by the nickname Woody for a few years). Strummer
would later say that the reason [he] played music was
the Beach Boys.[5]

Strummer and the Clash were inducted into the Rock


and Roll Hall of Fame in January 2003. In his remembrance, Strummers friends and family established the
Strummerville Foundation for the promotion of new music.

[David] was a year older than me. Funnily enough, you


know, he was a Nazi. He was a member of the National Front. He was into the occult and he used to have
these deaths-heads and cross-bones all over everything.
He didn't like to talk to anybody, and I think suicide was
the only way out for him. What else could he have done[?]

3.1.1

Joe Strummer[3]

Biography and career

By 1970 his brother David had become estranged from


his family and had joined the National Front. His suicide in July profoundly aected Strummer, as did havJoe Strummer was born John Graham Mellor in Ankara, ing to identify his body after it had lain undiscovered
Turkey, on 21 August 1952. His mother, Anna Macken- for three days.[2] After nishing his time at City of Lonzie, a crofter's daughter born and raised in Bonar Bridge don Freemens School, Ashtead Park, Surrey, in 1970,
The early years (19521976)

47

48
Strummer moved on to the Central School of Art and Design in London,[6] where he briey irted with the idea
of becoming a professional cartoonist and completed a
one-year foundation course.[7] During this time, Mellor
shared a at in the north London suburb of Palmers Green
with friends Clive Timperley and Tymon Dogg. In 1971
Strummer became a vegetarian and remained one until
his death.[8]
I bought a ukulele. No kidding. I saved some money,
1.99 I think, and bought it down Shaftesbury Avenue.
Then the guy I was busking with taught me to play Johnny
Be Good. [...] I was on my own for the rst time with this
ukulele and Johnny Be Good. And thats how I started.
Joe Strummer[3]
In 1973 Strummer moved to Newport, Wales. He did
not study at Newport College of Art but met up with college musicians in the Students Union in Stow Hill and became vocalist for Flaming Youth, renaming the band the
Vultures.[9] The Vultures[1] included three former members of Rip O Park Rock & Roll Allstars, the original
college band co-founded by Terry Earl Taylor. For the
next year he was the bands part-time singer and rhythm
guitarist. During this time Strummer also worked as a
gravedigger in St Woolos Cemetery.[10][11] In 1974, the
band fell apart and he moved back to London where he
met up again with Tymon Dogg. He did street performance for a while and then decided to form another band
with his West London roommates. The band was called
the 101ers,[1] named after the address of their squat (101
Walterton Road, in Maida Vale).[9][12]

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS


Simonon, drummer Terry Chimes and guitarist Keith
Levene.[12] The band was named the Clash by Simonon
and made their debut on 4 July 1976, opening for the
Sex Pistols at the Black Swan (a.k.a. the Mucky Duck,
now known as the Boardwalk Sheeld, England).[12] On
25 January 1977, the band signed with CBS Records as
a three-piece after Levene was red from the band and
Chimes quit. Drummer Topper Headon later became the
bands full-time drummer.
At the bands induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of
Fame, the Clash was said to be considered one of the
most overtly political, explosive and exciting bands in
rock and roll history.[13] Their songs tackled social decay, unemployment, racism, police brutality, political and
social repression, and militarism in detail. Strummer was
involved with the Anti-Nazi League and Rock Against
Racism campaigns. He later also gave his support to the
Rock Against the Rich series of concerts organised by the
anarchist organisation Class War. The Clashs London
Calling album was voted best album of the 1980s by
Rolling Stone magazine (although it was released in late
1979 in the UK; it was released in 1980 in the USA).[14]

During his time with the Clash, Strummer, along with his
bandmates, became notorious for getting in trouble with
the law. On 10 June 1977, he and Headon were arrested
for spray-painting The Clash on a wall in a hotel. On 20
May 1980, he was arrested for hitting a violent member
of the audience with his guitar during a performance in
Hamburg, Germany. This incident shocked Strummer,
and had a lasting personal impact on him. Strummer said,
It was a watershedviolence had really controlled me
The band played many gigs in London pubs, playing cov- for once. He determined never again to ght violence
ers of popular American R&B and blues songs. In 1975 with violence.[2]
he stopped calling himself Woody Mellor and adopted
the stage name of Joe Strummer, and insisted that his Before the album Combat Rock was released in 1982,
friends call him by that name. The name Strummer Strummer wilfully went into hiding and band manageapparently referred to his role as rhythm guitarist, in a ment represented that he had disappeared. Bernie
rather self-deprecating way. Though left-handed, he was Rhodes, the bands manager, pressured Joe to do so beselling slowly for the Scottish leg of an
taught to play right-handed by his friend Tymon Dogg. cause tickets were
[2]
upcoming
tour.
It
was planned for Strummer to travel to
Strummer was the lead singer of the 101ers and began to
Texas
in
secret
and
stay
with his friend, musician Joe Ely.
write original songs for the group. One song he wrote
However,
Strummer,
uneasy
with his decision, decided to
was inspired by his girlfriend at the time, Slits drumgenuinely
disappear
and
dicked
around in France. Durmer Palmolive. The group liked the song Keys to Your
Paris
Marathon in April
ing
this
time,
Strummer
ran
the
Heart, and picked it as their rst single.[3]
1982. He claimed his training regime consisted of 10
pints of beer the night before the race. For this period of
time, Joes whereabouts were not only a mystery to the
The Clash (197686)
public, but the bands management as well. Joe later said
this was a huge mistake and you have to have some reMain article: The Clash
grets. This was in spite of the popular success of the single "Rock the Casbah". During this time band members
and with tensions high, the group
On 3 April 1976, the then-unknown Sex Pistols opened began to argue a lot,
[12]
began
to
fall
apart.
for The 101ers at a venue called the Nashville Rooms in
London, and Strummer was impressed by them.[1] Sometime after the show, Strummer was approached by Bernie
Rhodes and Mick Jones. Jones was from the band London
SS and wanted Strummer to join as lead singer. Strummer agreed to leave the 101ers and join Jones, bassist Paul

In September 1983, Strummer issued the infamous


Clash Communique, and red Mick Jones.[12] Topper
Headon had earlier been kicked out of the band because
of his heroin addiction, and Terry Chimes was brought

3.1. JOE STRUMMER


back temporarily to ll his place until the permanent replacement, Pete Howard, could be found. This left the
band with only two of its original members, Strummer
and Simonon. Rhodes persuaded Strummer to carry on,
adding two new guitarists.[12] Under this lineup, The
Clash Mark Two, they released the album Cut the Crap
in 1985. The album was panned by fans and critics alike
and Strummer disbanded the Clash. The disintegration
of the band and the reasons behind it are the subject of
Danny Garcias 2012/3 book and documentary, The Rise
and Fall of the Clash.[15]
Solo career and soundtrack work (19861999)

49
in Aki Kaurismki's 1990 lm I Hired a Contract Killer
as a guitarist in a pub, performing two songs (Burning
Lights and Afro-Cuban Bebop). These were released
as a promotional 7-inch single limited to a few hundred
copies, credited to Joe Strummer & the Astro Physicians. The Astro Physicians were in fact the Pogues
(Afro-Cuban Bebop got a re-release on the Pogues
2008 box set). During this time Strummer continued to
act, write and produce soundtracks for various lms, most
notably the soundtrack for Grosse Pointe Blank (1997).
In 1989 Strummer produced a solo record with the
band the Latino Rockabilly War in 1989. The album
Earthquake Weather was a critical and commercial op,
and resulted in the loss of his contract with Sony Records.
He also did the soundtrack to the movie Permanent
Record with this band.
Strummer was asked by the Pogues, who were fracturing as a band, to help them produce their next album, released in 1990 as Hells Ditch. In 1991, he replaced Shane
MacGowan as singer of the Pogues for a tour after MacGowans departure from the band. One night of this tour
was professionally recorded, and three tracks (I Fought
the Law, London Calling, and Turkish Song of the
Damned) have seen release as b-sides and again on the
Pogues 2008 box set.

Strummer, backing with the Pogues in Japan. Photo: Masao


Nakagami

A year later, Strummer worked on several songs for the


1986 lm Sid and Nancy, including Love Kills and
Dum Dum Club. Strummer also later worked with
Mick Jones and his band Big Audio Dynamite, contributing to the bands second studio album by co-writing most
of the songs as well as producing the album along with
Jones.
In 1987, he played a small part in the lm Walker, directed by Alex Cox, as a character named Faucet and
wrote and performed on the lms soundtrack. He starred
in another Cox lm that same year called Straight to Hell,
as the character Simms. Straight to Hell also featured
London-Irish folk/punk band the Pogues, both as actors
and contributors to the soundtrack. Strummer joined the
Pogues for a tour in 1987/88, lling in for ailing guitarist
Philip Chevron, who wrote (in May 2008) on the bands
online forum: When I was sick in late 1987, I taught Joe
all the guitar parts in an afternoon and he was on tour in
the USA as deputy guitarist the next day. Joe wrote all
the tabs in his meticulously neat hand on a long piece of
paper which he taped to the top of the guitar so he could
glance down occasionally when he was onstage. This tour
would be the rst of several collaborations with the band.

On 16 April 1994, Strummer joined Czech-American


band Dirty Pictures on stage in Prague at the Repre Club
in Obecni Dum at Rock for Refugees, a benet concert for people left displaced by the war in Bosnia. Although the set appeared impromptu, Strummer and the
band had spent the days leading up to the event rehearsing
and hanging out in Prague. The show began with London Calling and without pause went into Brand New
Cadillac. In the middle of the song, the power went out.
Once the power was back on, Strummer asked the audience whether or not they would mind if the band started
over. They then began again with London Calling and
continued on for another half-hour.
After these self-described wilderness years, Strummer
began working with other bands; he played piano on
the 1995 UK hit of the Levellers, Just the One and
appeared on the Black Grape single Englands Irie in
1996. In 1997, while in New York City, he worked
with noted producer and engineer Lee Perry on remixed
Clash and 101ers reissue dub material. In collaboration
with percussionist Pablo Cook, Strummer wrote and performed the soundtrack to Tunnel of Love (Robert Wallace
1997) that was featured in the Cannes Film Festival in the
same year.
In 1998, he made a guest appearance on the animated
television show, South Park and appeared on the album
Chef Aid: The South Park Album featuring songs from
and inspired by the series.

In 1989, Strummer appeared in Jim Jarmusch's lm


Mystery Train as a drunken, short-tempered drifter During this time, Strummer was engaged in a legal disnamed Johnny (whom most characters refer to as Elvis, pute with the Clashs record label, Epic Records. The
much to Johnnys dismay). He made a cameo appearance disagreement lasted nearly eight years and ended with the

50

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

label agreeing to let him record solo records with another


label. If the Clash were to reunite though, they would
have to record for Sony. During the nineties, Strummer
was a DJ on the BBC World Service with his half-hour
programme London Calling. Samples from the series
provide the vocals for Midnight Jam on Joe Strummer
and the Mescaleros nal album Streetcore.
The Mescaleros and other work (19992002)
In the mid-to-late 1990s, Strummer gathered top-ight
musicians into a backing band he called the Mescaleros.
Strummer and the band signed with Mercury Records,
and released their rst album in 1999, which was cowritten with Antony Genn, called Rock Art and the X-Ray
Style. A tour of England, Europe, and North America
soon followed; sets included several Clash fan favourites.
This is my Indian summer ... I learnt that
fame is an illusion and everything about it
is just a joke. I'm far more dangerous now,
because I don't care at all.
Joe Strummer to Chris Salewicz 2000[9]

In 2001, the band signed with Californian punk label


Hellcat Records and released their second studio album,
Global a Go-Go. The album was supported with a 21-date
tour of North America, Britain, and Ireland. Once again,
these concerts featured Clash material ("Londons Burning", Rudie Can't Fail, "(White Man) In Hammersmith
Palais"), as well as covers of reggae and ska hits ("The
Harder They Come", A Message to You, Rudy) and the
band regularly closed the show by playing the Ramones'
"Blitzkrieg Bop". He covered Bob Marley's "Redemption
Song" with Johnny Cash. In the same year, Strummer
and the Mescaleros performed the song "Minstrel Boy"
for the lm Black Hawk Down, a haunting and emotive
Celtic tune that is played during the evacuation of PFC
Todd Blackburn during the Battle of Mogadishu and again
over the end credits.

On 15 November 2002, Strummer and the Mescaleros


played a benet show for striking re ghters in London,
at the Acton Town Hall. Mick Jones was in the audience,
and joined the band on stage during the Clashs Bankrobber. An encore followed with Jones playing guitar and
singing on White Riot and Londons Burning. This
performance marked the rst time since 1983 that Strummer and Jones had performed together on stage.[13] Jones
later remarked that it was totally unplanned and that he
felt compelled to join Strummer on stage.
Strummers nal regular gig was at Liverpool Academy
on 22 November 2002, yet his nal performance, just two
weeks before his death, was in a small club venue 'The
Palace' in Bridgwater, Somerset, near his home. Shortly
before his death, Strummer and U2's Bono co-wrote a
song, "46664", for Nelson Mandela as part of a campaign
against AIDS in Africa. Strummer had been scheduled
to play at Mandelas SOS fundraising concert in February 2003 on Robben Island. Mick Jones later recorded a
version of the song in studio, performing both the vocals
and guitar work, that has yet to be formally released.

Death and legacy (2002present)


On-stage Strummer wires himself up into an inhuman dynamo of sweaty, trembling esh, fearful enough to have
one wondering when the ambulance brigade will rush to
his rescue with a straight-jacket. While he tilts his bullet head at acute angles, his agonising face screwed into
an open wound, he wields his Telecaster like a chain saw.
His magnetism is totally original more like an Olympic
strong man imploding all his energy into a nal recordbreaking lift than anything seen on a rock'n'roll stage before.
O-stage, hes the Clash member with the lowest prole.
Caroline Coon[3]
Strummer died suddenly on 22 December 2002 in his
home at Broomeld in Somerset, the victim of an undiagnosed congenital heart defect.[13][16][17] His estate was
valued at just under 1 million, and he left all the money
to his wife Lucinda.[18] Strummer was cremated, and his
ashes were given to his family.
Strummer was instrumental in setting up Future Forests
(since rechristened the Carbon Neutral Company), dedicated to planting trees in various parts of the world
to combat global warming.[19] Strummer was the rst
artist to make the recording, pressing and distribution
of his records carbon neutral through the planting of
trees.[19][20][21] In his remembrance, Strummers friends
and family have established the Strummerville Foundation for the promotion of new music.[22] The foundation
also holds an annual festival with the same name.

Strummer performing in Brooklyn, April 2002

In January 2003, the Clash were inducted into the Rock


and Roll Hall of Fame.[13] At the Grammy Awards in
February 2003, London Calling was performed by Elvis

3.1. JOE STRUMMER


Costello, Bruce Springsteen, Steven Van Zandt, Dave
Grohl, Pete Thomas, and Tony Kanal in tribute to Strummer. Another tribute to Strummer occurred in the same
month at the rock club Debaser in Stockholm, when
some of Swedens most famous rock musicians paid their
tribute to Strummer by performing songs written by the
Clash (the exception was Nicke Borg and Dregen from
Backyard Babies, who performed "I Fought the Law",
which the Clash had covered). At the end of the concert, the Swedish punk band Ebba Grn reunited for the
tribute, aided by Mick Jones on guitar.
At the time of his death, Strummer was working on
another Mescaleros album, which was released posthumously in October 2003 under the title Streetcore. The
album features a tribute to Johnny Cash, Long Shadow,
which was written for Cash to sing and recorded in Rick
Rubin's garage, as well as a remembrance of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 (Ramshackle Day Parade), and a cover of Bob Marley's "Redemption Song",
which Strummer had also recorded as a duet with Cash.
The Cash/Strummer duet version appears on the 2003
box set Unearthed.

51
Temple Meads railway station.[26] On 22 July 2005 Tait
unveiled a plaque on the house in Pentonville, Newport
where Strummer lived from 1973 to 1974 and where his
rst foray into recorded music, Crummy Bum Blues
was recorded.[27]
That Was Clash Radio, a short story by Charles de Lint,
was written in response to Strummers death and features
Strummer in a minor role.[28]
New Orleans-based rockers Cowboy Mouth released a
song called Joe Strummer on their album Voodoo
Shoppe. The song tells the story of a man who had to
break up with his girlfriend because "...she didn't know
who/Joe Strummer was. The popular track is a tonguein-cheek salute to Strummer and The Clash that received
signicant radio play in 2006. In addition, the Joe
Pernice-penned High As a Kite, included on the Pernice Brothers' 2006 album Live a Little, was, in part a
tribute to Joe Strummer. Lyrics included, Heavy downbeat of one and the show began/London calling, strike up
the contraband and the memorable opening to the chorus, We wore pictures of Strummer. A play by Paul
Hodson called Meeting Joe Strummer premiered at the
Edinburgh Festival in 2006, and toured the UK the following year.[29]

November 2003 saw the release of a video for Redemption Song, directed by Josh Cheuse. The video features
the painting of a memorial mural, by grati artist RE- In conjunction with the Strummer estate, Fender released
VOLT, on the wall of the Niagara Bar in the East Village
the Joe Strummer Tribute Telecaster, combining eleof New York City.[23]
ments of Joes main guitars, namely an attempt at the
On 22 December 2003, a year after his death, a tribute road worn nish of his 1966 Telecaster, which he used
show/benet was held at Irving Plaza in NYC. Bands that until his death. The rst 1,500 guitars come with a
played were: Ari Up; Clem Snide; the Detachment Kit; Shepard Fairey designed Customisation kit with stickDirty Mary; Hammel on Trial; Jesse Malin; New Blood ers and stencils, which resemble some of the designs
Revival; the Realistics; Eugene Htz; Radio 4; Secret Strummer used on his guitars.[30] Joe Strummers impact
Army; Ted Leo; Vic Thrill & the Saturn Missile.[24] The is referenced by the Hold Steady in the song Construcshow was videotaped by punkcast.com but is as yet unre- tive Summer, a song featured on their 2008 album Stay
leased.
Positive. In this song the band sings Raise a toast to Saint
The Belfast punk rock group Sti Little Fingers recorded Joe Strummer. I think he might have been our only decent
in Sardinia,
a tribute song Strummerville on their album, Guitar and teacher. In November 2009, Tonara, a town
[31]
Italy,
dedicated
a
street
to
Joe
Strummer.
Drum. Al Barr, lead singer of the Boston punk band
Dropkick Murphys, named his son Strummer in honour
of Joe.[25] German band Beatsteaks pay tribute to Strummer on their album Smack Smash with the song Hello
Joe. In 2004, German punk band Die Toten Hosen released an EP called Friss oder stirb, which included a
tribute song for Strummer called Goodbye Garageland,
which is a lyrical co-production with Matt Dangereld
from Londons 77 punk band the Boys.

On 22 December 2010, CJAM 99.1 FM, a radio station in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, declared the eighth
anniversary of his death Joe Strummer Day to confront poverty in Windsor-Detroit. For 24-hours, the station played nothing but Strummer-related music, wrapping the sounds around reports about poverty from
North Americas hardest hit economic regionWindsorDetroit. CJAM (which is located near the banks of the
Boston Punk Rock Band Street Dogs recorded a trib- Detroit River, a kilometre from downtown Detroit) and
ute song called The Generals Boombox on their al- its board of directors have since ocially decided to
bum State of Grace, and New Jerseys the Gaslight An- make it a yearly event, and is hosting its 7th Annual Joe
them recorded the song I'da Called You Woody, Joe on Strummer Day on 22 December 2016.
their album Sink or Swim. Attila the Stockbroker's Barn- In January 2011 a motion was started to grant Strummer
stormer released Comandante Joe on their album Zero his own street in the Spanish city of Granada.[32]
Tolerance.
On 21 August 2012 and what would have been StrumOn 12 February 2005, the Class 47 locomotive 47828 mers 60th birthday, Hellcat Records released an excluwas named Joe Strummer. The nameplates were un- sive 57 song digital download album titled Joe Strummer
veiled by his widow Lucinda Tait in a ceremony at Bristol and the Mescaleros, The Hellcat Years. The album fea-

52
tures Strummers three Hellcat albums along with various
b-sides and live songs including Strummers 15 November 2002 concert which featured Mick Jones. Hellcat
also announced that on 25 September 2012 they will rerelease remastered versions of Strummers three records
he recorded for Hellcat on both CD and vinyl.[33] and
Strummers 15 Nov. 2002 concert, Live at Acton Town
Hall was released as well through Hellcat on 23 November 2012 as an exclusive limited to 2200 copies 2 LP
vinyl for Record Store Day. In January 2013, Joe Strummer had a plaza named in his honour in the Spanish city
of Granada.[34] Placeta Joe Strummer is at N37.16892
W3.58771 (722m) on a junction between three narrow
roads the Calle Vistillas de Los Angeles, the Cuesta Escoriaza and the Calle Paseo Palmas. About 650m south
of the Alhambra.[35]

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS


Redemption Song: The Ballad of Joe Strummer is a 2006
biography of Strummer by Chris Salewicz.[2]
Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten is a documentary about Joe Strummer by Julien Temple. It comprises
archive footage of him spanning his life, and interviews
with friends, family, and other celebrities. It debuted at
the 2007 Sundance Film Festival.[39][40][41]
Tribute Concert: Cast a Long Shadow is a recording of
the October 2007 tribute and benet concert held in honour of Joe Strummer in Los Angeles. It features Love &
Rockets, Zander Schloss, Hellride and many other artists.
It was released in DVD format as by MVD Videos in December 2010.[42]

Let Fury Have the Hour is a documentary directed by


Antonino D'Ambrosio, in which the gure of Strummer
[43]
In June 2013 a mural of Strummer was unveiled on the looms large in the background. The movie debuted
[44]
corner of Portobello Road and Blenheim Crescent. The at the 2012 Tribeca Film Festival.
unveiling was attended by a number of Strummers for- Quiero tener una ferretera en Andaluca is a 2014 documer friends including Mick Jones and Ray Gange.[36]
mentary about Joe Strummers relationship with AndaluIn an October 2013 interview, Mick Jones conrmed cia, and especially with Almeria, where he lived in the
that Strummer indeed had intentions of reforming the 1980s and '90s.
Clash and new music was even being written. In the I Need a Dodge! Joe Strummer on the Run is a 2015 documonths prior to Strummers death, he and Jones got to- mentary by Nick Hall. It revolves around Strummers life
gether to write new music. Jones said at the time he as- in Spain and tells the story of the mysterious disappearsumed the new songs would be used on albums with the ance of his beloved Dodge convertible.
Mescaleros. A few months following their work together,
Jones ran into Strummer at an event and asked him what
he intended to do with those songs. Strummer informed
Jones that they were going to be used for the next Clash 3.1.4 Musical equipment
record.[37]
Strummers main guitar throughout his career was a 1966
Fender Telecaster that originally came in a three-colour
sunburst with a white pickguard. Strummer acquired the
3.1.2 Marriages and relationships
guitar in middle of 1975 while playing with the 101ers.
After
joining the Clash, the guitars body and pickguard
In 1975, after being oered 120, Strummer married
were
renished
in grey auto primer and then painted
Pamela Moolman, a South African citizen, so she could
black.
By
1979,
the word NOISE was stenciled on the
obtain British citizenship. He bought his signature Fender
Telecaster, later painted black, with the money. In 1978, upper part of the body, a rasta ag sticker was placed
Strummer started a relationship with Gaby Salter shortly at the horn of the pickguard, and an Ignore Alien Orafter her 17th birthday.[2] The couple remained together ders sticker was placed above the bridge. By the refor 14 years and had two daughters, Jazz and Lola, but lease of Give Em Enough Rope, the guitar was tted with
did not marry as Strummer had been unable to locate and a bridge with individual saddles and the original Kluson
divorce Moolman.[2] During his relationship with Salter, tuners were replaced with later model tuners and a large
question mark was spraypainted on its back.
he had multiple aairs spanning the 1980s.[2]
The guitar would remain in this conguration throughout his career with the addition of stickers on its body.
The guitars black paint became worn down due to Strummers playing and on many places the original sunburst
nish and bare wood shines through, except for the square
where Strummer taped his setlists. In 2012 modern artist
Karl Haglund paid tribute to this guitar in one of his
3.1.3 Documentaries
iconic guitar paintings.[45][46] The Fender Custom Shop
tribute Telecaster with a reLets Rock Again! is a one-hour music documentary, di- has created a Joe Strummer
[30]
liced
at
black
nish.
rected by Dick Rude, that follows Strummer as he tours
in America and Japan with the Mescaleros. It premiered Strummer was naturally left-handed, but was taught to
play guitar right-handed by his close friend Tymon Dogg.
at the Tribeca Film Festival in New York, May 2004.
In 1993, Strummer began an aair with Lucinda Tait,
which nally ended his relationship with Gaby Salter.[2]
Strummer and Tait married in 1995 and remained so until
his death in 2002 from cardiac arrest.[38]

3.1. JOE STRUMMER

53

Memorial to Strummer on 7th Street at Avenue A, New York City.

nied by a large celebration, attended by Mick Jones.[55]

3.1.6 Discography
The Clash
For more details on this topic, see The Clash discography.

Strummer in 2001 with his guitar

The 101ers
Solo

Strummer had reckoned his left-handedness on a righthand guitar as a drawback and claimed it caused him to be The Latino Rockabilly War
underdeveloped as a guitarist, although his style of playThe Mescaleros
ing was unique.
He also used three Fender Esquire models, one from
3.1.7 Selected lmography
1952, a white blonde with slab fretboard from the mid1950s[47] and another from early to mid-1960s with a
white pick guard and rosewood ngerboard.[48] The Es- 3.1.8 In other media
quire is a one-pickup version of the Telecaster. Prior to
Joe Strummer and the Mescaleros appeared on the
using any Telecaster oriented guitar, before buying his
British musician Jools Hollands show Later in 2000.
1966 model, he used as main guitars a Gretsch White
Strummer, Warren Zevon, and Tracy Chapman, as
Falcon and a Hofner.[49] For amplication Strummer was
well as an ensemble cast, sang "I Fought the Law" at
known to use ampliers such as a Roland Jazz Chorus, a
the nale. The show, and this episode, is occasionSelmer Bassman while he was in the 101ers, a Vox AC30
ally shown in the US on Ovation TV.
and various Marshall ampliers,[50] but his main amplier
The Bedroom Secrets of the Master Chefs, a novel by
was a Music Man HD 212,150.[51] Strummer commented
Irvine Welsh published in 2006, has a ctional Joe
on his choice of amplier with I don't have time to search
Strummer being implicated in a paternity scandal.
for those old Fender tube amps. The Music Man is the
closest thing to that sound I've found and that the plastic
In the Ridley Scott lm Black Hawk Down, the song
motif on the front is repulsive.[52]
Minstrel Boy from the Mescaleros album "Global
a Go-Go" is featured during the evacuation of PFC
Todd Blackburn during the Battle of Mogadishu and
3.1.5 Mural in New York City
again over the end credits
In 2013 the mural of Joe Strummer outside Niagara bar
on the East Village of Manhattan, New York City was destroyed due to construction.[53] On 19 September 2013, a
new mural was unveiled.[54] The unveiling was accompa-

Johnny Appleseed, a song from Joe Strummer and


the Mescaleros 2001 album Global a Go-Go, is featured as the theme song to the HBO series John from
Cincinnati, aired in the summer of 2007.

54

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

The song Mondo Bongo by Joe Strummer and the


Mescaleros is featured in the 2005 movie Mr. &
Mrs. Smith. The song originally appeared in two
dierent scenes during the movie, but was removed
from the later scene in the Directors Cut.
Joe Strummer wrote the (unused) title song for the
1997 lm 'Divorcing Jack' based on the novel by
Colin Bateman, which exists as an unreleased demo.
Various Clash music was included in the movie. His
death is also the starting point for Batemans novel
'Driving Big Davie'.

3.1.9

References

[1] Strummers lasting culture Clash (STM). Entertainment.


BBC News World Edition. 23 December 2002. Retrieved
20 November 2007.
[2] Salewicz 2006.
[3] Coon 1977.
[4] Will Gilgrass. Blogs - Now Playing @6Music - #Strummer6Music. BBC. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
[5] The Playlist Special Sean Lennon, Rolling Stone
[6] Brian J. Bowe (2011). The Clash: punk rock band. Berkeley Heights, NJ : Enslow. ISBN 9780766032323. p. 14.
Accessed August 2013.
[7] Strummers lasting culture Clash (STM). Entertainment.
BBC News World Edition. 23 December 2002. Retrieved
20 November 2007. a) Born John Graham Mellor in
1952, Strummer was the son of a diplomat and was given
a middle-class upbringing at boarding school in Surrey before going to study art in London before deciding that it
was a lousy set up.
b, c, d) He had immersed himself in music since childhood, and his own musical career began when he started
street performing with a ukulele at Green Park tube station. He played in two bands, the Vultures and the 101ers,
but when The Sex Pistols supported the 101ers in west
London in 1976, Strummer saw the possibilities open up
for him and was inspired to form The Clash.
[8] Joe Strummer chicken story. YouTube. 2008-02-03.
Retrieved 2014-05-20.
[9] Encoule, Jean (2003). Joe Strummer 19522002.
trakMARX.com. Retrieved 17 November 2007. a) Joe
Strummer was born in Ankara, Turkey, in 1952 & christened John Graham Mellor. His family spent time in
Ankara, Cairo, Mexico City & Bonn, before Mellor returned to the UK to attend the City of London Freemens
School in Surrey. Mellor left school & enrolled at Central College of Art but left after about a week, heading
straight for the underground & squat culture. Mellor spent
time living in Wales, playing in knock-about bands and using the nickname Woody inspired by Woody Guthries
name.
b) The Vultures in time led to The 101ers, a group of West
London-based squatters named after their squat address.

The 101ers were eventually supported by a nascent Sex


Pistols. Mellor adopted the stage name of Joe Strummer. Impressed by the power of the Sex Pistols, the
newly self-coined Strummer determined that the 101ers
were yesterdays papers by comparison. It was time to
strike out anew. And this led to the start of The Clash.
c) This is my Indian summer...I learnt that fame is an illusion & everything about it is just a joke. I'm far more
dangerous now, because I don't care at all. Joe Strummer to Chris Salewicz 2000.
[10] Don J Whistances Clash Site - Joe the Early years (Retrieved 7 February 2014)
[11] JoeStrummer.org - Bio (Retrieved 7 February 2014)
[12] Westway 2001.
[13] The Clash. Induction. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
and Museum. 10 March 2003. Retrieved 19 November
2007. a) Quite simply, the Clash were among the most
explosive and exciting bands in rock and roll history.
b, c) If not exactly a reunion, it was a rapprochement. On
15 November 2002, Jones and Strummer shared the stage
for the rst time in nearly 20 years, performing three Clash
songs during the encore of a London benet show by Joe
Strummer and the Mescaleros. This raised hopes for a
Clash reunion, which were dashed when Strummer died
of a heart attack on 22 December 2002.
[14] Clash star Strummer dies (STM). Entertainment. BBC
News World Edition. 27 December 2002. Retrieved 20
November 2007. Rolling Stone voted London Calling,
their classic 1980 album (released in 1979 in the UK) as
the best album of the Eighties.
[15] Garcia, Danny. The Rise and Fall of the Clash. Thin Man
Press, London. ASIN B00ANX0V6M.
[16] Clash star Strummer dies. BBC News. 27 December
2002. Retrieved 11 February 2009. Joe Strummer, the
leader of legendary Seventies punk band The Clash, has
died of a suspected heart attack aged 50. A spokesman
for Strummer, real name John Graham Mellor, said the
singer died at home in Broomeld, Somerset, on Sunday.
[17] Clash star Joe Strummer dies. Entertainment. CNN.
23 December 2002. Archived from the original on 17
November 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Strummer, who was the bands guitarist, vocalist and songwriter
alongside Mick Jones, died on Sunday at his farmhouse in
Somerset, southwestern England.
[18] Clash frontman Joe Strummer leaves 1m will. Daily
Mail. 7 January 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Joe
Strummer, the former frontman of punk band The Clash,
left an estate worth nearly 1 million, it was revealed yesterday.
[19] Joe Strummers Charity Work, Events and Causes.
Look to the Stars. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
[20] Forest tribute to Clash star. BBC News world edition.
19 January 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2010.

3.1. JOE STRUMMER

[21] YOUR PLANET Part 2: 'I Want to Put Back What


I'Ve Taken Out'". redOrbit.com. 20 September 2005.
Retrieved 29 March 2010. Joe Strummer: The worlds
rst carbon neutral artists, Joe Strummer was involved in
setting up the company and his large forest on the Isle of
Skye has become a memorial to him.
[22] Strummerville: A Charity in Honour of Joe Strummer
of The Clash: Whats It All About?". Strummerville: The
Joe Strummer Foundation for New Music. Retrieved 29
March 2010.
[23] D'Angelo, Joe (17 November 2003). Joe Strummer
Leaves Final Mark on New York With New Video
(JHTML). mtv. Retrieved 29 November 2007. Clip features cameos by Rancid, actor Matt Dillon, lmmaker Jim
Jarmusch.
[24] Fillmore NY @ Irving Plaza Artists. irvingplaza.com.
Retrieved 29 November 2007. Joe Strummer Tribute
Ari Up (of The Slits); Clem Snide; The Detachment Kit;
Dirty Mary; Hammel on Trial; Jesse Malin; New Blood
Revival; The Realistics; Radio 4; Secret Army; Ted Leo
(solo); and special guests
[25] Helmer, April (23 April 2004).
Dropkick Murphys always sing loud, proud. The Express-Times.
Dropkickmurphys.com. Archived from the original on 20
October 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
[26] Engine named after Clash singer (STM). BBC NEWS.
12 February 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2007. The Class 47
Diesel, which is owned by Cotswold Rail, is being named
after the singer, who lived in Bridgwater, Somerset. He
died aged 50 in 2002....
..."The locomotive, and plaque showing Strummers
name, were unveiled at Bristol Temple Meads station by
his wife, Lucinda.
[27] Plaque for Clash legend Strummer (STM). BBC
NEWS. 22 July 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2007. The
friend who arranged for a tribute plaque to Joe Strummer
on the house where the punk legend wrote his rst song
admits he would have hated it.

55

[34] BBC News - Joe Strummer has a Spanish plaza named


in his honour. Bbc.co.uk. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 201306-17.
[35] Richardson, Martin (2013-07-02). Went up a hill and
came down: Pico de Veleta and Placeta Joe Strummer
- Granada calling. Oakesave.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved
2013-09-01.
[36] Joe Strummer mural unveiling. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
[37] The Clash - Mick Jones: 'Secret Joe Strummer Tunes
Could Have Sparked The Clashs Comeback'". Contact
Music. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
[38] http://www.mtv.com/news/1459290/
autopsy-finds-joe-strummer-died-of-cardiac-arrest/.
Retrieved 2015-11-16. Missing or empty |title= (help)
[39] Orshoski, Wes (7 November 2006). Exclusive: Strummer Documentary To Premiere At Sundance (JSP). Billboard. Retrieved 29 November 2007. The Future is Unwritten, Julien Temples new lm on the life and career
of late Clash frontman Joe Strummer, will have its U.S.
premiere in mid-January at the Sundance Film Festival in
Park City, Utah.
[40] BBC Somerset In Pictures Joe Strummer
(SHTML). Where I Live Somerset Celebrities and
Events. BBC News. Retrieved 29 November 2007. Julien
Temples biopic of The Clash front man, entitled Joe
Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten, receives its premiere
at The Palace in Bridgwater on Saturday, 5 May 2007.
This photo is of a campre in Somerset.
[41] Kelly, Kevin (26 January 2007). Sundance Review: Joe
Strummer: The Future is Unwritten. cinematical.com.
Retrieved 29 November 2007. If you can imagine what it
would be like to try to document the life of one of your
closest friends after their death, and to assemble everything into feature lm length, you can probably see how
dicult the process might be.
[42] MVD Visual at AllMusic. Retrieved 10 December 2010.

[28] de Lint, Charles (2005). The Hour Before Dawn. Burton,


MI: Subterranean Press. pp. 1011. ISBN 1-59606-0271.

[43] Defore, John (10 April 2012). Let Fury Have the Hour.
hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.

[29] MEETING JOE STRUMMER. Middle Ground Theatre Company. Retrieved 29 March 2010.

[44] Goldstein, Gary (January 2013). Review: 'Let Fury Have


the Hour' doc features artistic protest. LA Times.

[30] Joe Strummer. fender.com. Retrieved 29 March 2010.


Related articles:

[45] Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.

Strummer Telecaster Guitar Based on Legendary


Clash Leaders Famous DIY Instrument. Fender.
Retrieved 29 March 2010.
[31] Buquicchio, Cesare (19 November 2009). Sardegna
punk, una via per Joe Strummer (in Italian). L'Unit.
Retrieved 29 March 2010.

[46] A tribute to Joe Strummers Fender Telecaster guitar.


Strummerguitar.com. 1976-04-10. Retrieved 2013-0617.
[47] Maximum Energy: The Gear of the Original Punks.
Premier Guitar. Retrieved 2012-03-26.

[32] Archived 16 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

[48] A tribute to Joe Strummers Fender Telecaster guitar.


Strummerguitar.com. 10 April 1976. Retrieved 201203-26.

[33] Cericola, Rachel. Hellcat Records Celebrates 60 Years


of Joe Strummer With Digital Release | GeekMom.
Wired.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17.

[49] A tribute to Joe Strummers Fender Telecaster guitar.


Strummerguitar.com. 1976-04-10. Retrieved 2014-0520.

56

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

[50] Unknown Forum.


2013-06-17.

Websitetoolbox.com.

Retrieved

[51] Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.


[52] Musician Magazine 1980
[53] Joe Strummer. EV Grieve. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
[54] East Seventh Street, 4:31 p.m., Sept. 19. EV Grieve.
2013-09-19. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
[55] Joe Strummer mural unveiling on 7th Street (Niagra)
East Village (Lower East Side)". YouTube. 2013-09-19.
Retrieved 2014-05-20.

Sources
Books
Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk
Rock Explosion. London: Hawthorn. ISBN 0-80156129-9. OCLC 79262599.
D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2012). Let Fury Have the
Hour: Joe Strummer, Punk, and the Movement that
Shook the World. New York: Nation Books. ISBN
9781568587196.
Salewicz, Chris (2006). Redemption Song: The Ballad of Joe Strummer. New York: Macmillan. ISBN
978-0-571-21178-4. OCLC 76794852.
Films and documentaries
D'Ambrosio Antonino; Joe Strummer, Billy Bragg,
Wayne Kramer, Tom Morello, Gogol Bordello, Eve
Ensler, Antibalas, Thievery Corporation, Tommy
Guerrero, Chuck D, Boots Riley, Manu Chao, Ted
Leo, Hari Kunzru, Edwidge Danticat, Suheir Hammad, Staceyann Chin, The Coup, John Sayles, Lewis
Black, Ian Mackaye, Fugazi, Minor Threat, Sean
Hayes, Public Enemy, The Kominas, Street Sweeper
Social Club, The Slackers, El Meswy, DJ Spooky,
Eugene Hutz (2012). Let Fury Have the Hour
(DVD). New York, NY: SNAGFilms; A Bricklayers Union Production. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,
Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The
Clash (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World
(DVD). New York: Sony Music Entertainment;
Dorismo; Uptown Films. Event occurs at 3:50
4:50; 8:4011:40. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC
49798077.

D'Ambrosio, Antonino (13 October 2004). Let Fury


Have the Hour: The Punk Rock Politics of Joe Strummer. New York: Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025625-7. OCLC 56988650. Edited with an Introduction by Antonino D'Ambrosio.
Davie, Anthony (2004). Joe Strummer & the
Mescaleros: New and Previously Unpublished Photographs. Northampton: Eective. ISBN 09548568-1-3. OCLC 64898380.
Davie, Anthony (2004). Vision of a Homeland:
The History of Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros.
Northampton: Eective. ISBN 0-9548568-0-5.
OCLC 123775358.
DeCurtis, Anthony (2003). 19522002 Joe Strummer A tribute to the late Clash singer and songwriter, plus his nal remarks on the rise and fall of
the legendary punk band. Rolling stone. San Francisco, CA: Straight Arrow. 914 (27). ISSN 0035791X. OCLC 96002520.
Ferraz, Rob (August 2001). Joe Strummer & The
Clash Revolution Rock. Exclaim!. Retrieved 22
December 2010.
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th rev. ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Matula, Theodore (December 2003). Joe Strummer, 19522002. Popular Music and Society.
Bowling Green, Ohio: Taylor & Francis. 26 (4):
523525.
doi:10.1080/0300776032000144968.
ISSN 0300-7766. OCLC 89586252.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Yewdall, Julian Leonard; Nick Jones (1992). Joe
Strummer with the 101ers and the Clash, 1974
1976. London: Image Direct. ISBN 0-95192160-6. OCLC 28502630. Photographs by Julian
Leonard Yewdall; introductory text by Nick Jones.

3.1.11 External links


3.1.10

Further reading

Clash, The (1 October 2008). The Clash: Strummer,


Jones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books.
ISBN 1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.

Joe Strummer at the Internet Movie Database


Obituary by Paul Bond on the World Socialist Web
Site

3.2. MICK JONES

57

Harrison, Brady. "The Cultural Oces of Joe 3.2.2 The Clash


Strummer. Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies 1
(2002): 33-56.
Main article: The Clash
When he was 21, he and Paul Simonon were introduced
The Legend Joe Strummer Web Site
The Joe Strummer Foundation Web Site

3.2 Mick Jones


Not to be confused with Mick Jones (Foreigner guitarist).
Michael Georey Mick Jones (born 26 June 1955)
is an English musician, singer and songwriter best known
as the lead guitarist, co-lead vocalist, cofounder and songwriter for The Clash until his dismissal in 1983. Afterwards, he formed the band Big Audio Dynamite with
Don Letts. Jones has recently played with the group
Carbon/Silicon along with Tony James and has toured the
world as part of the Gorillaz live band. In late 2011, Jones
collaborated with Pete Wylie and members of The Farm
to form The Justice Tonight Band.

3.2.1

Early life

Mick Jones (centre) on stage with the Clash

to Joe Strummer by Bernie Rhodes (the self-proclaimed


inventor of punk rock)[7] in a dirty squatter building in
Shepherds Bush. The band rehearsed in a disused railway warehouse in Camden Town and The Clash was
formed. Jones played lead guitar, sang, and co-wrote
songs from the bands inception until he was red by
Strummer and Simonon in 1983. Jones lack of punctuality played a major role in his dismissal from the band.
Jones agreed to give a rare interview about the disintegration of The Clash and the reasons behind his dismissal
from 'his own band' in Danny Garcias 2012 documentary
lm and book The Rise and Fall of the Clash.[8]

Jones was born in Wandsworth, London, England to


a Welsh father, Tommy Jones, and a Russian Jewish
mother, Renee Zegansky.[1][2] He spent much of his early
life living with his maternal grandmother, Stella Class, in
South London. Jones cousin is Grant Shapps, the Tory
MP for Welwyn Hateld.[3] Jones went to Strand School For his time with The Clash, Jones, along with the rest
in South London and then on to art school, because of the band, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of
"[he] thought thats how you get into bands and stu.[4] Fame in 2003.[9]
But even before the Dolls, I used to follow
bands around. I followed Mott the Hoople up
and down the country. I'd go to Liverpool or
Newcastle or somewheresleep on the Town
Hall steps, and bunk the fares on the trains,
hide in the toilet when the ticket inspector
came around. I'd jump o just before the train
got to the station and climb over the fence. It
was great times, and I always knew I wanted
to be in a band and play guitar. That was it for
me.
Mick Jones to Gibson Backstage Pass
Holiday Double Issue 2006[5]

He started gaining recognition as a guitarist in the early


1970s with his glam rock band, The Delinquents. A short
time later, he met Tony James and formed the proto-punk
London SS. By 1976, that band had broken up and remaining members Jones, Paul Simonon and Keith Levene
were seeking a new direction.[6]

While promoting the bands 2013 box set, Sound System, which Jones says will be the nal time he ever works
on Clash music, he discussed the band reuniting prior to
Strummers death.

There were a few moments at the time I was


up for it (Hall of Fame reunion in 2003), Joe
was up for it. Paul wasn't. And neither, probably, was Topper Headon, who didn't wind up
even coming in the end. It didn't look like a
performance was going to happen anyway. I
mean, you usually play at that ceremony when
you get in. Joe had passed by that point, so we
didn't. We were never in agreement. It was
never at a point where all of us wanted to do
it at the same time. Most importantly for us,
we became friends again after the group broke
up, and continued that way for the rest of the
time. That was more important to us than the
band.[10]

58

3.2.3

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

General Public

more best of collection, called Super Hits, was released


in 1999.

Main article: General Public

Jones announced the reuniting of Big Audio Dynamite


in January 2011, and they performed at the Lollapalooza
After his expulsion from The Clash, Jones was briey a music festival in 2011.
founding member of General Public. Though he is listed
in the credits of the bands 1984 dbut album All the Rage
as an ocial member, Jones left General Public part way 3.2.5 Recent projects
through the recording process and was replaced by Kevin
White. Whites picture appears on the back cover; Jones Carbon/Silicon
picture does not. Jones did play guitar on many of the albums tracks, including the North American top 40 single Main article: Carbon/Silicon
In 2002, Jones teamed up with his former London SS col"Tenderness".

3.2.4

Big Audio Dynamite

Main article: Big Audio Dynamite


Leaving General Public behind, in 1984 Jones formed
Big Audio Dynamite with lm director Don Letts, who
had directed various Clash videos and later the Clash documentary Westway to the World. The bands dbut album This Is Big Audio Dynamite was released the following year, with the song "E=MC" getting heavy rotation
in dance clubs, and both singles Medicine Show and
E=MC2 " charting in the UK.
For Big Audio Dynamites second album, No. 10, Upping St., Jones reunited with Strummer. Together, the
two wrote several songs on the album, including Beyond
the Pale, V. Thirteen, and Sightsee M.C!"; Strummer also co-produced the album. Their reunion did not
last long, and following that collaboration, the two did not
work together again for some time.
Big Audio Dynamites third album, Tighten Up, Vol.
88, featured album cover art painted by the ex-Clash
bassist, Paul Simonon. Shortly following its release, Jones
developed chicken pox and pneumonia, and spent several months in hospital.[11][12] After his recovery, Jones
released one more album with Big Audio Dynamite,
Megatop Phoenix, before reshuing the line-up, renaming the band Big Audio Dynamite II and releasing The
Globe album. The BAD II lineup had an international #1
hit with their song "Rush", topping the Billboard Modern
Rock charts in the U.S. and singles charts in Australia and
New Zealand.
In 1990, Jones was featured on Aztec Camera's song
Good Morning Britain, with Roddy Frame.

Mick Jones playing with Carbon/Silicon at the Carbon Casino VI


event on 22 February 2008

league, Generation X and Sigue Sigue Sputnik member,


Tony James to form a new band named Carbon/Silicon.
The band has toured the United Kingdom and the United
States and has performed a number of anti-fascist benet
concerts; they have also recorded three albums: A.T.O.M,
Western Front and The Crackup Suite which were available
on-line for free. Their rst physical CD release was The
News EP. The band encourage their fans to share their
music on P2P networks, and allow the audio and video
taping of their shows. Their rst song, MPFree is an
anthem for P2P le sharing.

The bands line-up was reshued again in 1994, and they


released the album Higher Power under the name Big Audio. In 1995, a greatest hits album, Planet B.A.D. was
released as well as a studio album called F-Punk under
the original Big Audio Dynamite name. A further album, Entering a New Ride was recorded in 1997, but was Similar in many respects to Jones earlier work in Big Auonly released on the internet because of a disagreement dio Dynamite, Carbon/Silicon aims to break the tradiwith Radioactive Records, their then record label. One tional approach to rock and roll. The band was described

3.2. MICK JONES

59

by Alan McGee as "...the Stones jamming with a laptop,


and they make use of samples in their recordings and live
shows. The formation of the band was catalysed by the
internet and p2p le sharing. The rst song written by
Jones and James was entitled MPFree, in which they
expressed their willingness to embrace the technology of
the internet and le sharing, in the interest of spreading
music, rather than prot.

Gorillaz

On seven consecutive Friday nights in January and February 2008 Carbon/Silicon played a series of gigs at the
Inn on the Green, right under the Westway in Thorpe
Close, between Ladbroke Grove and Portobello Road,
London. As well as Carbon/Silicon there were many special guests, including appearances by Sex Pistols' Paul
Cook and Glen Matlock, former Clash drummer Topper
Headon and multi-instrumentalist and former Mescalero,
Tymon Dogg.

The Justice Tonight Band

Jones reunited with Simonon on the title track of Gorillaz


2010 album Plastic Beach: both of them performed in the
Gorillaz live band supporting Plastic Beach. The band
headlined the 2010 Coachella Festival, Glastonbury and
Festival Internacional de Benicassim.

In late 2011, Jones agreed to play songs by the Clash


live again, collaborating with Pete Wylie and members
of the Farm to form The Justice Tonight Band. The
band formed with the aim of promoting awareness of
the Hillsborough Justice Campaign. The Justice Tonight
band have been joined onstage at dierent gigs by several
other musicians sympathetic to the cause, including Billy
Bragg and Paul Simonon. Shane MacGowan joined them
onstage in Phoenix Park when The Justice Tonight Band
supported the Stone Roses as part of their Reunion Tour
on 5 July 2012.

Producer
The Wallowers
Jones has also been an occasional producer. In 1981 he
produced Ellen Foley's second album Spirit of St. Louis. Jones collaborated with alternative rock group the
Jones was in a relationship with Foley, and co-wrote songs Wallowers as a guitarist and backing vocals for some
for the album with Strummer and Tymon Dogg. Players tracks on their 2012 album Glad All Over.
on the album included members of the Blockheads, Tymon Dogg and all four members of the Clash.[13]
Rachid Taha
In 1981, Jones co-produced Ian Hunter's Short Back 'n'
Sides LP with Mick Ronson. He also provided guitars and Mick Jones was a featured guest on Rachid Tahas Zoom
vocals for several songs on the release. In the same year, album (2013) (together with Brian Eno) and Jones toured
he produced Theatre of Hate's rst album Westworld re- with Rachid Taha as part of the Zoom project.[15][16]
leased in 1982, written by Kirk Brandon. Jones also
played guitar on the title track, Do You Believe in the
Westworld. Jones would also record and produce Aria of 3.2.6 Musical equipment
the Devil in 1982 by Theatre of Hate at Wessex Studios,
which did not get released until 1998, when the master Jones rst guitar was a Gibson Les Paul Junior with a Ptapes were found by Kirk Brandon.
90 pick-up, which he bought because Johnny Thunders
He produced the London-based band the Libertines' de- used one. The Junior was his main guitar up until late
but album Up The Bracket (2002). Jones stayed on to 1977 or early 1978, and after that as a backup and studio
produce the bands second album The Libertines. He also guitar. Around the same time he also owned another Les
produced Down in Albion, the debut album of former Paul Junior, all black (formerly red) with a black pick
Libertines lead singer and guitarist Pete Doherty's new guard, which was smashed at a performance in 1977. He
then switched to a Gibson Les Paul Standard and later to
group Babyshambles.
Gibson Les Paul Customs.
Jones is also credited with contributing guitar and vocals
to Mal Bicho, the lead track of Los Fabulosos Cadillacs' Jones also occasionally played an Olympic White Fender
Stratocaster (for live versions of Straight to Hell) and
album Rey Azucar.
several Bond Electraglide Guitars that were donated to
He provided the score for Nick Meads lm, Dice Life him by Andrew Bond, who made the guitars. For eects
the Random Mind of Luke Rhinehart, a contemporary Jones mainly uses MXR pedals including a Phase 100, a
dance lm created by Nick Mead and Wayne McGregor, Flanger, an Analog Delay and a Noisegate as well as a
featuring Luke Rhinehart, author of The Dice Man.
Roland chorus or Space Echo eect.[17] During his days
At the NME Shockwave 2007 awards, Jones took to the with the Clash, Jones used a Marshall Plexi amplier and
stage and performed "(White Man) In Hammersmith occasionally a Fender Twin with a 2x12 cabinet. He later
Palais" with Primal Scream.[14]
changed to a Mesa Boogie amplier with two Marshall

60

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

go to Liverpool or Newcastle or somewheresleep on the


Town Hall steps, and bunk the fares on the trains, hide in
the toilet when the ticket inspector came around. I'd jump
o just before the train got to the station and climb over
the fence. It was great times, and I always knew I wanted
to be in a band and play guitar. That was it for me.

Mick Jones playing his Fender Thinline Telecaster at Carbon


Casino VI

[6] Renshaw, Jerry (22 May 2000). From Here to Eternity


The Story of the Clash. The Austin Chronicle. Austin,
Texas: Austin Chronicle. OCLC 32732454. When Mick
Jones nally began attracting attention for his guitar playing, he was in a glam rock outt, the Delinquents, complete with long hair, feather boas, and poncey trappings;
in time he would meet up with Tony James (later of Generation X and Sigue Sigue Sputnik) to form the London
SS. With a revolving-door cast of players including future members of the Damned, Chelsea, and PiL, London SS took the rst stack-heeled, shambling steps toward
punk, naming among their inuences the Stooges, MC5,
and New York Dolls, and in the process acquiring future
Clash manager Bernie Rhodes. By 1976, London SS had
fallen apart, and Jones found himself in a new band with
guitarist Keith Levene and art-school drop-out Paul Simonon. Simonon had spent much of his time hanging
out with his West Indian pals and immersing himself in
reggae, ska, and skinhead fashions, elements that would
later be part and parcel of the Clash. Meanwhile, in another part of London, 24-year-old John Mellor was bashing away in pub-rock outt the 101ers. The band caught
the interest of Simonon and Jones, still in search of a frontman to round out their line-up.
Related news articles:

4x12 cabinets that he used throughout the rest of his career with the Clash.[18]

Music: From Here to Eternity. The Austin Chronicle. weekly WIRE.com. 22 May 2000. Retrieved
17 December 2007.

3.2.7

References

[1] Mick Jones (I) Biography. Internet Movie Database.


Retrieved 17 December 2007. Sid Vicious gained the enmity of The Clashs Mick Jones due to his habit of wearing
a Nazi Swastika t-shirt. Jones, who is Jewish, and the rest
of The Clash vowed they would never appear on stage with
the Sex Pistols.
[2] Gray, Marcus (2010). Route 19 Revisited: The Clash and
London Calling. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1593763913.
[3] Newsnight, BBC2, 14 April 2010
[4] Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,
Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The Clash
(2001). The Clash: Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 3:504:50. ISBN 0-73890082-6. OCLC 49798077.
[5] Stay Free: Mick Jones Looks Back at The Clash. Gibson Backstage Pass Holiday Double Issue 2006. Gibson.com. December 2006. Archived from the original
on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
But even before the Dolls, I used to follow bands around.
I followed Mott the Hoople up and down the country. I'd

[7] In a television interview, Strummer said, after drawing the


camera to Bernard sleeping against a wall, He invented
punk...it was obviously too much for him, referring ironically to a statement of Rhodes himself. The scene and the
statement are featured in the documentary Joe Strummer:
The Future Is Unwritten.
[8] Garcia, Danny (2012). The Rise and Fall of the Clash.
London: Thin Man Press. ISBN 9780956247322.
[9] The Clash Induction. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
and Museum. 10 March 2003. Retrieved 19 November
2007.
[10] Andy Greene (30 August 2013). Mick Jones on Clash
Box Set | Music News. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[11] Robbins, Ira Robbins; Jem Aswad; Michael Azerrad.
TrouserPress.com :: Big Audio Dynamite (PHP).
TrouserPress.com. Retrieved 17 December 2007. The
disappointing Tighten Up Vol. 88 reaches no such peaks
and now sounds like a fairly brazen attempt to get hip
commercial airplay. The fault is seldom with Jones songwriting but more with the slick sheen laid over the leaner,
less aggressive beats. The LP yielded Just Play Music
and Other 99, but a pall was thrown on the release as
Jones fell deathly ill shortly after its appearance; having
contracted pneumonia, he was hospitalized for months.

3.3. PAUL SIMONON

[12] Punk Legends Form Rock Band Carbon/Silicon. National Public Radio: Music. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
[13] Allmusic.com
[14] ChartAttack.com Sta (2 March 2007). Doherty And
Moss Naughtiness Overshadows Arctic Monkeys at NME
Awards (CFM). News. Chart Communications. Retrieved 27 April 2009. Jones joined Primal Scream to
close the show with a cover of The Clashs "(White Man)
In Hammersmith Palais, which was performed in honour
of the storied venues imminent closing. Primal Scream
also played Movin' On Up, Country Girl, Rocks and
Swastika Eyes.

61

3.2.9 External links


Carbon/Silicon Ocial Website
Justice Tonight Band Website

3.3 Paul Simonon

Paul Gustave Simonon (born 15 December 1955) is an


English musician and artist best known as the bassist for
the punk rock band The Clash. More recent work includes his involvement in the project The Good, the Bad
[15] Trans Musicales de Rennes 2012 : 12 concerts ne pas
& the Queen in 2007 with Damon Albarn, Simon Tong
louper. FranceTVinfo Culturebox. 4 December 2012.
and Tony Allen and the Gorillaz album, Plastic Beach
Retrieved 8 November 2014.
in 2010, which along with Albarn saw him reunite with
[16] John Lewis (26 June 2013). Rachid Taha/Souad Massi Mick Jones.
review (Barbican, London)". The Guardian. Retrieved
12 November 2014.
[17] Archived 23 August 2001 at the Wayback Machine.

3.3.1 Biography/History

Simonon was born in Thornton Heath, Croydon,


Surrey.[1] His father, Gustave, was an amateur artist and
his mother, Elaine, was a librarian. He grew up in both
the South London area of Brixton and Ladbroke Grove in
West London, spending around a year in Siena and Rome,
Italy with his mother and stepfather. Before joining the
3.2.8 Further reading
Clash, he had planned to become an artist and attended
Clash, The (1 October 2008). The Clash: Strummer, the Byam Shaw School of Art, then based in Campden
[2]
Jones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books. St, Kensington.
ISBN 1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.
In 1976, he met Mick Jones and six months later the Clash
[18] Interview with Mick Jones. Web.archive.org. 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 27 October
2009. Retrieved 20 May 2014.

was formed when Joe Strummer joined, with Jones on


Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashlead guitar. Simonon learned his bass parts by rote from
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). LonJones in the early days of The Clash and still did not know
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
how to play the bass when the group rst recorded. He
61177239.
is credited with coming up with the name of the band
and was mainly responsible for the visual aspects such
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
as clothing and stage backdrops.[3][4] He was also imof the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lonmortalised on the front cover of the bands double album
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
London Calling: Pennie Smith's image of him smashing
60668626.
his malfunctioning bass guitar during a 1979 concert in
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot New York City has become one of the iconic pictures of
[2][5][6][7][8]
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd the punk era.
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC Simonon played bass on almost all of the Clashs songs.
52990890.
Recordings that he did not play on include: The Magnicent Seven and Lightning Strikes (Not Once but
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The Twice)" on Sandinista! (played by Norman Watt-Roy),
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1- "Rock the Casbah" on Combat Rock (played by Topper
903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Headon), and 10 of the 12 tracks on Cut the Crap (played
by Norman Watt-Roy). Sandinista! featured bass played
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
by Jones or Strummer, some but possibly not all of
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0which Simonon later re-recorded once he rejoined the
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
sessions after lming Ladies and Gentlemen, The Fabu[5][9]
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash lous Stains.
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN Simonons contrapuntal reggae/ska-inuenced lines set
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
him apart from the bulk of other punk rock bassists of

62

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

the era in their complexity and the role of the bass guitar
within the band.[10]

Simonon promoting the band Havana 3am in Tokyo, Japan

After the Clash dissolved in 1986, Simonon started a


band called Havana 3am. They recorded one album in
Japan before breaking up. He also participated in a Bob
Dylan session along with the Sex Pistols' Steve Jones that
became part of the Dylan album Down in the Groove.
Also, Simonon works as an artist his rst passion before joining the Clash. He has had several gallery shows,
and designed the cover for Big Audio Dynamite's album,
Tighten Up, Vol. 88, as well as the cover for "Herculean"
from the album The Good, the Bad and the Queen, a
project with Damon Albarn on which Simonon plays bass. Paul Simonon at the Eurockennes of 2007
Paul reunited with Damon Albarn and Mick Jones on the
Gorillaz album Plastic Beach, and was also the bassist
Sandinista! (1980)
of the Gorillaz live band supporting Plastic Beach, along
Combat Rock (1982)
with Mick Jones on guitar. The band headlined the 2010
Coachella Festival, and took up residence at the Camden
Cut the Crap (1985)
roundhouse for two nights in late April 2010.
In 2011, Simonon spent time aboard the Greenpeace vesWith Havana 3 am
sel Esperanza incognito under the guise of Paul the assistant cook in response to Arctic oil drilling in Greenland
Havana 3 am (1991)
by Cairn oil. He joined other Greenpeace activists in illegally boarding one of Cairns oil rigs; an action which
earned him two weeks in a Greenland jail. His identity With the Good, the Bad & the Queen
was revealed to other crew members after the voyage, and
The Good, the Bad & the Queen (2007)
he joined Damon Albarn and the other members of the
Good, the Bad, and the Queen for a performance in London celebrating Greenpeaces 40th anniversary.[11]
With Gorillaz

3.3.2

Discography

With the Clash


See also: The Clash discography

The Clash (1977)


Give 'Em Enough Rope (1978)
London Calling (1979)

Plastic Beach (2010)


Simonon reunites with Clash guitarist Mick Jones on the
albums title track.

The Fall (2010)


(in Aspen Forest)

3.3.3 Art
An artist his whole life, Simonons passion for painting
began as a child. His father, Gustave, was an avid amateur painter and Simonon spent a lot of time in his studio,

3.3. PAUL SIMONON

63

often sleeping there. It was here, surrounded by books


and pictures pinned to the walls that Simonon rst encountered the works of 19th and 20th century masters,
from Impressionism to Cubism and beyond. Introduced
to an artist friend of his fathers, Simonon assisted him
on projects at an inner city London school, learning the
basics of using paint and then supplementing these skills
by teaching himself at home. He took up a scholarship
at the prestigious Byam Shaw School of Art, then based
in Campden St, Kensington (now part of Central Saint
Martins College of Art and Design) but left before his
studies ended to play with the Clash. Using his days o
when on tour with the band to visit museums and galleries, Simonons enthusiasm for, and knowledge of, the
history of art has been a lifelong passion

painting tradition, these oils on canvas are as much selfportraits as they are still lifes, functioning as a visual diary
in paint. Wot no Bike is Simonons personal exploration
of British subculture and counterculture in the post-war
decades.

Inuences

2015

In addition to a love of French modernist painting of the


late nineteenth century (which took him to the islands of
French Polynesia on the trail of Paul Gauguin), Simonons
painting practice has been heavily inuenced by 20th century realism, particularly by the work of the American
Ashcan School and the Kitchen sink realism school of
painters of 1950s post-War Britain, specically by their
documentation of the living conditions of the working
classes. Each style focused on the banal and ordinary
while depicting the resultant misery, angst and, at times,
violence. In Britain the fractious domestic and economic
situation of post-war austerity formed a part of the wider
social realism movement, both in the arts and popular culture. It gave rise to the emergence of the subcultures and
served as a backdrop to the emergence of Ted, Biker and
Rocker subcultures that rst appeared in these years, subcultures that actually spanned economic and class divides.
Growing up in London in the 1960s, Simonons rst experiences of this came in the form of the clash between
the Mods and Rockers subcultures, a tension which fuelled into the wider dynamics of the angry young man
attitude and social unrest that came to dene youth culture of this period, and which were the genesis of Punk
culture in the 1970s. While Simonon is cautious about
drawing parallels between his music and his painting, it
is clear that British subculture of the 1950s, 1960s and
1970s has been, and remains, essential to both aspects of
his life and work.
Key exhibitions
Wot no Bike,[12] ICA Nash and Brandon Rooms, London, 21 January 7 February 2015, Simonons most recent exhibition was Wot no Bike at the ICA Nash and
Brandon Rooms, London. In this series of new paintings, Simonon depicted his own everyday personal effects including biker paraphernalia such as jackets, boots,
helmets, and gloves, alongside his packets of cigarettes
and books. Autobiographical in the modernist and realist

To accompany the exhibition, Simonon published a limited edition hardback publication also titled, Wot no
Bike,.[13] Featuring 24 of the new paintings it includes an
introduction by David Lancaster, a writer on classic bikes
and culture and an interview between Simonon and Tim
Marlow, Director of Artistic Programmes At the Royal
Academy of Arts, London.[14]

Selected solo exhibitions

Wot No Bike, ICA Nash and Brandon Rooms, 21 January


- 7 February 2015
2008
Paul Simonon Recent Paintings[15]
2002
From Hammersmith to Greenwich[16]

Selected group exhibitions


2001
Art Tube Exhibition London Underground
2001
Notting Hill Arts Exhibition
2001
Colony Room Show
1998
Eyes Of A Child[17]
1998
Crusaid Edinburgh Art Centre
1996
John Martin Gallery

3.3.4 References
[1] Find My Past.
2016-06-26.

Search.ndmypast.co.uk.

Retrieved

[2] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,


Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, the Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 3:504:50; 19:3055:00.
ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.

64

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

[3] Presenter: Kurt Loder. MTV Rockumentary. MTV


Rockumentary. London, England. MTV.
[4] MTV Rockumentary Part 1. londonsburning.org. Retrieved 6 December 2007. Mick Jones: One of the names
that we had before we had the Clash was the Weak Heartdrops from the Big Youth song. Another I think was the
Psychotic Negatives, but now neither of those worked.
Paul Simonon: It really came to my head when I start reading the newspapers and a word that kept recurring was the
word clash, so I thought the Clash, what about that, to
the others. And they and Bernard they went for it.
[5] Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real
Story of the Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN
1-84513-113-4. OCLC 61177239.
[6] Topping 2004, p.12.
[7] Green 2003, pp.195196.
[8] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October
2004. p.70.
[9] Deeth, John. Turning Rebellion Into Money: The Story
of the Clash. jdeeth.home.mchsi.com. Retrieved 18
February 2008.

Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return


of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

3.3.6 External links


The Clash website

[10] Prato, Greg. Paul Simonon Biography. AllMusic. Retrieved on 24 February 2008.

Interview with Bass Player magazine

[11] Fitzgerald, Brian. Stories from the Rainbow Warrior:


Jailhouse Rockstar. Greenpeace International. Retrieved 14 November 2011.

Paul Simonons gallery at BBC

[12] 9 hours 50 min ago. (2016-05-25). Home | Institute of


Contemporary Arts. Ica.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
[13] Wot No Bike - Special Edition Book with Print. Paul
Simonon. Retrieved 2016-06-26.

From Punk to Paint (BBC Interview)

Gallery at Art-Tube.com
Interview with 3:AM Magazine
Interview with Bassist Magazine

[14] Royal Academy of Arts. Royalacademy.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-26.

3.4 Topper Headon

[15] Thomas Williams Fine Art. Thomas Williams Fine Art.


Retrieved 2016-06-26.

Nicholas Bowen Topper Headon (born 30 May


1955), known as Topper because of his resemblance
to Mickey the Monkey from the Topper comic, is an English drummer, best known as the drummer of the punk
rock band The Clash.

[16] Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox. Hazlittgoodenandfox.com. Retrieved 2016-06-26.


[17] Saatchi Gallery/". Saatchi Gallery. Retrieved 2016-0626.

3.3.5

Further reading

He Joined The Clash in 1977 and his drumming skills


were a vital part of the band. He was dismissed from the
band in 1982 because of his drug use.

3.4.1 Early life

Clash, The (1 October 2008). The Clash: Strummer,


Jones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books. Topper Headon spent his early childhood in Crockenhill,
northwest Kent, before attending Dover Grammar School
ISBN 1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.
for Boys.[1] He started playing drums at an early age and
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fash- was a jazz fan, citing Billy Cobham as a strong inuence.
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lon- In 1973, Headon joined the cult progressive rock outdon: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC t Mirkwood. He appeared with them for a year and a
61177239.
half and they supported major acts such as Supertramp.

3.4. TOPPER HEADON

65

He later played with a band which opened for Ameri- Drumming Man as a single, which featured Headons
can R&B legends the Temptations[2] and admits to falsely DuKane Road on the B-side. His own composition
claiming that he played with the Temptations.[3]
Hope for Donna was included on the Mercury Records
sampler Beat Runs Wild, in the same year.[6] During the
1980s Headon produced albums for New York band Bush
3.4.2 The Clash
Tetras and contributed drums to Chelseas Underwraps
(1989), before becoming involved with a court case over
Main article: The Clash
his drug habits.
He still makes occasional public appearances and it was
I knew Mick [Jones] a year and half ago. For a week I after one of his shows that he was informed of the death
played with the London SS. I really wanted to join the of Clash frontman Joe Strummer. An emotional Headon
Clash. I want to give them even more energy than they've stated:
got if thats possible.
Topper Headon[4]
Originally Headon joined the Clash in 1977 with the intention of establishing a reputation as a drummer, before
moving onto other projects,[2] but he soon realised their
full potential and remained with them for four and half
years. Headon appeared on the albums Give 'Em Enough
Rope (1978), The Clash (1979 US version), London Calling (1979), Sandinista! (1980) and Combat Rock (1982),
as well as several landmark singles the Clash recorded
during their early period. Also of note are his lead vocal
on Ivan Meets G.I. Joe from Sandinista and his work on
the hit single "Rock the Casbah" from Combat Rock, on
which Headon composed most of the music and played
drums, piano and bass guitar. He also appeared on Super
Black Market Clash (1993), which included B-sides from
the bands single releases.

Its taken Joes death to make me realise


just how big the Clash were. We were a political band and Joe was the one who wrote the
lyrics. Joe was one of the truest guys you could
ever meet. If he said 'I am behind you', then
you knew he meant it 100 percent.[7]

After leaving the Clash, he was considered as drummer in Mick Jones post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite[2] and played in a short-lived group called Samurai, with bassist Pete Farndon, guitarist Henry Padovani,
organist Mick Gallagher, and vocalist Steve Allen (formerly of Deaf School).[5] Headon subsequently focused
on recording a solo album Waking Up (1986). He also
released a cover version of the Gene Krupa instrumental

The BBC featured Headon in a February 2009 feature


on drumming as therapy. He shares some of his story
in a brief video interview.[11] In 2012 Headon was interviewed by fellow drummer Spike Webb, sharing stories
from his years drumming for The Clash and his experience writing 'Rock The Casbah'.[12]

Headon was extensively interviewed for the Joe Strummer:


The Future Is Unwritten documentary lm about the late
Clash frontman. He related his experiences during this
period, how he became addicted to heroin and how there
were problems before his dismissal. Topper also said that
seeing the video of "Rock the Casbah" with someone
else (Terry Chimes) in my place playing my song caused
Clash singer/guitarist Joe Strummer is quoted as saying
him to fall in even greater depression and heavier drug
that Headons drumming skills were a vital part of the
addiction.
band.[3] Tensions rose between Headon and his fellow
band members due to his addiction, and he left the band On 11 January 2008, Carbon/Silicon, a new band with
on 10 May 1982, at the beginning of the Combat Rock the line-up of Mick Jones, Tony James, Leo Williams
tour. The band covered up the real reason for Headons and Dominic Greensmith, played a show at the Carbon
departure, the apparent growing use of heroin, claiming Casino Club in Portobello London. Headon joined the
band on stage during the Clash's "Train in Vain (Stand by
Headons exit was due to exhaustion.[2]
Me)". An encore followed with Headon playing drums
In a later interview for the rockumentary The Clash:
on "Should I Stay or Should I Go". This performance
Westway to the World, he apologized for his addiction
marked the rst time since 1982 that Headon and Jones
and speculated that had he not been asked to leave the
had performed together on stage.[8][9][10]
Clash, the band might have lasted longer and might possibly still be together.[3] He also lamented the fact that the In a February 2008 newspaper article Headon revealed
best known Clash line-up had been considering a reunion that in 2003 he started to experience serious back pain, a
at the time of Strummers death, after the positive reunion frequent complaint of ageing rock drummers. Diagnosed
with hyperkyphosis, a forward curvature of the back, he
during the Westway to the World rockumentary.[3]
underwent intense posture adjustment treatment and continues to exercise daily. He notes that, on his recent ap3.4.3 After the Clash
pearance with Jones, he exhibited his new upright stance.

He currently lives in the Dover area of Kent, in the southeast of England.[13]

66

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

3.4.4

Drumming style

As a drummer, Headon often employed a distinctive style


which emphasised a simple bass-snare up-down beat, accentuated with closed hi-hat ourishes. Such a method
can be found in the songs "Clampdown", "Train in Vain",
and "Lost in the Supermarket". His drumming on "Train
in Vain" has been characterised as one of the most important and distinctive beats in rock music.[14] Writes Scott
Kenemore, his contribution to the music was tremendous, and his drumming remains an undiscovered treasure for too many.[14]

3.4.5

Discography

With the Clash


See also: The Clash discography

Give 'Em Enough Rope (1978)


The Clash (1979 U.S. release of the album; originally released in 1977, Headon plays drums on "Clash City
Rockers", "Complete Control", "(White Man) In Hammersmith Palais", "I Fought the Law", and Jail Guitar
Doors)

[2] Prato, Greg. Topper Headon > Biography. allmusic.com. Retrieved 12 December 2007. a) Sandy Pearlman dubbed Headon The Human Drum Machine, due
to his impeccable timing and skills.
b) Headon grew up a soul and jazz fan (an early inuence
was ace fusion drummer Billy Cobham), and he was once
a member of a local group that opened a show for The
Temptations.
c) Headons original plan was to stay with the Clash for
only a year which he gured would give enough time
to get his name known so he could move on to another
more suitable group. Headon quickly realised that the
group was not just a one-dimensional punk band, as they
branched out and touched upon a wide variety of styles
all the while never losing sight of their original punk ideals.
d) a heroin addiction had drawn a wedge between Headon
and the rest of his bandmates.
e) After a planned reunion with Jones (who was expelled
from the Clash himself a year after Headons dismissal) in
the group Big Audio Dynamite failed to work out, Headon
focused on recording a solo album.
[3] Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,
Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The Clash
(2001). The Clash: Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 37:0039:00. ISBN 07389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.
[4] Coon 1977.

London Calling (1979)

[5] Padovani, Henry (2009). Secret Police Man. Pen Press.


pp. 68. ISBN 978-1-907172-83-0.

Sandinista! (1980)

[6] Cooke, Brandon; Pete Shelley, Tom Verlaine, Topper


Headon, Hipsway, Curiosity Killed the Cat, Wet Wet
Wet, Love and Money, Swing Out Sister, Zerra One
(1986). Beat Runs Wild (LP recording). London: Mercury. OCLC 51782857.

Combat Rock (1982)


Super Black Market Clash (1980/1993) drums on all
tracks except on 1977 and Listen

Solo discography
Topper Headon has released one studio album, one EP,
and three singles as a solo artist and featured on several
other artists albums.[15]
Studio albums
EPs
Singles

3.4.6

Notes

[1] Finlay, Simon (25 August 2013). Topper Headon: why


the Clash has reunited. Folkestone Herald. Retrieved 26
February 2014.

[7] Celebrity Tributes to Joe Strummer.


strummernews.com.
Archived from the original on 18
December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007. Its
taken Joes death to make me realise just how big the
Clash were. We were a political band and Joe was the
one who wrote the lyrics. Joe was one of the truest guys
you could ever meet. If he said 'I am behind you', then
you knew he meant it 100 percent.
[8] Harper, Simon (12 January 2008). The Carbon Casino
The Clash reunited! Pair jam after 25 years. Clash Music. Retrieved 15 January 2008. For the rst night of their
six-week residency in West Londons Inn On The Green,
Carbon/Silicon had promised surprises, but few had realised that meant the reunion of Mick Jones and the powerhouse drummer of The Clash, Topper Headon.
[9] Clash members Topper Headon and Mick Jones reunite
on stage. Punknews.org. 13 January 2008. Retrieved
15 January 2008. For the rst time in 25 years, former Clash members Mick Jones and Topper Headon have
shared the stage together. The reunion took place at Carbon/Silicons Carbon Casino residency, and comes ve
years after Mick joined Joe Strummer on stage at the Brixton Academy.

3.5. KEITH LEVENE

[10] The Clashs Mick Jones and Topper Headon reunite after 25 years. NME. UK. 14 January 2008. Retrieved
15 January 2008. Clash drummer joins Carbon/Silicon at
London show
[11] Can our natural rhythm heal us?". BBC. 10 February
2000. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
[12] Topper Headon (The Clash) talks about 'Mad, Bad and
Dangerous". YouTube. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May
2012.
[13] Headon, Nicky (9 February 2008). Backache calling ...
Nick Headon reveals the treatment that helped his back
pain. Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
[14] Kenemore, Scott (21 March 2007). All Talk and No
Stick. PopMatters. Archived from the original on 25
March 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007. a) Rock fans
everywhere recognise his opening beat to the Mick Jones
song Train in Vain. A typical example of Toppers excellent work, the beat is both catchy and deceptively complicated.
b) Despite his personal failings, his contribution to the music was tremendous, and his drumming remains an undiscovered treasure for too many.

67
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

3.5 Keith Levene


Julian Keith Levene (born 18 July 1957 in Muswell Hill,
London)[2] is an English pop musician. He was a founding
member of the bands The Clash, and Public Image Ltd
(PiL).[3]

3.5.1 Career

As a youth, Keith Levene was a progressive rock fan who


had served at age fteen as a roadie for Yes on their Close
to the Edge tour.[4] In 1976, he became a founding member of The Clash and The Flowers of Romance. Levene
[15] Albums by Topper Headon Rate Your Music. ratey- was responsible for helping to persuade Joe Strummer to
ourmusic.com. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
leave the 101ers and join the Clash. Although he left The
Whats
[16] Bob Tench at Allmusic. allmusic.com. Retrieved 14 Clash before they began recording, he co-wrote
[5]
My
Name,
featured
on
their
rst
album.
Levene
wrote
December 2008.
the music at the Black Swan club when the Clash and Sex
[17] Headon, Topper (1986). I'll Give You Everything (LP Pistols performed there in July 1976; on the same night,
recording). England: Mercury. OCLC 29290615.
Levene suggested to Lydon that they consider a possible
future collaboration.[6]
After the Sex Pistols disintegrated, Levene and Lydon
co-founded Public Image Ltd (PiL). His guitar work was
Clash, The (1 October 2008). The Clash: Strummer, later imitated by others, including The Edge of U2. LevJones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books. ene was one of the rst guitarists to use metallic guitars,
such as the Travis Bean Wedge and Artist as well as the
ISBN 1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.
Veleno, the latter of which was nicknamed the Leveno
Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk in his honor.[6] He was heavily involved in the writing,
Rock Explosion. London: Hawthorn. ISBN 0-8015- performing and producing of PiLs early albums: First
6129-9. OCLC 79262599. Retrieved 2011-09-19. Issue, Metal Box and Flowers of Romance.

3.4.7

References

Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.

Levene left PiL in 1983 over creative dierences concerning what would eventually become the bands fourth
album, This Is What You Want... This Is What You Get.
He later stated this was a dicult decision for him but
he felt he had to in order to maintain the integrity of the
project.[3] In 1984, he released the original versions of
the songs on his own label[7] under the title Commercial
Zone which was the original working title of the album. In
1985 he moved to Los Angeles where he formed a company with his second wife, journalist Shelly da Cunha.[8]
In mid-1986, Levene was asked to produce demos for
the album The Uplift Mofo Party Plan by the Red Hot
Chili Peppers at Master Control in Burbank with engineers Steve Catania and Dan Nebenzal. Also in 1986,
Levene worked together with DJ Matt Dike, experimenting with sampling techniques and hip-hop for Ice T and
Tone Loc on their early recordings for Delicious.[9] In

68

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

1989, he released his rst solo release, Violent Opposi- Singles


tion, on which members of the Red Hot Chili Peppers
If Six Was 9 (Rykodisc 1988)
performed.[3][6]
In 2003, Levene contributed to industrial rock supergroup Pigface's album Easy Listening..., and he has released several solo records, among which was the Killer
in the Crowd EP in 2004.

Stille Im Meine Hamburg/ Clothesline (Overzealous


Editions 1990) (Kendra Smith/Keith Levene & Hillel Slovak)

At an impromptu appearance at the Musicport Festival in


Bridlington Spa on 24 October 2010, where they were 3.5.3 Notes
joined by vocalist Nathan Maverick, Levene returned
[1] Press Archives | MPL February 1985. Fodderstompf.
with former PiL bassist Jah Wobble. In 2011 Levene
Retrieved 2013-06-17.
contributed to three tracks on the album Psychic Life, a
[10]
collaboration between Wobble and Lonelady.
[2] Search birth records 18372006 | Fully indexed birth
In early 2012, after some planned Japan gigs were cancelled because of visa issues, Levene and Wobble played
various venues in England, Wales and Germany as Metal
Box in Dub. This was followed by the release of a foursong EP,[11] Yin & Yang.[6]
In the spring of 2014, Levene went to Prague to record
Commercial Zone 2014, which was backed via a
crowdsourcing campaign at Indiegogo.com.

3.5.2

Discography

Studio albums
Violent Opposition (Taang!/Emergo/Rykodisc 1989)
Murder Global Demos (Archive 2008)
Yin and Yang (Cherry Red 2012) (Jah Wobble &
Keith Levene)
Search 4 Absolute Zero (self-released 2013, Gonzo
Multimedia 2014)
Commercial Zone 2014 (self-released 2014)

Extended Play
Back Too Black (Iridescence 1987)
Keith Levenes Violent Opposition (Fundamental/Taang! 1988)
Looking for Something (Taang! 1988)
Murder Global: Killer in the Crowd (self-released
2002, Underground Inc. 2004)
EP aka Mississippi (Pressure Sounds/30 Hertz 2012)
(Jah Wobble + Keith Levene)
Meeting Joe (self-released 2015)

records. Findmypast.co.uk. Retrieved 21 January 2012.


[3] Di Tondo, Kathy. Recalling PiL: The Commercial Zone
Era with Keith Levene and Maureen Baker. Retrieved
20 January 2014.
[4] Reynolds, Simon (February 18, 2006). Rip It Up and
Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984. Penguin Books. ISBN
0143036726.
[5] Gross, Jason (February 2001). Keith Levene Interview.
Perfect Sound Forever. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
[6] Di Tondo, Kathleen M. Keith Levenes Search for Absolute Zero. Mudkiss. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
[7] PIL Records, Inc. (registered 30 January 1984 by Keith
Levene, 1 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10003, dissolved
due to inactivity 26 September 1990)
[8] Multi-Image Group. (registered on 19 June 1986 by
Shelly Da Cunha, 830 North Kodak Drive, Los Angeles
CA 90026, now suspended)
[9] Dan LeRoy (2006). Pauls Boutique. Continuum. pp. 14,
17.
[10] Jah Wobble & Lonelady To Explore Psychic Life. The
Quietus. 16 August 2011.
[11] Jah Wobble & Keith Levene EP. 30 Hertz Records.
February 2012.

3.5.4 References
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.

3.6. TERRY CHIMES

69

Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The featured in the music video for the single, "Rock the CasClash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1- bah. After the Jamaican World Music Festival of 1982,
903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
he left for the third and nal time.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0- Other bands
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
After leaving The Clash, Chimes drummed in bands in Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash cluding Johnny Thunders and the Heartbreakers briey
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN in 1977 and 1984, Cowboys International in 1979, Gen
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
X from 1980 to 1981, Hanoi Rocks in 1985, The
Cherry Bombz in 1986 (with ex Hanoi Rocks mem DiTondo, Kathy (3 May 2013). RECALLING
bers Andy McCoy and Nasty Suicide and ex Sham
PiL: The Commercial Zone Era. Louder Than
69/Wanderers/The Lords of the New Church Dave TreWar. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
gunna) and Black Sabbath on their Eternal Idol Tour in
198788.[2] He also played drums with Billy Idol for a
period of time.[3]

3.5.5

External links

Interview with 3:AM Magazine. 3:AM Magazine. Later years


Interview for Mudkiss by Kathy DiTondo.

3.6 Terry Chimes


Terence "Terry" Chimes (born 5 July 1956, Stepney,
London, England)[1] is an English musician, best known
as the original drummer of punk rock group The Clash.
He originally played with them from July 1976 to November 1976, January 1977 to April 1977, and again from
May 1982 to February 1983. He later drummed for
Hanoi Rocks in 1985, before the band broke up that same
year. He briey toured with Black Sabbath from July
1987 through December 1987, and in a one-o gig in
May 1988. He also appeared as their drummer in Black
Sabbaths music video for their single The Shining from
their 1987 album The Eternal Idol.

3.6.1

Career

In 2003, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall


of Fame as a member of The Clash. At the induction
ceremony, he gave an acceptance speech praising Topper
Headons work.
A May 2008 prole in the Daily Mail newspaper detailed
how Chimes, a teetotal vegetarian, having been cured of
serious arm pain on his rst show in 1987 with Black
Sabbath by the bands personal chiropractor, eventually
turned to that occupation himself.[4]
He was nominated as a Scouting in London Ambassador
for the Scout Association Region for Greater London at
an Adult Appreciation ceremony in 2008.[5]
Chimes has been linked to an Irish lm called
Ringsend. The lm is also set to star Martin Kemp.[6]
He currently plays drums for The Crunch[7] and the Anita
Chellemah Band.

3.6.2 Personal life

The Clash

Chimes is a practising Catholic.[8] Since 1994, he has


Terry Chimes was a member of the proto-punk band worked as a chiropractor in Essex at his clinic, Chimes
London SS, which also featured Mick Jones and Paul Chiropractic. He also runs chiropractic seminars.
Simonon who, with Chimes, would team up with Joe
Strummer and Keith Levene to form The Clash.
Both Chimes and Levene subsequently left, but Chimes
was brought back to record the bands self-titled debut
album, The Clash. On the album sleeve, he was credited
as Tory Crimes. After recording the album, Chimes left
the band once again and was replaced by Topper Headon.
In 1982, Headon was forced out of the band for his drug
addiction, and Chimes was asked to rejoin. He participated in The Casbah Club tours for both the USA and
the UK, a brief tour supporting The Who, and the following Combat Rock tour back in the USA. He was also

3.6.3 References

[1] Du Noyer, Paul (18 September 1997). The Clash. Modern Icons. London: Virgin. p. 93. ISBN 1-85227-715-7.
OCLC 58830766.
[2] blacksabbath.com Band member page for Terry Chimes
includes a photo of Chimes in a Black Sabbath video;
he did not appear on any Sabbath recordings. In 2013
he joined THE CRUNCH with Sulo Karlsson (Diamond
Dogs), Terry Chimes (Clash), Dave Tregunna (Sham 69)
and Mick Geggus (Cockney Rejects).

70

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

[3] From the Clash to a chiropractor ... Top complementary therapist tells why he changed his tune | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk. 17 September 2013. Retrieved
2014-08-03.
[4] From the Clash to a chiropractor ... Top complementary
therapist tells why he changed his tune. Daily Mail. 10
May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
[5] Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.

3.7 Rob Harper


Rob Harper is an English musician, noted for being an
early drummer for The Clash from December 1976 until
January 1977.

3.7.1 Biography

Harper started out playing guitar in a college band and


when the singer invited a guitarist called Mark Knoper
to join, Harper switched to the bass so that Knoper
could join on guitar. It was Knopers suggestion to name
[7] http://www.metal-rules.com/metalnews/2015/06/13/
terry-chimes-the-crunch/
the band The Cafe Racers. After college, Harper went
to Sussex University and at that time he was invited by
[8] Teahan, Madeleine (28 January 2014). Punk rocker de- Knoper to play bass in the band that was to become Dire
scribes his return to Catholicism. Catholic Herald.
Straits. Harper declined his oer as he was concentrating
on his studies at University.
[6] Legal News | The Irish Film & Television Network.
Iftn.ie. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

3.6.4

Bibliography

During his year at Sussex University (he dropped out in


mid 1976), he played in a band called The Rockettes,[1]
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fash- (as a lead guitarist) with William Broad (later to become
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lon- Billy Idol) (vocals, rhythm guitar), Phil Siviter (drums)
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC and Steve Upstone (bass).[2]
61177239.
In December 1976, Harper joined The Clash on the De Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.

cember 1976 Anarchy Tour supporting the Sex Pistols.

After the tour, Harper quit and the band replaced him
with their original drummer, Terry Chimes, who was the
drummer on the Clashs rst album. Harpers drumming
does not appear on any studio recordings, but can be
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot heard on the 9 December 1976 bootleg recording of the
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd Clash playing at the Electric Circus in Manchester.
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
Harper was for a time the guitarist in a South London
52990890.
R&B band called The Marauders, a band set up by UK
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The Subs singer Charlie Harper. When The Marauders beClash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1- came the UK Subs in 1977 Harper switched to drums,
alongside bassist Steve Slack. The pair left the UK Subs
903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
later in the year to form The Dazzlers.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
Harper later formed a short-lived UK power pop band
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0called The Dazzlers as a guitarist (he was equally pro85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
cient on guitar and bass in addition to drums). They reTopping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash leased several singles (including Lovely Crash in 1979)
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN and an LP produced by Tommy Ramone, although the
band split up shortly before the album was released.
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

3.6.5

External links

3.7.2 Notes

Ocial website

[1] The Rockettes. myckryck.co.uk.

thecrunch.london

[2] The Ocial Billy Idol Website. billyidol.com. Retrieved


March 17, 2008.

chiropracticheaven.com
Should I stay or should I go now? (BBC News Mag- 3.7.3 References
azine, Fri 20 October 2006)
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fash Black Sabbath Online: Terry Chimes
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lon-

3.8. NICK SHEPPARD

71

don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC remember sitting in a dierent city watching it, thinking,
61177239.
'There isn't a band'". The Clash nally split up shortly
afterwards.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lon- From 1986 to 1989 he collaborated with Gareth Sager
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC (formerly of The Pop Group and Rip Rig + Panic) in
Head, but their three albums made little impact. Shep60668626.
pard next worked with Koozie Johns in Shot, which
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot signed with I.R.S. Records in 1991, with Copeland as
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd manager; the bands recordings were never released.
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC Sheppard moved to Perth, Australia in 1993, and has
52990890.
formed/played in two local bands, Heavy Smoker and the
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The New Egyptian Kings with Shakir Pichler. Sheppard owns
Elroy clothing store on Beaufort Street in Mount LawClash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1- the [2][3]
ley.
In July 2002, it was suggested that he would be
903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
guest guitarist on a Japanese tour with Johns new band,
Needs, Kris (2005-01-25). Joe Strummer and the Sinnerstar. The tour was cancelled.
Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0- In 2007 Sheppard formed The DomNicks with Dom
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Mariani (The Stems, The Someloves, DM3), together
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash with bass player Howard Shawcross (The Elks) and drum(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN mer Marz Frisina (The Chevelles). This combo play a
mix of Mariani and Sheppard originals with a spread of
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
1960s and 1970s garage rock and soul material. In 2009
they released an EP, Hey Rock 'n' Roller, which was produced by Wayne Connolly (The Vines, You Am I). The
3.8 Nick Sheppard
DomNicks toured with the Hoodoo Gurus and performed
in Sydney and Melbourne at the Joe Strummer tribute
Nick Sheppard is a Bristol-born guitarist best known for concert, 'Revolution Rock'.[4]
being in the well-known punk band The Clash for a short
time.

3.8.2 Notes

3.8.1

Life and career

[1] The Colourtapes, The Spics and The Review


[2] Young, 17 and looking for something exciting.

Nick Sheppard was educated at Bristol Grammar School,


PerthNow. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
one of Bristols leading public schools, and was in the
same year as fellow musician Mark Stewart of The Pop [3] Foster, Brendan (2 March 2016). Beaufort Street Festival in Mount Lawley cancelled after becoming too expenGroup. He started at 16 with The Cortinas, named afsive. WAtoday. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
ter a well-known British car, the Ford Cortina. The band
moved from R&B towards covering songs by punk fore- [4] Honest rock from a seasoned combo. Subiaco Post. Post
runners like the New York Dolls and The Stooges. In
Newspapers. 25 September 2010. p. 54.
retrospect, I suppose we were very hip, Sheppard says.
We were listening to the right records, as we were right
there at the right time. The Cortinas singles, Fascist 3.8.3 References
Dictator and Deant Pose both appeared on Step Forward, the label run by Police manager Miles Copeland,
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashas did their only album True Romances. The band split
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lonup in September 1978, after which Sheppard played in a
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
number of bands, including The Viceroys and The Spics,
61177239.
a Bristol-based big band.[1]
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
Sheppard moved to California, then back to Britain.
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). LonWhen The Clash sacked Mick Jones in 1983, Sheppard
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
and Vince White replaced him, and he toured America
60668626.
and Europe with them in 1984, playing on their nal al Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
bum Cut the Crap. The album attracted criticism through
manager Bernie Rhodes' intrusive production and use of a
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
drum machine. When This Is England reached a numed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
ber 24 in the UK charts, Sheppard is quoted as saying: I
52990890.

72

CHAPTER 3. THE MEMBERS

Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The 3.9.3 References


Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1 Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fash903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lon Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 061177239.
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lon(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
60668626.

3.8.4

External links

Artist Direct biography


Sheppard playing with The Spics on YouTube

3.9 Vince White


Gregory Stuart Lee White (born 31 March 1960,
Marylebone, London, England) better known as Vince
White, was one of the guitarists recruited by The Clash
to replace Mick Jones after he was red from the band in
1983.[1]

3.9.1

Biography

White graduated in astronomy and physics from


University College London in 1981, and in ne art from
Middlesex University in North London.[1]
White, along with Nick Sheppard, was one of the
guitarists recruited by The Clash to replace Mick Jones
when he left the band in 1983. He toured with the band,
but only made a minimal appearance on the album Cut
the Crap. The band nally split up in 1986.[1]
Vince White has dedicated his whole life to music, specializing in all blues-based forms of music, rock, country. old-school to contemporary. Over the last several
years he has shared the stage with many of his guitarplaying heroes, including BB King (3 times), Johnny
Winter, Edgar Winter, Jimmie Vaughan, Robben Ford,
Dick Dale, Lou Ann Barton, Pointer Sisters, Macy Gray,
Berlin, The Motels, Ian Hunter, Robben Ford, Leon Russell, John Mayall, and many others.
In 2007, White wrote his account of the nal tumultuous
years of The Clash, titled Out of Control: The Last Days
of The Clash published by Moving Target books. He is
currently an artist living in Notting Hill, west London.[1]

3.9.2

Notes

[1] Vince White Biography. vincewhite.com. Retrieved 28


February 2008.

Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot


of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Needs, Kris (2005-01-25). Joe Strummer and the
Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

3.9.4 External links


Vince White Homepage
Vince White at AllMusic
Clash Photo Rockers. Free.fr.

Chapter 4

Other personnel
4.1 Bernard Rhodes

68 Hamilton Terrace, St Johns Wood. Mick Jagger,


Marc Bolan, musician Mickey Finn, the Small Faces, Guy
Bernard Rhodes is a fashion designer, record producer, Stevens[1](who Rhodes later brought in to produce The
songwriter, manager and impresario who was integral to Clash) were regular visitors.
the development of the punk rock scene in the United Towards the late 1960s Rhodes won a Design Council
Kingdom during the middle 1970s. He is most associated award for a childrens educational toy he designed utilwith two of the UKs best known punk bands, the Sex ising newly developed plastic techniques.[2]
Pistols and The Clash. It was Rhodes who was responsible
for discovering John Lydon and arranging the audition in
the Kings Road for him to join the Sex Pistols. He also T shirts
introduced a young Mick Jones and Paul Simonon to Joe
Strummer and together with Keith Levene they formed In the early 1970s Rhodes had a shop in the Antiquarius
The Clash. Rhodes was an important force behind The Market, Chelsea selling his hand printed silk screen deClash, not only managing their business, but also handling signs on shirts and T-shirts, plus a selection of rare vintage
marketing and creative direction of the band. He left the reggae records.[3]
band from 1979-1981 to pursue other opportunities, but
During this time he became re-acquainted with previtensions in the band led to singer-guitarist Joe Strummer
ous friend Malcolm McLaren and his girlfriend Vivienne
demanding (and getting) his return in 1981.
Westwood, who were operating out of SEX boutique at
Other groups managed by Rhodes include The Specials, 430 Kings Road. Finding they shared a similar philosDexys Midnight Runners, Subway Sect, Jo Boxers, The ophy, Rhodes and McLaren went into business together
Lous, Black Arabs, Twenty Flight Rockers and Watts collaborating on several T-shirts which were then sold in
from Detroit.
SEX.
Rhodes built and then operated out of his Camden studio Rehearsal Rehearsals in what is now Camden Market. The area around the studio rapidly became a well
known hangout for punks and contributed to the growth
of Camden as a hip area.

Westwood wanted to expand the sleeveless T-shirt clothing line. Rhodes was an ideal colleague with his skill of
printing and 'complex, meandering discourse threw up
many new ideas.[4]

4.1.1

Rhodes has described the dierence between himself and


McLaren: Malcolm [McLaren] likes to titillate but I get
down to substance.[6]

The T-shirt You're Gonna Wake Up One Morning and


Since the break-up of The Clash, Rhodes has continued Know What Side of the Bed You've Been Lying On was
to be involved in fashion design and the music industry, created and printed by Rhodes in his handwriting for the
as well as various political and social causes.
Sex boutique. McLaren explained that Rhodes idea was
'to create a dialogue.'[5]

Early life

Bernard Rhodes was raised in Stepney, east London. He


says he never knew his father. He was then placed in an
orphanage in South London where he remained until he
4.1.2
was 15.

Management

His mother was a Russian-Jewish evacuee. She worked Sex Pistols


for Huntsmans in Saville Row making suits for Cary
Grant and later Hawes & Curtis where John Pearse who By 1975, SEX had become a hangout for a bunch of
co-owned Granny Takes a Trip was her apprentice.[1]
teenagers from which the Sex Pistols would emerge.
In the early 1960s Rhodes and Pearse shared a at at Rhodes took the group under his wing while McLaren
73

74

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

was in New York looking after the New York Dolls.[7]

1979-1981

Original Sex Pistols member Glen Matlock describes


Rhodes contribution as making them understand the importance of being clear cut. 'He (Rhodes) had a real ability for making people decide exactly what they were trying to do.'[8]

From his Rehearsal Rehearsal studio, Rhodes nurtured


and managed groups Subway Sect, The Specials, Dexys
Midnight Runners, The Black Arabs and other musical
projects.

John Lydon states that he was wearing a 'I Hate Pink


Floyd' T-shirt when he was spotted by Rhodes on the
Kings Road who insisted he meet McLaren, Steve Jones
and Paul Cook in the local Roebuck pub that evening.
After this get together, Rhodes had Lydon come back to
the shop to audition for the role of singer.[9]
Lydon says that Rhodes was important to me in so many
ways...He would indicate to me where the problems with
the Pistols would be in the future. He would sow a seed
and then wait to see if I would pick up on it.[10]

The intro to The Specials version of Gangsters begins


with the line: Bernie Rhodes knows: don't argue!"[15]
Dexys Midnight Runners single Dance Stance was released in 1979 on the Oddball Productions label owned
by Rhodes .[16] Rhodes later signed the group to EMI
Records.
The rst album by Subway Sect, Whats the Matter Boy,
was also released by Oddball in 1980.
Rhodes introduced the idea of using a Burundi drum beat
to McLaren[17] who gave it to Adam Ant. This led to the
sound of Kings of the Wild Frontier (1980) by Adam and
the Ants.[18]
Club Left

The Clash
During the early 1980s Rhodes opened Club Left in Wardour Street Soho.[19]

After his oer to co-manage Sex Pistols was rejected by


McLaren, Rhodes was instrumental in The Clash's for- Club Left performances included Dig Wayne, Tom Cat,
Lady Blue, Johnny Britton, Sade, Bananarama, Georgie
mation in 1976.
Fame and Slim Gaillard. The regular house band was Vic
Mick Jones was wearing one of Rhodes Wake Up T-shirts Godard and the Subway Sect.
when he approached Rhodes after a Sex Pistols gig thinking he was a keyboard player. They started talking about Sean McLusky states that Rhodes gave him a break at
groups and the relationship was the starting point for what Club Left in 1981 and then got a deal and success for his
band JoBoxers. McLusky says, Bernard never got the
would eventually become The Clash.[11]
credit for things that were his. He has been the undened
Joe Strummer credits Rhodes as his mentor, stating He force.[19]
constructed The Clash and focused our energies and we
repaid him by being really good at what we did.[12]
Rhodes told them to write about social issues occurring Return to The Clash
at the time, i.e., the housing problems, lack of education,
dead-end futures.[12]
Strummer said if Rhodes did not come back and manage
[20]
Strummer said that Rhodes was the only one who under- The Clash he would quit.
stood how one should go about getting known.[12]

Once back, Rhodes decided to remix Magnicent 7.


Paul Simonon stated that Rhodes set up the whole punk A 12 single dance remix, Magnicent Dance was rescene basically. He saw how non-musicians like myself leased on 12 April 1981. Production was credited to
Pepe Unidos, a pseudonym for Strummer, Rhodes and
and John (Lydon) could contribute.[13]
Paul Simonon.[21] Pepe Unidos also produced The Call
Rhodes called his friend Guy Stevens in to produce the Out, a re-mix of The Call Up.
Polydor recordings in 1977.[14] The group later used
Stevens to produce London Calling. He also sought
out Lee 'Scratch' Perry to produce the single Complete Bonds NYC
Control.[12]
On 25 January 1977, Rhodes signed The Clash to CBS Mick: 'Bernie came back on the scene because people
Records and Maurice Oberstein who promised to allow thought that we'd gotten out of control and the rst thing
to do was book us for seven nights in New
the group to do what they wanted on record and CBS he wanted
[22]
York'.
would promote it. After a couple of albums, including
their rst, which Rhodes helped produce with Mickey The residency at Bonds NYC in the rst two weeks of
Foote, he felt the group were drifting away from their June 1981 was organised by Rhodes on his return as manager of The Clash. Support acts included Grandmaster
street ideals and they parted company in late 1978.

4.1. BERNARD RHODES

75

Flash, The Sugarhill Gang, Dead Kennedys, Bad Brains, event, Rhodes stated that: 'calling me a racist is like callTexan bad boy Joe Ely, Lee Perry and Funkapolitan.
ing Margaret Thatcher a Marxist'.[31]
Rhodes states that it was because of these Bonds NYC
shows that the public became more interested in hip-hop.
I endeavoured to get these guys on like Grandmaster
Flash; not that most of the audience liked them but that
led to a helluvalot.[23]

In April 2010, Rhodes also caused controversy at his


friend Malcolm McLarens funeral[32] when he accused
Vivienne Westwood of being part of the Establishment
before going onto the platform to deliver his own eulogy:
If were not careful we're going to turn Malcolm into
[33]
The record company were not behind the triple album John Lennon, into a saint. Malcolm was no saint.
Sandinista! recorded in Rhodess absence[24] but Kosmo At the after funeral gathering, Rhodes and Westwood
Vinyl states that with the Bonds NYC residency, The were photographed chatting happily by celebrity photogClash clawed their way back into the Premiership.[25]
rapher Richard Young.

Joness sacking

In her recent autobiography, Westwood comments on the


funeral saying Rhodes was quite justied in what he said,
she was talking too much about herself and her ideas.[34]

Paul Simonon states that Rhodes was not aware that Mick
Jones was going to be sacked nor in favour of the action. 4.1.3 Recent
Simonon states that Jones believed Rhodes to be responsible and did not nd out until the Rock Hall of Fame Rhodes was part of an exhibition at the London Jewish
induction.[26]
Museum called Entertaining the Nation: Stars of Music,
[35]
After Jones was sacked, Strummer and Simonon held Stage & Screen .
blind auditions to recruit two new guitarists. Strummer He has designed a biker range of T-shirts for Lewis
states they auditioned somewhere near 350 guitarists and Leathers.
found Nick in the rst batch, Vince in the second.[27]

4.1.4 References
Cut the Crap
[1] Gilbert 2005, p. 81.

According to guitarist Vince White, the working title of


The Clashs last album, released in 1985 was Out of Control. The title was changed by Rhodes shortly before its
release. Rhodes also produced the album under the name
of 'Jose Unidos. He co-wrote all of the songs with Strummer.
Strummer stated This is England was the last great
Clash song and it has inspired many, including Shane
Meadows who made a movie and TV show of the same
name.[28]

[2] Gilbert 2005, p. 82.


[3] Letts 2007, p. 50.
[4] Savage 1991, p. 83.
[5] Gorman, Paul (2006). The Look. London: Adelita. p.
137. ISBN 0-9552017-0-5.
[6] Savage 1991, p. 102.
[7] Strongman 2008, pp. 84-85.
[8] Matlock, Glen (1990). I was a teenage Sex Pistol. London:
Omnibus Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-7119-1817-1.

Doug Watts
In 1990, Rhodes relocated from Los Angeles to Atlanta,
Georgia where Doug Watts, the lead singer of a black
metal band Naked Truth asked him for help. Rhodes
brought in a new bass player and rehearsed the band over
several months. Rhodes independently produced the album Green with Rage. He then signed the band to Sony
Records.[29]

[9] Lydon 1993, p. 75.


[10] Lydon 1993, pp. 117-118.
[11] Gilbert 2005, p. 60.
[12] The Clash 2008, p. 88.
[13] Gilbert 2005, p. 78.
[14] Gilbert 2005, p. 117.
[15] Adams 2009.

St Martins incident

[16] White 2005, p. 205.

In May 2007, Rhodes caused controversy at Londons [17] Vermorel 1987, p. 236.
St Martins College, when he was accused of using the [18] Vermorel, Fred and Judy (1987) [1978]. Sex Pistols the
word 'niggers during a speech he was giving about street
Inside Story. London: Omnibus. p. 236. ISBN 9780711910904.
fashion.[30] In a published interview directly after the

76

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

[19] G Spot 1993, p. 39.


[20] Gilbert 2005, p. 286.
[21] Punknews.org & 1993.
[22] The Clash 2008, p. 290.
[23] Gruen 2001, p. 241.
[24] Gruen 2001, p. 240.
[25] Gruen 2001, p. 242.
[26] Salewicz, pp. 373-375.
[27] Len Righi (1984-04-20). Joe Strummer tells why the
Clash is carrying on. mcall.com. Retrieved 1984-04-20.
Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
[28] Neil Spencer & James Brown (2006-10-29). Why the
Clash are still Rock Titans. theguardian.com. Retrieved
2006-10-29.
[29] RiRa March1992.
[30] Sabuhi Mir. Clash Culture-Central St. Martins. rock
feedback.com. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
[31] Mojo 2007.
[32] Mirror.co.uk. Vivienne Westwood in Malcolm McLaren
funeral row. Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-24.

Letts, Don (2007). Culture Clash: Dread Meets


Punk Rockers. London: SAF Publishing Ltd. ISBN
0-946719-89-6.
Lydon, John (1993). Rotten:No Irish, No Blacks, No
Dogs. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-34063528-2.
Savage, Jon (2001) [1991]. Englands Dreaming:
Sex Pistols and Punk Rock (2nd ed.). London: Faber
& Faber. ISBN 978-0571227204.
Strongman, Phil (2008) [2007]. Pretty Vacant: A
History of UK Punk (US ed.). Chicago: Chicago
Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-752-7. OCLC
173299117.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
Vermorel, Fred & Judy (1987) [1978]. Sex Pistols
The Inside Story (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus Press.
ISBN 9780711-910904.
Westwood & Kelly, Vivienne & Ian (2014). Vivienne Westwood. London: Picador. ISBN 9781-447254126.
Films and documentaries

[33] O'Hagan 2010.


[34] Westwood & Kelly 2014.
[35] The Jewish Museum London 2012.

4.1.5

Sources

Books
Clash, The (2008). The Clash. London: Atlantic
Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-788-4.
Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk
Rock Explosion. London: Hawthorn. ISBN 0-80156129-9. OCLC 79262599. Retrieved 2011-09-19.

Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,


Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The
Clash (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World
(DVD). New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment;
Dorismo; Uptown Films. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6.
OCLC 49798077.

4.1.6 Web, journals and magazines


Adams, Owen (30 March 2009). Label of Love:
2Tone Records. Culture > Music > Label of love.
Guardian.co.uk.
The Clash - Super Black Market Clash.
Punknews.org.

Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lon- Related articles
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Fisher, Judith (March 1992). Naked Truth. Ri
Ra Magazine. Ri Ra.
Gruen, Bob (2001). The Clash Photographs by Bob
Gruen. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-903399 Holden & Van Schreven, Michael & Keld (Aug
34-3.
1993). Def by Misadventure. G Spot (8). van
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.

Schreven & Westall.


Gangsters by The Specials. Songfacts.com.
Clash Culture - Central St Martins. RFB.

4.2. MIKEY DREAD

77

Vivienne Westwood in Malcolm McLaren funeral him his own radio program called Dread at the Controls,
row. The Daily Mirror. www.mirror.co.uk.
where he played almost exclusively reggae.[3][4] Before
long, Campbell (now using the DJ name Mikey Dread)
O'Hagan, Sean (25 April 2010). The surreal day had the most popular program on the JBC. Well known
we laid the old anarchist to rest. The Observer. for its fun and adventurous sonic style, Dread at the ConGuardian.co.uk.
trols became a hit all over Jamaica. Examples of Mikey
Pattison, Louis (7 May 2007). Clash managers Dreads distinctive radio chatter can be heard on the US
racist outburst a reminder not to get rose-tinted release of the RAS label LP African Anthem Dubwise.
about punk. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2012.

He also began working as a recording artist, Lee


Scratch Perry producing his signature tune Dread at
Bernard Rhodes speaks. Mojo. July 2007. p. 18. the Controls, also recording for Sonia Pottinger and Joe
and performing with the Socialist Roots sound
Righi, Len (20 April 1984). Joe Strummer tells Gibbs, [3][5]
Inevitably, JBCs conservative management
system.
why the Clash is carrying on. The Morning Call.
and Campbell clashed, and he quit in protest in 1978, be Ex-Clash manager causes uproar with N-word. coming an engineer at the Treasure Isle studio, where he
CMU Daily - On The Inside. CMU Music Network. began an association with producer Carlton Patterson.[3]
They co-produced Dreads own work (e.g. Barber Sa4 May 2007. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
loon) and that of others.[3]
Last chance to see - Entertaining the Nation.
News. The Jewish Museum London. 27 January By the late 1970s he had started his own DATC label,
working with artists such as Edi Fitzroy, Sugar Minott,
2012.
and Earl Sixteen, as well as producing his own work.[3]
The label released Dreads albums Evolutionary Rockers
(released in the UK as Dread at the Controls), and World
4.1.7 Further reading
War III.
Salewicz, Chris (2006). Redemption Song: The Bal- Campbells music attracted the attention of British punk
lad of Joe Strummer. New York: Macmillan. ISBN rockers The Clash, who invited him over to England to
978-0-571-21178-4. OCLC 76794852.
tour with them in 1980, going on to produce some of
their music.[3][7][8] Although initially suspicious of the
strangers, Campbell soon became the best of friends with
4.1.8 External links
the band, producing their famous "Bankrobber" single[9]
and performing on several songs on their 1980 album
Ocial website
Sandinista!.[10] Campbell also toured with The Clash
across Britain, Europe, and the US, gaining many new
fans along the way.[10] He studied at the National Broad4.2 Mikey Dread
casting School in London in 1980 and in 1984 studied advanced recording technology at the North London PolyMichael George Campbell (4 June 1954 15 March technic.[4]
2008),[1] better known as Mikey Dread,[2] was a Ja- During the early 1980s he provided vocals with the reggae
maican singer, producer, and broadcaster. He was one of collective Singers And Players on Adrian Sherwood's Onthe most inuential performers and innovators in reggae U Sound record label.[5] Dread produced ten dub tracks
music.
for UB40 and toured Europe and Scandinavia as their
support artist.[6]

4.2.1

Biography

Some of his works in the United Kingdom include hosting series such as Rockers Roadshow and narrating the
six-part Channel 4 reggae documentary series Deep Roots
Music.[3][4] He later recorded The Source (Of Your Divorce)" for Warner Brothers Records US, which obtained
regularly rotated video airplay.

Born in Port Antonio,[3] one of ve children, from an


early age, Campbell showed a natural aptitude for engineering and electronics.[4] As a teenager he performed
with the Safari and Sound of Music sound systems, and
worked on his high schools radio station.[5]
In 1991, Dread recorded Prole and African Anthem ReHe studied electrical engineering at the College of Arts, visited. He also toured in Europe and the US with Freddie
Science and Technology, and in 1976, started out as McGregor, Lloyd Parks, We The People Band, and the
an engineer with the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation Roots Radics Band.
(JBC).[4][5][6] Campbell wasn't impressed that the JBCs In 1992, he collaborated with former Guns N' Roses guiplaylists mainly consisted of bland, foreign pop music at tarist Izzy Stradlin on a duet entitled Can't Hear 'Em.[3]
a time when some of the most potent reggae was being He was nominated for a NAIRD award, an award from
recorded in Jamaica. He convinced his JBC bosses to give

78

Mikey Dread performing at SOBs NYC on 8 April 2003

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Mikey Dread, 2006

[4]
the Billboard Magazine, for his work on his 1990 compi- 2006.
lation album Mikey Dreads Best Sellers.
Dread, together with The Blizzard of 78, featured on The
In 1993, Mikey Dread was involved in several projects, Sandinista! Project, a tribute to the 1980 Clash album
including his tour supporting the album Obsession and Sandinista!, with the song Silicone on Sapphire. The
working in TV with the Caribbean Satellite Network tribute album, recorded in 2004, was released on 15 May
after a lyric
(CSN) where he was Program Director and on Air per- 2007 by the 00:02:59 Records (a label named
[11][12][13]
from
the
Sandinista!
song
Hitsville
UK).
sonality as well as Producer of various shows.

In 1994 he presented The Culture Award of Honor in the


Martins International Reggae Music Awards in Chicago.
In 1995, he worked as a Radio DJ for WAVS 1170 AM
and WAXY-AM 790 in Miami, Florida. In 1996 he participated in the Essential Music Festival as a performer in
Brighton, UK.

In October 2007, it was announced that Campbell was


being treated for a brain tumour.[14] He died on 15 March
2008, surrounded by his family, at the home of his sister
in Stamford, Connecticut.[1]

4.2.2 Discography

Mikey furthered his knowledge of TV/Video Production


at the Art Institute of Ft. Lauderdale, where he gradu- Studio albums
ated in 1996 with Honors and at Lynn University in Boca
Raton / Florida where he earned a Bachelor of Arts De- Compilations
gree in International Communications, with Magna Cum
Laude honours.
Singles
He performed live with The Clash, UB40, Bob Dylan,
Love the Dread (1978), DATC
Carlos Santana, Macka B, and many other bands and
artists. He also produced artists such as Sugar Minott,
Step By Step (1978), 40 Leg
Junior Murvin, Earl Sixteen, Wally Bucker, Sunshine, Jah
Grundy and Rod Taylor. He also worked closely with
Barber Saloon (1978), Warrior
producer Trevor Elliot to launch musical career of singer
Roots Man Revival (1979), High Note
Edi Fitzroy. Mikey Dread was the featured artist on "Lips
Like Sugar" with Seal for the soundtrack of the 2004 lm,
African Rap (1979), Wild Flower
50 First Dates.[6]
After many years working as a producer and singer,
Campbell withdrew from the business and moved to
Miami where he furthered his college education with
courses in electronics and business, and ran the Caribbean
Satellite Network TV station in Miami.[5] Campbell
shrewdly waited until all of his existing contracts expired
and then regained control over his entire catalogue; He
began re-releasing much of it on his own Dread at the
Controls record label.
He performed at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 2002 and
at Glastonbury Festival in 2004, and toured the UK in

Rasta Born Baby (1979), Roots International


African Map (1979), DATC
Break Down the Walls (1980) (DREAD 1)
Rockers Delight (1980), DATC
Jumping Master (1980), DATC
Reggae Gone International (1980), DATC
Warrior Stylee (1981), DATC

4.2. MIKEY DREAD


Rocky Road (1982), DATC/Do It
Roots & Culture / Jungle Dread (1982), DATC
(DATCD 008)

Bad Man Posse" (1982), DATC - with Junior


Murvin
Pound A Weed (1982), DATC - with Roots
Radics
Warning (1982), DATC

79
Blunted in the Bomb Shelter Mix (2002; compilation
album by Madlib; ANTCD102)
Auralux Reggae Showcase (2004; compilation album by various artists; LUXXCD007)
50 First Dates (2004; compilation album by various
artists)
Radio Clash (2004; compilation album by various
artists)

Heavy Weight Style (1982), Do It

Best 19912004 (2004; compilation album by Seal)

Sunday School (1983), DATC

Echodelic Sounds of Future Pigeon (2006; album by


Future Pigeon)

Reggae Hit Shot (1984), DEP International


Knock Knock (1985), DEP International
Rude Little Dread (1986), DATC
The Source (Of Your Divorce)" (1989), Warner
Bros US
Choose Me (1989), DATC
King of Kings (2001), Higher Ground
Appears on

Singles Box (2006; compilation album by The Clash;


Sony BMG)
Down in a Tenement Yard: Sueration and Love in
the Ghetto 19731980 (2007; compilation album by
various artists; TJDDD352)
Family Front (2008; Album by Habakuk; 5935240)
Royale Rockers: Reggae Sessions (2008; album by
Casino Royale)
Iration Generation Time (Ft. Mikey Dread)

The Trojan Story Vol. 2 (1982; compilation album


4.2.3
by various artists; TALL 200)

References

Singers and Players Staggering Heights (1983; OnU Sound), School Days

[1] Lusk, Jon (19 March 2008). Mikey Dread: Renaissance


man of reggae. Obituaries. The Independent. Retrieved
19 March 2008.

Singers and Players Leaps and Bounds (1984;


Cherry Red), Autobiography (Dread Operator)"
and Vegetable Matter

[2] Pronounced as /maki drd/

Funky Reggae Crew Strictly Hip-Hop Reggae Fusion (1989; compilation album by various artists;
926 011-1)
The Roots of Reggae Vol. 1 (1991; compilation album by various artists; MCCD 014)
Larks From the Ark (1995; compilation album by
Lee Scratch Perry; NTMCD 511)
History of Trojan Records 19721995 Volume 2
(1996; compilation album by various artists)
Arkology (1997; compilation album by Lee
Scratch Perry; CRNCD 6)
Rockers Galore (1999; compilation album by The
Clash; ESK 47144)
Classic Reggae: The Producers (2000; compilation
album by various artists; MCCD 444)
Dub Reggae Essentials (2000; compilation album by
various artists)

[3] Thompson, Dave (2002) Reggae & Caribbean Music,


Backbeat Books, ISBN 0-87930-655-6, pp. 99101
[4] Clayson, Alan (2008) "Mikey Dread", The Guardian, 25
March 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2016
[5] Katz, David (2015) "How Mikey Dread revolutionised Jamaican music several times over", Fact, 15 September
2015. Retrieved 26 April 2016
[6] Mikey Dread forever at the Control. Lifestyle. The
Jamaica Observer. 17 March 2008. Archived from the
original (ASP) on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 20 March
2008.
[7] Letts, Don; David Nobakht (2008) [22 January 2007].
Culture Clash: Dread Meets Punk Rockers (3rd ed.). London: SAF. ISBN 0-946719-99-3. OCLC 181422771.
[8] Letts, Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,
Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, The Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 31:4532:43. ISBN 07389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077. The Dread meets the
Punk rockers uptown Clash open the Roxy (Jan 1977)

80

[9] The Singles (CD version)". SONY BMG Music Entertainment Store. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
[10] Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. 813, Epilogue, Discography, Bibliography. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story
of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. pp. 321,
332, 362, 367, 373388. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
[11] Clash, The; Joe Grushecky; Katrina Leskanich; Willie
Nile; Ship & Pilot.; Soul Food (Musical group); Sunset
Heroes (21 September 2004). The Sandinista! Project A
Tribute to the Clash (Compact Disc). England: 00:02:59
Records. OCLC 178980813.
[12] The Sandinista Project. sandinista.guterman.com. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
[13] Cary Bakers conqueroo The Sandinista! Project Announcements. conqueroo.com. Retrieved 19 March
2008.
[14] Walters, Basil (28 October 2007). Not at the control:
Mikey Dread has brain tumour. Lifestyle. The Jamaica
Observer. Archived from the original (ASP) on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
[15] Stephen Cook. African Anthem Mikey Dread | Songs,
Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[16] Jo-Ann Greene. Dread at the Controls Mikey Dread |
Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved
20 May 2014.
[17] World War Three Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews,
Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[18] Ralph Heibutzki. Beyond World War III Mikey Dread
| Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved
20 May 2014.
[19] Dub Merchant Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. 9 February 2006. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[20] Jungle Signal Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. 9 February 2006. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[21] Jo-Ann Greene. Pave the Way Mikey Dread | Songs,
Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[22] S.W.A.L.K. Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[23] Happy Family Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[24] Rick Anderson. Prole Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews,
Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[25] African Anthem Revisited Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[26] Obsession Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

[27] Rick Anderson (23 July 1992). Come to Mikey Dreads


Dub Party Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[28] World Tour Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[29] Rasta in Control Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. 10 December 2002. Retrieved
20 May 2014.
[30] Life Is a Stage Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[31] African Anthem/Happy Family Mikey Dread | Songs,
Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[32] Sean Westergaard (1 July 1991). S.W.A.L.K./Rockers
Vibrations Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[33] The Prime of Mikey Dread: Massive Dub Cuts from
19781992 Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. 18 January 1999. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[34] Best Sellers 2 Mikey Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits,
Awards. AllMusic. 4 January 2006. Retrieved 20 May
2014.
[35] Dread at the Controls/Evolutionary Rockers Mikey
Dread | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards. AllMusic. 4
January 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2014.

4.2.4 External links


Ocial website
Ocial Label website
Ocial Podcast with Insomnia Radio website
Mikey Dread Online Memorial
Articles
Complicated Dread: the Mikey Dread interview
Complicated Fun, 21 June 2006
Mikey Dread Interview: Mikey Dread at the controls trakMARX.com Punk Rock... & Roll, trakMARX 21 October 2005 The No Time To Be
21 Issue

4.3 Don Letts


Donovan Don Letts (born 10 January 1956) is a
British lm director, DJ and musician. Letts rst came to
prominence as the videographer for The Clash, directing
several of their music videos. In 1984, Letts co-founded

4.3. DON LETTS

81

the band Big Audio Dynamite with Clash guitarist Mick tured in the exhibition Return of the Rudeboy at Somerset
Jones, acting as the groups sampler and videographer be- House in the middle of 2014.[4][5]
fore departing the band in 1990.
Letts also directed music videos for Musical Youth, The
Psychedelic Furs, The Pretenders and Elvis Costello as
well as the feature documentaries The Punk Rock Movie
(1977) and The Clash: Westway to the World (2000).

4.3.1

In a conservative culture that feels like


punk never happened, the time is right for
Return of the Rudeboy.
Don Letts[5]

Biography
Music

Letts was born in London, and educated at Tenisons


School in Kennington. In 1975, he ran the London
clothing store Acme Attractions, selling electric-blue
zoot suits and jukeboxes, and pumping dub reggae all
day long.[1] He was deeply inspired by the music coming from his parents homeland, Jamaica, in particular
Bob Marley. After seeing one of Marleys gigs at the
Hammersmith Odeon (June 1976) Letts was able to sneak
into the hotel and spent the night talking to and befriending Marley.[2] By the mid-1970s Acme had quite a scene,
attracting the likes of The Clash, Sex Pistols, Chrissie
Hynde, Patti Smith, Deborah Harry and Bob Marley.
Seeing the crowd at Acme, the then promoter Andy
Czezowski started up the Roxy, a London nightclub during the original outbreak of punk in England, so that people could go from the store and have some place to party.
As most bands of that era had yet to be recorded, there
were limited punk rock records to be played. Instead,
Letts included many dub and reggae records in his sets,
and is credited with introducing those sounds to the London punk scene, which was to inuence The Clash and
other bands. As a tribute, he is pictured on the cover
of the EP Black Market Clash and the compilation Super
Black Market Clash. He was able to use the fame and
money from DJing and the Acme story to make his rst
lm, The Punk Rock Movie (1978).

In 1978, Letts recorded an EP, Steel Leg v the Electric


Dread, with Keith Levene, Jah Wobble and Steel Leg.
After [Mick Jones (The Clash guitarist)|Mick Jones]] was
red from The Clash, he and Letts founded Big Audio
Dynamite in 1984. In 1990 Letts formed Screaming Target.[6] As of 1 April 2009, Letts is presenting a weekly
show on BBC Radio 6 Music.
Books
In 2006, he published his autobiography, Culture Clash:
Dread Meets Punk Rockers.[7]
Films
Since his rst movie, The Punk Rock Movie, Letts has
expanded to doing documentaries and music videos for
multiple bands. In 1997, he travelled to Jamaica to direct
Dancehall Queen.[3] His lm Westway to the World won
a Grammy Award in 2003.
Filmography (as director)

Letts quit the retail business to manage the band The Slits.
Music videos
He was able to get The Slits to open for The Clash during
the White Riot tour. While on the White Riot tour he
decided that management was not for him, but continued
4.3.2 References
to shoot material for The Punk Rock Movie.[3]
Letts went to Jamaica for the rst time when, after the
Sex Pistols broke up, Johnny Rotten decided to escape the
media frenzy by going with Richard Branson to Jamaica.
It was on this trip that Branson was inspired to start up
Virgin's Frontline reggae record label.[1]
I guess he thought that since I was black
and Jamaican well, sort of he'd be in good
hands. Little did he know that the closest I'd
been to Jamaica was watching The Harder
They Come at the Classic Cinema in Brixton.
Don Letts [1]

[1] Don Letts (24 October 2001). "'Dem crazy baldheads


are my mates". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 December
2007.
[2] Don Letts (24 May 2007). Don Letts: In his own words
- Special to BobMarley.com. Retrieved 16 December
2007.
[3] Charlotte Robinson (12 July 2002). DON LETTS. popmatters. Retrieved 16 December 2007.
[4] Return of the Rude Boy at Somerset House, 13 June
25 August 2014.
[5] Return of the Rude Boy website.

A portrait of Don by photographer Dean Chalkley fea-

[6] Don Letts Biography. Retrieved 3 March 2012.

82

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

[7] Letts, Don; David Nobakht (2008) [22 January 2007].


Culture Clash: Dread Meets Punk Rockers (3rd ed.). London: SAF Publishing. ISBN 0-946719-99-3. OCLC
181422771.
[8] Letts, Don; The Clash, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul
Simonon, Topper Headon (15 April 2008). The Clash
Live: Revolution Rock (Documentary/TV movie). New
York: Legacy Recordings. OCLC 227211002.

4.4.1 References
[1] http://workhardpr.com/bill_price/bill_price.php
[2] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,
Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, The Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.

[9] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07yv0qj

4.5 Guy Stevens


[10] http://worlds-enders.blogspot.com/. Missing or empty
|title= (help)

4.3.3

External links

Don Letts at the Internet Movie Database

Guy Stevens (13 April 1943 28 August 1981) was a


British music industry gure whose roles included DJ,
record producer, and band manager. He was inuential in
promoting R&B music in Britain in the 1960s, gave the
rock bands Procol Harum[1] and Mott the Hoople their
distinctive names, and co-produced The Clash's album
London Calling.

Don Letts Culture Clash Radio at BBC Programmes


Don Letts Homepage

4.5.1 Early life and career

Stevens was born in East Dulwich, London. His father


died when he was six, and at the age of 11 he was enrolled
4.4 Bill Price
at Woolverstone Hall boarding school near Ipswich. After
being expelled for rebelliousness, he started work with his
[1] brother in the insurance industry, at the same time starting
Bill Price (8 August 1944 22 December 2016)
was an English record producer and audio engineer who a record collection of blues and R&B records, imported
worked with The Clash, The Sex Pistols, Guns N' Roses, from the U.S..[2]He married in 1962 and had a son the
Sparks, The Jesus and Mary Chain, The Nymphs, The following year.
Waterboys, Mott the Hoople and Simon Townshend (Pete In 1963, he began running a weekly R&B Disc Night at
Townshend's younger brother). He was chief engineer on the Scene Club in Soho, run by Ronan O'Rahilly, at which
the rst three solo albums by Pete Townshend: including Stevens played often obscure Stax, Chess and Motown
Empty Glass and White City: A Novel.
records, attracting a growing number of mod clubgoHe contributed to documentaries about The Clash such ers and musicians, including members of The Who, The
as Westway To The World.[2] Bill Price started his engi- Small Faces, The Yardbirds, The Rolling Stones and The
neering career in the mid-60s when he was an engineer at Beatles. Stevens soon began compiling and annotating
Decca Studios in West Hampstead, recording artists such reissues and compilations of American records, particularly for EMI. He also started writing for the Record Miras Tom Jones.
ror, and wrote the rst UK press proles of such musiOne of the nal recordings he helped engineer at Decca cians as Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf.[2][3]
before departing to Wessex Studios in November 1969
was the multi-million selling "Reections of My Life" by
The Marmalade.
4.5.2 Sue and Island Records
Price helped build AIR studios Oxford Street, where he
spent many years. During that time he engineered some
of the major albums of the 1970s and 1980s including
the Sex Pistols Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres the Sex
Pistols, and mixed Nilssons "Without You".
He was the chief engineer/manager at Wessex Studios,
the London studio where the Clash and the Sex Pistols
recorded much of their work.
More recently he worked again with Mick Jones in his
band Carbon/Silicon and mixed The Veils' albums Nux
Vomica and Time Stays, We Go.

Stevens was approached by record company executive


Chris Blackwell in 1964 to run the Sue record label in the
UK, as an oshoot of Island Records. He took responsibility for releasing a string of successful R&B singles on
Sue in the UK, including records by Ike and Tina Turner,
Rufus Thomas, Elmore James, Wilbert Harrison, Donnie
Elbert, and Inez and Charlie Foxx. He also compiled and
annotated The Sue Story compilation LPs.[3] Stevens used
the Sue label to put out obscure American singles not only
from the U.S. Sue group of labels, but from many small
independent record companies, and some of the bigger

4.5. GUY STEVENS

83

ones. It became widely inuential. Stevens was also president of the Chuck Berry Appreciation Society, and had
a say in the UK releases that Pye International put out by
Berry, Bo Diddley and others on the Chess and Checker
labels. It was Guy Stevens who brought Berry to the UK
for his rst tour after paying his bail to get him out of jail
for oences under the Mann Act.[4]

again dropped Stevens, and signed to Tony DeFries' company MainMan. Motts fth album, All the Young Dudes,
was produced by David Bowie.

He broke into record production at Blackwells suggestion in 1965, rstly on a single by Alex Harvey and
then producing live albums by Larry Williams and Lee
Dorsey. The following year, he was appointed head of
A&R at Island Records. His rst signing to the label
was Birmingham band The V.I.P.s, who soon changed
their name to Art. Stevens produced their early recordings, before they added keyboardist Gary Wright to become Spooky Tooth. Stevens also managed and produced
Hapshash and the Coloured Coat, an artistic and musical collaboration between the band Art and designers
Michael English and Nigel Waymouth, which led to the
album Featuring the Human Host and the Heavy Metal
Kids.[2][3]

By the mid-1970s, Stevens activities had become increasingly erratic as a result of his chronic alcoholism.[3]

4.5.3 Later activities

The Clash
In 1976 Stevens was present, although not clearly as a producer, on a demo session which The Clash undertook before they were signed. Mick Jones recalled that:
At the session, Guy was there for a while
and then he got upset about something. I think
the other guys, the sound engineer Vic Smith
and Chris Perry from Polydor, just wanted to
record a demonstration session and take it to
A&R and get the band signed. They didn't
know how to deal with Guy, because everything with Guy was like a major number.

Stevens also introduced lyricist Keith Reid to keyboardist


Gary Brooker of The Paramounts. He encouraged them
to write together, and reportedly commented to Reid
at a party that a friend had turned a whiter shade of
pale. The resulting song was recorded by Brookers
newly formed band, named Procol Harum by Stevens, In 1979, the band recruited Stevens to produce their
and though turned down by Blackwell at Island went album London Calling. The band themselves have always
held up Stevens input as a major factor in the albums
on to become one of the dening songs of the era.[2]
popularity and quality. The Clash involved Stevens beIn 1968, Stevens was imprisoned for several months for
cause they recognized the inuential role he had played
drug oences, during which time his record collection
in the British beat and blues booms of the 1960s. The
was stolen, leading to a breakdown. However, on his reWho, The Small Faces, The Rolling Stones and many
lease he returned to Island Records, and produced albums
others used Stevens knowledge of the American R&B
[2]
by Free, Mighty Baby, and Heavy Jelly.
and soul scene as a source for their own repertoire, having heard of him through his deejaying at the New Scene
Club. Stevens involvement with the production of LonMott the Hoople
don Calling is explored extensively in Marcus Greys book
Route 19 Revisited: The Clash and the Making of London
While working for Island, Stevens was fundamental in
Calling (2012).
the formation of Mott the Hoople. The band was originally called Silence, with the line-up of Stan Tippins
on vocals, Mick Ralphs on lead guitar, Verden Allen on
4.5.4 Death and legacy
keyboards, Overend Watts on bass, and Dale Grin on
drums. Envisioning a band with a sound that would be
a combination of The Rolling Stones and Bob Dylan, Stevens died on 28 August 1981, at the age of 38, havdrugs he was taking to
Stevens recruited and mentored Ian Hunter as lead singer, ing overdosed on the prescription
[6]
reduce
his
alcohol
dependency.
and demoted Stan Tippins to road manager. Stevens also
named the band after the Willard Manus novel, which he In 1981, The Clash wrote a song for, or about Stevens,
had read while in prison.[5]
who had died the same year: Midnight to Stevens. It is a
Stevens served as the Motts manager, and produced their lush sweeping song that sounds unlike almost anything the
eponymous 1969 debut album and its 1970 follow-up, Clash recorded despite the range of styles on Sandinista!
Mad Shadows (1970). After Mad Shadows met with poor and Combat Rock. It was released originally as the b-side
sales and negative reviews, Mott dispensed with Stevens of a 12 Clash single in the summer of 1982. It was later
services and produced their third album, Wildlife (1971), released in 1991, when it appeared on disc three of Clash
by themselves. After that albums commercial failure, on Broadway.
Mott re-recruited Stevens to produce the Brain Capers al- Stevens involvement in Mott the Hooples early career
bum (1971). On the verge of splitting up in 1972, Mott was covered in the 2011 documentary, The Ballad of Mott

84

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

the Hoople.[7][8] Stevens also produced Frees debut album Tons of Sobs, the eponymous debut album of Mighty
Baby, and the debut of Spooky Tooth, Supernatural Fairy
Tales.

held a Marshall McLuhan Centenary Fellowship at the


Coach House Institute (CHI) of the University of Toronto
Faculty of Information as part of the CHIs McLuhan
Program in Culture and Technology.

A poem in tribute to Stevens was included by Ian Hunter


on the lyric sheet of his 1983 CBS album All Of The Good
Ones Are Taken, which concluded: I remember the guy 4.6.1 Biography
with the electric hair at that rst rehearsal standing there.
You gave your heart - you gave your soul. God bless you, Pearlman was born in the Rockaway neighborhood of
Guy - Rock n Roll!"
Queens, New York,[1] the son of pharmacy operator Hy[2]
In assessing himself, Stevens stated, There are only two man Pearlman. He received his B.A. from the State
University of New York at Stony Brook in 1966.
Phil Spectors in the world... and I'm one of them!"[7]
In 1967, Pearlman hand-picked musicians for a rock
band to perform the lyrics that he was writing, based on
4.5.5 References
his Imaginos poems. He dubbed the band Soft White
Underbelly (from a World War II speech by Winston
[1] Guy Stevens: uniter of Brooker and Reid. ProcolChurchill) and later changed their name to "Blue ysharum.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
ter Cult". He managed the band (with Murray Krug[2] Kris Needs, Mayhems Go-To Guy, Record Collector, man) from 19671995, and produced or co-produced 7
#460, December 2016, pp.38-44
of their studio albums, and 4 of their live albums. Signicantly, Pearlman was co-producer, with David Lu[3] Biography, Allmusic.com. Retrieved 8 November 2016
cas and Murray Krugman, of BCs "(Don't Fear) The
[3]
[4] The Generalist: CULT MUSIC: GUY STEVENS. Reaper" in 1976. The song reached No. 12 on the Top
[4]
Hqinfo.blogspot.co.uk. 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2014-05- 40 charts and has remained an FM radio staple since.
20.
On the Rolling Stone list of top 500 songs of all time, it is
listed as No. 405.[3]
[5] Guy Stevens: some Hoople history. Procolharum.com.
Retrieved 2014-05-20.

In 1966, he was introduced to the founder of Crawdaddy!


magazine, Paul Williams, by Playboy political analyst
[6] London Calling. Theclash.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-01Michael Horowitz; by 1967 Pearlman had become one
11.
of the original rock music critics of the magazine along
[7] Tim Dowling. The Ballad of Mott the Hoople TV with Williams, Jon Landau and Richard Meltzer, with
review | Television & radio. The Guardian. Retrieved Horowitz later penning a cover prole of Jim Morrison
2014-05-20.
for Crawdaddy! in April 1969.
[8] The Ballad of Mott the Hoople (2011)". Internet Movie
Database. Retrieved 2014-05-20.

4.5.6

External links

Procol Harum.com biography of Guy Stevens


Guy Stevens at Find a Grave

4.6 Sandy Pearlman


Samuel Clarke Sandy Pearlman[1] (August 5, 1943
July 26, 2016) was an American music producer, artist
manager, professor, poet, songwriter, and record company executive. He was best known for founding, writing
for, producing, or co-producing many LPs by Blue yster Cult, as well as producing important albums by The
Clash, The Dictators, Pavlovs Dog, Space Team Electra, and Dream Syndicate; he was also the founding Vice
President of eMusic.com. He was the Schulich Distinguished Professor Chair at the Schulich School of Music
at McGill University in Montreal, and from August 2014

Pearlman was considered an important gure in the development of both alternative and commercial American
rock music, and for his intervention in British punk. He
was drafted by record company CBS to produce Give 'Em
Enough Rope, The Clash's second album, which gave the
band their largest audience to date, and also produced
many of the tracks that were compiled in "Black Market Clash". He was described as the Hunter Thompson
of rock, a gonzo producer of searing intellect and vast
vision., in the Billboard Producer Directory.[5]
Pearlman also worked as a full-time artist manager,
managing the careers of Blue yster Cult, Black Sabbath (19791983), Romeo Void, The Dictators, Shakin'
Street, Aldo Nova and others. In the 1980s, he pioneered the mega-tour stadium format of several bands
traveling together, sharing promotional costs and production and travel costs, a format persisting today with
the Lollapalooza Festival, the Lilith Fair and related tour
packages.[6]
In 1983, Pearlman leased Studio C in San Franciscos
The Automatt Studios from studio owner David Rubinson and dubbed it Time Enough World Enough Studios.
After The Automatt closed in 1984, he leased Studio C

4.6. SANDY PEARLMAN

85

at Hyde Street Studios from studio owner Dan Alexander. Awards


Pearlman ran a recording operation in Studio C as Alpha
& Omega Studio from 1986 until 1991. He also used it Pearlman was the recipient of 17 gold and platinum
for his own projects, including those on his short-lived records.[5]
MCA-distributed label Popular Metaphysics, and he also
sub-leased it to other producers and artists.
[18]
In 1989 he took over as president of the alternative record
company 415 Records and established a production and
distribution deal for the label with MCA Records, before
purchasing the company and changing the labels name to
Popular Metaphysics.
The label was short lived, but it signed a few solid
acts and released their records on the MCA label, including Love Club (1990), Manitobas Wild Kingdom
(1990), and World Entertainment War (1991).[7][8][9]
The 1991 edition of Mark Garveys Songwriters Market, published in 1990, carried a listing that read as follows: "*SANDY PEARLMAN, INC., 245 Hyde St., San
Francisco CA 94102. (415)885-4999. A&R Director:
Natasha V. Record producer, record company (Popular
Metaphysics, formerly 415), recording studio (Alpha &
Omega Recording, Hyde Street Studios).[10]
In the late 1990s, Pearlman served as the founding
vice-president of e-music.com, a subscription store for
download-to-own online music and audiobooks that is
headquartered in New York City and now owned by
Dimensional Associates. eMusic was one of the rst
sites to sell music in the MP3 format, beginning in
1998. As of September 2008, eMusic had over 400,000
subscribers.[11] He also served as vice-president of media
development for MoodLogic.com, the rst on-line music
recommendation engine, from 20002003.
In 2009, Sandy Pearlman was appointed as an at-large
member of the National Recording Preservation Board
(NRPB) of the Library of Congress.[12][13]

4.6.2 Production credits

1972 Blue yster Cult Blue yster Cult


1973 Blue yster Cult Tyranny and Mutation
1973 The Mahavishnu Orchestra Between Nothingness and Eternity
1974 Blue yster Cult Secret Treaties
1975 Pavlovs Dog Pampered Menial
1975 Blue yster Cult On Your Feet or on Your
Knees
1975 The Dictators Go Girl Crazy!
1976 Pavlovs Dog At the Sound of the Bell
1976 Blue yster Cult Agents of Fortune
1977 The Dictators Manifest Destiny
1977 Blue yster Cult Spectres
1978 The Dictators Bloodbrothers
1978 Blue yster Cult Some Enchanted Evening
1978 The Clash Give 'Em Enough Rope
1980 Shakin' Street Shakin' Street
1984 Dream Syndicate Medicine Show

1985 Blue yster Cult Club Ninja


Pearlman was the Schulich Distinguished Chair of music
1988 Blue yster Cult Imaginos
at McGill University in Montreal, specializing in the
programs in music theory, sound recording and music
1998 Cosmic Free Way Red Flowers
technology; he later served as Centenary Fellow at the
McLuhan Center for Culture and Technology at the University of Toronto, where he co-taught a course on Dig- 4.6.3 References
ital Media Distribution.[14] Additionally, he was a visiting lecturer at Harvard, Stanford, University of Califor- [1] Jon Pareles, Sandy Pearlman, Producer, Manager and
Lyricist for Blue yster Cult, Dies at 72, The New York
nia Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, and an invited speaker at
Times, July 26, 2016
the Mill Valley Film Festival, Future of Music Coalition, Canadian Music Week and SxSW Festivals. As a [2] Albert Bouchard interview on hotrails.co.uk by Ralph,
Professor and as a public speaker, Pearlman lectured on
Feb. 12, 2005
the architecture of the music industry, strategies for remonetizing music downloads, and the history and future [3] 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: No. 405, Blue Oyster
Cult, 'Don't Fear the Reaper'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved
of music. He owned Alpha & Omega Recording, a 72May 30, 2011.
track analog recording facility in San Rafael, California.
His production career was managed by Peter Shershin at [4] "(Don't Fear) The Reaper. Rolling Stone. Wenner PubBreathing Protection, Inc.[15]
lishing. 2004-12-09. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
Pearlman died on July 26, 2016 in Marin County, California from pneumonia due to stroke-related complications.
He was 72.[1][16][17]

[5] Breathing Protection Producer & Artist Management:


Sandy Pearlman. Breathing Protection. Retrieved July
2, 2011.

86

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

[6] Billboard Encyclopedia of Record Producers, entry on


Sandy Pearlman, 1999

4.7.1 Career

Dogg moved to London at 17, signed to Pye Records (under the name Timon) and recorded a single, The Bitter
Thoughts of Little Jane featuring Jimmy Page and John
[8] Ginsberg, Geo. All Music Guide: Manitobas Wild Paul Jones.[3] Moving to Apple Records, Dogg recorded
Kingdom Biography. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
tracks produced by Peter Asher featuring Paul McCartney on piano and James Taylor on guitar. Dogg then
[9] All Music Guide: World Entertainment War credits.
toured with The Moody Blues and worked closely with
Retrieved 2011-06-30.
Justin Hayward to produce many tracks, Now She Says
[10] Garvey, Mark (1990). Songwriters market, 1991: where Shes Young being released as a single in 1970.[4]
[7] All Music Guide: Love Club, Lime Twigs and Treachery. Retrieved 2011-06-28.

& how to market your songs. Writers Digest Books. p.


273. Retrieved June 30, 2011.

[11] FAQs | Support. Emusic.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.


[12] Klein, Howie (2009-09-06). Rock Music Legend Sandy
Pearlman On The Passing Of Feminine Culture Power
Source, Ellie Greenwich. Hungton Post. Retrieved
July 1, 2011.
[13] National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of
Congress. United States Library of Congress. Retrieved
July 1, 2011.
[14] http://cilp.law.utoronto.ca/curriculum-programs/
digital-media-distribution-jdm3619hf
[15] Breathing Protection, Inc.
2011-03-03.

Background.

Retrieved

[16] Swanson, Dave (July 26, 2016). Producer Sandy Pearlman Dies at 72. ultimateclassicrock.com. Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 2016-07-26.

Dogg became part of Londons early 1970s underground


scene. Moving into a squatted property in Westbourne
Grove, Dogg made a living playing in folk clubs and
busking with house mate Joe Strummer.[5][6] Dogg regularly played at the Charlie Pig Dog Club with the 101ers
and when Joe Strummer joined The Clash, Dogg was
invited to contribute tracks on Sandinista! and Combat
Rock.[7][8][9][10]
Other notable housemates from that time included all female punk band The Slits. In 1978, Dogg moved to the
North East of England with artist Helen Cherry.[10] Dogg
released Battle of Wills during the 1980s. In 2000, Dogg
met up with Joe Strummer again at the Poetry Olympics
curated by Michael Horovitz. The two performed an impromptu set of songs together, with Lily Allen in her
dbut stage performance as backing singer.[11][12][13][5]

Shortly afterwards, Dogg joined Strummers band, The


Mescaleros, and the two worked together until Strummers death in 2002 producing songs such as Mondo
[17] Legendary BLUE YSTER CULT Producer SANDY
Bongo and Johnny Appleseed.[10] Dogg has continPEARLMAN Dies At 72. www.blabbermouth.net. July
ued to write and record his music. In 2010 Cherry Red
26, 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
Records released a compilation of songs from 1967
[18] Blue Oyster Cult Discography: Production Credits, 2009 called The Irrepressible Tymon Dogg and Thin Man
Sandy Pearlman. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
Press produced a CD of Doggs soundscape settings of extracts from Louis Aragon's A Wave of Dreams in 2012.[14]

4.6.4

External links

The Village Voice, BC reviews by Robert Christgau


Blue yster Cult FAQ
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=
gr&GSln=pearlman&GSmid=47428064&GRid=
167439460&

4.7.2 Discography
Solo recordings
With Joe Strummer and The Mescaleros
Guest appearances

4.7.3 References

4.7 Tymon Dogg


Tymon Dogg (born Stephen John Murray) is an English singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. Doggs
career started early with shows at the Cavern and
Peppermint Lounge in Liverpool when he was 15. As
well as pursuing a solo career, he collaborated with many
bands and musicians including The Clash, and was a
member of Joe Strummer's last band, The Mescaleros.

[1] Archived 6 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine.


[2] Tymon Dogg | Biography. AllMusic. Retrieved 201508-13.
[3] Timon - Bitter Thoughts Of Little Jane / Rambling Boy
(Vinyl)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
[4] Timon - And Now She Says Shes Young. Discogs.com.
Retrieved 2015-08-13.

4.8. MICK GALLAGHER

87

[5] Anthony Davie. CAMION BLANC: JOE STRUMMER &


THE MESCALEROS. CAMION BLANC. pp. 50. ISBN
978-2-35779-584-6.

Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash


(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

[6] Pat Gilbert (1 November 2011). Passion is a Fashion: The


Real Story of the Clash. Aurum Press. pp. 78. ISBN
978-1-84513-802-8.

Joel Whitburn (15 April 2007). The Billboard Albums: Includes Every Album That Made the Billboard 200 Chart. Record Research Incorporated.
ISBN 978-0-89820-166-6.

[7] Chris Knowles (1 December 2003). Clash City Showdown. PageFree Publishing, Inc. pp. 42. ISBN 9781-58961-138-2.
[8] Tony Fletcher (9 April 2012). The Clash: The Music That
Matters. Music Sales Group. pp. 79. ISBN 978-085712-749-5.
[9] Pat Gilbert (2004). Passion is a fashion: the real story of
the Clash. Aurum. ISBN 978-1-84513-113-5.
[10] Chris Salewicz (13 May 2008). Redemption Song: The
Ballad of Joe Strummer. Faber & Faber. pp. 201. ISBN
978-1-4668-2162-0.
[11] Zoe Howe (4 November 2009). Typical Girls? The Story
of the Slits. Omnibus Press. pp. 155. ISBN 978-085712-015-1.

4.7.5 External links


Tymon Dogg The Godfather of Anti-Folk fan site
Tymon Dogg & The Quikenings Myspace page
Bio at Strummernews
RateYourMusic page

4.8 Mick Gallagher

[12] Music, Books on Music, and Sound Recordings. Library of


Congress. 1985.
[13] Simon Warner (14 March 2013). Text and Drugs and
Rock 'n' Roll: The Beats and Rock Culture. Bloomsbury
Publishing. pp. 190. ISBN 978-1-4411-4303-7.
[14] Hall, Duncan. Hastings celebrates its shy heritage on
The Stade Open Space. The Argo. The Argo. Retrieved
13 August 2015.

4.7.4

Further reading

Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return Mick Gallagher and Davey Payne, with The Blockheads, at Waof the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lon- ter Rats, July 2011
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
Michael William Mick Gallagher (born 29 October
60668626.
1945) is an English Hammond organ player best known
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot as a member of Ian Dury and the Blockheads[1] and for
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd his contributions to albums by the Clash. He has also
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC written music for lms such as Extremes (1971) and After
52990890.
Midnight (1990), and the Broadway play Serious Money
(1987).
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
4.8.1 Early band work
Leigh, Spencer (1975). The Last Trumpet. tymonMick Gallagher started his musical career in Newcastle
dogg.net. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
with The Unknowns in the early 1960s. He played with
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and the Animals during 1965, replacing their founding memthe Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0- ber Alan Price. He moved on to form The Chosen Few,
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
where he played alongside Alan Hull,[2] who later formed

88

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Lindisfarne. Other associations include Skip Bierty, turned to the UK and began touring sporadically with the
Peter Frampton's Camel and Cochise.[3]
Blockheads, eventually returning to the group full-time
In 1977 Gallagher was playing in a band called Loving for the recording of Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick";
Awareness, including John Turnbull, Charley Charles and according to Gallagher, the band recorded 28 takes of the
Norman Watt-Roy. Charles and Watt-Roy worked as ses- song, but eventually settled on the second take for the sin[6]
sions musicians with Ian Dury, and when the group went gle release. Partly due to personality clashes with Dury,
on tour, Gallagher and Turnbull were invited along. This Jankel left the group again in 1980 after the recording of
the Do It Yourself LP, and he returned to the USA to conband became the Blockheads.[4]
centrate on his solo career.
The group worked solidly over the eighteen months between the release of Rhythm Stick and their next single, Reasons to Be Cheerful, which returned them to the
charts, making the UK Top 10. Jankel was replaced by
Main article: The Blockheads
former Dr. Feelgood guitarist Wilko Johnson, who also
contributed to the next album Laughter (1980) and its two
Under the management of Andrew King and Peter Jenhit singles, although Gallagher recalls that the recording
ner, the original managers of Pink Floyd, Ian Dury and
of the Laughter album was dicult and that Dury was
the Blockheads quickly gained a reputation as one of the
drinking heavily in this period.[6]
top live acts of new wave music.[5] The Blockheads sound
drew from its members diverse musical inuences, which The Blockheads briey reformed in June 1987 to play a
included jazz, rock and roll, funk, reggae and Durys love short tour of Japan, and then disbanded again. In Septemof music hall. Gallaghers Hammond sound was a major ber 1990, following the death from cancer of drummer
Charley Charles, they reunited for two benet concerts in
contribution to the band.
aid of Charles family, held at The Forum, Camden Town,
The single "Sex & Drugs & Rock & Roll", released 26
with Steven Monti on drums.[8] In December 1990, augAugust 1977, marked Blockheads Sti debut. Although
mented by Merlin Rhys-Jones on guitar and Will Parnell
it was banned by the BBC, it was named Single of the
on percussion, they recorded the live album Warts & AuWeek by NME on its release.[6] The single issue was soon
dience at the Brixton Academy.
followed at the end of September by the album New Boots
and Panties!!, which, although it did not include the sin- The Blockheads (minus Jankel, who returned to California) toured Spain in January 1991, then disbanded again
gle, achieved platinum status.
until August 1994 when, following Jankels return to EngIn October 1977 Gallagher and the band started perland, they were invited to reform for the Madstock! Fesforming as Ian Dury & the Blockheads,[4] when the band
tival in Finsbury Park;[8] this was followed by sporadic
signed on for the Sti Live Stis Tour alongside Elvis
gigs in Europe, Ireland, the UK and Japan through late
Costello & the Attractions, Nick Lowe, Wreckless Eric
1994 and 1995.
and Larry Wallis. The tour was a success, and Sti
launched a concerted Ian Dury marketing campaign, re- In March 1996 Dury was diagnosed with cancer and, afsulting in the Top Ten hit "What a Waste", and the hit sin- ter recovering from an operation, he set about writing angle "Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick", which reached No. other album. In early 1998 he reunited with the Block1 in the UK at the beginning of 1979, selling just short heads to record the album Mr Love-Pants. In May, Ian
of a million copies. Again, Hit Me was not included on Dury & the Blockheads hit the road again, with Dylan
the original release of the subsequent album Do It Your- Howe replacing Steven Monti on drums. Davey Payne
self. Both the single and its accompanying music video left the group permanently in August and was replaced by
featured Davey Payne playing two saxophones simulta- Gilad Atzmon; this line-up gigged throughout 1999, culneously during his solo, in evident homage to jazz saxo- minating in their last performance with Dury on 6 Februphonist Rahsaan Roland Kirk, whose trademark tech- ary 2000 at the London Palladium. Dury died six weeks
nique this was. With their hit singles, the band built up later on 27 March 2000.[9]
a dedicated following in the UK and other countries, and Gallagher continued with the Blockheads after Durys
their next single "Reasons to be Cheerful, Part 3" made death, contributing to the tribute album Brand New Boots
number three in the UK.
And Panties, then Wheres The Party. The Blockheads

4.8.2

Ian Dury and the Blockheads

still tour, and in 2009 released Staring Down the Barrel.[10] They currently comprise Watt-Roy, Jankel, Gallagher, Turnbull, John Roberts on drums, Gilad Atzmon and Dave Lewis on saxes. Derek The Draw (who
was Durys friend and minder) is now writing songs with
Jankel as well as singing. They are aided and abetted by
Jankel left the band temporarily and relocated to the U.S.
Lee Harris, who is their "aide de camp".
after the release of What a Waste (his organ part on
that single was overdubbed later) but he subsequently reThe bands second album, Do It Yourself, was released in
June 1979 in a Barney Bubbles-designed sleeve of which
there were over a dozen variations, all based on samples
from the Crown wallpaper catalogue. Bubbles also designed the Blockhead logo.[7]

4.9. GARY BARNACLE

4.8.3

Other work

89

[11] Clash albums. AllMusic. Retrieved 26 March 2010.


[12] Padovani, Henry (2009). Secret Police Man. Pen Press.

Gallagher played on two of the most inuential Clash alpp. 68. ISBN 978-1-907172-83-0.
bums, London Calling (1979) and Sandinista! (1980),[11]
and made live appearances with the band, also playing on [13] Mick Gallagher. rockartistmanagement.com. Archived
from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 26 March
their last album Cut the Crap (1985), for which he never
2010.
received a credit.
Gallagher worked with the Clashs drummer Topper
Headon again in a short-lived band called Samurai, and
again when they recorded Headons Waking Up (1986),
appearing with Bobby Tench and Jimmy Helms. Samurai guitarist Henry Padovani briey described Gallagher
in his memoir: He had a family, was the serious one
of the group, never snorted any coke and managed to
somehow control Topper [Headon] a little. Playing
with this talented musician was a pleasure.[12] Gallagher
has also performed and recorded with Paul McCartney, Roger Daltrey, Robbie Williams, Dave Stewart and
Annie Lennox.[13] More recently he returned to perform
with The Blockheads and John Steel's The Animals and
Friends.
Gallagher has also written music for lms such as
Extremes (1971) and After Midnight (1990), and the
Broadway play Serious Money (1987).

4.8.4

Personal life

Gallagher has three children, Luke, Ken and Maria. In


1979 the children sang on a release of The Clashs Career Opportunities.[14] and Guns of Brixton [15]

4.8.5

References

[1] Mick Gallagher biography. theblockheads.com. Retrieved 26 March 2008.

[14] Fletcher, Tony (2012). The Clash: The Music That Matters. Omnibus. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
[15] discogs.com. Maria Gallagher Discography. Retrieved
2016-09-17.

4.8.6 External links

4.9 Gary Barnacle


Gary Barnacle (born 1959,[1] Dover, England) is an
English saxophonist, autist, brass instrument arranger,
composer and producer, primarily noted for session
work, live work incl. various Princes Trust Concerts
at Wembley Arena, the Royal Albert Hall and the
National Exhibition Centre (NEC) in Birmingham, plus
the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute at Wembley
Stadium in 1988, and television/video appearances, during the 1980s and 1990s, with a large number of popular
music acts, including The Clash, Ruts D.C., Level 42,
Visage, Paul Hardcastle, Kim Wilde, Holly Johnson,
Marilyn, Derek B, Eternal, Soul II Soul, Jamiroquai,
Jimmy Ray, Tina Turner, General Public, Soft Cell, Elvis
Costello, Del Amitri, Shed Seven, T'Pau, Roger Daltrey,
David Bowie, The Big Dish, The Cross, Pet Shop Boys,
Stock Aitken Waterman and Paul McCartney, among
others. He was also in an electropop duo called Leisure
Process from 198283, with ex-Positive Noise singer,
Ross Middleton.

[2] About the Chosen Few. Retrieved 4 September 2016.


[3] Mick Gallagher. AllMusic. Retrieved 26 March 2010.

4.9.1 Biography and career

[4] Clarkson, John. Interview with Mick Gallagher. Retrieved 3 September 2016.

The early years (19771980)

[5] The Blockheads hit us with a rhythmic Portsmouth gig.


18 December 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2016.

Gary Barnacle was born in Dover, England in 1959.[1]

[6]

[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

He started playing in bands in and around the Dover area,


Technical Direct (UK) Ltd. Mickey Gallagher interview, with his father Bill Barnacle, his brothers Steve Barnacle
October 2008. Demon Music Group. Archived from and Pete Barnacle and their friend (Nick) Topper Headon.
the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 30 December Then he moved, with his two brothers, to London in 1976
2009.
and began a career as a session musician. Barnacle performed the saxophone part in many songs and albums by
Barney Bubbles obituary. Aural-innovations.com. ReThe Clash. Early examples are City of the Dead, B-side
trieved 29 January 2009.
of "Complete Control", 1-2 Crush On You, the B-side
Ian Dury and the Blockheads. Retrieved 4 September of "Tommy Gun" released as a single on 24 November
2016.
1978, and their version of Booker T. & the M.G.'s' classic Time Is Tight, released on the 1980 extended play
Rockstar Ian Dury dies. BBC News. 27 March 2000.
Black Market Clash. Both songs can also be heard on the
Retrieved 4 September 2016.
1993 compilation album, Super Black Market Clash.[2] He
Discography. AllMusic. Retrieved 4 September 2016. also played on their later albums Sandinista! released on

90
12 December 1980 as a triple album, the single This Is
Radio Clash released on 20 November 1981 and Combat
Rock released on 14 May 1982 through Epic Records.
He was introduced to The Clash through their drummer,
and school friend of Barnacles, Topper Headon, and reportedly became involved in The Clashs infamous 1978
pigeon shooting incident.[3]
Barnacle formed a horn section in 1978 with trumpeter
Luke Tunney, called the Hit And Run Horns (named after
the band that they were members of at the time). In 1979
they added Annie Whitehead on trombone. These three
played on many sessions together for the next 3 years or so
(until Pete Thoms came in on trombone in 1982). Barnacle collaborated with The Ruts on their rst two albums,
both on Virgin label, The Crack, released in September
1979, and Grin & Bear It, released in October 1980. After the death of their frontman, Malcolm Owen, found
dead from a heroin overdose on 14 July 1980 at the age
of 26,[4] the band continued as Ruts D.C. (where D.C.
standing for the Latin term Da Capo, meaning back
to the beginning) in a dierent musical vein.[5] Barnacle
became a stable member of the band and they released
two other albums, Animal Now in May 1981 on Virgin,
and Rhythm Collision released in July 1982 on Bohemian
Records. Ruts D.C. split in 1983.[6][7][8] During 1979
1980 he also contributed to M's debut album, New York
London Paris Munich, released in 1979, and to Sanity
Stomp, released by Kevin Coyne in 1980.[9]

The 1980s (19811989)


In 1981, contributed to the debut albums by Positive
Noise - Heart of Darkness, Stray Cats and In Trance as
Mission by Simple Minds plus "Power and the Passion"
by Midnight Oil and also performed saxophone on Rick
Wakeman's 1984, a solo concept album based on the classic novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell.[9] That
year he also played saxophone on the Black Snake Diamond Rle debut solo album by former Soft Boys frontman Robyn Hitchcock. But, one of Barnacles longest
associations has been with Level 42, with whom he has
played on several albums, including the bands 1981 debut, the 1984 True Colours, the 1985 World Machine,
and the 1987 Running in the Family. From 1990 to 1994
Barnacle toured with Level 42 and recorded two of the
bands albums, Guaranteed and Forever Now.[9] The horn
section he formed with British trumpet and uegelhorn
player, John Thirkell, for Level 42 is known as The Hen
Pecked Horns.[10] Since then, Barnacle and Thirkell provided the horn section to many recordings, and, along
with trombonist Peter Thoms, they formed The Phantom Horns, one of the UKs most respected horn sections
that appears on a number of recordings from 1987 on.[11]
They also recorded a widely acclaimed brass-sample CD
Phantom Horns, which was re-issued by Zero-G as a double CD-rom in 2011. Equally impressive, and more comprehensive, was Brit Horns brass-sample CD featuring

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL


Gary Barnacle, Peter Thoms and Stuart Brooks, which
was re-issued as a double audio/WAV CD by AMG in
2010. Both of these sample CDs have, and continue to
be, widely used on commercial recordings worldwide.
In 1982, he and ex-Positive Noise singer, Ross Middleton, formed an electropop duo called Leisure Process.
The Band released four singles on Epic label, two in 1982,
Love Cascade and A Way You'll Never Be, which
featured Mark King and Phil Gould of Level 42, and two
in 1983, Cashow and Anxiety. All four singles were
produced by Martin Rushent.[9] In 1982, Barnacle also
collaborated on Julien Clerc's Femmes, Indiscrtion, Blasphme, Mike Rutherford's Acting Very Strange, Marius
Mller-Westernhagen's Das Herz eines Boxers, and with
Visage on their second album. Two years later, in 1984,
with his brother Steve already in the band, when Billy
Currie and Dave Formula departed the band, Gary and
Andy Barnett replaced them for what would become Visages Beat Boy album, which was released in September
1984 and produced two singles, "Love Glove" and "Beat
Boy". A decision to make Visage a live band instead of
a strictly studio-based project failed and the band subsequently split in 1985.[9]
In 1983, he contributed to Catch as Catch Can by pop
singer, Kim Wilde (whom he dated in the mid 1980s),[12]
and also to In Strict Tempo by Dave Ball, Private Dancer
by Tina Turner. Barnacle later toured in Europe with
The Queen of Rock 'n' Roll and participated in the
recording sessions of her 1989 album Foreign Aair. He
also appears in the 1983 edition of Drama of Exile by
Nico, where he also played the drums, Right Now by The
Creatures, Dalek I Love You by Dalek I Love You, Jerky
Versions of the Dream the only solo album recorded by
Howard Devoto, Secret by Classix Nouveaux, Vocabulary
by The Europeans, C'est C Bon, the last pop album by
Carlene Carter, Working with Fire and Steel by China Crisis, a collaboration that was repeated later in 1986 with
the release of What Price Paradise. The year ended with
the publication of the soundtrack for Educating Rita, a
multi-award winning and nominated lm based on Willy
Russell's play of the same title, directed by Lewis Gilbert,
and with music composed by David Hentschel.[9]
1984 saw Barnacle contribute to the recording sessions of
This Is What You Want... This Is What You Get by Public
Image Ltd, In the Long Grass, the last studio album by
The Boomtown Rats, All the Rage, the debut album by
General Public,[7] This Last Night in Sodom by Soft Cell
followed by Vermin in Ermine, a solo project by Marc Almond and The Willing Sinners.[13] He also performed on
Olympia by Hong Kong Syndikat, Bite Black and Blues by
Raoul and The Ruined, In on the o Beat by Hey! Elastica, and Inuences, a solo album by Mark King of Level
42. But, another Barnacles longtime association started
that same year with Elvis Costello for whom he provided
saxophone for Goodbye Cruel World,[14][15] and then, for
Imperial Bedroom, released in 1987. He also appears on
many of Costellos compilation albums.[9]

4.9. GARY BARNACLE


In 1985, Barnacle participated on the release of No Jacket
Required, a solo album by Phil Collins, as well as to the releases of Phantasmagoria by The Damned, Easy Pieces by
Lloyd Cole and the Commotions, Some People by Belouis
Some, The Dream Academy's eponymous debut album,
Knights Like This by Peter Blegvad, and Mad Not Mad by
Madness.[9] The following year he appeared on Writing
on the Wall by Bucks Fizz, Stop Start by Modern English,
Dancing in my Sleep by Dave Adams, U-Vox, the last album of the Midge Ure years, by Ultravox, Cutting Crew's
debut album, the UK number one album Silk and Steel by
Five Star, Sooner or Later by Murray Head, the debut album by Erasure, Into the Light by Chris de Burgh, Big
Canoe a solo album released by former Split Enz frontman Tim Finn, Press to Play by Paul McCartney,[16] and
1st Down & Ten by Keep It Dark.[9] Also in 1986, he appeared on Absolute Beginners: The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, playing on tracks by David Bowie - the
single "Absolute Beginners", Style Council, Ray Davies,
Working Week and Gil Evans, among others. During this
period John Thirkell joined forces with Pete Thoms and
Barnacle to form the Phantom Horns.
1987 was another prolic year for Barnacle, who was
featured on the hit singles "China in Your Hand" by
T'Pau, "Roadblock" by Stock, Aitken and Waterman and
"Breakout" by Swing Out Sister. He also contributed to
the releases of Red by The Communards, Banzai Baby by
Sandii & the Sunsetz, Rick Astley's debut album. This
last was a collaboration that was repeated with the release of Astleys second album, Hold Me in Your Arms,
released in 1989. Also in 1987, he performed on Feelin'
Good About It by This Way Up, Can't Wait to See the
Movie seventh solo album released by Roger Daltrey of
The Who,[17] Stand Up by Jo Lemaire, Never Never Land
by Simon F, If by Hollywood Beyond, and on Swing Out
Sister's debut album as well as on their third studio album,
Get in Touch with Yourself, released in 1992.[9]
In 1988, Barnacle worked on Bullet From A Gun by Derek
B, Human Animal by Karel Fialka, Creeping Up on Jesus by The Big Dish,[7][18] No Winners with saw Barnacle working for the rst time with Paul Hardcastle and
then repeated on Hardcastles Sound Syndicate, released
in 1990, and The Jazzmasters released in 1992.[19] 1988
also saw Barnacle participating to the release of the debut
album by celtic rock group Hothouse Flowers, Yazz's
debut album, The Jeremy Days by The Jeremy Days,
then followed by the 1990 Circushead, Monster Jam by
Ambassadors of Funk, Union, the debut album of the
American singer and songwriter Toni Childs, Rage by
T'Pau, Working Girl OST, Steppin' Out by Daryl Stuermer, No Outsiders by Judy Cheeks, and 24hrs by Scarlet
Fantastic.[9]
1989 saw Barnacle engaged in the releases of Moss Side
Story, a concept album by Barry Adamson, Boomerang
by The Creatures, a British duo formed by singer Siouxsie
and drummer Budgie, Here Today, Tomorrow Next Week!
by Bjrk's band The Sugarcubes. After the band split

91
in 1992, Barnacle contributed to Bjrks rst two solo
albums, Debut, released in 1993 and Post, released in
1995. In 1989 he also participated to the releases of
Bass! by Simon Harris, The Beautiful South's debut album as well as their second album, Choke, released in
1990, Hard Reyne by Australian singer and songwriter
James Reyne, Bankstatement, a solo project by Genesis
keyboardist Tony Banks, Waterfront by Waterfront, and
I'm Still Here by Eartha Kitt.[9]
The 1990s (19901999)
In 1990, Barnacle appeared as a session musician on
Naked by Blue Pearl, Trading Secrets with the Moon by
The Adventures, the debut album by English boy band
Big Fun, Dangerous by Andy Taylor, First Time Ever by
Joanna Law, Melting Down on Motor Angel by Sunsonic,
Running from the Guns by Die Laughing, Stand Strong
by Junior Giscombe, Jordan: The Comeback by Prefab
Sprout,[11] and December by Dag Kolsrud, which was
followed by December II, released in 1991. Also in
1990, he appeared on Always The Last To Know by Del
Amitri. In 1991, he also worked on Meanwhile by German synthpop group Camouage, Changing Faces nal
studio album from Bros, Black Meaning Good by Rebel
MC, Marchand de cailloux from French artis Renaud,
Lets Get to It, the fourth album by Australian pop singer
Kylie Minogue,[9] The Apple by A Man Called Adam,[11]
and the eponymous album by Rain Tree Crow, which was
the name used by the English new wave band Japan (excluding Rob Dean) when they briey reformed for this
one-o project.[11]
1992 saw his collaboration with Soul II Soul for their third
studio album, Volume III: Just Right, an experience that
was repeated later in 1995 for Volume V: Believe. Also in
1992, he worked on Mind Adventures by Desree, Boing!!
by Jeerson Airhead, Praise by Praise, and Grass Roots
by Takagi Kan.[9] The following year Barnacle participated in the realization of Jamiroquai's debut album, and
also worked on Gurus Jazzmatazz, Vol. 1 by Guru, To
Hell with Humdrum by Kingmaker, and One and All by
Supermax.[9] In 1993, he played on James Brown's Universal James album (produced by Jazzie B).
In 1994, he played on Jamiroquai's The Return Of The
Space Cowboy album. He released his rst solo album,
Love Will Find a Way, and contributed to El pan y la
sal by Spanish pop band Presuntos Implicados.[9] Also in
1994, Barnacle appeared as the saxophonist in the house
band on the spoof chat show Knowing Me Knowing You
with Alan Partridge. The following year, worked on Hold
On by Jaki Graham, The Tooth Mother by Mick Karn,
Love and Respect by Marla Glen,[9] and on Billie Ray
Martin's debut album, Deadline for My Memories.[11] In
1995, he played on 10 cc's Mirror Mirror album. In
1996, he took part in Jamiroquai's biggest-selling album
to date:- Travelling Without Moving (11.5 million copies
worldwide). From 1996 onwards, his appearances be-

92
came more sporadic. Nevertheless, he participated in the
realization of Status Quo's Don't Stop, an album of cover
versions that includes guest appearances from The Beach
Boys, Brian May of Queen, and Maddy Prior of Steeleye
Span, and the Sputnik: The Next Generation's eponymous album featuring Tomoyasu Hotei, both released in
1996. Games by Happy Clappers, and Feedback by Vargas Blues Band, were released in 1997.[9] In 1997, he
played on and arranged brass for the No.1 single I Wanna
Be The Only One by Eternal. In that same year he played
on the big US hit Are You Jimmy Ray ? by Jimmy Ray
and his subsequent eponymous album released in 1998.
In 1999, he appeared as a session musician on When The
Good Times Come by Hard Rain.

Recent projects (2000present)


He returned to the music industry in 2001 when he and
Hugh Hopper, Jakko Jakszyk, Dave Stewart, and Clive
Brooks recorded a new version of As Long as He Lies
Perfectly Still by Soft Machine for the compilation Man
In a Deaf Corner: Anthology 19631970.[20] In 2002,
Barnacle released his second solo album, Paradise.[9] In
2004, he played sax/ute on Between The Sun And The
Moon by Brenda Russell. During this period he co-wrote
and recorded an instrumental project with Mark King,
also involving Bill Sharpe (Shakatak), and still awaiting
release.
Other acts for whom Barnacle has contributed live
or in session have included Pet Shop Boys, David
Bowie,[21] and ABC.[9] He worked frequently with Stock
Aitken Waterman as a session musician in their PWL
studios. Barnacle is frequently credited as an arranger
of woodwinds, brass and string instrument on his session
work.[9] Barnacle also plays ute, keyboards and drums.
In a career spanning more than three decades, Gary Barnacle has backed the stars of pop and rock and has seen
the birth of new groups and musicians, experimenting
with versatility across a variety of dierent musical genres and their associated styles.
In 2008/2009 he produced and arranged indie pop band
Propeller and produced Ray Guntrips Out Of The Blue
jazz project and he appeared as session musician and
brass arranger on The Collection by Jools Holland, and as
session musician on A Long Way Back by Roger Cotton.
Plus he was in the studio with Matt Johnson of Jamiroquai
and singer J. C. Bentley.
In 2010 he was featured on Carried By The Storm by
Bronz and on some live tracks on the Living It Up CD
by Level 42.
2011 saw him appearing on La Musica by Ray Foxx (feat.
Lovelle), This Is Love by Yazz, plus new releases by Ray
Guntrip and Tina May, the new CD from Vlad Miller and
Notes from Underground (released in 2012).
In 2012 he worked on recordings by Project 5, The Geo

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL


Everett Band (feat. Albert Lee), Vlad Miller, Debbi
Parks/Tony Haygarth project and the Blackjack Horns
(featuring Nik Carter/Jack Birchwood/Steve Fuller).
In 2013 he engineered, produced and played on the single Any Minute Now by Andrea Magee, played on the
'Jank' ep by The Jacs and recorded with Blackjack Horns
on a production by Walter Afanasie called "Love Letters" by Brenna Whitaker, among others.
2014 saw him recording on the Mue album by Emilie Simon (with the Blackjack Horns) and the Cutting Crew
album (again with the Blackjack Horns).

4.9.2 Lists of collaborations


Barnacle has worked with a large number of popular music acts, including:
(Note:- unless otherwise stated, the credits below
mean studio work only.)

The Clash
The Damned
Public Image Ltd
The Ruts/Ruts D.C. (studio and live)
The Beat (live only)
Stray Cats (studio and live)
Pearl Harbour and the Explosions (studio and live)
Spear of Destiny (live only)
Positive Noise (studio and live)
Pete Shelley
Morrissey
Audioshock
Howard Devoto
Barry Adamson
Shed Seven (studio and TV)
Simple Minds
China Crisis
The Teardrop Explodes
Hothouse Flowers
Lloyd Cole and the Commotions
The Boomtown Rats
M (studio and TV)

4.9. GARY BARNACLE

93

Madness

Simply Red

Dexys Midnight Runners

Kylie Minogue

The Beautiful South

Dannii Minogue (studio and live)

Level 42 (studio, live, live TV, video and TV)

Jason Donovan

Mark King (studio, live and TV)

Bucks Fizz

Nik Kershaw

Amazulu

Bros (studio and video)

The Communards

Go West (live and TV)

Sarah Jane Morris

Waterfront (studio, TV and video)

Erasure

King (studio and live)

Wet Wet Wet (live and TV only)

Paul King (live and TV)

Cutting Crew

Five Star

Modern English

The Pasadenas

Keep It Dark (studio, live and TV)

10 cc

This Way Up

Visage (studio and TV)

Halo James (video only)

Steve Strange/ Strange Cruise

The Style Council (studio and TV)

Ultravox

Tears For Fears (TV only)

Boy George

Swing Out Sister

Marilyn (studio and TV)

Tina Turner (studio, live, TV, video and live TV)

Holly Johnson

T'Pau (studio and video)

Pet Shop Boys

Toyah

Nick Kamen (TV only)

Tom Jones (studio, live and TV)

Jimmy Ray

Engelbert Humperdinck

Paul Hardcastle

Barry Ryan

The Jazzmasters

Cilla Black

Samantha Fox

Dusty Springeld

Kim Wilde (studio, live, video and TV)

Sandie Shaw (studio and TV)

Tiany (TV only)

Petula Clark

Wilson Phillips (TV only)

Cli Richard

Sinitta

Michael Ball (video only)

Yazz (studio, live, TV and video)

Ben Mills (live only)

Rick Astley (studio, live and TV)

Jane McDonald (TV only)

Spandau Ballet (studio and TV)

Eartha Kitt

Andy Taylor (of Duran Duran)

Chris de Burgh

Duran Duran

Gilbert O'Sullivan

INXS

Les McKeown (studio, live and TV)

94

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Elkie Brooks

Nico

Beverley Craven (live only)

Marc Almond (studio and live)

Sally Boyden

Jim Foetus aka JG Thirwell (live and TV)

Rebekah Ryan

Mick Karn (studio, live and live on TV)

Andrea Magee

David Sylvian

Michelle Collins

Rain Tree Crow

Suzi Quatro (live only)

James J.T. Taylor

Jim Diamond (studio, video and TV)

The Big Dish

Status Quo (studio, live, video and TV)

Jamiroquai (studio, live,TV and live TV)

The Beach Boys (studio, live, video and TV)

James Brown

Eric Clapton (live and TV)

Soul II Soul

George Harrison (live and TV)

Massive Attack

Ringo Starr (live and TV)

Q-Tee

Je Lynne (live and TV)

The Cookie Crew

Brian May (live and TV)

Eric B. and Rakim

Roger Taylor/The Cross

Guru (of Jazzmatazz) (studio, live and TV)

Ray Davies

Donald Byrd (live only)

Allan Holdsworth

Oliver Lake

Daryl Stuermer

Roy Ayres (live only)

Chester Thompson (live only)

David Sanborn (live and live TV)

The Phenix Horns

Ronny Jordan (studio and live)

Alphonso Johnson (live only)

Derek B (studio,live, TV and live TV)

General Public

Chante Moore

Soft Cell (studio,live and TV)

The Chimes

Elvis Costello (studio and live)

Driza Bone

Graham Parker (live and TV)

Lighthouse Family

Del Amitri

Londonbeat

Prefab Sprout

Eternal

The Creatures (studio and TV)

Ruby Turner

Siouxsie And The Banshees

Jaki Graham

Roger Daltrey (studio and TV)

David Grant

Phil Collins (studio and live)

Junior Giscombe

Mike Rutherford (studio and video)

Caron Wheeler

Tony Banks

Ruth Joy

Genesis (TV only)

Evelyn Thomas

David Bowie

Nona Hendryx

4.9. GARY BARNACLE

95

Chaka Khan (studio and TV)

Midnight Oil

Taylor Dayne (live and TV)

Dragon

Maxi Priest

James Reyne

Daddy Freddy

John Farnham (live and TV)

Junior Reid

The Box Tops (live only)

Arrow

Sonny Okosun/Sonny Okosuns/Sonny Okosun's


Ozziddi

Laurel Aitken
Tradition

King Sunny Ad

Gene Rondo

Lemmy Jackson

Desree

Blo (Berkley Jones/Laolu Akins/Otu Lemmy Jackson)

Geno Washington (studio and live)


Edwin Starr (studio and live TV)
Sam Moore (of Sam and Dave) (studio and live)
Wilson Pickett (live only)
Robert Cray (live and video)
Si Cranstoun (live and studio)
Jimmy Run (live only)
The Temptations (live and TV)
Johnny Moore (of The Drifters)
Joe Cocker (live and TV)
Lenny Kravitz (live and TV)
Huey Lewis (live and TV)
Keef Hartley (live only)
Sheena Easton (TV only)
k.d. lang (live and TV)

Oby Onyioha
Patrick Juvet
Spagna (TV only)
Supermax
Klaus Homann
Marius Mller Westernhagen aka Westernhagen
Kristine W
Vittorio Grigolo (live only)
Loredana Bert
Julien Clerc
Alain Bashung
Valerie LaGrange
Emilie Simon
Renaud

Michelle Shocked (live and TV)

Tonton David

Ricky Martin (live and TV)

Luc Plamondon

Marc Anthony (live and TV)

Rose Laurens

Gloria Estefan (TV only)

Rozlyne Clarke

Julio Iglesias (TV only)

Isabel Pantoja

Trini Lopez (live only)

Rachid Bahri

Al Jarreau (TV only)

Jos Luis Perales

Michael Bolton (TV only)

Francisco Xavier

Joe Roberts (TV only)

Ramoncin (studio and live)

Lindy Layton (studio and TV)

Presuntos Implicados

Tim Finn

Tam Tam Go !

96

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Rui Veloso (studio, live and TV)

Hugh Padgham

Joo Pedro Pais

Stephen Hague

Pedro Camilo

Youth

Edoardo Bennato

Dan Hartman

Luciana Caporaso (TV only)

Tony Joe White

Yosui Inoue

Simon Law

Motoharu Sano

Lee Hamblin

Hajime Mizoguchi

Ross Anderson

Masahiro Motoki

Jazzie B

Chara

Nick Launay

Watauchi Katsuyuki

Peter Lorimer

Ann Lewis

Steve Anderson (musician) (Brothers In Rhythm)

Beverley Knight (live and TV only)

Peter Collins

Dina Carroll (live and TV only)


Harriet
Juliet Roberts
Haywoode
Maria Whittaker
Ola Onabule (studio and live)
Lance Ellington (live only)
Paul Young (live and TV only)
Paul Carrack (live and TV only)
Rod Argent (live only)
Deaf School (live/live recording)
S'Express
Stock, Aitken and Waterman
The Sugarcubes
Bjrk (studio and live TV)
Paul McCartney (studio, live and TV)
Barnacles services have been called upon by the following top producers, engineers, and arrangers :

Paul O'Duy
Tom Dowd
George Martin
Mike Hurst
Phil Wainman
Simon May
David Richards
Mike Vernon
Martin Rushent
Bill Price
Gus Dudgeon
Roy Thomas Baker
Carlo Vila
Billy Livsey
Colin Thurston
Jon Kelly
Steve Hillage
Mike Howlett
William Orbit

Clive Langer and Alan Winstanley

Tom Dolby

Stock, Aitken and Waterman

Phil Thornalley

Mike Hedges

Colin Campsie

John Hudson

George McFarlane

4.9. GARY BARNACLE

97

Gary Bell

Louie Louie/Louis Louis/Louie Vega

Howard Gray

Zeus B. Held

Ian Prince

Dee Harris/Dave Harris

Leon Ware

Bernard Butler

Lenny White

Mike Gregovich

Lemmy Jackson

Julian Mendelsohn

Martin Meissonnier

Mike Ging

Martin Moll

Ricki Wilde and Marty Wilde

Gary Langan

Charlie Gillett

Ken Scott

Ron Franois

Alex Sadkin

Scobie Ryder

Michael Kamen

Gil Norton

Gil Evans

Ryoji Oba

David Bedford

Graham Gouldman

David Lindup

Rafe McKenna

Phil Pope

Terry Brown

James Simpson

John Eden

Steve Brown

Bob Sargeant

Fiachra Trench

Bobby Eli

Anne Dudley

John Ryan

Bruce Woolley

Steve Chase

Stephen Stewart-Short/Steve Short

Stuart Bruce

Bert Bevans

Wally Brill

David Ball (musician)

Trevor Vallis

J.P.Iliesco

Nick Patrick

Hein Hoven

Chris Sheldon

Rusty Egan

Walter Turbitt

Midge Ure

Gary Stevenson

Glen Skinner

Steve Osborne

Neil Brockbank

Paul Oakenfold

Paul Riley

Pascal Gabriel

Ali Campbell

Ian Levine

Ian Penman

Simon Harris

Adam Sie

Pete Oxendale

Del Taylor

Ric Lee

Neal X/Neal Whitmore

Pete Gage

98

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Roger Bechirian

4.9.5 References

Alan Shacklock

[1] Gregory 2002.

Paul Hardiman

[2] Salewicz 2007, p. 203.

John Brand

[3] Knowles 2003, pp. 24, 32, 42, 77.

Pete Schwier

[4] Simmonds 2008, p. 137.

Flood

[5] Greene-Allmusic.

Adam Fuest

[6] Buckley 2003, p. VII.

Alan Moulder
Curtis Schwartz
Simon Hanhart
Mike Neilsen

[7] Robbins 1991, pp. 57,275,568.


[8] Gibbs 1996, p. 247.
[9] Credits.
[10] Forevernow.com.
[11] Phantom Horns.

Al Stone

[12] Kim Wilde.

Nick Tauber

[13] Reed 1999, p. 37.

Max Norman

[14] Perone 1998, pp. 19,30.

Carey Taylor

[15] Thomson 2004, p. 164.

James Guthrie

[16] Badman 2009, p. 404.

Jean-Paul 'Bluey' Maunick

[17] Bogovich-Posner 2003, p. 18.

Monty Norman

[18] Robbins-TrouserPress.

Mick Glossop

[19] Schwann Spectrum 1995, p. 249.

Walter Afanasie
Kris Ife

[20] Bennett 2005, p. 377.


[21] Pegg 2006, p. 381.

Ian Caple

Sources

Biddu

Books

4.9.3

Discography

Main article: Gary Barnacle discography

Love Will Find a Way (1994)


Phantom Horns (1995)
Paradise (2002)

4.9.4

See also

Leisure Process
Members of Public Image Ltd.
Touring and studio musicians of Phil Collins

Badman, Keith (2009) [1999]. The Beatles Diary.


Volume 2: After The Break-Up 19702001. London: Omnibus. p. 404. ISBN 0-85712-001-8.
Bennett, Graham (2005). Soft Machine Discography. Soft Machine: Out-Bloody-Rageous. Daevid
Allen, Hugh Hopper and John Etheridge. London: SAF. p. 377. ISBN 0-946719-84-5. OCLC
60668224.
Bogovich, Richard; Posner, Cheryl (2003). The
Who: A Whos Who. Jeerson, North Carolina:
McFarland. p. 18. ISBN 0-7864-1569-X. OCLC
51518398.
Bordowitz, Hank (2004). Miriam Makeba. Noise
of the World: Non-western Musicians in their Own
Words. Brooklyn, New York: Soft Skull. pp. 245
260. ISBN 1-932360-60-3. OCLC 56809540.

4.10. PENNIE SMITH

99

Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock Records


(3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides. p. VII. ISBN 184353-105-4. OCLC 446772461. Meanwhile, the
Love Will Find a Way (CD). Gary Barnacle. Japan:
remaining Ruts regrouped with Gary Barnacle (saxVictor Entertainment. 1994.
ophone/keyboards), and with Fox taking over as lead
vocalist, as Ruts DC (from the Latin da capo, mean Love Will Find A Way at Discogs
ing 'from the beginning'). But the creative chemistry
Paradise (CD). Gary Barnacle. Japan. 2002.
had gone, ...
Gibbs, Alvin (1996). Destroy: The Denitive History of Punk. Great Britain: Britannia. p. 247.
ISBN 1-899784-00-4. OCLC 34737812.
Gregory, Andy (2002). International Whos Who in
Popular Music (4th ed.). London: Europa. ISBN
1-85743-161-8. OCLC 469506912.
Knowles, Chris (December 2003). Clash City Showdown (PDF) (PDF). Otsego, Michigan: PageFree
Publishing. pp. 24, 32, 42, 77. ISBN 1-58961138-1. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
Pegg, Nicholas (2006). The Complete David Bowie.
Richmond, London: Reynolds & Hearn. p. 381.
ISBN 1-905287-15-1. OCLC 656148747.
Perone, James E. (1998). ALBUM DISCOGRAPHY. Elvis Costello: A Bio-Bibliography.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. pp. 19, 30.
ISBN 0-313-30399-1. OCLC 39733293.

Paradise at AllMusic. Retrieved 4 May 2010.


Web
Gary Barnacle Discography: Credits. Discogs.
Retrieved 9 May 2011.
Greene, Jo-Ann. The Rutts. Allmusic. Retrieved
2 May 2011.
Mueller, Carl. Gary Barnacle, John Thirkell, Krys
Mach & Annie McCaig. Forevernow.com. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
Phantom Horns Discography. Discogs. Retrieved
10 May 2011.
Robbins, Ira A. Big Dish (PHP). TrouserPress.com. Retrieved 29 April 2011.

Kim Wilde (in Norwegian). musikalske.net. Re Reed, Jeremy (1999) [1995]. The Last Star: A
trieved 11 May 2011.
Study of Marc Almond (Rev. ed.). London: Creation Books. p. 37. ISBN 1-84068-006-7. OCLC
59417730.
4.9.6 Further reading
Robbins, Ira A. (1991). Robbins, Ira A., ed. The
Trouser Press Record Guide (4th ed.). New York:
Collier. pp. 57, 275, 568. ISBN 0-02-036361-3.
OCLC 23732024.

Mitchell, Pete (2006).


Outside Looking in.
Derbyshire, England: The Derwent Press. p. 62.
ISBN 1-84667-011-X.

Salewicz, Chris (15 May 2007). Redemption Song:


4.9.7 External links
The Ballad of Joe Strummer (1st American ed.).
New York: Faber and Faber. p. 203. ISBN 0-571 Gary Barnacle at AllMusic
21178-X. OCLC 76794852.
Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of
Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham
Sandwiches. Chicago: Chicago Review. p. 137.
ISBN 1-55652-754-3. OCLC 182735382.
Thomson, Graeme (2004). Complicated Shadows:
The Life and Music of Elvis Costello. Edinburgh:
Canongate. p. 164. ISBN 1-84195-544-2. OCLC
60377979.
Journals and magazines

Gary Barnacle discography at Discogs


Gary Barnacle discography at MusicBrainz
Gary Barnacle on Facebook

4.10 Pennie Smith


Pennie Smith should not be confused with television
presenter and newsreader Penny Smith.

Schwann Spectrum.
Santa Fe, New Mexico: Pennie Smith (born in London) is an English photograStereophile. 6 (4): 249. 1995. ISSN 1065-9161. pher, known for having photographed several rock musiOCLC 26790231. Missing or empty |title= (help)
cians. She specialises in black-and-white photography.

100

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Smith attended Twickenham Art school in the late 1960s, [4] Smith, Pennie (1980). The Clash: Before and After.
Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-80169-0. OCLC
studying graphics and ne art. With others, she collab8034340.
orated with graphic designer Barney Bubbles and music
journalist Nick Kent in producing Friends magazine from
[5] Classic Album Covers British Design on stamps 7 Jan1969 to 1972. In 1970 she designed the sleeve for the
uary 2010. Norvic Philatelics. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
Pink Fairies debut release Never Never Land. Her rst
major photographic commission was to cover a 1970s
Led Zeppelin tour. Smith went on to work at the NME 4.10.3 External links
as sta photographer until the early 1980s.
In her career, Smith has photographed some well-known
rock musicians including: Led Zeppelin, The Rolling
Stones, The Who, Iggy Pop, Sweet, The Clash, The Jam,
The Slits, Siouxsie Sioux, Debbie Harry, U2, Morrissey,
The Stone Roses, Primal Scream, Manic Street Preachers, Radiohead, Blur, Oasis, David Smith and The
Strokes.
In addition to her portrait work she has covered tours with
musicians, including a photograph of The Clashs Paul Simonon smashing his bass guitar on the stage in New York
City during a 1979 tour.[1][2] The photograph went on to
be used on the cover of the Clash album London Calling, designed by Ray Lowry, and received Q magazine's
Greatest Rock 'n Roll Photograph of All-Time award
in 2002.[3]

Pennie Smith at the National Portrait Gallery


An interview with Pennie Smith at the Wayback Machine (archived 31 August 2005)

4.11 Ellen Foley


Ellen Foley (born June 5, 1951) is an American singer
and actress who has appeared on Broadway and television,
where she co-starred in the sitcom Night Court. In music,
she has released four solo albums but is best known for her
collaborations with rock singer Meat Loaf.[1][2][3][4][5]

4.11.1 Early life and career

Smiths work has appeared on the covers and pages of


the NME, on album sleeves, promotional material and has
Foley was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughfeatured in books. In 1980 her best selling book, The
ter of John and Virginia B. Foley.[6] Foley attended
Clash, Before and After, was published.[4]
Webster University.[6] Foley gained high public recogIn late 2009 multiple images by Smith were included in nition singing the duet with Meat Loaf on the hit single
the "Who Shot Rock & Roll" exhibit of rock photography "Paradise by the Dashboard Light" from the 1977 album
at the Brooklyn Museum.
Bat Out of Hell.[7] Although Karla DeVito (who toured
the
In Jan 2010 Smiths London Calling image was issued on with Meat Loaf in support of the album) is featured in [8]
music
video,
DeVito
is
lip
synching
to
Foleys
vocals.
[5]
a postage stamp by the Royal Mail.
Smith currently lives and works in a disused railway station in West London, which she bought and converted
into a studio while she was a student, and freelances in
black and white reportage photography.

4.10.1

See also

Tony Mott

Her debut album Night Out was released in 1979; the albums single Whats a Matter Baby was a minor hit,
reaching No. 92 on the US Charts.[9] The album itself
peaked at No. 152, and was produced by Ian Hunter and
Mick Ronson. Foley recorded a memorable duet with Ian
Hunter in 1980, We Gotta Get Outta Here. Her creative
relationship with Hunter also led her to singing backing
vocals on the Iron City Houserockers' 1980 album Have a
Good Time but Get Out Alive!, produced by Hunter, Ronson, and The E Street Bands Steven Van Zandt.[10]

She can also be heard on the 1979 Blue yster Cult album Mirrors singing on the title cut, and also on The
Clash album Sandinista! (Released in 1980), in the songs
[1] Green, Johnny; Barker, Garry (2003) [1997]. A Riot of "Hitsville UK" and Corner Soul, and on the unreleased
Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd ed.). Lon- track Blonde Rock 'n' Roll. In 1981, all four members
don: Orion. pp. 195196. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC of The Clash appeared on her second album The Spirit
52990890.
of St. Louis, and Mick Jones and Joe Strummer co-wrote
a number of songs for the album.[11] Jones produced the
[2] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October
album, which also featured members of The Blockheads,
2004. p.70.
and peaked at No. 137 on the US charts.[11] In 1982, she
[3] Judd, Terri (24 January 2002). One Hundred Timeless provided backing vocals on The Clashs song Car Jam[12]
The Clashs hit
Rock'n'roll Moments, and the Photographers Who Turned ming from the album Combat Rock.
song "Should I Stay or Should I Go", written and sung by
Them into Icons. The Independent. London.

4.10.2

References

4.11. ELLEN FOLEY

101

Jones, was about the turbulent relationship he shared with


Foley at the time.[7][13]

Spirit of St. Louis (1981) Epic[9]

Another Breath (1983) Epic[9]


She released her third solo album Another Breath in 1983;
it failed to chart.[14] In 1984, she sang backing vocals on
About Time (2013)
Joe Jacksons album Body & Soul and had a large role in
the music video for Utopias Crybaby.[2]
Note: all of these were originally issued by Epic[9] within
Foley was one of four female vocalists to front the band the U.S. on vinyl LP. They have been reissued on ComPandoras Box, formed by Jim Steinman in 1989. Their pact Disc by Wounded Bird Records.[14]
album Original Sin was the rst to feature the song "Its
All Coming Back to Me Now" (vocals by Elaine Caswell);
both Meat Loaf and Celine Dion had separate chart suc- Compilations
cesses with that song, years later.[15][16]

4.11.2

The Very Best of (1992)

Broadway, lm and television

Singles

Foley lives on the Upper West Side of Manhattan and


continues an active career in music and has appeared
on Broadway in such shows as Me and My Girl and the
revival of Hair, and o-Broadway in Beehive.[2][3] She
originated the role of The Witch in Stephen Sondheim's
Into the Woods at the Old Globe Theater in San Diego,[3]
but was replaced by Bernadette Peters before the musical opened on Broadway.[17] Foley did eventually play the
role on Broadway, as of August 1, 1989.[17]
Her best known television acting role is that of Billie
Young on Night Court for one season (198485),[3] after which she was succeeded by Markie Post as Christine Sullivan, who had always been Reinhold Weege's rst
choice for the public defender part, but Post had been unavailable while under contract on the television series The
Fall Guy on ABC.[18] Foley was reportedly let go from
the series because producers felt her relationship with
star Harry Anderson was more like that of a brother and
sister.[19] She had roles in Milo Forman's lm adaptation
of the stage musical Hair (1979), as well as the lms Fatal
Attraction (1987), Married to the Mob (1988) and Cocktail
(1988). She was also in the short-lived 1977 series 3 Girls
3, co-starring with Debbie Allen and Mimi Kennedy.[3]

4.11.3

Personal life

We Belong to the Night / Young Lust (1979)


Whats a Matter Baby / Hideaway (1979)
Sad Song / Stupid Girl (1980)
Stupid Girl / Young Lust (1980)
The Shuttered Palace / Beautiful Waste of Time
(1981)
Torchlight / Game of a Man (1981)
Torchlight / Le palais (1981)
Boys in the Attic / Beat of a Broken Heart
(1983)
Nightline (Single Version)" / Beat of a Broken
Heart (1983)
Nightline (Dance Mix - Long Version)" / Nightline (Dance Mix - Short Version)" Nightline (Dub)"
[12 Maxi-Single]
Heaven Can Wait (2015)

4.11.6 References
[20]

In 1990, Foley married the writer Doug Bernstein,


co-author of the O-Broadway revue Showing O and
graduate of Amherst College.[20] The couple live in
Manhattan with their two sons, Timothy and Henry. As
of the mid-2000s, she teaches voice at The Paul Green
School of Rock Music in Manhattan, New York City.[5]

[1] Ruhlmann, William. allmusic ((( Ellen Foley > Overview


)))". allmusic.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
[2] Ellen Foley - Biography. IMDb.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
[3] Ellen Foley Biography (1951-)". lmreference.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.

4.11.4

Filmography

4.11.5

Discography

Studio albums
Night Out (1979) Epic[9]

[4] Albums by Ellen Foley - Rate Your Music. rateyourmusic.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
[5] School
of
Rock

School
Sta.
SCHOOLofROCK.com.
Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved February 27,
2010.

102

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

[6] Douglas Bernstein Weds Ellen Foley, Fellow Actor. The


New York Times. 1990-04-30. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
[7] The Uncut Crap - Over 56 Things You Never Knew
About The Clash. NME. London: IPC Magazines. 3.
March 16, 1991. ISSN 0028-6362. OCLC 4213418.
Should I Stay Or Should I Go was written by Mick about
American singer Ellen Foley, who sang the backing vocals
on Meatloafs Bat Out Of Hell LP
Related news articles:
Peterson, Tami. The Uncut Crap - Over 56 Things
You Never Knew About The Clash - NME March
16, 1991. londonsburning.org. Archived from the
original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved December 11,
2007.

[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]

[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]

4.12 Caroline Coon


Caroline Coon (born 1945) is an English artist, journalist and political activist. Her artwork, which often explores sexual themes from a feminist standpoint,[1] has
been exhibited at many major London galleries, including the Saatchi Gallery and the Tate.[1]

4.12.1 Life

Coon was born to a family of Kent landowners and had


ve brothers. She left home at 16 and came to London to nd a job. She lived in Notting Hill and began
Murray, Richard. Its all coming back to me now. Ricks by doing some modelling work, including making a softWorld. heyrick.co.uk. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
core porn lm.[2][3] Trained as a gurative painter, she
became involved in the 1960s underground movement in
Stone, Doug. allmusic ((( Night Out > Overview )))".
London while still attending art school. In 1967, with
allmusic.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
Rufus Harris, she co-founded Release, an agency set up
The Ocial Ian Hunter Website - Biography. ian- to provide legal advice and arrange legal representation
hunter.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
for young people charged with the possession of drugs.
She remains politically active, campaigning primarily for
allmusic ((( Spirit of St. Louis > Overview )))". allmufeminist causes, including the legalisation of prostitution.
sic.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
In the 1970s, she became involved in the London punk
Gray, Marcus. The Clash: Return of the Last Gang in
scene, writing about the bands for Melody Maker and proTown. page 382. Hal Leonard Corporation, Oct 1, 2004.
viding artwork for groups such as The Clash, whom she
ISBN 9780634082405
briey managed, and The Police. In the "Punky BusiThe Clash: Biography : Rolling Stone. Rolling- ness" episode of the BBC comedy series The Goodies,
Stone.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
Jane Asher plays a parody of Coon (Caroline Kook),
the dream lover of Tim Brooke-Taylor's aspiring punk
allmusic ((( Another Breath > Overview )))". allmurock star. She also inspired Robert Wyatt's lyrics for the
sic.com. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
Matching Mole song O Caroline, The Stranglers' LoneveryHit.com - UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Sin- don Lady and, according to herself,[4] Bob Dylan's "She
gles & Album Charts. everyhit.co.uk.
Belongs To Me", though this claim is highly questionable
argue that the song is
Celine Dion - Chart history | Billboard. www.billboard. since most Dylan experts would[5][6][7]
actually about either Joan Baez,
or Dylans future
com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
wife Sara.

[17] "'Into the Woods, 1986 Old Globe Production and 1987
Broadway Production, Sondheimguide.com, accessed
August 2, 2012
[18] Markie Post Interview: Part 2. North Hollywood
Toluca Lake Patch. 2011-01-20. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
[19] TV Guide August 815, 1985.
[20] New York Times. Douglas Bernstein Weds Ellen Foley,
Fellow Actor April 30, 1990.
[21] honorduy (22 March 2014). Lies I Told My Little Sister
(2014)". IMDb.

4.11.7

External links

Ellen Foley at the Internet Movie Database


Ellen Foley at the Internet Broadway Database
Information page and discography

Coons artwork is provocative and is particularly concerned with the human nude. In 1995 her painting, Mr
Olympia, was not shown at Tate Liverpool because the
male subject had a semi-erect penis.[1] In June 2000 she
won damages of 40,000 and legal costs of 33,000 from
publisher Random House after author Jonathon Green
made false claims in his 1998 book All Dressed Up: the
Sixties and the Counterculture.[8]

4.12.2 Publications
The Release Report on Drug Oenders and the Law,
Sphere Books, 1969, ISBN 0-7221-2445-7
1988: The New Wave Punk Rock Explosion,
Hawthorn Books, 1977, ISBN 0-8015-6129-9

4.13. STEVE BELL

4.12.3

References

[1] Ellen, Barbara (2000-07-28). Still ghting the bad guys.


The Observer. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
[2] Jan Moir What Caroline Coon did next, in: The
Guardian; March 17, 1983, Sixties, p. 6

103

4.13.2 Cartoonist
Steve Bell is probably best known for the daily strip called
If..., which has appeared in The Guardian newspaper
since 1981, and since the mid-1990s he has also been that
newspapers principal editorial cartoonist.

Collections of his cartoons have been published, and he


has also illustrated original books in collaboration with
authors. He has made short animated lms with Bob
Godfrey, including a short series of animated cartoons for
[4] Biography. carolinecoon.com. Retrieved 2011-05Channel 4 television in 1999 to mark the 20th anniversary
03.
of Margaret Thatchers rise to power, entitled Margaret
[5] Shelton, R. (1986). No Direction Home. Da Capo Press. Thatcher - Where Am I Now?. He has appeared in a radio programme about the life of 18th century caricaturist
p. 272. ISBN 0-306-80782-3.
James Gillray. Earlier in his career he wrote and drew
[6] Gill, A. (1998). Don't Think Twice, Its All Right. Thun- the Gremlins comic strip for the British comic Jackpot.
[3] gavcrimson: The Naked World of Harrison Marks.
Gavcrimson. Blogspot. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2012-1111.

ders Mouth Press. pp. 7172. ISBN 1-56025-185-9.

Bells parodies include Goya's The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (in an editorial cartoon about the UK
Independence Party[1] ); William Hogarth's The Gate of
Calais about the ban on UK meat exports following outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and bovine BSE; and [8] Michael Smith Sex-for-charity slur costs 40,000, Daily before the 2005 General Election when it briey seemed
Telegraph, 13 June 2000
as if the Liberal Democrats might seriously threaten
Labour - J. M. W. Turner's The Fighting Temeraire, in
which a chirpy Charles Kennedy as tug-boat towed a
4.12.4 External links
grotesque and dilapidated Tony Blair to be broken up.[2]
Following the death of Margaret Thatcher, for his car Caroline Coon at the Internet Movie Database
toon the next day, 8 April 2013, Bell adapted an illustration by Gustave Dor of Farinata in Dante's Inferno,
giving Thatcher the speech bubble Why is this pit still
open??" with reference to the closure of coal mines after
4.13 Steve Bell
the miners strike of 198485.[3]
[7] Williamson, N. (2006). The Rough Guide to Bob Dylan
(2nd ed.). Rough Guides Reference. p. 223. ISBN 9781-84353-718-2.

For other persons, see Steve Bell.


Steven Bell (born 26 February 1951) is an English political cartoonist, whose work appears in The Guardian and
other publications. He is known for his left-wing views
and caricatures.

4.13.1

Early life

Born in Walthamstow, London, and raised in Slough, Bell


moved to North Yorkshire with his family in 1968, where
he trained as an artist at the Teesside College of Art.
He graduated in lm-making and art at the University
of Leeds in 1974 and trained as an art teacher at St
Lukes College, Exeter (nowadays University of Exeter
St Lukes Campus) in 1975. He taught art for one year
in Birmingham before becoming a freelance cartoonist
in 1977. His comic strip Maggies Farm appeared in the
London listings magazine Time Out from 1979 and later
in City Limits, and Lord God Almighty appeared in The
Leveller in the 1970s. In 1980, he contributed a cartoon
interpretation of the lyrics to Ivan Meets G.I. Joe to the
inner lyric bag of the Clash's triple album Sandinista!

Bells cartoons often feature grotesque characters, and


have sometimes caused controversy.
During the
November 2012 Israel/Gaza conict The Guardian published Bells cartoon showing the Israeli Prime Minister,
Benjamin Netanyahu, as a puppeteer controlling William
Hague and Tony Blair.[4] It was asserted by Dave Rich
blogging for the Community Security Trust that the illustration was comparable to those featured in Nazi and
other antisemitic publications.[5] While Bell defended his
cartoon,[6] the newspapers readers editor Chris Elliott
concluded in an article on 25 November: While journalists and cartoonists should be free to express an opinion
that Netanyahu is opportunistic and manipulative, in my
view they should not use the language including the visual language of antisemitic stereotypes..[7] The UKs
Press Complaints Commission PCC received 22 complaints, but ruled on 19 December that it was unable to
take the matter further.[8]
In the run-up to the United Kingdom general election,
2015, there was outrage on Twitter over an If cartoon strip depicting Scottish National Party (SNP) leader
Nicola Sturgeon as refusing to compromise on their core
demand for incest and Scottish folk dancing. Numerous tweets branded Bell as racist, while others said

104

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

that it was no more outrageous than his cartoons mock- [8] Jennifer Lipman PCC rules no breach over Steve Bell
Gaza cartoon, The Jewish Chronicle, 19 December 2012
ing other politicians.[9] There were over 300 complaints
made to the Guardian and nearly 1000 comments under
[9] Jack Sommers SNP Guardian Cartoon By Steve Bell
the online cartoon, mostly negative. The wording referred
Branded 'Racist' In Social Media Outrage, The Hungto a quotation attributed to Sir Arnold Bax, who said a
ton Post, 11 March 2015
Scottish friend had told him You should make a point
of trying every experience once, excepting incest and [10] Elliott, Chris (15 Mar 2015). I may not always agree with
Steve Bell, but I defend his right to draw. the Guardian.
folk dancing.[10] During the Scottish independence refRetrieved 30 Sep 2016.
erendum, 2014, Bells cartoon strip depicted Sturgeons
Yes campaigning as promising No Noness ... and [11] Bell, Steve (13 November 2014). Steve Bells If ... on
Yes Yesness; Nationalism, Socialism: together they go
Nicola Sturgeons new Scotland. the Guardian. Reso well!!"[11]
trieved 30 September 2016.
[12] Press Gazette, Roll of Honour, accessed 24 July 2011

4.13.3

Awards, books and exhibitions

British Press Awards Cartoonist of the Year


2003.[12]

[13] The Independent, 19 February 1994, Reporter nurtures a


scoop
[14] Steve Bell, Biography

What the Papers Say Awards Cartoonist of the


Year 1994[13]
4.13.6
Political Cartoon Society Cartoon of the Year
(2001, 2008) and Cartoonist of the Year (2005,
2007)[14]
Honorary degrees from the Universities of Teesside,
Sussex, Loughborough, Leeds and Brighton.[14]
Bibliography: Steve Bell has had 29 books published
since 1981. A full list is available on his website.

4.13.4

See also

Dropping the Pilot

4.13.5

References

[1] https://www.theguardian.com/cartoons/stevebell/0,
7371,1234690,00.html
[2] https://www.theguardian.com/cartoons/stevebell/0,
7371,1470547,00.html
[3] Steve Bell on Margaret Thatchers death cartoon : Comment is free : guardian.co.uk, British artists remember
Margaret Thatcher: Morrissey, Billy Elliot, Ding Dong
the Witch is Dead - chicagotribune.com

External links

Bellworks - Bells archive of his cartoons


Belltoons.co.uk/books - a full list of Bells published
books
Guardian cartoons by Steve Bell
The Art of Comedy, an interview with Steve Bell,
from suchsmallportions.com
Interview alongside Martin Rowson
Interviewing Robert Crumb, 2005
Biography article at British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent
Interviewed at ICA by George Melly, 1987

4.14 Futura 2000


Warning: Page using Template:Infobox artist with
unknown parameter bgcolour (this message is shown
only in preview).

Futura formerly known as Futura 2000[3] is an American grati artist. He started to paint illegally on New
York City's subway in the early seventies, working with
other artists such as ALI. In the early eighties he showed
[5] Dave Rich Jews, puppets and the Guardian, Community with Patti Astor at the Fun Gallery, along with Keith
Haring, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Richard Hambleton and
Security Trust *(blog), 16 November 2012,
Kenny Scharf. Futura painted backdrops live on-stage
[6] Jennifer Lipman Steve Bell defends Guardian cartoon, for British punk rock band The Clash's 1981 European
The Jewish Chronicle, 22 November 2012
tour.[4] In 1985, he was on the rst meeting of the graf[7] Chris Elliott Open door: The readers editor on accu- ti and urban art movement in Bondy (France), on the
sations of antisemitism against a political cartoon, The VLP's initiative, with Speedy Graphito, Miss Tic, SP
Guardian, 25 November 2012
38, Epsylon Point, Blek le rat, Jef Arosol, Nukl-Art,
[4] Steve Bell on Tony Blair and William Hagues role in
Israel-Gaza clash cartoon, The Guardian (website), 15
November 2012

4.14. FUTURA 2000

105

Banlieue-Banlieue More recently, he is a successful


graphic designer and gallery artist. One of the most distinctive features of Futuras work is his abstract approach
to grati art. While the primary focus, during the 1980s,
of the majority of grati artists was lettering, Futura pioneered abstract street art, which has since become more
popular. Conversely, his aerosol strokes are regarded as
dierent from those of his peers, as they are as thin as the
ne lines achieved only through the use of an airbrush.

Futura artwork photo : Stephane Bisseuil

Futura vintage from the 1980s

Futura artwork

Futura on show

While he is primarily known as a grati artist, much of


his work is as an illustrator and graphic designer of record
sleeves, rst becoming involved with The Clash; producing a sleeve for their "This Is Radio Clash" 7 single and
handwriting the sleeve notes and lyrics sheet for their album Combat Rock. He also toured extensively with The
Clash during the Combat Rock tours, performing with
them on stage by spray painting backdrops whilst the band
performed.
Years later James Lavelle resurrected his career by getting him, alongside Ben Drury, to produce the artwork Paintings by Futura
for several releases on Mo' Wax records; this also led to
Futura producing the imagery which has largely dened nies such as GFS, Subware and Project Dragon. More
Lavelles Unkle project.
recently much of Futuras artwork has evolved into the
During the 1990s he was involved with clothing compa- production of highly collectible toys, Sneakers; and a di-

106

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL


tralia
2001 - Futura, Colette, Paris, France
2000 - bOb, New York, USA
1999 - Variant, New York, USA
1996 - Futura 2000, Muse des Beaux Arts de Tourcoing, Tourcoing, France - Solaria, Fukuoka, Japan - Futura
2000, Livestock Gallery, New York, USA
1994 - Futura 2000, Gallery Cotthem, Knokke, Belgium
- Futura 2000, Time Space Light, New York, USA

The artist at the MoCA LA show

1993 - Futura 2000, Martin Lawrence Gallery, New


York, USA - Futura 2000, Zero One Gallery, Los Angeles, USA

verse range of creative media, working with Recon, Nike, 1992 - Futura 2000, Galerie du Jour Agns b., Paris,
The North Face, Medicom Toy, Undercover, Supreme, France
Levis and A Bathing Ape.
1991 - Futura 2000, Galerie du Jour Agns b., Paris,
Futura also designs his own clothing under the label Fu- France
tura Laboratories with a store located in Fukuoka, Japan. 1990 - Futura 2000 New paintings, Phillipe Briet
His most recent exhibition Future-Shock was presented by Gallery, New York, USA - Futura 2000, B5 Gallery,
Andy Valmorbida and curated by Nemo Librizzi at 560 Monaco
Washington Street in New York City. Past galleries who 1989 - Futura 2000 - Ultimes Obres, Galeria Arcs &
have organized one man exhibitions include Fun Gallery, Cracs, Barcelone, Spain (catalogue) - Futura 2000 - New
Tony Shafrazi Gallery, Philippe Briet Gallery, Galerie du Works, Galerie du Jour Agns b., Paris, France - Futura
Jour Agns B., and Galerie Jrme de Noirmont. Mu- 2000, Muse de Vire, Vire, France (catalogue)
seum exhibitions include New York / New Wave at PS1
(1981), Coming from the Subway Groninger Museum 1988 - Futura 2000, Philippe Briet Gallery, New York,
(1992), Beautiful Losers (2004) and Art in the Streets USA (catalogue)
MOCA (2011).[5]
1986 - Futura 2000, Semaphore Gallery, New York, USA
In 2012, Futura designed the special edition Hennessy 1985 - Futura 2000, Michael Kohn Gallery, Los Angeles,
V.S. bottle.
USA - Futura 2000, Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York,
Futuras new book, published by Rizzoli, came out in USA
2014.

4.14.1

Exhibitions and Publications

1984 - Futura 2000, Fun Gallery, New York, USA - Futura 2000, Michael Kohn Gallery, New York, USA - Futura 2000, Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York, USA

1983 - Futura 2000, Four Blue Squares, San Francisco,


USA - Futura 2000, Fun Gallery West, San Francisco,
Solo shows:
USA - Futura 2000, Baronian-Lambert, Gent, Belgium
2014 - Solo Show, Magda Danysz Gallery, Paris, France; - Futura 2000, Yaki Korinbilt, Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Solo show, Schusev State Museum of Architecture, - Futura 2000, 51X Gallery, New York, USA - Futura
Moscow, Russia; - Solo show, MD Gallery, Shanghai, 2000,Six Gallery - Futura 2000,Fun Gallery, New York,
China;
USA - Futura 2000, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, France
2012 - Future-Shock, Valmorbida, New York, USA - 1982 - Futura 2000, Fun Gallery, New York, USA
FUTURA 2012 Expansions, Galerie Jrme de Noir1981 - Futura 2000, Soul Artists Alternative Space, New
mont, Paris, France (catalogue)
York, USA
2009 - Futura 2000 Collection Patrick Lerouge, Ecole
Spciale dArchitecture, Paris, France - Futura 2000 - Group Shows:
Odysee Two, 95 Gallery, Art forum Berlin, Germany
2012 - Deep Space, Joseph Nahmad Contemporary, New
2008 - Futura 2000 Strategic Synchronicity, Phantom York, USA City
Galleries, Pacic Electric Lofts, Los Angeles, USA

2011 - KINGS, SUBLIMINAL PROJECTS, Los Angeles, USA Kindergarten, Galleria Civica, Modena, Italia 2005 - Futura Year In Pictures, V1 Gallery
GRAFFITI NEW YORK 80s, Galerie Jrme de Noir2003 - U.N.K.L.E, ICA Gallery, London, UK
mont, Paris, France - Art in the Streets, The Geen Con2002 - The Futura 2000 Place, Space 3, Sydney, Aus- temporary at MOCA, Los Angeles, USA (catalogue)

4.14. FUTURA 2000


2009 - Natural Selection, Atkinson Gallery, Somerset,
Royaume-Uni - From Style Writing to Art (A Street Art
Anthology), Galerie Magda Danysz, Paris, France (catalogue) - Grati Etat des lieux, Galerie du jour Agns b.., Paris, France - Ne dans la rue: Grati, Fondation Cartier pour lArt Contemporain, Paris, France
(catalogue) - Futura, Phil Frost, Stash, Cuadro Fine Art
Gallery, Duba, UAE

107
du Trocadero, Paris, France - Coleen Greco Gallery, NY,
USA - Galerie du Jour Agns b.., Paris, France - Martin
Lawrence Gallery, New York, USA - Liverpool Gallery,
Bruxelles, Belgium
1990 - Artists of the year, Philippe Briet Gallery, New
York, USA - Galley B5, Monaco - Michael Kohn Gallery,
Los Angeles, USA - Galerie du Jour Agns b.., Paris,
France

2008 - The Elms Lesters Book and Christmas Exhibition, 1988 - Museum of American Grati, New York, USA
Elms Lesters Paintings Rooms, London, UK (catalogue) Beautiful Losers Contemporary Art and Street Culture, 1987 - Michael Kohn Gallery, Los Angeles, USA
Exposition itinrante (catalogue) : La Casa Encendida, 1986 - Semaphore East, New York, USA
Madrid, Spain
1985 - Flow Ace Gallery, Los Angeles, USA - Kentucky
2007 - Small, Medium and Large, Elms Lesters Paint- Litho Building, Louisville, USA
ings Rooms, London, UK - Futura 2000 and Jose Parla
Pirate Utopias, Elms Lesters Paintings Rooms, London, 1984 - Homage to Picasso, Tony Shafrazy Gallery at FoUK - Beautiful Losers Contemporary Art and Street rum International Kunstmesse Zuric, Hall 7, Booth 703,
Culture, Exposition itinrante (catalogue) : Museum Sz- Zurich, Switzerland - Miauhaus, Thread Waxing Space,
tuki, Lodz, Poland - Locked and Loaded, Joshua Liner New York, USA - Summer Exhibition, Fun Gallery, New
Gallery, New York, USA 2006 - Ugly Winners, Galerie York, USA - Arte di Frontiera : New York Grati,
du Jour Agns b.., Paris, France - Beautiful Losers Con- Touring exhibition (catalogue) : Galeria dArte Modtemporary Art and Street Culture, Exposition itinrante erna di Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Palazzo delle Espo(catalogue) : La Trienale di Milano, Milan, Italia; Le Tri sizioni, Roma, Italia - Urban Confrontation, Ben Shahn
Gallery, William Patterson College, USA - Galozzi La
Postal, Lille, France
Placa, New York, USA - New York Grati, Louisiana
2005 - Icygrape No.1924, Elms Lesters Paintings Rooms, Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark (catalogue) - Seibu
London, UK - Beautiful Losers Contemporary Art and Gallery, Tokyo, Japan - Grati, Groninger Museum,
Street Culture, Exposition itinrante (catalogue) : Orange Groningen, Netherlands - Robert Fraser Gallery, LonCounty Museum of Art, Newport Beach, USA; Contem- don, UK - Classical American Grati Writers and High
porary Museum, Baltimore, USA; University of South Grati Artists, Gallery Thomas, Munich, Germany
Florida / CAM, Tampa, USA
1983 - Post Grati, Sydney Janis Gallery, New York,
2004 - East Village USA, New Museum of Contempo- USA (catalogue) - New New York, Brentwood Gallery,
rary Art, New York, USA (catalogue) - Beautiful Losers St Louis, USA - Painting, Sculpture, Totems and 3D,
Contemporary Art and Street Culture Touring show (cat- Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York, USA - Champions,
alogue): Contemporary Art Center of Cincinnati, USA; Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York, USA (catalogue) Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco, USA
New Art at the Tate Gallery, Tate Gallery, London,
2001 - Renaissance 2001, N.Y.C.U.E.M (New York City UK (catalogue) - Grati, Museum Boymans - van BeUrban Experience Museum), New York, USA - Gras, uningen, Rotterdam, Netherlands (catalogue) - Fay Fold
Gallery, Atlanta, USA - Fun Gallery, New York, USA
Galerie du Jour Agns b.., Paris, France
- 51X Gallery, New York, USA - Greenville Museum,
1999 - Pittura Dura : Dal Gratismo alla Street Art, South Carolina, USA - Gallery 121, Antwerpen, Belgium
Palazzo Bricherasio Foundation, Torino, Italia (cata- - Monique Knowlton Gallery, New York, USA - Amerilogue)
can Grati Gallery, Amsterdam, Netherlands
1998 - Reproduced 98. Marok vs Futura, Berlin, Ger1982 - New York Now, Exposition itinrante (catamanyCologne, Hamburg, Munich, Francfurt Germany
logue) : Kestner-Gessellschaft, Hanovre, Germany; Kun1997 - The Tramshed, London, UK
1995 - Summersault Festival, Melbourne, Australia
1994 - Spraycan Art, Sixth Congress Gallery, Tucson,
USA - Le Temps dun Dessin, Galerie de lEcole des
beaux Arts de Lorient, France

stverein Munchen, Munich, Germany; Muse Cantonal


des Beaux Arts, Lausanne, Switzerland; Kunstverein fur
die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Dsseldorf, Germany Kenny Scharf and Futura 2000, Tony Shafrazy Gallery,
New York, USA - South Bronx Art Show, Fashion Moda,
New York, USA - Dondi, Futura 2000, Zephyr, Bank
of America, Hong Kong, China - New York / New
Wave, P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York, USA
- ESSES Studios, U.C.S.C., Santa Cruz, USA

1992 - Group Exhibition, Klarfeld Perry Gallery, New


York, USA - Coming from the Subway - New York
Grati Art, Groninger Museum, Groningen, Netherlands (catalogue)
1981 - Beyond Words : Grati Based-Rooted-Inspired
1991 - Federal Reserve, Washington D.C., USA - Musee Works, Mudd Club, New York, USA - New York/New

108

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

Wave, P.S.1, Institute for Art and Urban ressources, Long Kirwin, Alan W. Moore, The New Museum of ContemIsland City, USA - Events, Fashion Moda, The New Mu- porary Art, New York, USA
seum of Contemporary Art, New York, USA (catalogue) 2004 - Beautiful Losers Contemporary Art and Street
1980 - Grati Art Success of America, Fashion Moda, Culture textes de Alex Baker, Thom Collins, Jerey
New York, USA - S.A., Soul Artists Alternative Space, Deitch et alt., Aaron Rose et Christian Strike, New York,
New York, USA
USA - DPM - Disruptive Pattern Material textes de
Hardy Blechman, Alex Newman, Edition Frances LinPublic collections:
coln - Experimental formats & packaging: creative solu- Collection de la Socit Gnrale, New York, USA
tions for inspiring graphic design textes de Roger Fawcett- Fonds Municipal dArt Contemporain de la Ville de Tang, Daniel Mason, Rotovision - Disruptive Pattern Material: An Encyclopedia of Camouage textes de Hardy
Paris, France, Paris, France, France
Blechman, Alex Newman, Editions Firey Books, U.S.A
- Muse de Vire, Vire, France
2002 - Aerosol Kingdom Subway Painters of New York
- Museo de Arte Moderna di Bologna, Bologna, Italia
City textes de Ivor L. Miller, Edition University Press of
Mississippi, Jackson, U.S.A
Publications:
2012 - FUTURA 2012 EXPANSIONS Texte de Paul
Ardenne, Galerie Jrme de Noirmont, Paris, France Grati, une histoire en images Bernard Fontaine, Editions Eyrolles, Paris, France - Is The Art World Ready
for Grati? Steven Hager, Steven Hager at Smashwords,
Los Gatos, USA

2001 - The grati subculture: youth, masculinity, and


identity in London and New York textes de Nancy Macdonald, Palgrave Macmillan

2000 - The new beats: culture, musique et attitudes


du hip-hop textes de S. H. Fernando, Editions Kargo FUTURA textes de Ben Drury, Liz Farrelly, Andrew
2011 - 100 artistes du Street Art sous la direction de Paul Holmes, Editions Booth-Clibborn
Ardenne, textes de Marie Maertens, Editions de la Mar- 1999 - Pittura Dura : Dal Gratismo alla Street Art textes
tinire, Paris, France
de Luca Massimo Barbero, Renato Barilli et alt., Editions
2010 - Beyond the Street: The 100 Leading Figures in Electa, Milan, Italia
Urban Art textes de Patrick Nguyen, Stuart Mackenzie, 1998 - Generations of youth: youth cultures and history in
Edition Die Gestalten Verlag
twentieth-century America textes de Joe Austin, Michael
2009 - From Style Writing to Art (A Street Art Anthol- Willard, NYU Press
ogy) textes de Magda Danysz, Marie-Nolle Dana, Ga- 1997 - New York Grati Art: Coming From The Sublerie Magda Danysz, Paris, France, Editions Drago, Italia way: Histoire et Developpement dun Mouvement Con- N dans la rue: Grati textes de Herv Chandes, Edi- troverse Editions Farthest Star, VBI, 1992, VBI 1997
tion Fondation Cartier pour lArt Contemporain, Paris,
France - Blade - King of Kings Henk Pijnenburg, Henk 1992 - Coming from the Subway - New York Grati Art
Pijnenburg Edition - Natural Selection textes de Fiona Stefan Eins et alt., Karl Muller Verlag Editions
McKinnon, Iain Cadby, Edition Atkinson Gallery, Som- 1989 - Futura 2000: Oeuvres Rcentes textes de Elisaerset, UK - Grati New York textes de Eric Felisbret, beth Hess, Muse de Vire, France
James Prigo, Luke Felisbret, Edition Abrams - American Grati Margo Thompson, Parkstone International 1988 - Subway Art textes de Martha Cooper et Henry
Edition - Subway Art: 25th Anniversary Edition textes Chalfant, Editions Holt Paperbacks
de Martha Cooper, Henry Chalfant, Edition Chronicle 1987 - New York Now textes de Carl Haenlein, Editions
Books
Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanovre, Germany - Spraycan Art
2008 - The Elms Lesters Book and Christmas Exhibi- textes de Henry Chalfant, James Prigo, Thames & Hudson
tion textes de Ben Jones, Paul Jones et alt., Edition Elms
Lesters Paintings Rooms, London, UK - Street Art: The 1983 - New Art at the Tate Gallery texte de Michael
Grati Revolution textes de Cedar Lewisohn, Editions Compton, Edition The Tate Gallery, London, UK
Tate, London, UK
1981 - Events, Artist invite Artists, New York, USA:
2007 - The Warhol economy: how fashion, art, and music New Museum text by Betty Fox, Edition The New Mudrive New York City textes de Elizabeth Currid, Prince- seum of Contemporary Art, New York, USA
ton University Press
2006 - Plastic culture: how Japanese toys conquered the
world textes de Woodrow Phoenix, Kodansha Interna- 4.14.2 Appearances in other media
tional - Cant stop wont stop: une histoire de la gnra On The Clash's Combat Rock, Futura delivers a spotion hip-hop textes de Je Chang, Editions Allia
ken word part on the song "Overpowered by Funk".
2005 - East Village USA texts by Dan Cameron, Liza
The Clash also appeared on his song The Escapades

4.15. RAY LOWRY

109

of Futura.[6]

Ray Lowry (28 August 1944 14 October 2008) was


an English cartoonist, illustrator and satirist, possessing
In Emile de Antonio's 1982 lm In the King of Prus- a highly distinctive style and wit. He contributed to
sia Futura creates the lms opening title as a grati The Guardian, Private Eye, Punch and the NME amongst
mural.
many other publications. Lowry lived in Rossendale,
Lancashire.
On the album MiLight Futuras voice can be heard
giving a shoutout to artist DJ Krush.
In DJ Mehdi's 2002 music video Breakaway, Fu- 4.15.1 Life and work
tura covers an entire room with his signature tags in
Lowry was born in Cadishead, Salford, and attended
black marker and spray paint.
Urmston Grammar School. His father was a bricklayer.
In the 2005 lm Just For Kicks, about sneaker culture He worked in Manchester and London, and although he
in hip hop, as himself.
had no formal art education he rst became known as a
John Mayer's 2006 music video "Waiting on the cartoonist during the 1970s. It was less well known that
World to Change", alongside grati artists DAZE Lowry was also a painter of urban landscapes following
in the footsteps of his unrelated namesake L. S. Lowry.
and the Tats Cru.
Lowry drew cartoons for a wide range of publications,
The 2006 video game Marc Ecko's Getting Up: Con- and with the emergence of the 1960s underground press
tents Under Pressure as himself.
he was published in Oz and International Times, which
In a Motorola advert as himself. https://www. led to a long and better-paid relationship with the New
Musical Express, including a weekly cartoon strip 'Only
youtube.com/watch?v=OUgglbG4mKI
Rock'n'Roll'. Lowrys love of raw 1950s rock and roll was
the perfect complement to the new punk mentality that
emerged in the late 1970s. He saw the Sex Pistols infa4.14.3 References
mous Anarchy tour at the Electric Circus in Manchester
and there he met The Clash. A friendship struck up with
[1] http://www.discogs.com/artist/47366-Futura-2000
the band which led to an invitation to accompany them
[2] http://www.discogs.com/artist/47366-Futura-2000
on their 1979 tour of the USA. From this he created the
artwork for their London Calling album sleeve, using a
[3] Futura Reects on the Past - Page. Interview Magazine.
photograph by Pennie Smith.
Retrieved 2014-05-20.
In the 1980s Ray wrote a column in The Face and was
a regular contributor to The Guardian. Lowry continued
to create memorable art and remained obsessed by rock
[5] Galerie Jrme de Noirmont - Galeries dart France and roll. Near the end of his life produced a long series
Paris. Denoirmont.com. Archived from the original on of colour images inspired by the 1960s British tour by
2013-05-16. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
American rockers Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent.
[4] Futura; Fab 5 Freddy Futura Talks With Fab 5 Freddy
Art In the Streets. Skira Rizzoli/ MOCA, 2011

[6] Futura 2000 - The Escapades Of Futura 2000 (Vinyl) at


Discogs. Discogs.com. 2003-01-09. Retrieved 201405-20.

4.14.4

External links

www.futura2000.com
Magda Danysz Gallery - Paris
Futura 2000 discography at Discogs

4.15 Ray Lowry

Ray eventually moved to Rossendale in Lancashire, and


although he no longer worked for periodicals he never
stopped painting and drawing, and near the end of his
life he was taken up by the See Gallery, Crawshawbooth
in Rossendale. An exhibition at the See in 2008 proved
very successful and Ray began to plan new schemes including paintings inspired by another namesake Malcolm
Lowry's Under the Volcano. Ray died suddenly at the age
of 64, after years of ill-health, and was found at his home
in Waterfoot, Lancashire, on the morning of Tuesday, 14
October 2008.[1] r

4.15.2 The Ray Lowry Foundation

In 2009 The Ray Lowry Foundation was set up by Rays


Warning: Page using Template:Infobox artist with son, Sam, and Julian Williams and Jackie Taylor of the
unknown parameter imagesize (this message is shown See Gallery in Rossendale, Lancashire. The aim of the
only in preview).
Foundation is to create an organisation that ensures Rays
work will continue to be remembered and appreciated,

110

CHAPTER 4. OTHER PERSONNEL

and to create a fund in Rays name that will provide nancial assistance with mentorship to individuals and art
projects. This will include providing a scholarship to a
student studying a course in art to a higher degree level
and to make nancial awards linked to individual artbased projects.
The Foundation has helped with placing Rays work included as part of the Malcolm Lowry exhibition at the
BlueCoat Gallery, Liverpool, and a major public exhibition of his work at the Salford Gallery and Museum for
December 2009. A major exhibition is being planned in
Leeds for 2010.
A retrospective of his works is being held at The Idea
Generation Gallery, London from 18 June 4 July 2010
in aid of The Ray Lowry Foundation. As part of the
exhibition 30 creatives, including Tracey Emin, Nick
Hornby, Billy Childish, Harry Hill, Paul Simonon and
Humphrey Ocean, have produced reinterpretations of
The Clash's iconic London Calling album cover in aid of
the Foundation.[2][3]

4.15.3

Selected bibliography

Collections of his work


Only Rock 'n' Roll 1980 ISBN 0-86104-320-0
This Space to Let 1986 ISBN 0-349-12208-3
Ink 1998 ISBN 1-899344-21-7
As an illustrator
The Penguin Book of Rock and Roll Writing 1992
ISBN 0-14-016836-2
Rock Talk 1994 ISBN 1-899344-00-4
Funny Talk 1995 ISBN 1-899344-01-2
A Riot of our Own: Night and Day with The Clash
1997 ISBN 0-575-40080-3

4.15.4

References

[1] Ray Lowry 19442008. News. Mojo. 14 October 2008.


Retrieved 15 October 2008.
[2] Ray Lowry: London Calling, Idea Generation Gallery
[3] Godwin, Richard (15 June 2010). London Calling
again. Evening Standard. Retrieved 16 June 2010.

4.15.5

External links

Personal web site raylowry.com


The Guardian obituary

Biography at the British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent

Chapter 5

Associated acts
5.1 The 101ers
The 101ers were a pub rock band from the 1970s playing
mostly in a rockabilly style, notable as being the band that
Joe Strummer left to join The Clash.[1] Formed in London
in May 1974, the 101ers made their performing debut on
7 September at the Telegraph pub in Brixton,[2] under the
name 'El Huaso and the 101 All Stars. The name would
later be shortened to the '101 All Stars and nally just
the '101ers. The group played at free festivals such as
Stonehenge, and established themselves on the London
pub rock circuit prior to the advent of punk.

5.1.1

History

The group was named after the squat where they lived
together: 101 Walterton Road, Maida Vale, although it
was for a time rumoured that they were named for "Room
101", the infamous torture room in George Orwell's novel
Nineteen Eighty-Four.
The bands early gigs included several at the Windsor Castle and a residency at the Elgin.[3] They were supported
by the Sex Pistols at the Nashville Room on 3 April 1976;
this is when Strummer claimed he saw the light and got
involved in the punk scene.[1] Joe Strummer commented
on this event in the Don Letts documentary Westway to
the World on the end of the 101ers by saying 5 seconds
into their (the Pistols) rst song, I knew we were like yesterdays paper, we were over.[1]
By the time their debut single, Keys to Your Heart, was
released, Joe Strummer was in The Clash and the band
were no more.[2] Clive Timperley later joined The Passions, Dan Kelleher went to Martian Schoolgirls and The
Derelicts.[2] Richard Dudanski went on to work with The
Raincoats, Basement 5 and Public Image Ltd.[2] Tymon
Dogg worked with Strummer briey in The Clash, playing ddle and singing his original song, Lose This Skin,
on Sandinista!, and later in The Mescaleros.

and twenty-six and they played good because


they'd spent a few years getting that far. But
they were just too old. What I really wanted
was to get in with some young yobbos who I
was more in tune with.
Joe Strummer[4]

The 101ers recorded output was initially limited to one


single. However, by 1981, interest in The Clash was at its
height and a second single and a compilation album Elgin
Avenue Breakdown was released.[2] Several of the tracks
on the latter album were live recordings, and there is no
evidence that the band ever conceived of these recordings
as a full-length album.
Until his death in 2002, Joe Strummer had been planning to re-release Elgin Avenue Breakdown, complete
with previously unreleased tracks that would encompass
everything the band ever recorded. The project was completed with the help of Strummers widow Lucinda Tait
and former drummer Richard Dudanski, and released
in May 2005 as Elgin Avenue Breakdown Revisited via
Astralwerks in the US and EMI in Europe. The last track
on the 2005 re-issue was an 8-minute version of "Gloria"
recorded on 22 May 1976 at the Cellar Club in Bracknell. This was recorded two weeks before the 101ers nally split.[5] Joe Strummer joined The Clash who played
their rst gig at the Black Swan, Sheeld supporting the
Sex Pistols on 4 July 1976.

5.1.2 Covers
The Clash had played Keys to Your Heart live at around
the same time it was reissued as a single. The Hypertonics
have also covered this song.[6]

5.1.3 Band line-up


John Woody Mellor aka Joe Strummer Guitar,
vocals

I know the 101ers were good. In fact, as


far as sound and excitement went we were
much better than Eddie and the Hot Rods.
The other guys in the group were twenty-ve

Clive Timperley Guitar, vocals


Dan Kelleher Bass, guitar, vocals
111

112

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

Richard Dudanski Drums

Sources

Simon Cassell aka Big John Saxophone

Books

Alvaro Pea-Rojas Saxophone


Marwood Chesterton aka Mole Bass guitar (until
Oct. 1975)
Antonio Narvaez Drums
Julian Yewdall Vocals, harmonica
Patrick Nother Bass (1st gig)
Martin Stone Lead guitar (nal gig)
Tymon Dogg Fiddle, vocals

5.1.4

Discography

Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk


Rock Explosion. London: Hawthorn. ISBN 0-80156129-9. OCLC 79262599. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
Strong, Martin C. (2003) [1999]. 101'ers". The
Great Indie Discography (Revised and enlarged ed.).
Edinburgh: Canongate. p. 109. ISBN 1-84195335-0. OCLC 52530784.
Films and documentaries
Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,
Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The
Clash (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World
(DVD). New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment;
Dorismo; Uptown Films. Event occurs at 8:40
11:40. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.

Singles

5.1.6 Further reading


Keys to Your Heart (Joe Strummer) b/w 5 Star
Rock & Roll Petrol (Strummer, Dan Kelleher)
(Chiswick/Big Beat 1976)
Sweet Revenge b/w Rabies (Chiswick 1981)
Albums
Elgin Avenue Breakdown Andalucia AND101
(1981)
Elgin Avenue Breakdown Revisited Astralwerks
ASW32161 / EMI 474460 2 (2005)
Five Star Rock'n'Roll Made In Heaven 362020
(1993) [7]

5.1.5

References

[1] Westway 2001.


[2] Strong 2003, p. 109.
[3] Don J Whistance. Early gigs. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
[4] Coon 1977.
[5] Accompanying booklet to CD 'Elgin Avenue Breakdown
Revisited'

D'Ambrosio, Antonino (2004-10-13). Let Fury


Have the Hour: The Punk Rock Politics of Joe Strummer. New York: Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025625-7. OCLC 56988650. Edited with an Introduction by Antonino D'Ambrosio.
DeCurtis, Anthony (2003). 19522002 Joe Strummer A tribute to the late Clash singer and songwriter, plus his nal remarks on the rise and fall of
the legendary punk band. Rolling Stone. San Francisco, CA: Straight Arrow. 914 (27). ISSN 0035791X. OCLC 96002520.
Dudanski, Richard (2013). Squat City Rocks: Protopunk and beyond, a musical memoir from the margins. ISBN 9781494434977. Illustrations by Esperanza Romero.
Matula, Theodore (December 2003). Joe Strummer, 19522002. Popular Music and Society.
Bowling Green, Ohio: Taylor & Francis. 26 (4):
doi:10.1080/0300776032000144968.
523525.
ISSN 0300-7766. OCLC 89586252.
Salewicz, Chris (2007-05-15). Redemption Song:
The Ballad of Joe Strummer (1st American ed.).
New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21178X. OCLC 76794852.

5.2 London SS

[6] The Hypertonics cover of Keys To Your Heart.


[7] Music Brainz entry

The London SS is a British punk rock group founded in


March 1975 by drummer Geir Wade, bassist John Brown,

5.2. LONDON SS
guitarist Mick Jones, and guitarist Eunan Brady (formerly
of the Hollywood Brats). In 2012 Brady put together a
new lineup, featuring himself along with Jimi McDonald,
Taj Sagoo, Michael Kane, and Andi Emm.[1]

113
James) was the only other semi-permanent member at
this time. Other musicians who played with them included Matt Dangereld and Casino Steel, then members
of The Hollywood Brats, who would later go on to play
in The Boys.

Many other notable musicians tried out for the band but
did not make the cut. These included two future memThe origin of the name London SS is disputable. Geir bers of The Clash, Paul Simonon and Terry Chimes. Another future Clash member, Nicky Topper Headon, was
Wade claims to have been the rst to propose it:
asked to join but declined. Rat Scabies, future drummer for The Damned, played with the band even though
Andrew Matheson begs to dier, even
he was in his own protopunk band, Rot, at the time.
though every other band member insists that it
Roland Hot also served as drummer, before joining Kid
was immediately following Geirs arrival that
Rogers and the Henchmen, with Kid Rogers (guitarist)
the bands old name, 'The Delinquents, was
and Doug McArthur (Bass). Punk poet Patrik Fitzgerald
dropped. Brady conrms it was Geir who came
also claims to have auditioned for the band.
up with the replacement name, but John insists
it was the result of a general brainstorming session with a dictionary and thesaurus. Obvi5.2.2 Recordings
ously, the London prex was a nod in the direction of The New York Dolls and The HolThe London SSs only recording was a demo featuring
lywood Brats.[2]
James, Jones, James, and Hot. Musically, they played
straightforward rock 'n' roll and covered 1960s R&B. An
The groups name caused disquiet in some quarters, be- example of this is their song 12 Crush on You, which
cause SS was generally understood to refer to the was later recorded by The Clash.
Schutzstael, an elite paramilitary force of Nazi Germany, some of whose members were convicted of war
crimes. This came to haunt Mick Jones when The Clash 5.2.3 Later bands featuring members of
The London SS
became Britains premier left-wing political band. When
questioned about the name, Tony James stated:
Brian James left The London SS with Rat Scabies to form
The Subterraneans and, later, The Damned. Tony James
We hadn't thought at all about the Nazi imjoined the band Chelsea with Billy Idol and the two later
plications. It just seemed like a very anarchic,
started
Generation X. According to Chelsea drummer
[3]
stylish thing to do.
John Towe,

5.2.1

History

The London SS recruited Kelvin Cyril Blacklock to front


their band. Blacklocks arrival led to Geir Wade and Mick
Joness departures. The band then changed its name to
Violent Luck.
Even while still with Overtown, Kelvin had
kept his options open by attending auditions for
several other bands. One of the Melody Maker
ads he answered had been placed by bassist
Tony James. Tony was reading mathematics at
Brunel University in Uxbridge, on the western
outskirts of London and living in Twickenham,
a few miles to the south.[2]

When Brian James played with London


SS he wrote a song called 'Why Won't She
Talk' [...] October kept the tune but put new
words to the song and re-titled it 'Get Out and
Walk'. When he discovered that the tune had
been ripped o (early '77) he dropped it from
Chelseas set.[5]
Jones and Simonon teamed up with Joe Strummer and
founded The Clash. Ultimately, The London SS members were more famous for what they did later than
they were for anything that they accomplished during the
bands existence.

In an eort to soften the blow of Micks sacking, Blacklock suggested that he team up with the new band, minus 5.2.4 References
James. In Pete Frame's Two Family Trees, the story of
The London SS starts with this encounter.
[1] We're not Nazis, says London SS, punk band barred from
The second lineup of The London SS started with Blacklock and James.[4] The band spent most of their short history auditioning potential members. Besides Blacklock
and James, guitarist Brian James (no relation to Tony

Upper Street venue. Islington Tribune.


[2] Gray, Marcus (1995). Last Gang In Town: The Story
and Myth Of The Clash. Fourth Estate Ltd. ISBN
9781857021462.

114

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

[3] Salewicz, Chris (15 May 2007). Redemption Song:


The Ballad of Joe Strummer (1st American ed.). New
York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21178-X. OCLC
76794852.

Dynamite, was released. The albums cover shows the


group as a four-piece (minus Donovan).

1986s No. 10, Upping St. reunited Jones for one album
with former Clash band-mate Joe Strummer, who was a
[4] Deming, Mark. allmusic ((( Carbon/Silicon > Overview co-producer of the album and co-writer of a number of its
)))". allmusic.com. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
songs. The cover painting, based on a still taken from the
Brian de Palma lm Scarface was painted by Tim Jones.
[5] John Towes letter to the editor (Spiral Scratch magazine
BAD supported U2 on their 1987 world tour, then re1/1991, p.19)
leased 1988s Tighten Up, Vol. '88 and 1989s Megatop
Phoenix. Tighten Up, Vol. 88 contained Just Play Music!", which was the second No. 1 single on Billboards
5.3 Big Audio Dynamite
Modern Rock Tracks. The band also recorded an unreleased track called Keep o the Grass which was a
Warning: Page using Template:Infobox musical artist rock-style instrumental of the theme to the classic westwith unknown parameter 1 = Current_members ?" (this ern lm, The Magnicent Seven. A promo video can be
seen on YouTube.[2]
message is shown only in preview).
Big Audio Dynamite (later known as Big Audio Dynamite II and Big Audio, and often abbreviated BAD) is a
British musical group formed in 1984 by the ex-guitarist
and singer of The Clash, Mick Jones. The group is noted
for its eective mixture of varied musical styles, incorporating elements of punk rock, dance music, hip hop,
reggae, and funk. BADs one constant throughout frequent shifts in membership and musical direction is the
vocals provided by Mick Jones. After releasing a number
of well-received albums and touring extensively throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Big Audio Dynamite disbanded
in 1997. In 2011, the band embarked on a reunion tour.

In 1990, the original line-up wrote and recorded the song


Free for the soundtrack to the movie Flashback. This
would be the nal song written with the original lineup,
as the band would dissolve shortly after. Bottom Line
from the rst LP was remixed and used as the title track
for Flashback. However this track was not included on
the soundtrack. It can be found on the 12 or by possible
download. Later in 1990, Mick Jones debuted Big Audio
Dynamite II and release the UK only album Kool-Aid.
Dan Donovan remained in BAD II for one song, a reworking of the nal BAD track Free renamed Kickin'
In.
Big Audio Dynamite II (19911993)

5.3.1

History

T.R.A.C. (1984)
After being ousted from The Clash in 1983 and following a brief stint with the band General Public, Mick
Jones formed a new band called Top Risk Action Company (T.R.A.C.). He recruited bassist Leo E-Zee Kill
Williams, saxophone player John Boy Lennard (from
Theatre of Hate), and ex-Clash drummer Nicky Topper
Headon. Headon was quickly sacked for his heroin addiction and Lennard either left or was red and the band
folded.[1] Although the band released no material (only
demos were recorded which have yet to be ocially released), T.R.A.C. can be seen as a forerunner to Big Audio Dynamite in much the same way London SS can be
seen as an early incarnation of The Clash.
Big Audio Dynamite (19841990)
Jones then formed Big Audio Dynamite with lm director Don Letts (maker of The Punk Rock Movie, various Clash music videos, and later The Clash documentary Westway to the World), bassist Leo Williams (from
T.R.A.C.), drummer Greg Roberts, and keyboardist Dan
Donovan. In 1985 the groups debut, This Is Big Audio

For 1990s The Globe, only Jones remained from BAD,


and the band was now called Big Audio Dynamite II.
This new line-up featured two guitarists. The Globe featured the bands most commercially successful single,
"Rush, which hit No. 1 on both the US modern rock
chart and the Australian National Aria Chart. Innocent
Child and The Globe were also released as singles.
BAD supported U2 on their ZooTV tour and released the
live EP On The Road Live '92.
Big Audio (1994)
The band later recruited keyboardist Andre Shapps (coproducer of The Globe and Mick Joness cousin) and
Michael DJ Zonka Custance as DJ and vocalist. Both
appeared on the bands 1994 album Higher Power, which
was released under the shortened name Big Audio.
Final years and subsequent activities (19952010)
After signing with Gary Kurrst's Radioactive Records in
1995, the band reverted to the original Big Audio Dynamite moniker and released their least successful album
to date, F-Punk.

5.3. BIG AUDIO DYNAMITE

115

Radioactive Records refused to release the next proposed 5.3.2 Personnel


BAD album, Entering a New Ride. The line-up contained
Mc vocals by Joe Attard (Punks Jump Up), Ranking Big Audio Dynamite (19841990, 2011present)
Roger (The Beat, General Public) and drummer Bob
Wond (Under Two Flags) In 1998, the band launched a
Mick Jones vocals and guitar
new web site, primarily as a means to distribute songs
from the Entering a New Ride album.
Don Letts vocals, samples
Since 2005, Jones has been working on a project with
Tony James (ex-member of Generation X and Sigue
Dan Donovan keyboards
Sigue Sputnik) called Carbon/Silicon.
Leo Williams bass
In early 2007, a BAD II live DVD was released.
Greg Roberts drums and backing vocals
Big Audio Dynamite II (19901993)
2011 reunion

Mick Jones vocals and guitar

Nick Hawkins guitar and backing vocals


In April 2010, Don Letts revealed to Billboard.com that
he and Mick Jones broached the idea of a Big Audio Dy Gary Stonadge bass and backing vocals
namite reunion in 2011. He explained, I could lie to you
and say 'Not in a million years,' but... if Mick wasn't tied
Chris Kavanagh drums and backing vocals
up with Gorillaz it might happen this year. (Jones) has
looked at me and said, 'Maybe next year,' but who knows.
I've got to admit that in the past I'm not a great one for re- Big Audio (19941995)
formations; I always think if you're lucky in life, you get
a window of opportunity, use it to the best of your ability
Mick Jones vocals and guitar
and then fuck o and let someone else have their turn. But
here I am 25 years down the line considering the thing.
Nick Hawkins guitar and backing vocals
Besides a Big Audio Dynamite reunion, Letts said he was
also hopeful for more Legacy Editions of the groups al Gary Stonadge bass and backing vocals
bums after nding more unreleased materialincluding
live recordingsin the vaults. Theres denitely more
Chris Kavanagh drums and backing vocals
stu; whether Sony thinks its worthwhile, thats another
matter. But there seems to be a lot of respect for Big Au Andre Shapps keyboards, samples
dio Dynamite. Time has shown that a lot of the things we
were dabbling in back then have come to manifest them Michael 'Zonka' Custance DJ, percussion and
selves today...so hopefully we'll get to do some more.[3]
backing vocals
The reformation of the original line up of B.A.D was conrmed on 25 January 2011 with the announcement of a Big Audio Dynamite (19961998)
UK tour.[4] The 9-date tour was a commercial and critical success. The rst of their two sold out Shepherds
Mick Jones vocals and guitar
Bush Empire shows received a 4 star review in The Times
('Not just a reformation - this is their time'), The Observer
Nick Hawkins guitar
welcomed B.A.Ds return with a glowing review declar[5]
ing, 'they remain a joy'. News Of The World awarded
Andre Shapps keyboards, programming
their Manchester Academy show a 5 star review and pro[6]
claimed, 'Easily the reformation of the year'. Their
Michael 'Zonka' Custance DJ, keyboards, samples
headline slot at Beautiful Days festival was favourably re[7]
viewed on the Louder Than War music website.
Darryl Fulstow bass
Big Audio Dynamite played sets at the 2011 Outside
Lands Music and Arts Festival, Coachella Valley Mu Bob Wond drums
sic and Arts Festival,[8] Glastonbury Festival 2011,[9] and
Lollapalooza.[10] They are also conrmed to appear the
Joe Attard MC
Levellers festival Beautiful Days,[11] Bestival[12] V Festival,[13] and Fuji Rock Festival.[14]
Ranking Roger vocals

116

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

5.3.3

Discography

Main article: Big Audio Dynamite discography

[6] News of the World: The Best for News, Showbiz and
Sport Exclusives | News Of The World
[7] Big Audio Dynamite live at Beautiful Days Festival: review. Louder Than War. Retrieved June 1, 2013.

This Is Big Audio Dynamite (1985)

[8] Coachella 2011 Poster. Los Angeles Times.

No. 10, Upping St. (1986)

[9] Welcome to Glastonbury Festivals. Glastonbury Festivals. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.

Tighten Up Vol. 88 (1988)


Megatop Phoenix (1989)
Kool-Aid (1990)
The Globe (1991)
Higher Power (1994)
F-Punk (1995)
Entering a New Ride (1997)

5.3.4

Other information

[10] Lollapalooza 2011. Lineup.lollapalooza.com. 19 July


2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
[11] Virtual Festivals. Beautiful Days Ocial Website.
Beautifuldays.org. Archived from the original on 25 July
2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
[12] Bestival 2011. Bestival.net. Archived from the original
on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
[13] Home at Vfestival. Vfestival.com. Archived from the
original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
[14] Metropolis, Music: Big Audio Dynamite, No. 903, 15

Mick Jones was noted for playing a high-tech


July 2011, p. 15.
British-made guitar called the Bond Electraglide
with BAD. Its worn by Mick Jones on the cover of
5.3.6 External links
No. 10 Upping St..
During the 1980s, The Bottom Line was used as
the music for the opening credits to Sports Sunday, a
weekly sports magazine TV show shown on the Nine
Network, an Australian television station.

Unocial site

During the 1980s, The Bottom Line was also used


as the music for the opening credits to the weekly
American Football highlights show on UK Channel
4.

www.theclash.org.uk visual website

Interview with the original lineup of Big Audio Dynamite after the release of Megatop Phoenix (FTP)

5.4 The Latino Rockabilly War

Shawn Stussy was responsible for the album artwork


The Latino Rockabilly War was a band most notable
and design for The Globe.
for backing The Clash frontman Joe Strummer on one
album. With Strummer, The Latino Rockabilly War cre5.3.5 References
ated Earthquake Weather, through Epic Records. The
album was well received by critics, but did not sell well
[1] Big Audio Dynamite This Is Big Audio Dynamite and Joe Strummer lost his deal with Epic (excepting a
(1985)". Beatpatrol.wordpress.com. 10 May 2010. hypothetical circumstance in which he decided to reform
Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved
or re-create the Clash with the same or new musicians,
17 August 2011.
in which case he would have been forced to work with
[2] Big Audio Dynamite - Keep O The Grass (rare video)". Epic). Led by Strummer, they also contributed ve songs
YouTube. 24 December 2006. Retrieved 17 August to the soundtrack for the movie Permanent Record, which
2011.
featured a young Keanu Reeves: Trash City, Baby the
Trans, Nothin' 'bout Nothin, Nefertiti Rock, and the
[3] Big Audio Dynamite Reignited. Billboard.com. 8 April
instrumental Theme from Permanent Record.
2010. Retrieved 17 August 2011.

In a segment of the documentary lm Joe Strummer: The


Future Is Unwritten, Anthony Kiedis mentions that during the period in which the bands material was recorded,
[5] Kitty Empire (10 April 2011). The Naked and Famous; drummer Jack Irons (formerly of Red Hot Chili Peppers
Big Audio Dynamite review. London: Guardian. Re- and Pearl Jam) was in residency at a mental institution.
trieved 17 August 2011.
Therefore, Strummer had to arrange transportation and
[4] Big Audio Dynamite reform with original line-up.
NME. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.

5.6. THE MESCALEROS

117

leave for Irons in order for him to participate in the bands 5.5.2 Members
output.
Nigel Dixon lead vocals, rhythm guitar
The band toured with Strummer on the Rock Against The
Rich Tour in 1988 with friends in tow, including lm
Gary Myrick lead guitar, backing vocals
director Alex Cox. Their sets included songs spanning
Paul Simonon bass guitar, backing vocals
Strummers career to that point, including works from
The 101ers and The Clash, additionally material co writ Travis Williams drums
ten with Mick Jones for Big Audio Dynamite's No. 10,
Upping St. album as well as a cover of The Pogues' song
If I Should Fall From Grace With God.
5.5.3 References

5.4.1

Members

Zander Schloss Lead and rhythm guitar


Lonnie Marshall bass guitar

[1] Havana 3 A.M. in Allmusic.

5.6 The Mescaleros

Joey Artuda bass guitar (1988 on the Permanent The Mescaleros were the backing band for Joe Strummer, formed in 1999, which went on to make three alRecord-soundtrack)
bums prior to Strummers death in 2002.
Jim Donica bass guitar (1988 on the Rock against
Many of the band members were multi-instrumentalists.
the rich-tour)
The original line up consisted of Strummer on vocals and
Roberto Pla percussion (1988 on the Rock against guitar, Antony Genn on guitar, Scott Shields on bass,
the rich-tour)
Martin Slattery on keyboards and guitar, as well as ute
and saxophone on select songs, Pablo Cook on various
Willie MacNeil drums
percussion instruments and Steve Barnard on drums, using his stage moniker Smiley. Richard Flack was also
Jack Irons drums
employed to use eects and instruments.

5.5 Havana 3am

5.6.1 Background

Havana 3am was the band of bassist Paul Simonon The name The Mescaleros for my new group is someformed shortly after his previous band, The Clash, of- thing I just stole from a cowboy lm I was watching one
cially broke up in 1986.
night. So, um, really, doesn't have any meaning to the diThe band consisted of Simonon on bass, American musi- rection. But we're moving in a kind of roots reggae, rock
cian Gary Myrick on guitar, Nigel Dixon from the British thing. I mean, more or less, as if time hadn't passed. But,
band Whirlwind on lead vocals, and Travis Williams, a we're trying to move it into the future as well. Denitely
drummer who they found by a newspaper announcement. don't wanna stay in the past. Gotta get out of the past!
[1]
In essence, it was a rockabilly band with a heavy Latino Its a quagmire of treacle.
and reggae inuence. The band recorded a self-titled al- Joe Strummer, 1999, Hultsfred Festival, Sweden
bum in Japan in 1991.
The Mescaleros rose out of Strummers work with Pablo
The album, which has twelve original tracks, received Cook and Richard Norris. The three of them originally
solid reviews and had in Reach the Rock a minor ra- came together to write the soundtracks for two short lms,
dio hit.[1] Following Dixons death on 3 April 1993 and Tunnel of Love, and Question of Honour. The song Yalla
departure of Simonon who moved on to a career of art, Yalla was originally written by this trio, and mixed by
Myrick put out one more album with dierent line-up but Antony Genn. Once Genn was brought on board, a
it was also unsuccessful and the band broke up shortly af- new song Techno D-Day was recorded, at which point
ter.
Strummer, at the behest of Genn, began recording a new
The band took their name from the title of a 1950s album record.
by Perez Prado.
The original drummer, Ged Lynch, left the band before recording on Rock Art & The X-Ray Style was complete and Smiley (Robbie Williams' former drummer)
5.5.1 Discography
was brought in to nish recording. Shields and Slattery
were recruited through a number of contacts with the
Havana 3am (1991)
band. Slattery had also appeared on Robbie Williams
Texas Glitter & Tombstone Tales (1996)
Life Thru a Lens album, and Scott Shields was a friend of

118

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

Slatterys. Oddly enough, in the initial lineup, only Smi- June 2006. The band also appear on many DVDs (see full
ley was playing the instrument which he knew best.
list below) and have had several of their songs appear in
Genn, although not a bad guitar player, reportedly did not major lms such as Black Hawk Down and Mr. & Mrs.
have the ability to play sucient lead guitar, hence Slat- Smith. One song, Johnny Appleseed, was used as the
tery was brought in. He, however, was trained in horns theme song to the HBO series John From Cincinnati.
and keyboards, but had a natural ability with nearly all instruments. Strummer once joked that Slattery could play
a hole in the windshield of the tour bus. Shields had previously been a drummer, but was recruited to play bass,
and later guitar.

5.6.2

History

The Mescaleros rst gig was in Antony Genns hometown


of Sheeld at The Leadmill on 5 June 1999. They toured
extensively for the next six months, including playing the
Glastonbury Festival, the U.S., and Europe. 2000 saw the
band play Big Day Out in Australia & New Zealand, plus
tour Japan.

Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros last ever concert was


on 22 November 2002, in Liverpool. This show is often
overlooked however, in favor of citing the 15 November
show at Acton Town Hall. It was this show, which was a
benet for striking re ghters, that Mick Jones joined
Strummer on stage for the rst time in nearly twenty
years, during the Clash song Bankrobber. An encore
followed with both "White Riot" and "Londons Burning". The Last Night London Burned, a 64-page book
written by George Binette,[3] showing never before published pictures of Joe Strummer and Mick Jones, and a 26
minutes lm by Gregg McDonald and Alan Miles, were
released as a unique visual record of that last ever London
concert by Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros.[4] Following
the conclusion of this tour, the band headed straight for
the studio, but Strummer died of a congenital heart defect on 22 December 2002[5] after returning home from
walking his dogs.

The band signed with the Californian punk label Hellcat


Records, and issued three albums. Following the release
of the rst, Rock Art and the X-Ray Style, they toured
England and North America; sets included several Clash- The bands nal album, Streetcore, was released posthumously on 20 October 2003.
fan favourites.
Singer-songwriter Tymon Dogg, a longtime friend of Joe The band also made appearances on the Late Show with
Strummer, joined the band in 2000 playing violin and David Letterman, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, as well
Spanish guitar. He contributed some of the tunes on as touring on the Hootenany Festival in the summer of
2001.
Global A Go-Go, including Mondo Bongo.
Honorary Mescaleros include John Blackburn and Jimmy Various Mescaleros have performed at numerous tribute
Hogarth, both of whom played bass in place of Scott concerts in both UK & Europe. Mescaleros Pablo Cook
Shields on the 2000 tour supporting The Who, which was & Smiley together with Mike Peters (the Alarm), Derek
also Tymon Doggs rst tour with the band. Andy Boo, Forbes (Simple Minds), Steve Harris (Gary Numan) are
Joes guitar tec also appeared in the Mescaleros line up in Los Mondo Bongo (a celebration of the music of Joe
in place of Pablo Cook on percussion at a gig in Finland Strummer) who together with Ray Gange (DJ) tour whenever possible performing those great Mescaleros tunes
1999.[2]
and have toured the UK and Canada.
Following the departure of Genn and Smiley, Scott
Shields moved to guitar, Simon Staord was brought on Antony Genn currently fronts The Hours, a band that he
board to play bass, and Luke Bullen was recruited to play and fellow Mescalero Martin Slattery formed in 2004.
drums. Pablo Cook left in August 2001 to join Moby.
In an October 2013 interview with BBC 6Music, Mick
Following the release of Global A Go-Go, Joe Strum- Jones conrmed that in the months prior to Strummers
mer and the Mescaleros mounted a 21-date tour of North passing that the two were writing new music together.
America, Britain, and Ireland. Once again, these con- Jones said at the time he assumed the new songs would
certs featured Clash material ("London Calling", Rudie be on an upcoming Mescaleros album however as months
Can't Fail), as well as classic covers of reggae hits ("The passed he ran into Strummer at an event and was informed
Harder They Come", "A Message to You, Rudy") and by him that the new music they were writing was intended
[6]
regularly closed the show with a nod to Joey Ramone by for the next Clash album.
playing The Ramones' Blitzkrieg Bop.
Musically, the Mescaleros continued the genre mixing 5.6.3 Members
that Strummer was known for during his time with The
Clash. Elements of reggae, jazz, funk, hip hop, country,
Joe Strummer lead vocals, rhythm guitar
and of course punk rock can be found in the three
Martin Slattery lead guitar, keyboards, saxophone,
Mescaleros releases.[2]
ute
The band is also the subject of a documentary by Dick
Rude titled Lets Rock Again! which was released on 27
Scott Shields guitar, bass guitar

5.6. THE MESCALEROS


Antony Genn guitar (19992000)
Simon Staord bass guitar, trombone (2001
2002)
Tymon Dogg violin, Spanish guitar, keyboards
(20002002)
John Blackburn bass guitar (2000)
Jimmy Hogarth bass guitar (2000)
Pablo Cook percussion (19992001)
Luke Bullen drums (20012002)
Steve Smiley Barnard drums (19992000)

5.6.4

Discography

Warning: Page using Template:Infobox artist discography with unknown parameter References (this message
is shown only in preview).

Studio albums
Singles
DVDs on which Joe Strummer & The Mescaleros appear:
Joe Strummer: The Future is Unwritten Directed by
Julien Temple (out on DVD: September 2007)
Viva Joe Strummer Directed by M.Parkinson
Lets Rock Again! Directed by Dick Rude
Later with Jools Holland: Legends

119

old busking pal & ddler, Tymon Dogg, for the rst time
since Sandinista). The music was a glorious amalgamation of every aspect of Joes character: as wide as his
vision & as big as his heart. I caught shows on each tour,
to see Joe again after so long was just as exhilarating as it
had been the rst time round. The last time I saw him
Id decided that he was gonna live forever & turn into
a gnarled punk/blues/world amalgamation of Bo Diddly,
Woody Guthrie & Muddy Waters a man for all seasons
& all generations. A foot soldier of the old guard destined
to continue teaching lesser minds the beauty & power of
legitimate protest through an art-form: Let fury have the
hour, anger can be power, you know that we can use it.
[3] Binette, George Robert (2003). The Last Night London
Burned. London. ISBN 0-9544620-0-9.
[4] McDonald, Gregg; Alan Miles (2003). The Last Night
London Burned. theclash.org.uk. Retrieved 4 December
2007. A Film by Gregg McDonald and Alan Miles. - An
account of Joe Strummer and The Mescaleros (featuring
Mick Jones) FBU benet concert at Acton Town Hall
[5] Clash star Joe Strummer dies. ENTERTAINMENT.
CNN.com. 23 December 2002. Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007.
Strummer, who was the bands guitarist, vocalist and songwriter alongside Mick Jones, died on Sunday at his farmhouse in Somerset, southwestern England.
[6] The Clash - Mick Jones: 'Secret Joe Strummer Tunes
Could Have Sparked The Clashs Comeback'". Contact
Music. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
[7] Chart Stats - Joe Strummer And The Mescaleros. chartstats.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.
Retrieved 20 July 2010.
[8] Chart Log UK: DJ S - The System Of Life. Dipl.Bibl.(FH) Tobias Zywietz, 19942009. Retrieved 17
February 2010.
[9] allmusic ((( Joe Strummer > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". Billboard. Retrieved 20 July 2010.

Hootenanny DVD
Give 'Em the Boot
Glastonbury the Movie
Black Hawk Down (soundtrack)
Le scaphandre et le papillon (The Diving Bell and
the Buttery) (2007)

5.6.6 References
Davie, Anthony (2004). Vision of a Homeland:
The History of Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros.
Northampton: Eective. ISBN 0-9548568-0-5.
OCLC 123775358.

5.6.7 Further reading


5.6.5

Notes

[1] shttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoudLDDWprw
[2] Encoule, Jean (January 2003). Joe Strummer - 19522002. trakMARX.com. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
The Mescaleros duly delivered Rock Art & The XRay Style (1999) & Global A Go-Go (2001). The
Mescaleros may have changed from tour to tour, but the
songs remained the same (Joe even found work for his

D'Ambrosio, Antonino (13 October 2004). Let Fury


Have the Hour: The Punk Rock Politics of Joe Strummer. New York: Nation Books. ISBN 1-56025625-7. OCLC 56988650. Edited with an Introduction by Antonino D'Ambrosio.
Davie, Anthony (2010). Joe Strummer & the
Mescaleros. F-54385 Rosieres-en-Haye, France:
Camion Blanc. ISBN 978-2-35779-048-3.

120

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

Davie, Anthony (2004). New and Previously


Unpublished Photographs Joe Strummer & the
Mescaleros. Northampton: Eective. ISBN 09548568-1-3. OCLC 64898380.
DeCurtis, Anthony (2003). 1952-2002 Joe Strummer - A tribute to the late Clash singer and songwriter, plus his nal remarks on the rise and fall of
the legendary punk band. Rolling Stone. Vol. 914
no. 27. San Francisco, CA: Straight Arrow. ISSN
0035-791X. OCLC 96002520.
Matula, Theodore (December 2003). Joe Strummer, 1952-2002. Popular Music and Society.
Bowling Green, Ohio: Taylor & Francis. 26 (4):
523525.
doi:10.1080/0300776032000144968.
OCLC 89586252.
Salewicz, Chris (15 May 2007). Redemption Song:
The Ballad of Joe Strummer (1st American ed.).
New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21178X. OCLC 76794852.

Carbon/Silicon recorded four demo CDs: Sample This,


Peace; Dope Factory Boogie; The Grand Delusion and The
Homecoming. The bands rst ocially released album,
A.T.O.M (A Twist of Modern) debuted on the bands
website on 28 July 2006. The next album Western Front
followed soon after on 14 October 2006 and included rerecorded versions of their earlier songs. The groups third
album, The Crackup Suite was released in March 2007.
The same month it was announced that Leo Eazykill
Williams, former bandmate of Jones with BAD would
play bass for the group, and that Dominic Greensmith formerly of Reef would take up the drum slot. The band further released two EPs plus another album The Last Post
and toured, including the Isle of Wight Festival and dates
in the USA.[3][4] In collaboration with Callicore Studio,
Carbon Silicon releases in 2008, an animated video for a
song from the album The Last Post, called The News.

In January 2008, in what is seen as a return their roots,


the band played 7 weekly concerts at a tiny venue Inn
on the Green in Ladbroke Grove, London. At the rst
gig, Topper Headon got up and played with the band for
two songs. Jones daughter, Lauren, sang with the band
at Carbon Casino 3 and 4 in sets that were highlighted
5.6.8 External links
by Hitsville UK. At the nal gig, Carbon Casino 7, the
Alabama Three took to the stage with Jones and James
Home of The Mescaleros
to perform the theme from US TV series, The Sopra Festival of music and lm to celebrate the work of nos. Throughout the run, support was provided by West
Joe Strummer
London bands Taurus Trakker, The Rotten Hill Gang,and
The Self, songwriter John Byrne, icons Pete Wylie, Glen
The Joe Strummer Foundation for New Music
Matlock, James Dean-Bradeld, John Cooper Clarke,
Richard Flack Music Production
and new young bands including West Londons The Dirty
Curtains, North London band The Usual Suspects and the
Savage Nomads.[5]

5.7 Carbon/Silicon

In 2009 the band released The Carbon Bubble - their


fourth full-length digital album release - free of charge
Carbon/Silicon is a punk rock duo consisting of two ex- at their ocial web site.[1]
perienced punk rock musicians: Mick Jones, formerly of
2010 has seen a further line-up change, with Jesse Wood
The Clash and Big Audio Dynamite, and Tony James,
replacing Leo Williams on bass, and the band has performerly of Generation X and Sigue Sigue Sputnik. The
formed a number of festival dates at international venues,
band formed around 2002.[1]
including the Neapolis festival (Naples)[6] and Arthurs
Day (Dublin).[7]

5.7.1

Career

Similar in many respects to Jones earlier work in Big Audio Dynamite, Carbon/Silicon aims to break the traditional approach to rock and roll. The band was described
by critic Alan McGee as "...the Stones jamming with a
laptop, as they initially made extensive use of samples
in their recordings and live shows but have given up that
practice in recent years. The formation of the band was
catalyzed by the internet and le sharing. The rst song
written by Jones and James was entitled MPFree, in
which they expressed their willingness to embrace the
technology of the internet and le sharing, in the interest of spreading music, rather than prot. The band
still makes live bootlegs and recordings freely available
through their own website, and the fansite.[2]

Later in 2010, their four free digital release albums were


removed from their site and released commercially on
iTunes and Amazon. The Crackup Suite was retitled
The Crackup Suite Parts 1 and 2 and had six additional
tracks added to it (four of which were previously unreleased) and Carbon Bubble had two previously unreleased
tracks added to it. Since then, Carbon Silicon has not
been active besides a few scattered tours. In early 2013,
they commercially released one additional song for download titled Big Surprise (with an accompanying video on
YouTube) causing fans to briey hope that more was to
come, but it was only an outtake from their earlier recordings and it appears that nothing else is in the works at the
moment.

5.7. CARBON/SILICON

5.7.2

Band members

Current members

121
Commercial Digital releases
A.T.O.M (2010)

Mick Jones - lead vocals, guitar (2002present)

Western Front (2010)

Tony James - guitar (2002present)

The Crackup Suite Parts 1 and 2 (2010)


The Carbon Bubble (2010)

With:
Dominic Greensmith - drums, percussion (2007

Big Surprise (2013)

present)

Jesse Wood - bass (2010present)


Former members
William Blake - bass (20042005)
Danny The Red - drums (20042005)
Leo Eazykill Williams - bass (20072010)

Physical releases
The News EP (2007) No. 59 UK Singles Chart
The Magic Suitcase EP (2007) No. 7 UK Indie Chart
The Last Post (2007)
Carbon Casino (Live album) (2007)
Why Do Men Fight? (Single) (2008)

5.7.3

Discography

Demo recordings
Sample This, Peace (2003)
Dope Factory Boogie (2003)
The Grand Delusion (2004)
The Homecoming (2004)
Free Digital releases
Value What Is Necessary EP (2006)
The Global War On Culture EP (2006)
The News 12 Single (2006)
Experimental! EP (2006)
Oil Well EP (2006)
A.T.O.M (2006)
The Magic Suitcase EP (2006)
The Gangs Of England EP (2006)
Why Do Men Fight EP (2006)
Western Front (2006)
The Crackup Suite (2007)

5.7.4 References
[1] Access to the requested domain has been suspended.
carbonsiliconinc.com. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
[2] carbonsilicon.info. carbonsilicon.info. Retrieved 201109-14.
[3] Carbon Silicon at the Isle of Wight Festival. Isle of
Wight Festival. Archived from the original (ASPX) on
14 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[4] Clash legend plays Isle Of Wight. News. NME.COM.
2007-06-09. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[5] Gittins, Ian (2008-01-14). Carbon/Silicon.
Guardian. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

The

[6] Rodsandcones. Neapolis Festival (in Italian). Neapolis.it. Retrieved 2011-09-14.


[7] Arthurs Day 2010 Listings. Guinness.com. Archived
from the original on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 201109-14.

5.7.5 External links


Carbon/Silicon ocial website
Ocial Carbon/Silicon Myspace site

Maybe Thats The Meaning Of Life (2007)

Ocial Carbon/Silicon YouTube channel

The Carbon Bubble (2009)

Interview with Terry Gross on NPRs Fresh Air

122

5.8 The Good, the Bad & the


Queen
For the song, see The Good, the Bad & the Queen (song).

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS


fore returning to England once more.[18]
The track listing was originally unveiled and commented
upon by Damon Albarn and Paul Simonon in an interview in the November 2006 issue of Uncut.[19] The second major gig of the bands career took place on 12 December 2006, at Wiltons Music Hall in East London. It
was watched by 300 specially selected fans, as the launch
gig of MySpaces The List. The band released their rst
Top 20 single, "Kingdom of Doom", a week prior to the
release of the album.[20] In April, "Green Fields" was released as the third single from the album and debuted at
No. 51 in its rst week.[21]

The Good, the Bad & the Queen is the album by an unnamed British alternative rock supergroup also commonly
referred to as The Good, The Bad & The Queen, and
made up of Damon Albarn, Paul Simonon, Simon Tong
and Tony Allen and produced by Danger Mouse. The
album was released in January 2007.[12][13] The album
debuted at number two in the UK Albums Chart and was
On 4 April 2007, The Good, the Bad & the Queen becertied Gold in the UK within days of its release decame
the rst EMI album to be made available for downspite little media recognition and airplay.[14] In the United
load in the new DRM-free, high quality MP3 format (320
States, the album entered the Billboard 200 at No. 49.
kbit/s).[22]
It is stated that the record is, in a sense, a concept alThe Good, The Bad and the Queen was voted the Best
bum, as its songs are all themed around modern life in
Album of 2007 by the Observer Music Magazine. Paul
[15]
London.
It was described by Albarn as a song cycle
Simonon told the magazine how the record came about:
thats also a mystery play about London in an interview
Its not a commercial record, so OMMs award shows
with Mojo.
that you can make music that moves people without going down the obvious route. I hadn't been in a band for 17
or 18 years, and then Damon asked me to listen to some
5.8.1 Album history
tracks he'd recorded in Nigeria. I'd met him once before,
at Joe Strummers wedding reception. We shared ideas
Although The Good, The Bad & The Queen was rst re- about people, musical styles and where we live. With the
ported as a solo album by Albarn with Danger Mouse music, I wanted to complement Tonys drums. I'm not
producing, NME revealed in late July 2006 that the into over-complication - I'm not capable of it, to be honsolo project had been switched to a new group formed est. The lyrics, the London atmosphere, all that evolved as
by Albarn.[16] The band, which formed in 2006, re- we played. Theres a lot of craftsmanship on the record,
leased their rst single, "Herculean" on 30 October 2006. and Damon has a vision for arrangements, and everyone
The single followed the bands appearance at the BBC's slotted in around them. 'But its all done now. We won't
Electric Proms season at the redeveloped Roundhouse in make another record, and we didn't properly name the
Camden on 26 October, during which they performed the band, because a name is for a marriage.[23]
entire album.[16] Three warm-up gigs in East Prawle at
In an interview with Pitchfork about Danger Mouses inthe Pigs Nose Inn,[17] Ilfracombes Marlboro Club and
volvement in this album, Albarn states: He was quite
The Exeter Cavern Club preceded their gig on the BBCs
adamant that we don't do any kind of harmony and that I
Electric Proms, where the album was performed in orkept it a single voice. I thought, Well thats great. Thats
der with two other songs inserted, Intermission Jam and
how I kind of start the songs in the rst place: I get a very
Mr. Whippy"; the latter was a B-side for Herculean.
basic arrangement and texture them. His attention to that
The band performed four tracks from the album at Abbey
detail was important. And it helped me write the lyrics.
Road Studios on 13 December 2006, during a recording
It cleared the way for it just having to be a single voice.
session for Live from Abbey Road.
Hes an exceptional talent. With Brian [Danger Mouse]
For the rst few months, Allen would travel from Paris being a kind of third party so to speak, it helps to have
(where he has a permanent home) to London to work in someone there. You want a band to work itself, but at the
Albarns Studio 13 for 3 days a week, writing, rehearsing same time you want it to be the best that it can be. I tried
and recording. At the same time as the initial recordings it the other way, with Tony leading the tracks when I went
in the UK, Albarn had begun demoing for the second Go- to Lagos, and it was great but I didn't t into that. That
rillaz record and by early spring had invited in producer is why I scrapped the whole record, because I thought I
Danger Mouse to oversee the album. Albarn was keen to should be involved at least.[24]
work in Africa with local musicians again after his work
Damon Albarn wrote the original version of the song
on the album Mali Music (released 2002) so Tony Allen
"Green Fields" following a night out with Blur bassist
suggested that the four of them (including Danger Mouse)
Alex James and Marianne Faithfull. That demo was
decamp to his home country of Nigeria to continue the
recorded in a studio on Goldhawk Road, Hammersmith
sessions. There they recorded at Afrodisia Studios, once
and Albarn gave the tape to Faithfull.[25] It was later
used by Fela Kuti, with a huge variety of local musicians,
recorded by the singer/actress with dierent lyrics in the
committing huge amounts of songs and ideas to tape be-

5.8. THE GOOD, THE BAD & THE QUEEN


verses and released on her 2005 album Before the Poison
as Last Song.[26] The demo of the song resurfaced late
in the proceedings of recording [The Good, the Bad and
the Queen]" when Albarn played it for the rest of the band.
The band decided to record the track and Albarn decided
to nish it by explaining how I lost this song and now its
come back to me. So its a song about a song.[25]

5.8.2

Band name

123
"Back in the Day" - B-side on "Herculean" single.
"Mr. Whippy" (featuring Eslam Jawaad) - B-side on
Herculean single.
"Hallsands Waltz (Sketches of Devon)" - Song on
"Kingdom of Doom" single.
"Start Point (Sketches of Devon)" - Song on Kingdom of Doom single.

Intermission Jam - Unreleased song played at the


BBC Electric Proms.
Albarn has stated in several interviews that the band itself
is unnamed, and that The Good, The Bad & The Queen is
"England, Summer (In Black & White) Dog House"
simply the name of the album only. However, all single
- Song on "Green Fields" single.
releases by the band are clearly credited on the accompanying record or CD sleeves to The Good, The Bad & The
"England, Summer (In Black & White) Polling Day"
Queen. It should also be noted the bands rst single re- Song on Green Fields single.
lease (Herculean) was issued months before the album
ever came out at which time, publicity materials identied the band as The Good, The Bad & The Queen and no 5.8.5 Personnel
one claimed that the band was unnamed. The Good, the
Bad & the Queen is used exclusively as the name of the 5.8.6 Chart performance
band by UK chart compilers, and almost universally by
record stores, music downloading services, concert pro- Weekly charts
moters, fan sites and other media.
Certications

5.8.3

Further plans

The band has not released any new material, though


Simon Tong and Paul Simonon both made appearances
on Damon Albarns next project, the third Gorillaz album Plastic Beach and Tony Allen collaborated with Damon Albarn and Flea of Red Hot Chilli Peppers on the
album, Rocket Juice & the Moon in 2012. In November
2011, the band played a show at Londons Coronet Theatre marking the 40th anniversary of Greenpeace the
rst time the band had played together in almost three
years.
In October 2014, Damon Albarn announced that a new
album was fully written, and waiting to be recorded.[27]

5.8.4

Track listing

All tracks written by Damon Albarn.


Sample credits
Northern Whale contains a sample of "As Tears
Go By", written by Mick Jagger, Keith Richards
& Andrew Oldham and performed by The Rolling
Stones from the album Decembers Children (And
Everybodys).
Unreleased tracks and B-sides
Intro - Played on the Live from Soho EP

5.8.7 References
[1] Reviews for The Good, The Bad & The Queen by The
Good, The Bad & The Queen. Metacritic. Retrieved 14
August 2013.
[2] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. The Good, the Bad & the
Queen The Good, the Bad & the Queen. AllMusic.
Retrieved 14 August 2013.
[3] Phipps, Keith (23 January 2007). The Good, The Bad
& The Queen: The Good, The Bad & The Queen. The
A.V. Club. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[4] Endelman, Michael (22 January 2007). The Good, the
Bad & the Queen. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 17
January 2016.
[5] Petridis, Alexis (19 January 2007). The Good, the Bad
and the Queen. The Guardian. Retrieved 17 January
2016.
[6] Cromelin, Richard (17 January 2007). Yet again, Ross
goes her own way. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[7] MacBain, Hamish (12 January 2007). The Good, The
Bad & The Queen: The Good, The Bad & The Queen.
NME. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[8] Klein, Joshua (15 January 2007). The Good, the Bad &
the Queen: The Good, the Bad & the Queen. Pitchfork
Media. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[9] The Good, the Bad & the Queen: The Good, the Bad &
the Queen. Q (247): 94. February 2007.

124

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

[10] Sheeld, Rob (10 January 2007). The Good, The Bad
And The Queen: The Good, The Bad And The Queen.
Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 1 February
2008. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[11] Young, Jon (January 2007). Zen Gorillaz. Spin. 23 (1):
92. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[12] Its all a bit of a blur for Damon. Daily Record. Scotland. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
[13] The band with no name. Time Out New York. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
[14] Album Goes Gold in UK. The Good, the Bad and the
Queen ocial website.

5.8.8 External links


The Good, the Bad & the Queens channel on
YouTube
The Good, the Bad & the Queen at AllMusic
The Good, the Bad & the Queen at Discogs (list of
releases)
The Good, the Bad & the Queen at Metacritic

5.9 Rock Against Racism

Rock Against Racism (RAR) was a campaign set up


in the United Kingdom in 1976 as a response to an increase in racial conict and the growth of white nation[16] Damon Albarn forms new band. NME. 28 July 2006. alist groups such as the National Front. The campaign
Retrieved 28 July 2006.
involved pop, rock, punk and reggae musicians staging
concerts with an anti-racist theme, in order to discourage
[17] The Good, the Bad and the Queen: Gigography. blur
young people from embracing racism. The campaign was
studio. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
founded, in part, as a response to statements and activities
[18] The Band. Goodbadqueen.com. Retrieved 2014-05- by well-known rock musicians that were widely regarded
as racist.[1]
20.
[15] Damon Albarn starts new band. 30 July 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2006.

[19] Uncut (Nov. 2006, pp. 8688)


[20] Damon Albarns new band announce new single. NME.
28 November 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
[21] The Good, The Bad & The Queen announce new single.
NME. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
[22] EMI press release. Archived from the original on 18
May 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
[23] Kingdom Of Doom by The Good, the Bad & the Queen
Songfacts. Songfacts.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
[24] Interviews: The Good, the Bad and the Queen | Features. Pitchfork. 2007-03-19. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
[25] Something For The Weekend: Track by Track. The
Sun. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2007-03-02.

5.9.1 History
Originally conceived as a one-o concert with a message against racism, Rock Against Racism was founded
in 1976 by Red Saunders, Roger Huddle and others. According to Huddle, it remained just an idea until August
1976 when Eric Clapton made a drunken declaration of
support for former Conservative minister Enoch Powell
(known for his anti-immigration Rivers of Blood speech)
at a concert in Birmingham.[2] Clapton told the crowd that
England had become overcrowded and that they should
vote for Powell to stop Britain from becoming a black
colony". He also told the audience that Britain should
get the foreigners out, get the wogs out, get the coons
out, and then he repeatedly shouted the National Front
slogan Keep Britain White.[3][4]

[26] Trouss, Stephen. Damon Albarn - The Good, The Bad


and The Queen - The Good, The Bad and The Queen Review. Uncut. Retrieved 2007-02-20.

Huddle, Saunders and two members of Kartoon Klowns


responded by writing a letter to NME expressing their opposition to Claptons comments, which they claimed were
[27] Minsker, Evan. Damon Albarn Prepping New Gorillaz all the more disgusting because he had his rst hit with
and the Good, the Bad & the Queen Albums. Pitchfork a cover of reggae star Bob Marley's "I Shot the Sheri"
... Come on Eric... Own up. Half your music is black.
Media. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
Who shot the Sheri, Eric? It sure as hell wasn't you!" At
[28] British album certications The Good, the Bad & the the end of the letter, they called for people to help form a
Queen The Good, the Bad & the Queen. British Phono- movement called Rock Against Racism, and they report
graphic Industry. Enter The Good, the Bad & the Queen
that they received hundreds of replies.[2]
in the eld Keywords. Select Title in the eld Search by.
Select album in the eld By Format. Select Gold in the eld
By Award. Click Search

In a 2007 interview, Clapton said he still supported Powell, and that he didn't view Powell as a racist.[5]

[29] French album certications The Good, the Bad &


the Queen (in French). Syndicat National de l'dition
Phonographique.

Further support for RAR came after David Bowie, speaking as The Thin White Duke, his persona at the time,
made statements that expressed support for fascism and

5.9. ROCK AGAINST RACISM


perceived admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with
Playboy, NME and a Swedish publication. Bowie was
quoted as saying: Britain is ready for a fascist leader...
I think Britain could benet from a fascist leader. After
all, fascism is really nationalism... I believe very strongly
in fascism, people have always responded with greater
eciency under a regimental leadership. He was also
quoted as saying: Adolf Hitler was one of the rst rock
stars and You've got to have an extreme right front
come up and sweep everything o its feet and tidy everything up.[6] Bowie caused further controversy by allegedly making a Nazi salute while riding in a convertible,
although Bowie has always strongly denied this, insisting
that a photographer simply caught him in the middle of
waving.[7] Bowies claim seems to be borne out by existing footage of the event.[8]
Bowie later retracted and apologised for his statements,
blaming them on a combination of an obsession with
occultism, the Thule Society and Friedrich Nietzsche, as
well as his excessive drug use at the time. He said: I
have made my two or three glib, theatrical observations
on English society and the only thing I can now counter
with is to state that I am NOT a fascist.[9]

125
Pulse.The Manchester event was also tied in with the
1978 Deeply Vale Festival a week later where they held a
Rock Against Racism day. The 2014 Deeply Vale Box
Set and book contains a section about the 1978 Rock
Against Racism events in Manchester with several organisers and workers giving current interviews.[20] In 1979, a
concert was held at Acklam Hall in Notting Hill, London,
featuring Crisis, The Vapors and Beggar.[21]
The group behind the original Rock Against Racism
launched a new website on 27 April 2008.[22]

5.9.2 Love Music Hate Racism


RAR was reborn in 2002 as Love Music Hate Racism,
with a concert at The Astoria in London, England featuring Mick Jones, Buzzcocks, and The Libertines. Other
acts involved in the campaign include Ms. Dynamite and
The Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster. With a goal of
counteracting the activities of organizations such as the
National Front and the British National Party, it has held
high-prole concerts in Trafalgar Square and Victoria
Park as well as some other stadiums and venues.

5.9.3 Further reading


Beating Time by David Widgery (1986)
Rock Against Racism by Syd Shelton (2016)
Walls Come Tumbling Down: The Music and Politics
of Rock Against Racism, 2 Tone and Red Wedge by
Daniel Rachel (2016)

Rock Against Racism march in Trafalgar Square, 1978

Reminiscences of RAR: Rocking Against Racism


1976-1979. Edited by Roger Huddle and Red Saunders (Redwords, 2016)

RARs rst activity was a concert featuring Carol Grimes 5.9.4 See also
as lead artist, and it also launched the fanzine Temporary
Hoarding.[10] In spring 1978, 100,000 people marched
List of punk rock festivals
six miles from Trafalgar Square to the East End of London (a National Front hotspot) for an open-air music
List of historic rock festivals
festival at Victoria Park in Hackney organized by RAR
Rock Against Communism
and the Anti-Nazi League, to counteract the growing
wave of racist attacks in the UK.[11][12][13][14] The concert
Rock Against Sexism
featured The Clash,[13][15][16] Steel Pulse, X-Ray Spex,
The Ruts, Sham 69, Generation X and the Tom Robin Race Against Rockism
son Band.[17] The Southall-based reggae band Misty In
Roots led the march from the back of a lorry during the
Stop Murder Music
carnival,[18] although did not appear on the main stage.
A second march and concert at Brockwell Park in south
Love Music Hate Racism
London, featured Sti Little Fingers, Aswad and Elvis
Costello.[19] In the summer of the same year, an audience
of 40,000 came to the Northern Carnival in Manchester, 5.9.5 Footnotes
for a concert featuring Buzzcocks, Graham Parker and
the Rumour, The Smirks, Exodus, China Street and Steel [1] Blood and Glory, The Observer, Sunday 4 March 2007

126

[2] Huddle, Roger. Lee Billingham (June 2004). AntiFascism: That Was Then, This is Now. Socialist Review
(286).
[3] Virgin Media: 'When Pop Stars Talk Politics: Claptons
Shocking Rant'
[4] Bainbridge, Luke (2007-10-14). The ten right-wing
rockers. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-0522.

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS

5.9.6 External links


40 years since the birth of Rock Against Racism:
rebel music that broke down fear, Unity, 17
(September/October 2016) - interview with Red
Saunders
Original RAR Crew 1976-1982
Hull Rock Against Racism

[5] Eric Clapton. The South Bank Show. ITV. 2007-12-02.


[6] Standing by the Wall: The Quotable David Bowie
[7] 'GOODBYE TO ZIGGY AND ALL THAT', article in
Melody Maker, October 1977
[8] Bowie at the Victoria Station, May 1976, silent footage
YouTube
[9]
[10] London Photography Exhibtions. jfFrank online. jfFrank. 2015-11-26. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
[11] Love Music hate Racism Carnival 2008, Victoria Park,
London
[12] TRB Rock Against Racism
[13] Hazan, Jack; David Mingay, Ray Gange, Joe Strummer,
Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Nicky Headon, Buzzy Enterprises, Epic Music Video (2006). Rude Boy (Documentary, Rockumentary). New York, NY, United
States: Epic Music Video. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC
70850190. 2nd edition digitally restored and remastered
sound.
[14] Virtual Festivals, news, reviews and listings for Glastonbury, Reading, Leeds, V Festival, T in the Park, Download, Isle of Wight, Bestival and other UK and International festivals
[15] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,
Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, The Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 47:42. ISBN 0-73890082-6. OCLC 49798077.
[16] Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot of
Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd ed.). London: Orion. pp. 6368. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.

5.10 Concerts for the People of


Kampuchea
For the music recordings, see Concerts for the People
of Kampuchea (album). For the lm, see Concert for
Kampuchea.
Concerts for the People of Kampuchea was a series
of concerts featuring Queen, The Clash, The Pretenders,
The Who, Elvis Costello, Wings, and many more artists
which took place at the Hammersmith Odeon in London
during December 1979 to raise money for the victims
of war-torn Cambodia. The event was organized by
Paul McCartney and Kurt Waldheim,[1] and it involved
older artists such as McCartney and The Who as well
as younger, new wave acts like The Clash and the Pretenders. The last of the concerts was the last concert of
Wings. An album and EP were released in 1981, and the
best of the concerts were released as a lm, Concert for
Kampuchea.
Rockestra was a McCartney-led supergroup of at least
thirty English rockers. (The credited list appears at the
bottom of the back cover of the LP).

5.10.1 Concerts
26 December
Queen
27 December

[17] The Anti Nazi League/Rock Against Racism Rallies.


UK Rock Festivals. Retrieved 8 March 2016.

Ian Dury and the Blockheads (with guest Mick Jones


on Sweet Gene Vincent)

[18] ANL RAR March to Victoria Park 30th April 1978.

Matumbi

[19] Manzoor, Sarfraz (2008-04-21). The year rock found the


power to unite. The Guardian. London.

The Clash

[20] Manzoor, Sarfraz (20 April 2008). The year rock found
the power to unite. Guardian.co.uk.

28 December

[21] Rock Against Racism benet with Crisis, Beggar and The
Vapors, riot at Acklam Hall, Ladbroke Grove, London,
Friday 29 June 1979

The Pretenders

[22] Rock Against Racism

The Who

The Specials

5.10. CONCERTS FOR THE PEOPLE OF KAMPUCHEA


29 December
Elvis Costello & The Attractions
Rockpile (with guest Robert Plant on Little Sister)

127
Ian Dury & The Blockheads
1. Clevor Trevor
2. Inbetweenies

Wings
Rockestra

3. Don't Ask Me
4. Reasons To Be Cheerful

5.10.2

Selected set lists

Queen
1. Jailhouse Rock

5. Sink My Boats
6. Waiting For Your Taxi
7. This Is What We Find

2. We Will Rock You (fast version)


3. Let Me Entertain You
4. Somebody to Love
5. If You Can't Beat Them
6. Mustapha

8. Mischief
9. What A Waste
10. Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick
11. Sweet Gene Vincent

7. Death on Two Legs


8. Killer Queen

The Clash

9. I'm in Love with My Car


10. Get Down, Make Love

1. Clash City Rockers

11. You're My Best Friend

2. Brand New Cadillac

12. Save Me

3. Safe European Home

13. Now I'm Here

4. Jimmy Jazz

14. Don't Stop Me Now

5. Clampdown

15. Spread Your Wings


16. Love of My Life

6. The Guns of Brixton

17. '39

7. Train in Vain

18. Keep Yourself Alive

8. Wrong Em Boyo

19. Drums solo

9. Koka Kola

20. Guitar solo with parts of Silent Night


21. Brighton Rock reprise

10. (White Man) In Hammersmith Palais

22. Crazy Little Thing Called Love

11. Stay Free

23. Bohemian Rhapsody

12. Bankrobber

24. Tie Your Mother Down

13. Janie Jones

25. Sheer Heart Attack


26. We Will Rock You

14. Complete Control

27. We Are the Champions

15. Armagideon Time

28. God Save the Queen (tape)

16. London Calling

128
The Specials

CHAPTER 5. ASSOCIATED ACTS


19. I Can See for Miles

1. (Dawning Of a) New Era

20. I Don't Want To Be an Old Man

2. Do The Dog

21. Won't Get Fooled Again

3. Monkey Man

22. Summertime Blues

4. Concrete Jungle

23. Dancing In The Streets

5. Too Hot

24. Dance It Away

6. Doesn't Make It Alright

25. The Real Me

7. Too Much Too Young


8. Guns Of Navarone
9. Little Bitch

Wings
1. Got to Get You into My Life

10. A Message To You Rudy

2. Getting Closer

11. Nite Club

3. Every Night

12. Gangsters

4. Again And Again And Again

13. Longshot Kick The Bucket

5. I've Had Enough

14. Skinhead Moonstomp

6. No Words

15. Madness

7. Cook Of The House

The Who
1. Substitute
2. I Can't Explain
3. Baba O'Riley
4. The Punk and the Godfather
5. My Wife

8. Old Siam, Sir


9. Maybe I'm Amazed
10. The Fool on the Hill
11. Hot As Sun
12. Spin It On
13. Twenty Flight Rock

6. Sister Disco

14. Go Now

7. Behind Blue Eyes

15. Arrow Through Me

8. Music Must Change

16. Coming Up

9. Drowned

17. Goodnight Tonight

10. Who Are You

18. Yesterday

11. 5.15

19. Mull of Kintyre

12. Pinball Wizard

20. Band on the Run

13. See Me Feel Me


14. Long Live Rock

Rockestra

15. My Generation

1. Rockestra Theme

16. I'm a Man

2. Let It Be

17. Hoochie Coochie Man

3. Lucille

18. Sparks

4. Rockestra Theme (reprise)

5.11. BURNING LONDON: THE CLASH TRIBUTE

5.10.3

See also

Concerts for the People of Kampuchea, the album


and the EP about the concerts.
Concert for Kampuchea, the lm about the concerts.

5.10.4

References

[1] CBC.ca - Arts - Music - Charity Begins

5.11 Burning London: The Clash


Tribute
Burning London: The Clash Tribute is a tribute album
to the English punk rock band The Clash. It was released
in 1999.[3] A portion of the proceeds from the sales of
Burning London will benet the High Risk Youth Program of the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles.[4]

5.11.1

Track listing

5.11.2

References

[1] Pearson, Paul. Burning London: The Clash Tribute at


AllMusic
[2] Rolling Stone review. Rolling Stone.
[3] Paul Pearson. Burning London: The Clash Tribute.
Overview. Allmusic. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
[4] Rob Sheeld (27 May 1999). Burning London: The
Clash Tribute. Review. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 25
March 2010.

5.11.3

External links

Neva Chonin, Aidin Vaziri, Colin Berry, Gary


Gra, David Wiegand, Dan Ouellette, Amanda
Nowinski (2 May 1999). "`Burning London' Proves
A Worthy Homage to the Clash. Collection. SFGate.
Keith Phipps (19 April 2002). Burning London:
The Clash Tribute. Review. The A.V. Club.
Scott Schinder (May 1999). Review of Burning
London: The Clash Tribute. Pulse.

129

Chapter 6

Films
6.1 ''Rude Boy''

5. Garageland
Performed by The Clash at Rehearsal Rehearsals;
audio tracks re-recorded at Wessex Studios.

Rude Boy is a 1980 British lm directed by Jack Hazan


and David Mingay and lmed in 1978 and early 1979.

6. Rudi sung by Bob Marley (Coxsone Records)

The lm, part ction, part rockumentary, tells the story


of Ray Gange, a Clash fan who leaves his job in a Soho
sex shop to become a roadie for the band.[1][2][3] The
lm includes footage of The Clash at a Rock Against
Racism concert at Victoria Park,[1] on their On Parole
and Sort It Out tours,[4] and in the studio recording the
album Give 'Em Enough Rope. The lm was named after the rude boy subculture. The band became so disenchanted with the lm, that by its release, they had Better
Badges make badges stating 'I don't want Rude Boy Clash
Film'.[5]
In 1980, the lm won the Honorable Mention, and was
nominated for the Golden Bear at the 30th Berlin International Film Festival.[6] It was re-released on DVD the
UK in 2003 by Fremantle Media with a host of special
features including interviews with 'Rude Boy' Ray Gange,
The Clashs road manager Johnny Green and lm makers Jack Hazan and David Mingay. There was a Blu-ray
release of the lm in 2015.

6.1.1

Cast

9. "(White Man) In Hammersmith Palais"


Performed live by The Clash at the Apollo, Glasgow
on 4 July 1978; audio tracks re-recorded at Wessex
Studios.
10. "I'm So Bored with the USA"
Performed live by The Clash at the Apollo, Glasgow
on 4 July 1978; audio tracks re-recorded at Wessex
Studios.

12. "White Riot"


Performed live by The Clash at the Apollo, Glasgow
on 4 July 1978; audio tracks re-recorded at Wessex
Studios.

Songs performed

1. "Revolution Rock" (Jackie Edwards, Danny Ray)


Instrumental version of album track; title song
2. "Police and Thieves" (Junior Murvin/Lee Scratch
Perry)
Performed by The Clash at Barbarellas,
Birmingham on 1 May 1978; audio tracks rerecorded at Wessex Studios.
3. "Police and Thieves" sung by Junior Marvin (Island
Records)
4. "Career Opportunities" (from The Clash album)

8. "White Riot"
Performed live by The Clash at Open Air Carnival,
Victoria Park, London on 30 April 1978 and featuring Jimmy Pursey from Sham 69 on vocals; audio
tracks re-recorded at Wessex Studios.

11. "Janie Jones"


Performed live by The Clash at the Apollo, Glasgow
on 4 July 1978; audio tracks re-recorded at Wessex
Studios.

The cast included (in alphabetical order):[2]

6.1.2

7. "Londons Burning"
Performed live by The Clash at Open Air Carnival, Victoria Park, London on 30 April 1978; audio
tracks re-recorded at Wessex Studios.

13. "The Prisoner"


Performed live by The Clash at the Civic Music Hall,
Aberdeen on 5 July 1978; audio tracks re-recorded
at Wessex Studios.
14. "Johnny Too Bad" sung by The Slickers (Island
Records)
15. "Tommy Gun"
Performed live by The Clash at the Kinema Ballroom, Dunfermline on 6 July 1978; audio tracks rerecorded at Wessex Studios.

130

6.2. ''THE CLASH: WESTWAY TO THE WORLD''


16. "All the Young Punks"
Performed by The Clash at Wessex Studios.
17. "Stay Free"
Performed by The Clash at Wessex Studios.
18. "Complete Control"
Performed by The Clash at the Music Machine,
Camden, London on 27 July 1978; audio tracks rerecorded at Wessex Studios.
19. "Safe European Home"
Performed by The Clash at the Music Machine,
Camden, London on 27 July 1978; audio tracks rerecorded at Wessex Studios.

131

6.1.4 External links


Rude Boy at the Internet Movie Database
The Clash: Rude Boy (1980) - Overview - MSN
Movies
The Clash: Rude Boy - MTV Movies
The Clash - Rude Boy - Rotten Tomatoes
The Clash: Rude Boy - VH1.com

6.2 ''The Clash: Westway to the


World''

20. "Whats My Name"


Performed by The Clash at the Music Machine,
Camden, London on 27 July 1978; audio tracks re- The Clash: Westway to the World [1] is a 2000
documentary lm about the British punk rock band The
recorded at Wessex Studios.
Clash. In 2003 it won the Grammy Award for Best Long
21. No Reason (piano song)
Form Music Video.[2]
Performed solo by Joe Strummer at Rehearsal StuDirected by Don Letts, the lm combines old footage
dio.
from the bands personal collection lmed in 1982 when
22. "Let the Good Times Roll" (piano song)
The Clash went to New York City with new interviews
Performed solo by Joe Strummer at Rehearsal Stu- conducted for the lm by Mal Peachey of members Mick
dio.
Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, and Joe Strummer and other people associated with the group (includ23. "I Fought the Law" (Sonny Curtis)
Performed live by The Clash at The Lyceum, West ing founding drummer Terry Chimes).
End, London on 28 December.

Although The Clash: Westway to the World ostensibly


provides an overview of the bands history, the lm im24. "Rudie Can't Fail" (from London Calling album)
plies that The Clash broke up in 1983 when Mick Jones
left the band, making no mention of the post-Jones version of the band that existed between 1983 and 1986, nor
6.1.3 References
the album that iteration produced (Cut the Crap). Danny
[1] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Garcias 2012 documentary lm The Rise and Fall of The
Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, The Clash Clash covers this period in some depth, placing an em(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary). phasis on the bands declining years and the repercussions
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo; of Mick Jones ouster. Garcias lm also features interUptown Films. Event occurs at 47:42. ISBN 0-7389views with latter-day Clash members Pete Howard, Nick
0082-6. OCLC 49798077.
Sheppard, and Vince White.
[2] Hazan, Jack; David Mingay, Ray Gange, Joe Strummer,
Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Nicky Headon, Buzzy Enterprises, Epic Music Video (2006-08-01). Rude Boy
(DVD). New York, NY: Epic Music Video. ISBN 07389-0587-9. OCLC 70850190. Digitally restored and
remastered sound.
[3] Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot of
Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd ed.). London: Orion. pp. 6368. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
[4] The Clash. Induction. Rockhall.com. 2003-03-10. Retrieved 2007-11-19. The lm Rude Boy, a 1980 lm
about the Clash and their punk-rock milieu, contained
concert sequences that demonstrate why they were considered one of rocks greatest live acts.
[5] Clash Pins. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
[6] Berlinale 1980: Prize Winners. berlinale.de. Retrieved
2010-08-22.

6.2.1 Appearing
Terry Chimes
Terence Dackombe
Topper Headon
Mick Jones
Jordan
Paul Simonon
Siouxsie Sioux
Joe Strummer
Shane MacGowan
Dave Vanian

132

6.2.2

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

References

4. Main Title; Global a Go-Go

[1] Letts Don; Rick Elgood, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones,


Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, The Clash
(2001). The Clash: Westway to the World (Documentary). New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment;
Dorismo; Uptown Films. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC
49798077.

5. Bhindi Bhagee

[2] The Clash: Westway to the World (2000) (V) Awards.


IMDb The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-1127.

8. Trashman or Doorman?

6.2.3

External links

The Clash: Westway to the World at the Internet


Movie Database

6.3 ''Lets Rock Again!''


Lets Rock Again! is a music documentary lm following Joe Strummer as he tours across the United States and
Japan with his band the Mescaleros promoting their second album Global a Go-Go. The memoir was shot by
lmmaker and longtime Strummer friend Dick Rude in
the 18 months leading up to Strummers death in 2002.

6.3.1

DVD

The DVD was released in June 2006; Bonus features include:


Interviews with Joe Strummer
Behind-the-Scenes Footage
Joes Suitcase [Slide Show]

6. Interaction with the Fans


7. Quarter Pound an Ishens

9. From Hero to Zero


10. Londons Burning
11. Word of Mouth
12. Mega Bottle Ride
13. Drumming Up Business
14. Get Down Moses
15. Backstage Shenanigans
16. Shaktar Donetsk
17. Songwriting and Lyrics
18. Cool 'n' Out
19. 9 October 2001, New York, NY
20. Minstrel Boy
21. Going Underground
22. 1969

Q & A with Director Dick Rude

23. Johnny Appleseed

Five Songs Performed Live:

24. End Credits

1. Bigger they come, Harder they fall


2. Quarter Pound an Ishens

6.3.2 See also

3. Armagideon Time

Joe Strummer and the Mescaleros

4. Pressure Drop '72

Joe Strummer

5. Rudie Can't Fail


Scene selections include:
1. Tom Snyder and The Clash

6.3.3 External links


Preview Trailer: from the Rude Archive

2. 1977 (The Clash)

Lets Rock Again at the Internet Movie Database

3. 1 October 2002, Tokyo, Japan

Lets Rock Again at AllMovie

6.4. ''JOE STRUMMER: THE FUTURE IS UNWRITTEN''

6.4 ''Joe Strummer: The Future Is


Unwritten''
Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten is a 2007 documentary lm directed by Julien Temple about Joe Strummer, the lead singer of the British punk rock band The
Clash, that went on to win the British Independent Film
Awards as Best British Documentary 2007.[2][3] The lm
premiered 20 January 2007 at the 2007 Sundance Film
Festival.[4] It was also shown at the Dublin Film Festival
on 24 February 2007.[4]

133
Martin Scorsese Himself
Joe Strummer Himself
Special Thanks: Terence Dackombe

6.4.2 Critical reception

The lm was well received by critics. As of 18 October 2009 on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes,
89% of critics gave the lm positive reviews, based on 61
reviews.[5] On Metacritic, the lm had an average score
It was released in the United Kingdom on 18 May 2007
of 79 out of 100, based on 19 reviews.[6]
and in Australia on 31 August 2007.[4] The lm opened
in limited release in the United States on 2 November Marc Savlov of The Austin Chronicle named it the 8th
best lm of 2007.[7] Stephanie Zacharek of Salon named
2007.[4]
it the 9th best lm of 2007.[7]

6.4.1

Cast

Brigitte Bardot Herself (archive footage)


Michael Balzary (Flea) Himself

6.4.3 Box oce performance


As of 31 January 2008 box oce takings totalled $US
1,108,740.[8]

Bono Himself
Steve Buscemi Himself
Terry Chimes Himself
John Cooper Clarke Himself
John Cusack Himself
Peter Cushing Winston Smith (archive footage)
Johnny Depp Himself
Matt Dillon Himself
Tymon Dogg Himself (archive footage)
Bobby Gillespie Himself
Alasdair Gillies Himself
Iain Gillies Himself
Topper Headon Himself
Damien Hirst Himself
Mick Jagger Himself (archive footage)
Jim Jarmusch Himself
Mick Jones Himself
Steve Jones Himself
Anthony Kiedis Himself
Don Letts Himself
Keith Levene Himself
Bernie Rhodes Himself

6.4.4 Awards
Nominated Grand Jury Prize in the World Cinema
Documentary category at the 2007 Sundance Film
Festival[3]
Winner of Best British Documentary at the 2007
British Independent Film Awards[3]
Nominated Best Single Documentary at the 2008
Irish Film and Television Awards[3]

6.4.5 Soundtrack
The ocial soundtrack was produced by Ian Neil, Julien
Temple, and Alan Moloney. It is a mix of spoken word
clips from interviews with Strummer and others, tracks
from his various bands (including several rare or unreleased tracks by The Clash), and eclectic selections from
other musicians that Strummer played on his BBC World
radio show London Calling from 1999-2002 (some of
which include his spoken introduction).

6.4.6 References
[1] Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten (2007) Company credits. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3
November 2007.
[2] Temple, J., Amanda Temple, Anna Campeau, and Alan
Moloney (2008). Joe Strummer The future is unwritten (Documentary, Rockumentary). New York, NY,
United States: Sony BMG Music Entertainment. OCLC
233652709.

134

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

[3] Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten (2007)


Awards. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
[4] Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten (2007) Release
dates. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 November
2007.
[5] Joe Strummer: The Future is Unwritten Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
[6] Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten (2007): Reviews. Metacritic. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
[7] Metacritic: 2007 Film Critic Top Ten Lists. Metacritic.
Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved
5 January 2008.
[8] Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten (2007)". Box
Oce Mojo. Retrieved 31 May 2011.

6.5.1 Track listing


Opening commentary by David A Lee, crabby
Performed by Queen:
"Now I'm Here"
"Cumquat Serenade by Dave Lee"
"'39"
Performed by Matumbi:
Guide Us Jah (In Your Own Way)"
Performed by The Clash:
Armagideon Time
Performed by The Pretenders:

6.4.7

External links

Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten


Internet Movie Database

"The Wait"
at the

Performed by Paul McCartney- Wings:

Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten at Rotten


Tomatoes

"Got To Get You Into My Life"

Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten at Metacritic

"Every Night"

Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten at Box Oce


Mojo

"Coming Up"

Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten at AllMovie


Joe Strummer: The Future Is Unwritten at sundance.org

6.5 ''Concert for Kampuchea''


The Concert for Kampuchea (subtitled Rock for Kampuchea) is a musical lm from the best of the Concerts
for the People of Kampuchea. The lm was directed
by Keith McMillan and was 4 nights of concerts in
Hammersmith Odeon to raise money for Cambodia. The
event was organized by Paul McCartney and Kurt Waldheim (who was then Secretary-General of the U.N.), and
it involved well-established artists such as McCartney,
The Who and Queen as well as younger punk and new
wave acts like The Clash and the Pretenders. The lm
nishes with the presentation of Wings Rockestra (more
of 25 musicians playing together). Filmed in 1979, Concert for Kampuchea did not receive American theatrical
distribution until it was picked up by Miramax in 1988.[1]
The concert was also recorded and released as a double
LP. It has yet to be released in digital format.

"Getting Closer"
"Arrow Through Me"

Performed by The Specials:


Monkey Man
Performed by Elvis Costello & The Attractions:
The Imposter
Performed by Rockpile
Crawling From The Wreckage
Little Sister (with Robert Plant)
Performed by Ian Dury & The Blockheads:
Sweet Gene Vincent
Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick
Performed by The Who:
"Sister Disco"
"Behind Blue Eyes"
"See Me, Feel Me"

6.6. ''D.O.A.: A RITE OF PASSAGE''


Performed by Billy Connolly:
Introduction to the Rockestra
Performed by Paul McCartney and the Rockestra:
"Lucille"
"Let It Be"
Rockestra Theme

6.5.2

See also

135
It features interview footage (including the famous interview of Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen in bed), and behind the scenes shots from the tour as well as interviews
with audience members who had strong and widely varied
reactions to the group.[4]
The majority of the material surrounds the Pistols tour as
well but it also included other performances by rst wave
Punk acts such as The Dead Boys and Generation X with
Billy Idol.[2][3][4]
This indie lm was shot mostly in bars and clubs on 16mm
lm, and documented early years of punk from both in
front of and behind the stage.[2]

The lms poster is featured prominently in one scene of


Concerts for the People of Kampuchea, the concerts
the 1981 lm Neighbors. D.O.A. also featured in The Filth
and set lists.
and the Fury, a 2000 rockumentary lm about the Sex
Concerts for the People of Kampuchea, the album Pistols directed by Julien Temple, and in the 2002 television series Hollywood Rocks the Movies: The 1970s.[4]
and the EP about the concerts.

6.5.3

References

[1] Concert For Kampuchea (1980)". The New York Times

6.5.4

6.6.2 DVD release


The DVD was released in Japan in 2003. However it is
released in Region 0.

External links

The Concert for Kampuchea at the Internet Movie


Database
The Concert for Kampuchea at Allmovie.

6.6.3 Cast (in alphabetical order)


Stiv Bators as himself (The Dead Boys)
Terry Chimes as himself (The Clash)
The Clash as themselves

6.6 ''D.O.A.: A Rite of Passage''


D.O.A.: A Right of Passage is a 1980 rockumentary lm
directed by Lech Kowalski (his premiere lm as a director) about the origin of punk rock. The rockumentary
takes interview and concert footage of some of punk
rocks earliest bands of the late seventies scene. Features
live performances by the Sex Pistols, The Dead Boys,
Generation X (with Billy Idol), The Rich Kids, the XRay Spex, and Sham 69, with additional music from The
Clash, Iggy Pop, and Augustus Pablo.[1][2]

6.6.1

Plot

The lm centers around the Sex Pistols 1978 tour of


the United States which ended with the group breaking
up. The tour was the only one the group played in the
U.S. Film director Lech Kowalski followed them with
handheld cameras through the clubs and bars of their
seven-city Southern tour. Mixing this with footage of
other contemporary bands, trends in the fashion capitals,
and punks of all shapes and colors, Kowalski created a
grainy, stained snapshot of a movement at its peak,[3]
showing how certain authority gures saw the movement
as a threat.[2]

Paul Cook as himself (Sex Pistols)


The Dead Boys as themselves
Generation X as themselves
Jonathan Guinness as himself
Topper Headon as himself (The Clash)
Billy Idol as himself (Generation X)
Tony James as himself (Generation X)
Mick Jones as himself (The Clash)
Steve Jones as himself (Sex Pistols)
John Lydon as himself (Johnny Rotten)
Glen Matlock as himself (The Rich Kids)
Gene October as himself (Generation X)
Augustus Pablo as himself
Bernard Brooke Partridge as himself - Council
Member
Rich Kids as themselves

136

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

Heidi Robinson as herself - Tour Manager


Sex Pistols as themselves

12. "Pretty Vacant" Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones,


Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by the
Sex Pistols

Sham 69 as themselves

13. No Fun Sex Pistols

Paul Simonon as himself (The Clash)


Nancy Spungen as herself
Joe Strummer as himself (The Clash)
Terry Sylvester as himself
Terry and the Idiots as themselves
Sid Vicious as himself
Mary Whitehouse as herself - Anti-Smut Crusader
X-Ray Spex as themselves

14. New York Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones,


Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by the
Sex Pistols
15. Rip O Performed by Sham 69; recorded live at
Roundhouse Studios
16. Borstal Breakout Performed by Sham 69;
recorded live at Roundhouse Studios
17. I Wanna Be a Dead Boy performed by The Dead
Boys
18. "Holidays in the Sun" Sex Pistols

6.6.4

Songs performed

The musical performances/tracks contained in the documentary are as follows:


1. Nightclubbing Written by Iggy Pop and David
Bowie; performed by Iggy Pop
2. "Anarchy in the U.K." Written by Paul Cook, Steve
Jones, Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by
the Sex Pistols
3. Oh Bondage Up Yours Written by Poly Styrene;
performed by X-Ray Spex

19. Holidays in the Sun Written by Paul Cook, Steve


Jones, John Lydon and Sid Vicious; performed by
The Sex Pistols
20. E.M.I. Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones, Glen
Matlock and John Lydon; performed by the Sex Pistols
21. "Bodies" Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones, John
Lydon and Sid Vicious; performed by the Sex Pistols
22. A. P. Special Written and performed by Augustus
Pablo

4. "God Save the Queen" Written by Paul Cook, Steve 6.6.5 References
Jones, Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by
the Sex Pistols
[1] D.O.A.. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-025. "Pretty Vacant" Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones,
Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by The
Rich Kids
6. Liar Written by Paul Cook, Steve Jones, Glen
Matlock and John Lydon; performed by the Sex Pistols
7. "Police and Thieves" Written by Lee Scratch
Perry and Junior Murvin; performed by The Clash
(CBS Records)

22.
[2] Jane, Ian (2005-01-08). D. O. A.. Reviews. DVD Maniacs. Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
[3] D.O.A.: Review. Movies. TVGuide.com. Retrieved
2008-02-22.
[4] Unterberger, Richie. D.O.A.: A Right of Passage. Review. allmovie. Retrieved 2008-02-22.

8. Kiss Me Deadly Written and performed by 6.6.6 External links


Generation X (Chrysalis Records)
D.O.A.: A Right of Passage Review by Richie Un9. I Wanna Be Me Written by Paul Cook, Steve
terberger at Allmovie
Jones, Glen Matlock and John Lydon; performed by
the Sex Pistols
D.O.A. Review at Channel 4 Film
10. "Lust for Life" Written by Iggy Pop and David
Bowie; performed by Iggy Pop
11. All This And More Performed by The Dead Boys
(Sire Records); recorded live by Joe Sutherland

D.O.A. at the Internet Movie Database


D.O.A. at TV Guide
Survival Instincts by Ed Halter at The Village Voice

6.8. ''WALKER''

6.7 Punk: Attitude


Punk: Attitude is a lm by Don Letts.[1] It explores the
punk revolution, genre and following from its beginning
in the mid-1970s up to its eect on modern rock music
and other genres. The cast is a veritable list of alternative
musicians and directors oering their opinions on what
has been called a musical revolution.

137

6.7.4 References
[1] Letts, Don; Henry Rollins, Captain Sensible, Jim Jarmusch, Mick Jones, Jello Biafra, Darryl Jenifer (2005).
Punk: Attitude (Documentary, Rockumentary). Freemantlemedia 3DD Metropolis.
[2] "Punk: Attitude DVD Examines 70s Punk Movement.
Anti Music.

The lm was ocially released on the 25th of April 2005


at the Tribeca Film Festival in the U.S.A. Reviews have 6.7.5 External links
generally been favorable with an average of 3.5 - 4 stars
with many people commenting on the accuracy and ap Punk: Attitude at the Internet Movie Database
proach of the lm.
Punk: Attitude review by Rolling Stone
Punk: Attitude review by Contact Music

6.7.1

Plot

The lm begins showing the roots of punk music with


many views on various artists and genres who accentuated the beginning of the genre, like the MC5 and
the Velvet Underground. Punk: Attitude then proceeds
chronologically to sort through the various artists and
alumni who were central to the movement, drawing light
on the general idea or Attitude of the punk movement,
which spoke out for a generation. Bands such as The
Ramones, The Stooges, The Clash and The Sex Pistols
feature prominently throughout. The movie oers a canvas of praise and respect given from many interviewees
as these bands are heralded commonly as the beginning
of Punk progressively through the movie. Rare concert
footage and personal accounts of gigs and band meetings
highlight the aggression and destructive entities with surprising accuracy. The movie wraps up by emphasizing
the inuence that punk has on modern music.

6.7.2

6.8 ''Walker''
This article is about the 1987 lm. For the 2007 lm,
see The Walker. For other uses, see Walker.
Walker is a 1987 American-Mexican Acid Western lm
directed by Alex Cox and starring Ed Harris, Richard
Masur, Rene Auberjonois, Peter Boyle, Sy Richardson, Xander Berkeley, Alfonso Arau, Marlee Matlin and
Miguel Sandoval. The lm is based on the life story of
William Walker (18241860), the American libuster
who invaded Mexico in the 1850s and made himself
President of Nicaragua shortly thereafter. It was written
by Rudy Wurlitzer and scored by Joe Strummer, who also
plays a small role as a member of Walkers army.
The lm is intentionally full of anachronisms such as
helicopters, Zippo lighters, automatic ries and a car
passing a horse carriage. It was lmed in Nicaragua during the Contra War.

Cast

One of the lms celebrated attributes comes in the


form of its cast, showcasing the whos who of Punk
Rock/Alternative culture contemporaries like David Johansen, Thurston Moore, Henry Rollins, Captain Sensible, Jim Jarmusch, Mick Jones, Jello Biafra, Siouxsie
Sioux, and Darryl Jenifer.

6.8.1 Plot synopsis

In 1853, soldier-of-fortune William Walker (Ed Harris)


ees Mexico after a failed attempt to incite an armed
insurrection. He is placed on trial by US ocials, but
wins acquittal on breaking the Neutrality Act. Walker
believes in Manifest Destiny and has plans to marry and
start a newspaper until his ance Ellen Martin (Marlee
Matlin) dies of cholera. Financed by American multimillionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt (Peter Boyle), Walker and
6.7.3 DVD Releases
60 mercenaries embark on a mission to overthrow the
Government of Nicaragua, to secure Vanderbilts rights
In 2005 the lm was released on DVD through Capitol over an overland shipping route between the Atlantic and
Pacic.
Entertainment but has since gone out of print.
On January 11, 2010 Shout! Factory re-released the lm Walker and his corps score a bloody victory in Nicaragua
complete with all the original bonus material as well as and when the capital falls, Walker allows the President
another DVD worth of extras.[2]
to stay in charge, but takes his mistress, Doa Yrena

138

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

(Blanca Guerra). With increasing disruption in the country, Walker orders the President shot and assumes the
presidency for himself. From 1855 to 1857, his actions
as president become increasingly manic and delusional,
with Walker antagonizing his nancial backer by revoking Vanderbilts license to the overland trade route.

Bi Yeager as Max / Carpetbagger


Del Zamora as Padre Vigil
Richard Zobel as Lemuel
Joe Strummer as Faucet

Nicaragua and its neighbors unite to rid themselves of


Fox Harris as District Attorney
the unwelcome dictator, and they drive the despot out.
Eventually, without the support of Vanderbilt or USAs
government, Walkers further forays into Central Amer- 6.8.3 Production
ica lead to his capture and execution.

6.8.2

Cast

Ed Harris as William Walker


Richard Masur as E. G. Squier
Rene Auberjonois as Major Siegfried Henningson
Keith Szarabajka as Timothy Crocker
Sy Richardson as Captain Hornsby
Xander Berkeley as Byron Cole
John Diehl as Stebbins
Peter Boyle as Cornelius Vanderbilt
Marlee Matlin as Ellen Martin
Alfonso Arau as Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon
Pedro Armendriz, Jr. as Muoz
Gerrit Graham as Norvell Walker
William O'Leary as James Walker
Blanca Guerra as Doa Yrena
Miguel Sandoval as Parker French
Rick Barker as Breckenridge
Karl Braun as Bruno von Natzmer
Kathy Burke as Annie Mae
Richard Edson as Turley
Bennet Guillory as Achilles Kewen
David Hayman as Father Rossiter
Dick Rude as Washburn
Zander Schloss as Huey
Milton Selzer as Judge
Edward Tudor-Pole as Doubleday
Norbert Weisser as Prange

Alex Cox rst visited Nicaragua in 1984, during the national election campaign for which Daniel Ortega became
president, to see if conditions were as bad as the American media had reported.[1][2] He discovered that this was
not the case. The lmmaker was persuaded to return by
two wounded soldiers from the Sandinista army. He later
learned of the historical Walker from an article in Mother
Jones that was largely about US foreign policy in Central
America and decided to bring his story to the screen.[2][3]
A history professor at the University of California lent
Cox a library card so he could do more research on
Walker. The more I read about him the more bizarre
this seemed, Cox remembers.[3] He hired Rudy Wurlitzer to write the screenplay because, according to Cox,
He understands American guys and the mad impulse that
drives certain Americans to be great men. Cox was not
interested in making what he called a long, respectful historical drama that would be shown on Masterpiece Theatre
because Walker leads a disastrous misadventure. Hes a
pretty bad guy. I didn't think it was possible to approach
it in this normal, historical, respectful style.[3]
The budget was set at six million dollars with most of the
lm being shot in Granada, Nicaragua. To get into character, Ed Harris led the entire cast in a 10-mile forced
march through the Nicaraguan countryside.[2] The actor
was drawn to the challenge of playing someone who has
incredible moral convictions but turns into such an evil
person in the name of spreading democracy.[4] He was
also drawn to the scripts politics, claiming to be antiContra and anti-intervention in Nicaragua and saw making a lm there as a way to possibly stop the bloodshed.[4]
Cox got the cooperation of the Sandinista government
and the Roman Catholic Church because he wanted his
production to be a force for peace and reconciliation.[3]
The dying economy of Granada received a signicant
boost by the production with 300 local carpenters hired
to build sets, 6,000 people hired as extras and army supplied security guards and a Soviet-built MI-18 transport
helicopter used in the lm.[2] Electricity poles in the
town plaza were torn down leaving homes without light.[5]
Some families were left temporarily without a telephone
because the production needed their lines and the government could not aord to install new ones. The central
square was covered with several inches of dirt to recreate 1850s conditions.[5] The screenplay was edited by the
countrys Vice-President Sergio Ramirez and Minister of

6.8. ''WALKER''
Culture Ernesto Cardenal, who were also a novelist and
a poet respectively. Both men, along with the Minister
of Education, the countrys Interior Minister, and a military commander, would occasionally visit the set. Two
people were accidentally killed during principal photography, both in separate vehicular-related incidents. For
one of the deaths, the movie company paid for the funeral and compensated the family. The shooting conditions were dicult because of all of the res the locals
were building, making the air thick and hard to breathe.[2]

139
tire score for a lm and Walker aorded him such an
opportunity. After lming his small part in the lm, he
would go back to his room and record bits of music onto
a four-track cassette using an acoustic guitar and a little
plastic synthesizer with guitarist Zander Schloss. They
drew inspiration from local music played in bars a mix
of reggae, calypso and Brazilian music.[11]

6.8.5 Reception

Even after lming was over, Cox stayed in Granada, editing the lm. He said, I think we have kind of a duty not Walker garnered predominantly negative reviews; Rita
to just be the rich gringos and come down here and spend Kempley wrote, its gross as it is muddled as it is absurd,
eight weeks and then disappear.[2]
in her review for The Washington Post.[10] Fellow Washington Post reviewer Desson Howe criticized the perplexing fusion of cartoon and docudrama ...[12] In his reHistorical accuracy
view for Newsweek, David Ansen wrote, His scenes have
no shape, his characters are stick gures, the wit is underAs noted by Roger Ebert in his review for the Chicago
graduate and his soggy set pieces of slow-motion carnage
Sun-Times, "... anachronisms, guest stars, quixotic pokerare third-rate Peckinpah imitations.[13] Jay Scott gave
faced heroes and utterly pointless scripts, were the hallthe lm a positive review in The Globe and Mail: Cox
mark of lms helmed by Cox.[6] There are a number
exposes the limitations of historical drama in Walker with
of intentional anachronisms placed to draw comparison
a calculated disregard of its conventions.[14] Vincent
between 1850s and 1980s Nicaragua. Actors reading
Canby also praised Coxs lm in The New York Times:
Newsweek and Time, for example. As the movie pro"Walker is witty, rather than laugh-out-loud funny. Withgresses, the inaccuracies become more and more extreme
out being solemn, its deadly serious...Walker is someand it is evident that Cox was using the device to accenthing very rare in American movies these days. It has
tuate modern-day events with the Walker era.
some nerve.[15]
Historical accuracy is done away with in a dramatic
Director Alex Cox was never employed again by a major
retelling of Walkers coup d'tat. There is no evidence
Hollywood studio, and his subsequent lms have received
that Walker ever met Vanderbilt or received his support,
only limited distribution in the United States. In a 2008
as the movie suggests.[7] Rather, Walker was supported by
interview with The A.V. Club, Cox said, Distribution is
Vanderbilts competitors, Charles Morgan and Cornelius
controlled by the studios, and I've been on the blacklist
Garrison, owners of the Nicaragua Transit Company in
of the studios for the last 20 years ... The last movie I
his time.[8] James Buchanan is incorrectly mentioned as
was asked to direct was The Running Man... which was
being the President of the United States after Walkers
actually quite a good lm, I thought. I would have liked
trial, prior to his Nicaraguan expedition. Franklin Pierce
to have done The Running Man. It was just that Walker
was actually the president at the time. Ellen Martin,
happened at the same time. [16]
Walkers ance, died in 1850. In the movie she is present
at his 1854 trial for violating US neutrality laws after
he invaded Baja California and Sonora Mexico, dying
Awards
shortly thereafter.[9]
Minor inconsistencies include use of bolt action ries
Bear at the 38th
weapons from the World War I era and Navy Colts in Walker was nominated for the Golden
[17]
Berlin
International
Film
Festival.
Walkers army, not in general use until midway through
the American Civil War, almost a decade later, but it
was obvious that Cox was little concerned with historical accuracy.[10]
6.8.6 DVD
Criterion released a Region 1 DVD on February 19, 2008
with features that include: an audio commentary by Cox
and screenwriter Wurlitzer; Dispatches from Nicaragua,
Main article: Walker (album)
an original documentary about the lming of Walker; On
Moviemaking and the Revolution, reminiscences 20 years
Joe Strummer had worked previously with Cox on Sid later from an extra on the lm; behind-the-scenes phoand Nancy and Straight to Hell, contributing songs to their tographs; and a booklet featuring writings by lm critic
respective soundtracks.[11] He wanted to compose an en- Graham Fuller, Wurlitzer and Linda Sandoval.[18]

6.8.4

Soundtrack

140

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

6.8.7

References

Notes
[1] Goldstein, Patrick. Hollywood Invades Nicaragua. Los
Angeles Times, April 19, 1987. Retrieved: February 26,
2012.
[2] Grove, Lloyd. Hollywood Invades Nicaragua. The
Washington Post, August 20, 1987.
[3] Van Gelder, Lawrence. At the Movies. The New York
Times, December 4, 1987.
[4] Yakir, Dan. For Harris, The Appeal was Political. The
Globe and Mail, December 11, 1987.
[5] Ford, Peter. Desperado with a Mission. Financial
Times, August 22, 1987.

6.8.8 External links


Walker at the Internet Movie Database
Walker at the TCM Movie Database
Walker at AllMovie
Walker at Rotten Tomatoes
Walker page on Alex Cox website
Film Comment interview with Joe Strummer
Senses of Cinema essay on Walker

6.9 ''Straight to Hell''

[6] Ebert, Roger. Walker (1987)". Chicago Sun-Times, December 4, 1987. Retrieved: February 26, 2012.
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]

Straight to Hell is a 1987 independent action-comedy


lm directed by Alex Cox, and starring Sy Richardson,
Joe Strummer (frontman of The Clash), Dick Rude, and
Doubleday 1886, pp. 105106.
Courtney Love. The lm also features cameos by Dennis
Hopper, Grace Jones, Elvis Costello, and Jim Jarmusch.
Harrison 2004, p. 105.
Band members of The Pogues, Amazulu, and The Circle
Harrison 2004, p. 176.
Jerks are also featured in the lm. The lm borrows its
Kempley, Rita. Tripped Up in Time. The Washington title from The Clashs 1982 song of the same name.
Post, December 4, 1987.
The lm has been called a parody of Spaghetti West[1]
Dafoe, Chris. Hollywood Knocks on Strummers Door. erns, and concerns a gang of criminals who become
stranded
in the desert, where they stumble upon a surreal
The Globe and Mail, December 11, 1987.
Western town full of coee-addicted killers. The lm is
Howe, Desson. Walker. The Washington Post, Decem- based on Giulio Questi's Spaghetti Western lm, Django
ber 4, 1987.
Kill... If You Live, Shoot! (1967), which Cox was given
permission to adapt.[2]

[13] Ansen, David. A Yankee Devils Manifest Destiny.


Newsweek, December 7, 1987.

[14] Scott, Jay. A Remarkable Cabaret Biography. The


Globe and Mail, December 4, 1987.
[15] Canby, Vincent. "'Walker'". The New York Times, December 4, 1987.
[16] Murray, Noel (Mar 3, 2008). Alex Cox interview. The
A.V. Club. Retrieved Dec 24, 2015.
[17] Berlinale: 1988 Programme. berlinale.de. Retrieved:
February 26, 2012.
[18] Walker: Apocalypse When?" Criterion Collection,
November 19, 2007. Retrieved: February 26, 2012.

Straight to Hell received few positive reviews upon release, and was not a commercial success, although it later
gained something of a cult lm status.[3] A soundtrack
was also released. On 14 December 2010, an extended
cut of the lm, titled Straight to Hell Returns, was released
on DVD, featuring additional footage and digitally enhanced picture quality.[4] This version of the lm, under
the collaboration of Alex Cox, was also screened at several cinemas as part of a midnight movie theatrical run.

6.9.1 Plot

The lm opens with three hitmen, Willy, Norwood, and


Simms (played by Dick Rude, Sy Richardson, and Joe
Strummer, respectively) who are staying in a posh Los
Bibliography
Angeles hotel. After failing a job, they take o in a car
Doubleday, Charles William. Reminiscences of the with a whiny pregnant woman named Velma (Courtney
Filibuster War in Nicaragua. New York: G.P. Put- Love), who is in on their scheme. They then ee to Mexico to escape the wrath of their boss, Amos Dade (Jim
nams Sons, 1886. ISBN 978-1-245-45207-6.
Jarmusch), and rob a bank along the way. While driving
Harrison, Brady. William Walker and the Imperial through the desert, their car breaks down due to Simms
Self in American Literature. Athens, Georgia: Uni- having lled the gasoline tank with diesel by mistake.
versity of Georgia Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8203- They bury their suitcase of money in the desert and begin
2544-6.
to walk.

6.9. ''STRAIGHT TO HELL''


Night falls, and they come upon a town in the middle of
the desert, where they see a demolished car with a corpse
inside. They then enter an empty bar, where the three
men get drunk and Velma angrily pesters them to leave.
As they exit the bar, the wrecked car has vanished, but
the men are too inebriated to notice it. The group camps
out for the night, and the following morning, Velma witnesses several trucks of lively cowboys enter the town,
carrying espresso machines with them. Much to the dismay of Velma, who insists they keep a low prole and
leave, the three men enter the town, which is now full of
townspeople, and go back to the bar.

141
and virtually everyone in the town is killed, aside from
Norwood and several prostitutes. Tim and Velma leave
the town in a truck with the suitcase of money, but accidentally drive o of a cli when their brakes go out, and
die as the car explodes in mid-air. Norwood leaves town
with the prostitutes, and the lm ends with Farben Oil
Company trucks entering the town to drill for oil.

The end of the lm announces an imminent sequel: Back


to Hell, despite the fact that almost every main character
is killed at the end of the lm. Although the sequel was
never made, upon the lms DVD release, Cox reassembled much of the cast and crew for a short documentary
There, they are confronted by a gang of cowboys addicted called Back to Hell, in which they reminisce about the
to coee (The Pogues), and a shoot-out ensues, but they making of the lm.
are ultimately welcomed by the townspeople. The bizarre
townspeople include a couple who own a mercantile full
of piatas, a man running a hot dog stand, and countless 6.9.2 Cast
cowboys and prostitutes, among others. The head hon Dick Rude as Willy
cho of the town, Tim McMahon (Bi Yeager), invites
the gang to a party that evening. The following day, Tim
Sy Richardson as Norwood
McMahons elderly father is pushed o of a building by
his relative Sabrina McMahon (Kathy Burke) and dies.
Courtney Love as Velma
The entire town has a funeral procession for him, and at
Joe Strummer as Simms
the funeral, a friend of Amos, named Whitey, shows up
looking for the hitmen and Velma.
Miguel Sandoval as George
The town seizes Whitey for being a stranger, and ac Jennifer Balgobin as Fabienne
cuses him of the murder of the McMahon grandfather.
During the burial of the grandfather, his hand comes up
Sara Sugarman as Chuch
out of the dirt and grabs the priests ankle, and the priest
shoots into the ground, killing him. Meanwhile, on the
Bi Yeager as Frank McMahon
gallows, Whitey begins to tell the town the truth about
Amos and the hitmen, but is hanged before he can tell
Shane MacGowan as Bruno McMahon
his story. A man named I.G. Farben (Dennis Hopper),
Spider Stacy as Angel Eyes McMahon
who claims to be a house manufacturer, enters town with
his wife Sonia (Grace Jones) and introduces himself to
Terry Woods as Tom McMahon
the gang and the rest of the townspeople, advertising his
company. The next morning, Simms sees Amos car enter
Xander Berkeley as Preacher McMahon
the town, and tries to get a drunken Willy and Norwood
Kathy Burke as Sabrina
to leave with Velma.
A series of shootouts begin between the townspeople,
Amos crew, and the hitmen, and I.G. Farben and Sonia
provide high-grade weapons for the killers. Tim McMahon joins Amos team after having wrongfully hanged
Whitey, and everyone begins to turn against each other.
As Simms and Willy run into the desert, a shootout ensues with the town priest. They reach the spot where they
buried the money, and Simms shoots Willy as they are
trying to lift the suitcase out of the ground. Simms then
hears Velma laughing, and turns around only to be shot
by Velma and one of the townsmen. After Velma shoots
Simms several times, the townman with her is shot by
Tim McMahon. Tim and Velma then take o arm-inarm with the suitcase of money, while Simms and Willy
die.

Elvis Costello as Hives the Butler

Meanwhile, in town, chaos has ensued, and the town


hardware store is set on re. Amos is shot in the head,

Fox Harris as Kim Blousson

Del Zamora as Poncho


Edward Tudor-Pole as Rusty Zimmerman
Dennis Hopper as I.G. Farben
Jim Jarmusch as Amos Dade
Grace Jones as Sonya
Graham Fletcher-Cook as Whitey
Anne-Marie Ruddock as Molly
Zander Schloss as Karl

Sue Kiel as Leticia

142

6.9.3

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

Production

The lm was not originally intended to be made at all,


and the reason for a preponderance of musicians in the
cast was the result of a concert tour of Nicaragua that
was planned in the rst place.[5] Political problems arose
concerning the support of the left-wing government of
Nicaragua, and the tour was cancelled. In its place Cox
decided to have the bands, and several actors he could
assemble, make a movie in Almera, Spain. Cox and
co-star Dick Rude wrote a script in three days,[2] and
the entire lm was shot in just four weeks. Cox wrote
the part of Velma specically for Courtney Love, who
had starred in a supporting role in his previous lm, Sid
and Nancy (1986).[6] Love modeled the character after Carroll Baker's performance in the 1956 lm Baby
Doll.[7]

look of the lm, new eects, and new footage. Blood and
additional violence during the shootout scenes was digitally implemented into the lm which had not been there
prior.[11] Cox stated that he was inspired to revisit the lm
by Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now Redux.[2] The
DVD was released on 14 December 2010. It will also be
the rst version of the lm available on Blu-ray.
Leading up to the DVD release, Straight to Hell Returns was screened at several arthouse theaters across
the United States and Canada in October and November
2010.[5]

6.9.5 Soundtrack
Track listing

Alex Cox turned down the chance to direct Three Ami6.9.6


gos! in order to lm Straight to Hell.

6.9.4

Release and reception

Straight to Hell's premiere was held at the Pickwick DriveIn in Burbank, California. Invitees were asked to come
dressed in post-apocalyptic esta garb.[8] Everyone who
arrived was handed a water pistol.[8] The lms premiere
was a asco, and several people at the drive-in left midway
into the movie.[6] Courtney Love was reportedly visibly
upset at the premiere.[6]
The lm was not well received by critics, drawing mostly
negative reviews. In her review for the New York Times,
Janet Maslin wrote, The result is a mildly engrossing, instantly forgettable midnight movie.[9] Hal Hinson, in his
review for the Washington Post, wrote, The action is so
gratuitous, and so indierently presented, that its impossible to think that Cox ever truly intended it to be seen by
anyone outside of the cast and crew and their immediate
families.[10]
In the US Straight to Hell was rated "R" for violence and
language. The latter reason caught the producers by surprise, as the writers deliberately refrained from including
any sort of profanity in the dialogue. Even the word hell
appears only in the title (at one point a character quite noticeably says what the heck is going on here?"), and the
insults that y before a showdown are no worse than go
boil yer head!"
The lm was released on VHS in the 1990s and was also
released on DVD by Anchor Bay Entertainment on 24
April 2001, but went out of print in the following years.
2010 directors cut

References

[1] Donaghy, Gerry (26 September 2009). From Liverpool


to Cinecitta. Powells Books. Retrieved 23 September 2011. One such lmmaker is Alex Cox, director of
Repo Man and Sid and Nancy. In 1987 he made his own
Spaghetti Western pastiche Straight to Hell, and, more recently, has written an assessment of the genre in 10,000
Ways to Die. To this task, Cox brings a lifelong appreciation of all Westerns, as well as experience behind the
camera, both of which give him a unique perspective to
the genre.
[2] Koh, Michelle (4 March 2011). Why Alex Cox Returned
to Straight to Hell"". Indie Wire. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
[3] Straight to Hell. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 16 August
2016.
[4] STRAIGHT TO HELL RETURNS. Alex Cox Ocial
Website. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
[5] Olsen, Mark (15 November 2010). Obeat Alex Cox
lm gets second chance. Los Angeles Times.
[6] Courtney Love. The E! True Hollywood Story. October
2005. E!.
[7] Love, Courtney (February 1987). Courtney Love. Interview. p. 25.
[8] Deans, Laurie (3 July 1987). What on Earth Do You
Wear to a 'Post-Apocalyptic Fiesta'?". Globe & Mail.
[9] Maslin, Janet (26 June 1987). Straight to Hell. New
York Times.
[10] Hinson, Hal (1 July 1987). ""Hell on Reels. Washington
Post.

In 2010, Microcinema DVD announced a new directors


cut, dubbed Straight to Hell Returns. The new version fea- [11] Hartel, Nick (14 December 2010). Straight to Hell retures a new HD transfer, color correction that changes the
turns. DVD Talk. Retrieved 23 September 2011.

6.10. ''CANDY MOUNTAIN''

6.9.7

External links

143
Eric Mitchell as Gunther

Straight to Hell at the Internet Movie Database

Mary Joy as Couple

Straight to Hell at Box Oce Mojo

Bob Joy as Couple

Straight to Hell at Rotten Tomatoes

Arto Lindsay as Alston

Straight to Hell page on Alex Cox website

Mary Margaret O'Hara as Darlene

Film Comment interview with Joe Strummer

David Johansen as Keith Burns

Village Voice interview with Alex Cox

Tony 'Machine' Krasinski as Musician


Susan Kirschner as Suzie

6.10 ''Candy Mountain''


For the Flash animation lm, see Charlie the Unicorn.
For the mountain in Washington State, see Candy
Mountain (Washington).
Candy Mountain is a 1988 drama lm directed by Robert
Frank. It was shot in New York City and Cape Breton,
Nova Scotia.[1]

Dee De Antonio as Lou Sultan


Jose Soto as Musicians Son
Bob Maro as Gas-station Attendant
Rockets Redglare as Van Driver
Nancy Fish as Maid
Dan Archie Cummings as Gas-station Owner
Liz Porrazzo as Lola

6.10.1

Plot

Roy MacEachern as Customs Ocer

Wayne Robson as Buddy Burke


Julius (O'Connor) is a struggling musician who sets o to
nd Elmore Silk (Yulin) in order to strike a deal with him
Eric House as Doctor
and become famous. Along his search, he meets various
people who have encountered Elmore, and can give him
valuable insight into what kind of man Elmore is. Once 6.10.3 Reception
he meets Elmore, he nally realizes that nancial gain
is nothing compared to the development of ones artistic Reviews
ability.
The lm generally received positive reviews from critics.
Caryn James of The New York Times wrote, "...seems to
6.10.2 Cast
be a small, quirky lm, but it easily assumes the weight,
ambition and success that many larger lms aim for and
Kevin J. O'Connor as Julius
miss.[2] As of November 2009, lm review aggregator
Rotten Tomatoes had issued a 100% rating based on re Harris Yulin as Elmore Silk
views from 8 critics.[3]
Tom Waits as Al Silk
Bulle Ogier as Cornelia

Awards

Roberts Blossom as Archie

San Sebastin International Film Festival

Leon Redbone as Leon

1987: Won, Silver Seashell Award

Dr. John
Rita MacNeil as Winnie
Joe Strummer as Mario
Laurie Metcalf as Alice

6.10.4 References
[1] http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/8011/
Candy-Mountain/details

Jayne Eastwood as Lucille

[2] Movie Review - Candy Mountain - Review/Film; Hitting


the Highway - NYTimes.com

Kazuko as Koko Yamamoto

[3] Candy Mountain - Rotten Tomatoes

144

6.10.5

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

External links

6.11.1 Plot

Candy Mountain at the Internet Movie Database


The lm consists of three stories that take place on the
same night in downtown Memphis. The three stories
6.11 ''Mystery Train''
are linked together by the Arcade Hotel, a run-down
ophouse presided over by the night clerk (Screamin' Jay
This article is about the 1989 Jim Jarmusch lm. For the Hawkins) and bellboy (Cinqu Lee), where the principal
1931 Phil Whitman lm, see The Mystery Train (lm). characters in each story spend a part of the night. Every room in the hotel is adorned with a portrait of Elvis
Mystery Train is a 1989 independent anthology lm writ- Presley.
ten and directed by Jim Jarmusch and set in Memphis, The rst story, Far From Yokohama, features Mitsuko
Tennessee. The lm comprises a triptych of stories in- (Youki Kudoh) and Jun (Masatoshi Nagase), a teenage
volving foreign protagonists unfolding over the course couple from Yokohama making a pilgrimage to Memphis
of the same night. Far From Yokohama features a during a trip across America. Mitsuko is obsessed with
Japanese couple (Youki Kudoh and Masatoshi Nagase) Elvis to the point where she believes that there is a mystion a blues pilgrimage, A Ghost focuses on an Italian cal connection between Elvis, Madonna and the Statue of
widow (Nicoletta Braschi) stranded in the city overnight, Liberty. The lm follows the couple as they travel from
and Lost in Space follows the misadventures of a newly the train station, through downtown Memphis and an exsingle and unemployed Englishman (Joe Strummer) and hausting tour of Sun Records, to the Arcade hotel.
his companions (Rick Aviles and Steve Buscemi). They The second story, A Ghost, is about an Italian widow,
are linked by a run-down ophouse overseen by a night Luisa (Nicoletta Braschi), who is stranded in Memphis
clerk (Screamin' Jay Hawkins) and his disheveled bell- while escorting her husbands con back to Italy. Luisa,
boy (Cinqu Lee), a scene featuring Elvis Presley's "Blue who has been conned twice and stuck with armfuls of
Moon",[3] and a gunshot.
magazines, is forced to share a room at the hotel with Dee
The starting point for the script was the ensemble cast
of friends and previous collaborators Jarmusch had conceived characters for, while the tripartite formal structure
of the lm was inspired by his study of literary forms.
Cinematographer Robby Mller and musician John Lurie
were among the many contributors who had been involved in earlier Jarmusch projects and returned to work
on the lm. Mystery Train's US$2.8 million budget (nanced by Japanese conglomerate JVC) was considerable
compared to what the director had enjoyed before, and
allowed him the freedom to rehearse many unscripted
background scenes. It was the rst of Jarmuschs feature
lms to depart from his trademark black-and-white photography, though the use of color was tightly controlled
to conform with the directors intuitive sense of the lms
aesthetic.
Mystery Train was released theatrically by Orion Classics under a restricted rating in the United States, where
it grossed over $1.5 million. It enjoyed critical acclaim
on the lm festival circuit, and like the directors earlier
lms premiered at the New York Film Festival and was
shown in competition at Cannes, where Jarmusch was
awarded the Best Artistic Achievement Award. The lm
was also shown in the Edinburgh, London, Midnight Sun,
Telluride, and Toronto lm festivals, and was nominated
in six categories at the Independent Spirit Awards. Critical reaction was overwhelmingly positive, with reviewers
praising the structure, humor, and characters of the lm,
though there was criticism that the director had not been
suciently adventurous.

Dee (Elizabeth Bracco), a young woman who has just left


her boyfriend (Johnny from the nal story) and who plans
to leave the city in the morning. Luisa is kept awake by
Dee Dees constant talking, and when the young woman
nally does go to sleep, she is visited by an apparition of
Memphis most famous icon Elvis Presley.
The nal story, Lost in Space, introduces Johnny (Joe
Strummer). Upset after losing his job and his girlfriend
(Dee Dee), Johnny known, much to his chagrin, as
Elvis drunkenly brandishes a gun in a bar before leaving with his friend Will Robinson (Rick Aviles) and his
ex-girlfriends brother Charlie (Steve Buscemi), who believes Johnny to be his brother-in-law. They stop at a
liquor store, which Johnny robs using the gun and severely
wounds the owner in the process. Fearing the consequences of the incident, Johnny, Will and Charlie retire
to the hotel to hide out for the night; there, Johnny gets
drunker. Charlie realizes that Will shares the same name
as the character Will Robinson from the television show
Lost in Space, which Johnny has never heard of. Charlie and Will proceed to tell him about the show, and Will
comments that that is how he feels then with Charlie and
Johnny: lost in space. The next morning, Charlie discovers that Johnny isn't really his brother-in-law, which
angers him because of what they've been through. Johnny
attempts to shoot himself, and while struggling to prevent
him, Charlie is shot in the leg. Leaving the hotel, the three
rush to escape a police car that isn't even looking for them.
The closing credits show the train, the airport and the nal
views of the characters from the rst two stories.

6.11. ''MYSTERY TRAIN''

6.11.2

Cast

Masatoshi Nagase as Jun


Youki Kudoh as Mitsuko
Screamin' Jay Hawkins as Night Clerk
Cinqu Lee as Bellboy
Rufus Thomas as Man in Station
Jodie Markell as Sun Studio Guide
Nicoletta Braschi as Luisa
Elizabeth Bracco as Dee Dee, Charlies Sister
Sy Richardson as Newsvendor
Tom Noonan as Man in Arcade Diner
Joe Strummer as Johnny aka Elvis
Rick Aviles as Will Robinson
Steve Buscemi as Charlie the Barber
Vondie Curtis-Hall as Ed
Tom Waits as Radio D.J.

6.11.3

Production

Script and casting


Jarmusch wrote the script for the lm under the working title One Night in Memphis,[4] without ever having
been to the southern city.[5] The idea for Far From Yokohama, the rst segment, he took from a one-act play he
had been writing before lming Down by Law (1986).[6]
The play unrelated to Elvis or Memphis concerned
a constantly argumentative young couple, one of whom
gradually comes to realize that their ghting is a unifying
force in the relationship.[6][7] The interconnected stories
were inspired by Jarmuschs dwelling on literary forms,
and specically the work of Chaucer,[8] Italian episodic
lms and Japanese ghost story cinema.[9][10] As with his
other lms, Jarmuschs starting point for writing Mystery Train was the actors and characters he had foremost
in mind. The great number of these collaborators contributed to it being the most complicated lm to write
and execute according to the director.[11]
What I like about the Japanese kids in Memphis is, if you
think about tourists visiting Italy, the way the Romantic
poets went to Italy to visit the remnants of a past culture,
and then if you imagine America in the future, when people from the East or wherever visit our culture after the
decline of the American empire which is certainly in
progress all they'll really have to visit will be the homes
of rock'n'roll stars and movie stars. Thats all our culture
ultimately represents. So going to Memphis is a kind of

145
pilgrimage to the birthplace of a certain part of our culture.
Jim Jarmusch, Interview, November 1989.[6]
The role of Johnny was written by Jarmusch specically
for Joe Strummer, who had been the frontman of The
Clash, the directors favorite 1980s rock band.[11][12] Jarmusch had conceived the part a few years previously
while the two were together in Spain,[13] and although
the musician had been in a period of depression at the
time following the collapse of the band, he was drawn
by the Memphis setting of the lm.[12] Unlike the jovial
Steve Buscemi, Strummer did not stay on set to joke with
the veteran actors between shots, but instead preferred to
keep his own company, focusing intensively on orienting
himself to the role.[12]
Jarmusch had met blues singer Screamin' Jay Hawkins after featuring his music prominently in his breakthrough
feature lm debut Stranger Than Paradise (1984). Although reticent about acting, Hawkins responded favorably to the directors oer to appear.[11] The part of Luisa
was also written by the director with the star actress
Nicoletta Braschi in mind; the two had previously collaborated on Down by Law (1986).[14] Cinqu Lee is the
younger brother of director Spike Lee, a longtime friend
of Jarmusch from their days at New York University's
lm school, while Youki Kudoh was cast after the director saw her performance in Sgo Ishii's The Crazy Family (1984) while promoting Down by Law in Japan.[11][13]
Repeat Jarmusch collaborators who worked on the lm
included John Lurie who provided the original music, cinematographer Robby Mller,[15] and singer Tom Waits,
who in a voice appearance reprised his role of radio DJ
Lee Baby Sims from Down by Law. Other cameos include Jarmuschs long-time girlfriend Sara Driver as an
airport clerk, Rufus Thomas as the man in the train station who greets the Japanese couple,[13] Rockets Redglare
as the clerk of the liquor store, Vondie Curtis-Hall as Ed,
Sy Richardson as the news vendor, and Richard Boes and
Tom Noonan as diner patrons.[1]

Filming
Mystery Train was lmed in Memphis in the summer of
1988.[16] After arriving in the city during a snowstorm
to scout for shooting locations, Jarmusch drove around
without direction before coming to the intersection of
a disused train station, the Arcade Luncheonette diner,
and the dilapidated Arcade Hotel that would become the
lms core setting.[5][13] He would later recount the experience in a March 1990 interview in Spin: Man, ... this
crossroad is lled with so many ghosts. You know Robert
Johnson walked down that street, you know Muddy Waters was in that train station.[13] The locale of the intersection was one of the lms primary formal elements;
the eect of Jarmusch returning to the setting with different characters under dierent circumstances was one

146
of variations on a theme.[17]

CHAPTER 6. FILMS
evil twin to a hostile reception.[26]

6.11.4 Release
[Mystery Train] is a meditation on nighttime and transience, on rhythm-and-blues and the city of Memphis,
that comes camouaged as a deck of three stories. Like
its predecessors, it mixes high and low comedy, sadness
and high jinks, and extracts a subtle, limpid beauty from
the rawest of materials
Luc Sante, Interview, November 1989.[6]

Jarmusch chose a cool palette for the lm, accentuated with an


occasional jolt of red as shown here by the suit of the Night Clerk
(Screamin' Jay Hawkins) contrasted with the muted background
of the hotel lobby.[3]

The lm was shot in bright, primary colors rather


than the black-and-white of the directors previous
features,[18][19][20] but it retained his usual languid
pacing.[21] Jarmusch characterized the color choice as
intuitive.[5] He deliberately chose a cool color palette,
eschewing yellows and oranges and using only sporadic
dashes of red (as in the Japanese couples ubiquitous
suitcase).[7] This motif of ashes of red was later described by Suzanne Scott of Reverse Shot as giving the
impression of a failed attempt to grab a bit of Elviss
glamor and try it on for size, only to inevitably discover
that it looks cartoonish out of context.[3] Stills from the
lm as well as on-location shots of the actors and the lm
crew by photographer Masayoshi Sukita were published
to accompany the lm as the photo collection Mystery
Train: A Film by Jim Jarmusch.[16]

The lm had its domestic premiere at the 27th New York


Film Festival in 1989,[27] thereby emulating the directors previous features Stranger Than Paradise in 1984,
and Down by Law in 1986.[28] The Miami Herald declared it the quiet triumph of the festival.[29] The lm
was picked up for theatrical distribution by Orion Classics in the United States, where it was released under an
R-rating due to scenes featuring brief nudity and mild
profanity.[30][31] Its total domestic gross was $1,541,218,
making it the 153rd highest-grossing lm of 1989, and
the 70th highest R-rated lm of the year.[30] Internationally, it was rst shown in competition at the 1989 Cannes
Film Festival on May 13 and 14, 1989,[28] and subsequently featured in the Edinburgh, London, Midnight
Sun, Telluride and Toronto lm festivals.[1][32]

Mystery Train was released on DVD on March 28, 2000


with an aspect ratio of 1.85:1 and Dolby Digital 5.1/2
surround sound.[33] The DVD release was criticized by
Anna Lazowski of allmovie who awarded it two stars out
of ve compared to four for the lm itself, citing the
paltry special features of 24 scene selections and a collectible behind-the-scenes booklet.[33] A Criterion Collection DVD and Blu-ray were released on June 15, 2010,
[34]
Mystery Train was the rst American independent lm utilizing a new restored high-denition digital transfer.
to be nanced by Japanese conglomerate JVC, and was
produced on a budget $2.8 million that was consid6.11.5 Critical reception
erable by Jarmuschs modest standards.[2][7][22] The company was enthusiastic about underwriting the lm despite
the director insisting on retaining full creative control, Like Jarmuschs previous lms, Mystery Train enjoyed
and went on to fund his next three features.[23][24] The a warm reception from critics. This was particularly evsubstantial budget and time available gave Jarmusch the ident at Cannes, where the lm was nominated for the
for the fesopportunity to shoot in color and to rehearse with the ac- Palme d'Or and Jarmusch was commended
[32][35][36]
It
was nomtivals
Best
Artistic
Achievement.
tors many scenes not in the script, including several from
inated
in
six
categories
at
the
1989
Independent
Spirit
[11][23]
At a Memphis
the courtship of Mitsuko and Jun.
Best
Picture,
Best
Screenplay
(Jim
Jarmusch),
Awards:
nightclub with the Japanese actors during production, the
director had Masatoshi Nagase who spoke little English Best Director (Jim Jarmusch), Best Cinematography
but was an accomplished mimic try chat-up lines on (Robby Mller), Best Actress (Youki Kudoh), and Best
the female clientele as an acting exercise.[13] Jarmusch Supporting[32]Actor (Steve Buscemi and Screamin' Jay
took advantage of the production to make the second in- Hawkins).
stallment of his Coee and Cigarettes series, a collection Entertainment Weekly reviewer Ira Robbins gave the lm
of short vignettes featuring acquaintances of the director a B+ rating, complimenting it as conceptually ambisitting about drinking coee and smoking cigarettes.[25] tious and concluding that its obeat characters, ne cinThe Memphis Version, titled Twins, starred bickering ematography, and novel structure make for entertaining
twins Cinqu and Joie Lee alongside Steve Buscemi as an viewing.[37] Robert Fulford of The National Post hailed
obtuse waiter who expounds his theory of Elvis having an it as eccentric and deliriously funny,[38] while Rolling

6.11. ''MYSTERY TRAIN''


Stone's Phil Whitman remarked that the directors bracing, original comedy may be mostly smoke and air, but
its not insubstantial.[18] In The New York Times, Vincent
Canby called it thoroughly fascinating, a delight and the
directors best eort to date, drawing note to its retention
of the same kind of dour, discordant charm exhibited
by Stranger Than Paradise.[19] He praised Jarmuschs development as a screenwriter citing the restrained dialogue, humor and subtlety of the narrative and the careful construction of the plot and the performances he
elicited from the ensemble cast.[19][39] John Hartl, in The
Seattle Times, also drew a comparison with Stranger Than
Paradise, judging Mystery Train to be the more accessible work while retaining the dry wit of its predecessor.[31]

147

[4] Hertzberg, Ludvig. One Night in Memphis. The Jim


Jarmusch Resource Page. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
[5] Rea, Steven (December 24, 1989). The lming luck of
Jim Jarmusch. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
[6] Sante, Luc (November 1989). Mystery Man. Interview.
Reprinted with permission in Hertzberg 2001, pp. 87
[7] McGuigan, Catherine (January 1990). Shot by Shot:
Mystery Train". Premiere. 3 (5): 8083. Reprinted with
permission in Hertzberg, Ludvig (2001). Jim Jarmusch:
Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. pp.
99104. ISBN 1-57806-379-5. OCLC 46319700.
[8] Schaber, Bennet (1991). Modernity and the Vernacular.

Hal Hinson of The Washington Post was unimpressed


Surfaces. Les Presses de l'Universit de Montral. 1: 16
with the lm, calling it Jarmuschs least engaging, and
18. ISSN 1188-2492. Retrieved January 16, 2010. line
the rst in which his bohemian posturing actually befeed character in |publisher= at position 15 (help)
comes an irritant.[40] Of the lms characters, critic
Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader wrote that [9] Jim Jarmusch part two. London: guardian.co.uk.
November 15, 1999. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
some were beautifully imagined and realized, while others seem drawn from a more familiar stockpile, designed [10] Jarmusch, Jim (1989). Notes on Mystery Train, by Jim
for reuse rather than discovery.[17] David Denby, conJarmusch. Mystery Train (Media notes). Milan Records.
cluding a mixed review of the lm for New York Magazine, mused that one feels Jarmusch has pushed hip- [11] Wilmington, Michael (February 27, 1990). Director
Puts Much Value on Tough-Sell Reputation Movies. The
sterism and cool about as far as they can go, and that isn't
Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company.
[41]
nearly far enough. This reproach was echoed by other
reviewers who found that the lms style did not stray far [12] Salewicz, Chris (2007). Redemption Song: The Ballad of
Joe Strummer. London: Faber and Faber. p. 433. ISBN
from that of the directors earlier work a critical back0-571-21178-X. OCLC 76794852.
lash that would be amplied two years later following the
release of Night On Earth (1991).[28][42]
[13] Cohen, Scott (March 1990). "Strangers in Paradise".

Spin. Spin Media.


Postmodern cultural critic bell hooks cited the interaction in the Memphis train station between Thomas and the
[14] Van Gelder, Lawrence (December 1, 1989). At the
Japanese couple as one of the few examples of nuanced,
Movies. The New York Times. The New York Times
deconstructive and subversive treatment of blackness in
Company. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
[43]
American lm.
The Chicago Sun-Times' Roger Ebert
proclaimed that "[t]he best thing about Mystery Train is [15] Festival de Cannes: Mystery Train.
festivalcannes.com. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
that it takes you to an America you feel you ought to
be able to nd for yourself, if you only knew where to
[16] Jarmusch, Jim (1989). Foreword. In Masayoshi Sukita.
look.[44] In an April 2000 retrospective of Jarmuschs
Mystery Train: A Film by Jim Jarmusch. Shin Yamamoto.
work for Sight & Sound, Shawn Levy concluded that
ISBN 4-89389-016-6. Mystery Train was lmed in Memthe lm was as much a valentine to the allure of the
phis, Tennessee during the (very hot) summer of 1988.
American way of pop culture as it is a cheeky bit of
This book is intended as a kind of souvenir of the lm
structural legerdemain without terribly much resonating
(like a home movie, or a photo album) for anyone who
signicance.[45]
might be interested. It contains images from the lm, as
well as on-location photos of the cast and crew.

6.11.6

Footnotes

[1] "Mystery Train 1989 Masatoshi Nagase, Jim Jarmusch


Variety Proles. Variety.com. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on October 1, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
[2] Arrington, Carl Wayne (March 22, 1990). Films AvantGuardian. Rolling Stone.
[3] Scott, Suzanne. The King and I. Jim Jarmusch Symposium. Reverse Shot Online. Retrieved November 14,
2009.

[17] Rosenbaum, Jonathan (February 9, 1990). Strangers in


Elvisland. Chicago Reader.
[18] Whitman, Phil (December 8, 2000). Mystery Train.
Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
[19] Canby, Vincent (May 21, 1989). "Mystery Train (1989)".
The New York Times. The New York Times Company.
Retrieved November 14, 2009.
[20] Plasketes, George (1997). Images of Elvis Presley in
American culture: 19771997: the mystery terrain. New
York: Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56024-910-2. OCLC
243870174.

148

[21] Kennedy, Mark (March 19, 2000). Jim Jarmusch refuses


to go along. The Columbian. Associated Press.
[22] Canby, Vincent (May 27, 1989). Critics Notebook; For
the Cannes Winner, Untarnished Celebrity. The New
York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved
November 14, 2009.
[23] Goddard, Peter (Jan 11, 1990). Jim Jarmusch: Stranger
in a familiar landscape. Toronto Star. Toronto Star
Newspapers.
[24] Jim Jarmusch part four. guardian.co.uk. London:
Guardian Media Group. November 15, 1999. Retrieved
January 2, 2010.
[25] Tobias, Scott (May 19, 2004). Interview: Jim Jarmusch. The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved December
28, 2009.
[26] Surez, Juan Antonio (2007). Are You Trying to Tell
Me the Drumming in My Records Sucks? Coee and
Cigarettes". Jim Jarmusch. Urbana: University of Illinois
Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-252-07443-2. OCLC 71275566.
[27] The New York Film Festival: Archive. Film Society of
Lincoln Center. Archived from the original on February
10, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
[28] Tasker, Yvonne (2002). Stranger than Fiction: The rise
and fall of Jim Jarmusch. Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers. Routledge Key Guides. New York: Routledge. pp.
177178. ISBN 0-415-18974-8. OCLC 47764371.
[29] New York festival turns movie town into movie heaven.
Miami Herald. October 8, 1989. The quiet triumph of
this festival is Jarmuschs Mystery Train...
[30] "Mystery Train (1989)". Box Oce Mojo. Internet Movie
Database. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
[31] Hartl, John (January 26, 1990). "Mystery Train Jarmuschs Film Exposes Pop-Culture Excesses. The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. Retrieved November
15, 2009.
[32] "Mystery Train > Awards. allmovie.com. All Media
Guide. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
[33] Lazowski, Anna. "Mystery Train > Overview. allmovie.com. All Media Guide. Retrieved December 28,
2009.
[34] Ask Jim Jarmusch. Criterion.com. The Criterion Collection. December 22, 2009. Retrieved December 28,
2009.
[35] Jacobson, Harlan (May 19, 2005). Another American
movie is in full bloom in Cannes. USA Today. Gannett
Company. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
[36] Canby, Vincent (November 12, 1989). The Giddy Minimalism Of Jim Jarmusch. The New York Times. The
New York Times Company. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
[37] Robbins, Ira (November 16, 1990). Mystery Train
(1990)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 3,
2009.

CHAPTER 6. FILMS

[38] Fulford, Robert (April 4, 2000). Robert Fulfords column about Jim Jarmusch. The National Post. Retrieved
November 9, 2009.
[39] Canby, Vincent (September 29, 1989). Film Festival; A
Blissful 'Mystery Train' From Jim Jarmusch. The New
York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved
October 3, 2009.
[40] Hinson, Hal (February 2, 1990). "Mystery Train (R)".
The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company.
Retrieved September 27, 2009.
[41] Denby, David (November 20, 1989). The Memphis
Blues Again. New York Magazine: 120122. Retrieved
November 17, 2009. Mystery Train is a blues movie without the suering and pleasure that make the blues emotionally overwhelming. Seeing it, one feels Jarmusch has
pushed hipsterism and cool about as far as they can go,
and that isn't nearly far enough.
[42] Crow, Jonathan.
Jim Jarmusch > Biography.
allmovie.com. All Media Guide. Retrieved October 1,
2009.
[43] bell hooks (1996). Reel to Real: Race, Sex, and Class at
the Movies. New York: Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 0-41591823-5. OCLC 35229108. There are so few images of
blackness that attempt in any way to be subversive that
when I see one like this [Woody Allens The Purple Rose
of Cairo], I imagine all the myriad ways conventional representations of black people could be disrupted by experimentation. I am equally moved by that moment in Jim
Jarmuschs Mystery Train when the young Japanese couple arrive in the train station in Memphis only to encounter
what appears to be a homeless black man, a drifter, but
who turns to them and speaks in Japanese. The interaction
takes only a moment, but it deconstructs and expresses so
much. It reminds us that appearances are deceiving. It
made me think about black men as travelers, about black
men who ght in armies around the world. This lmic moment challenges our perceptions of blackness by engaging
in a process of defamiliarization (the taking of a familiar image and depicting it in such a way that we look at
it and see it dierently). Way before Tarantino was dabbling in cool images of blackness, Jarmusch had shown
in Down by Law and other work that it was possible for a
white-guy lmmaker to do progressive work around race
and representation.
[44] Ebert, Roger (January 26, 1990). Mystery Train.
Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
[45] Levy, Shawn (April 2000). Postcards from Mars. Sight
& Sound. 10 (4): 2224. Like Stranger, Mystery Train begins and ends with images of locomotion quite literally
in this case, as trains are the chief means of transportation.
And its as much a valentine to the allure of the American
way of pop culture as it is a cheeky bit of structural legerdemain without terribly much resonating signicance.
(It, too, went over big at Cannes.)

6.11.7 External links


Mystery Train at the Internet Movie Database

6.12. ''I HIRED A CONTRACT KILLER''


Mystery Train at Rotten Tomatoes
Mystery Train at The Jim Jarmusch Resource Page
Communication Breakdown an essay on the lm
from the Bright Lights Film Journal

6.12 ''I Hired a Contract Killer''


I Hired a Contract Killer is a lm directed, produced and
written by the Finnish auteur Aki Kaurismki in 1990. It
is a Finnish-British-German-Swedish co-production and
stars the renowned French actor Jean-Pierre Laud. The
lm also features cameo appearances by Joe Strummer
as a guitar player[1] and by Kaurismki as a sunglasses
salesman.

6.12.1

Plot

Henri Boulanger (Laud), a French man living in London, is laid-o from his job after fteen years of service.
He tries to commit suicide but because he continuously
fails, decides to hire a hitman (Kenneth Colley) to nish
the job. After making the contract he meets Margaret
(Margi Clarke) and nds new meaning to life, however,
he is unable to call o the hitman.

6.12.2

References

[1] Joe Strummer keeps busy since Clash split. The Joe
Strummer Resource. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2010.

6.12.3

External links

I Hired a Contract Killer at the Internet Movie


Database

149

Chapter 7

Albums
7.1 ''Capital Radio''

jingles of the period; the band replaces the lyric in tune


with London with in tune with nothing. The parody
Capital Radio is a song and an extended play by the is heightened by the use of a variation on the ending ri
English punk rock band The Clash. The original 2:07- from 'I'm only dreaming' by the Small Faces.
2:09 song has been included as Capital Radio or Cap- Sti Little Fingers use a modied version of the chorus
ital Radio One on the Capital Radio EP (1977), Black as the outro to their song You Can't Say Crap on the
Market Clash (1980), The Story of the Clash, Volume 1 Radio.
(1988), Clash on Broadway (1991), From Here to Eternity: Live (1999), The Essential Clash (2003), and Singles
7.1.1 Capital Radio E.P.
Box (2006).
Lyrically, the song is an attack on the music policy of
what was (at the time) Londons only legal commercial
music radio station, which played mainstream chart hits
and little if any punk. It mentions the stations then-Head
of Music, Aiden Day - He picks all the hits they play/to
keep you in your place all day.
They're even worse because they had
the chance, coming right into the heart of
London and sitting in that tower right on top of
everything. But they've completely blown it.
I'd like to throttle Aiden Day. He thinks hes
the self appointed Minister of Public Enlightenment. We've just written a new song called
Capital Radio and a line in it goes listen to
the tunes of the Dr Goebbels Show. They say
Capital Radio in tune with London. Yeah,
yeah, yeah! They're in tune with Hampstead.
They're not in tune with us at all. I hate them.
What they could have done compared to what
they have done is abhorrent. They could have
made it so good that everywhere you went you
took your transistor radio you know, how
it used to be when I was at school. I'd have
one in my pocket all the time or by my ear'ole
icking it between stations. If you didnt like
one record you'd ick to another station and
then back again. It was amazing. They could
have made the whole capital buzz. Instead
Capital Radio has just turned their back on the
whole youth of the city.
Joe Strummer[1]

The extended play Capital Radio was released on 9 April


1977,[2] and was given away to readers who sent o the
coupon printed in the NME, plus the red sticker found
on the bands debut studio album The Clash (1977). It
was produced by Mickey Foote and engineered by Simon
Humphrey. The interview was with the NMEs Tony Parsons.
Track listing
All tracks written by Joe Strummer and Mick Jones.
Personnel
Capital Radio One
Joe Strummer - lead vocal, rhythm guitar
Mick Jones - backing vocals, lead guitar, rhythm
guitar
Paul Simonon - bass guitar
Terry Chimes - drums
Listen
Mick Jones - lead guitars
Joe Strummer - lead guitar
Paul Simonon - bass guitar

The song ends with a parody of one of Capitals actual


150

Terry Chimes - drums

7.2. ''THE CLASH''

7.1.2

151

Capital Radio Two

over three weekend sessions at CBS Studio 3 in February 1977. By the third of these sessions the album was
In 1978-79, Capital Radio One was extremely rare in recorded and mixed to completion, with the tapes being
the UK, so much so that the group had re-recorded it as delivered to CBS at the start of March. It cost 4000 to
Capital Radio Two on the extended play The Cost of produce.
Living, which was released on 7-inch vinyl on 11 May
1979 through CBS Records. Capital Radio was rerecorded because the group learnt that copies of the orig- Album cover
inal Capital Radio EP were selling for high prices. Capital Radio Two is longer (3:19), mainly because of a pro- The cover artwork was designed by Polish artist Rosaw
tracted intro and outro. Capital Radio Two has been Szaybo. The albums front cover photo, shot by Kate
included on Super Black Market Clash (1994) and Singles Simon, was taken in the alleyway directly opposite the
front door of the bands 'Rehearsal Rehearsals building
Box (2006).
in Camden Market. Drummer Terry Chimes, though a
full member of the Clash at the time, did not appear in
Personnel
the picture as he had already decided to leave the group.
Another picture from the same Kate Simon photoshoot
Joe Strummer - lead vocal, rhythm guitar
appears on the UK Special Edition DVD of Rude Boy,
released in 2003. The picture of the charging police o Mick Jones - backing vocals, lead guitars, rhythm
cers on the rear, shot by Rocco Macauly, was taken during
guitars
the 1976 riot at the Notting Hill Carnivalthe inspiration
for the track White Riot.
Paul Simonon - bass guitar
Topper Headon - drums

7.1.3

References

[1] Coon 1977.


[2] George Gimarc, Punk Diary, p. 61.

Sources
Coon, Caroline (1977). 1988: The New Wave Punk
Rock Explosion. London: Hawthorn. ISBN 0-80156129-9. OCLC 79262599. Retrieved 2011-09-19.

7.1.4

External links

Songs
The subject of the opening track, "Janie Jones", was
a famous brothel keeper in London during the 1970s.
"Remote Control" was written by Mick Jones after the
Anarchy Tour and contains pointed observations about
the civic hall bureaucrats who had cancelled concerts,
the police, big business and especially record companies.
CBS decided to release the song as a single without consulting the band. "I'm So Bored with the USA", developed from a Mick Jones song, entitled I'm So Bored with
You,[2] condemns the Americanization of the UK.[3]
"White Riot" was the Clash's debut single. The song is
short and intense, punk style of two chords played very
fast (5 chords in total song). Lyrically, it is about class
economics and race.[4]

7.2 ''The Clash''

"Career Opportunities", the opening track of the second


side of the album, attacks the political and economic situation in England at the time, citing the lack of jobs available, and the dreariness and lack of appeal of those that
were available.

The Clash is the eponymous debut studio album by English punk rock band the Clash. It was released on 8 April
1977, through CBS Records. It is widely celebrated as
one of the greatest punk albums of all time.

Protex Blue, sung by Mick Jones, is about a 1970s


brand of condom. It was inspired by the contraceptive
vending machine in the Windsor Castles toilets.[5] The
song ends with the shouted phrase Johnny Johnny!",
(rubber) johnny being a British slang term for a condom.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The version of White Riot featured on here was not


recorded for the album. Instead, they used the original
7.2.1 Background
demo version, recorded at Beaconseld Studios before the
Most of the album was conceived on the 18th oor of a band signed to CBS.
council high rise on Londons Harrow Road, in a at that "Police & Thieves" was added to the album when the
was rented by Mick Joness grandmother, who frequently group realised that the track listing was too short. Anwent to see their live concerts.[1] The album was recorded other cover the band played at these sessions was Bob

152

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Marleys Dancing Shoes. "Garageland" was written in


response to Charles Shaar Murray's damning review of
the Clashs early appearance at the Sex Pistols Screen on
the Green concert The Clash are the kind of garage
band who should be returned to the garage immediately,
preferably with the engine running.[6][7][8] It was the nal
track recorded for the album.

joyous racial confusion, as evangelic outreach and white


knuckles and haywire impulses.[27]
In 2003, the US version was ranked number 77 on
Rolling Stone magazines list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time about which was said youthful ambition bursts through the Clashs debut, a machine-gun
blast of songs about unemployment, race, and the Clash
themselves.[28][29]

In March 2003, Mojo magazine ranked The Clash number


2 in its Top 50 Punk Albums, writing that the album was
Released in the United Kingdom through CBS Records the ultimate punk protest album. Searingly evocative of
[30]
on 8 April 1977,[9] engineered by CBS sta engineer Si- dreary late '70s Britain, but still timelessly inspiring.
mon Humphrey and produced by Clash live soundman Noted Jamaican producer Lee Perry heard the album
Mickey Foote, at the (since demolished) CBS Whiteld while in London in 1977, and played it to Bob Marley,
Street Studio No. 3.[10] The Clash was unusually musi- who in turn mentioned the Clash on his own track "Punky
cally varied for a punk band, with reggae and early rock Reggae Party".
and roll inuences plainly evident.
The album was included in Robert Dimerys 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.
Reception

7.2.2

Release

The album received critical acclaim and peaked at number 12 in the UK charts.[21] In his 1979 consumer guide
for The Village Voice, critic Robert Christgau gave the albums US import an A grade and stated, Cut for cut,
this may be the greatest rock and roll album (plus limitededition bonus single) ever manufactured in the U.S. It offers 10 of the 14 titles on the bands British debut as well
as 7 of the 13 available only on 45. [...] The U.K. version of The Clash is the greatest rock and roll album ever
manufactured anywhere.[22] In his decade-end list for the
newspaper, he ranked the UK version as the best album
of the 1970s.[23]

7.2.3 Track listing


All tracks written by Joe Strummer and Mick Jones, except where noted.

7.2.4 1979 US version

In the United States, the Clashs debut studio album was


released one year after Give 'Em Enough Rope, so it was
their second release in the US. CBS in America had decided that the album was 'not radio friendly', so it was
initially only available in the States during 19771978 as
In February 1993, the New Musical Express magazine an import, and as such became the best-selling import of
ranked the album number 13 in its list of the Greatest Al- the year, shifting over 100,000 copies.[31]
bums of All Time.[24] NME also ranked The Clash number 3 in its list of the Greatest Albums of the '70s, and In July 1979, Epic released a modied version of the alwrote in the review that the speed-freaked brain of punk bum for the United States market. This version replaced
set to the tinniest, most frantic guitars ever trapped on four songs from the original version with ve non-album
singles and B-sides, some of which were recorded and
vinyl. Lives were changed beyond recognition by it.
released after the Clashs second studio album, Give 'Em
In December 1999, Q magazine rated the album 5 stars Enough Rope (1978). It also used the re-recorded sinout of 5, and wrote that the Clash would never sound so gle version of White Riot, rather than the original take
punk as they did on 1977s self-titled debut....Lyrically featured on the UK version.
intricate...it still howled with anger.[16] The same magazine placed The Clash at number forty-eight in its list of Omitted from the US version were the following tracks:
the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever in 2000,[25] and included The Clash in its 100 Best Punk Albums, giving
Deny
it 5 stars out of 5, in May 2002.[26]
Cheat
In 2000, Alternative Press rated the album 5 out of 5. Alternative press review saw The Clash as an eternal punk
Protex Blue
album, a blueprint for the pantomime of punkier rock
acts, and that for all of its forced politics and angst, the
48 Hours
Clash continues to sound crucial.[12]
White Riot (original version)
In May 2001, Spin magazine ranked the album number
3 in its list of the 50 Most Essential Punk Records, and
wrote Punk as alienated rage, as anticorporate blather, as Added were the following tracks:

7.2. ''THE CLASH''

153

Clash City Rockers Initially released as a single


(A-side) in the UK in February 1978

Complete Control Initially released as a single (Aside) in the UK in September 1977

White Riot (re-recorded version) Initially released


as a single (A-side) in the UK in March 1977

"(White Man) In Hammersmith Palais Initially


released as a single (A-side) in the UK in June 1978

I Fought the Law Initially released as a track on the


Clash EP The Cost of Living in the UK in May 1979

Jail Guitar Doors Initially released as the B-side to


Clash City Rockers in the UK in February 1978

Initial copies of the US version also came with a bonus


7-inch single which featured Groovy Times and Gates
of the West.[32] The liner notes incorrectly credit new
drummer Nicky Headon for White Riot.
It was another moderately successful album for the Clash
in the United States, even though the sales were likely diluted by the longstanding popularity of the UK version
on the import market. The Clash peaked at number 126
on the Billboard charts,[33] setting the stage for the commercial breakthrough of London Calling later that year.
Since the Clashs rst UK album had already been released in Canada by CBS Records, when CBS Canada The stairway where the Clash posed for the cover photo in 2008
released the US version, they changed the cover art so as
to not confuse the record buying public. The CBS Canada
Terry Chimes (listed as Tory Crimes) drums, proversion of the LP has a dark blue border instead of green.
duction on US version
Initial copies also contained the bonus Groovy Times
45. Some original pressings of the US version featured
Topper Headon drums on tracks 1, 4, 6, 8, 14 on
Whats My Name?" as track 4 and Complete Control
US version, production on US version
as track 11. Though the back of these original pressings
list the two songs as they are featured on recent versions
of the album.
Production
Track listing
All tracks written by Strummer and Jones, except where
noted.

7.2.5

Personnel

The Clash

Mickey Foote production, engineering on US version


Simon Humphrey engineering
Kate Simon cover art
Rocco Macauly back cover photo

Joe Strummer lead and backing vocals, rhythm


guitar, lead guitar on 48 Hours, production on US
version

Lee Scratch Perry production on US version

Mick Jones lead guitar, backing and lead vocals,


production on US version

Bill Price production on US version

Sandy Pearlman production on US version

Paul Simonon bass guitar, production on US ver- 7.2.6


sion

Charts

154

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Chart positions

7.2.7

Certications

7.2.8

[18] Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. (2004). The


Clash. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon &
Schuster. pp. 16768. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Retrieved
24 September 2011.
[19] Clash Reissues. Select. London (114): 88. December
1999.

References

[1] The Uncut Crap Over 56 Things You Never Knew


About The Clash. NME. London: IPC Magazines. 3.
16 March 1991. ISSN 0028-6362. OCLC 4213418.

[20] Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig, eds. (1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN
0-679-75574-8.
[21] April 1977 Ocial Albums Chart Top 100. Ocial
Charts Company.

[2] Caws, Matthew (December 1995). Mick Jones. Guitar


World. New York: Harris Publications. 12. ISSN 10456295. OCLC 7982091.

[22] Christgau, Robert (3 September 1979). Consumer


Guide. The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 17 April
2012.

[3] Interviewer: Unknown; Presenter: Kurt Loder. MTV


Rockumentary.
http://www.londonsburning.org/art_
mtv_rockumentary_1.html. London, England. MTV.
Missing or empty |series= (help)

[23] Christgau, Robert (17 December 1979). Decade Personal Best: '70s. The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
[24] NME (2 February 1993), p. 29

[4] Letts (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World. Event


occurs at 25:4527:40.

[25] Q (June 2000), p. 70.

[5] The Windsor Castle. Retrieved 2 July 2015.

[26] Q (May 2002). SE, p. 135.

[6] Murray, Charles Shaar (5 April 2003). Joe is dead, but


the Clash are immortal. Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7
May 2010. I described them as the kind of garage band
who should be speedily returned to their garage, preferably
with the engine running

[27] Spin (May 2001), p. 108.

[7] Letts (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World. Event


occurs at 25:0025:35.
[8] Needs, Kris (November 2004). HOW I MET THE
CLASH. trakMARX.com. Retrieved 21 November
2007.
[9] The Clash - The Clash (Vinyl, LP, Album) at Discogs
[10] The Clash. Mojo, Mojo Classic issue. p. 33.
[11] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. The Clash The Clash.
AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2004.

[28] Rolling Stone (937). 11 December 2003. p. 114. Missing


or empty |title= (help)
[29] Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. 77 | The
Clash The Clash. Rolling Stones 500 Greatest Albums
of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
[30] Mojo (March 2003), p. 76.
[31] Letts (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World. Event
occurs at 34:0036:00.
[32] Letts (2001). The Clash: Westway to the World. Event
occurs at 44:4045:00.
[33] The Clash - The Clash Awards. AllMusic. Billboard.

[12] The Clash: The Clash. Alternative Press. Cleveland


(140): 7475. March 2000.

[34] "Swedishcharts.com The Clash The Clash. Hung Medien.

[13] Wolk, Douglas (21 August 2007). The Clash: The Clash
(U.S. Version)". Blender. New York. Archived from the
original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2016.

[35] British album certications The Clash The Clash.


British Phonographic Industry. 31 December 1979. Enter
The Clash in the eld Keywords. Select Title in the eld
Search by. Select album in the eld By Format. Select
Gold in the eld By Award. Click Search

[14] Larkin, Colin (2011). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th


ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-857-12595-8.
[15] The Clash. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved 10 September
2015.
[16] The Clash: The Clash. Q. London (159): 15233. December 1999.
[17] Miles, Milo (20 June 2002). The Clash: The Clash.
Rolling Stone. New York: 87. Archived from the original
on 1 December 2002. Retrieved 5 September 2016.

[36] American album certications The Clash The Clash.


Recording Industry Association of America. 12 November 1991. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format,
then select Album, then click SEARCH
[37] British album certications The Clash The Clash
(UK Version)". British Phonographic Industry. Enter The
Clash (UK Version) in the eld Keywords. Select Title in
the eld Search by. Select album in the eld By Format.
Select Gold in the eld By Award. Click Search

7.4. ''GIVE 'EM ENOUGH ROPE''

[38] British album certications The Clash The Clash


(US Version)". British Phonographic Industry. Enter The
Clash (US Version) in the eld Keywords. Select Title in
the eld Search by. Select album in the eld By Format.
Select Silver in the eld By Award. Click Search

7.2.9

Further reading

155
listed as Capital Radio Two, is much longer, mainly
because of a protracted outro.
Gates of the West clearly describes the ecstasy of The
Clash in their rst encounter with the United States Eastside Jimmy & Southside Sue both said they needed
something new. From Camden Town Station to 44th
& 8th describes their journey from their London neighborhood to the middle of Manhattan.

Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a FashIt was recorded in Highbury, London, and features extra
ion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). Lonhigh vocal credited to Dennis Ferranti and harmonica
don: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
credited to Bob Jones (in reality Mick Jones).
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lon- 7.3.1 Track listing
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
All songs written by Strummer/Jones except where noted.
60668626.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd Side one
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
1. "I Fought the Law" (Sonny Curtis) - 2:40
52990890.
2. "Groovy Times" - 3:25
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Side two
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

7.2.10

External links

The Clash at Discogs (list of releases)

1. Gates of the West - 3:26


2. "Capital Radio" - 4:05
3. The Cost of Living Advert (only on original vinyl and
Japanese version of the singles box set)

7.3.2 Charts
7.3.3 References
[1] Allmusic review

7.3 ''The Cost of Living''


The Cost of Living is an EP by the English punk rock
band The Clash. It was released on 11 May 1979 in a
gatefold sleeve. The EP was produced by the band and
Bill Price, it marked a transition in musical styles for the
band, bridging the intensity of their earlier, punky albums
with the broader, more American inuenced rock and roll
yet to come on London Calling, most evident on the folk
rocking "Groovy Times" and Gates of the West.
The Clashs cover of Sonny Curtis' "I Fought the Law"
became one of the denitive recordings of the song, and
remained in the bands live set list for much of the rest
of their career. Joe Strummer also performed it with his
later bands, including during his stint with The Pogues.
The early single "Capital Radio" was re-recorded because
the band learned that copies of the original Capital Radio
EP were selling for high prices. Capital Radio, later

[2] The Irish Charts. IrishCharts.ie. Irish Singles Chart.


Enter I FOUGHT THE LAW in the eld Search by Song
Title and click search.
[3] 1979 Top 40 Ocial Singles Chart UK Archive: 23rd
June 1979. UK Singles Chart. Ocial Charts Company.
1979-06-23.

7.4 ''Give 'Em Enough Rope''


Give 'Em Enough Rope is the second studio album by
the English punk rock band the Clash. It was released
on 10 November 1978 through CBS Records. It was
their rst album released in the United States, preceding
the US version of The Clash. The album was well received by critics and fans, peaking at number two in the
United Kingdom Albums Chart,[1][2] and number 128 in
the Billboard 200.[3][4]

156

7.4.1

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Background

The albums cover art was designed by Gene Greif, the


front of which was based on a postcard titled End of
the Trail, photographed by Adrian Atwater and featuring Wallace Irving Robertson. The cover of the rst US
pressings showed the bands name written in block capital letters. Subsequent US pressings used a faux-oriental
style font, which was then replaced with the more ornate
faux-oriental style font used on the UK release. The original American issue of the album also retitled "All the
Young Punks" as Thats No Way to Spend Your Youth.
This was revised on later editions. "Tommy Gun" and
"English Civil War" were released as the albums singles, either side of Christmas 1978. They entered the UK
charts at numbers 19 and 25, respectively.

lost Clash song).

7.4.2 Critical reception


In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, Greil Marcus
hailed Give 'Em Enough Rope as a poised, unpretentious
record of straight English punk with a grip on the future and accessible hard rock showcasing the Clashs
unyielding, humorous vision of public life": The bands
vision of a world strangling on its own contradictions
hasn't changed, but their idea of their place in that world
has.[2] Robert Christgau wrote in The Village Voice that
the albums pessimistic mood and a couple of bad songs
or moments made it less listenable than the bands debut
record, but concluded that most of the songs were effective melodically as anything on The Clash, and even
the bands ruminations on the star as culture hero become
more resonant as you hear them over and over again. This
isn't among the greatest rock albums ever, but it is among
the nest of the year.[12] He named it the fourth best
album of 1978 in his list for the Pazz & Jop,[13] an annual poll of American critics in which Give 'Em Enough
Rope also nished fourth.[14] Sounds magazine named it
the years best record.[8]

Though the opening track of side two, Guns on the


Roof, is ostensibly about global terrorism, war and corruption, it was partly inspired by an incident that resulted
in the Metropolitan Police's armed anti-terrorist squad
raiding the Clashs Camden Market base. Paul Simonon
and Topper Headon were arrested and charged with criminal damage (and later ned 750) for shooting racing
pigeons with an air-gun from the roof of their rehearsal
building.
In 1993, Give 'Em Enough Rope was named the 87th
[15]
Q inThe band continued to include contemporary subjects in greatest album of all time in NME magazine.
cluded
the
record
in
their
100
Best
Punk
Albums
their lyrics on the album; Tommy Gun deals with Mid[16]
and wrote in retrospect, "...no more punk than
dle Eastern terrorism, specically the hi-jacking of air- list,
Blondie...[it]
shined of quality....their drumming probcraft, while Julies Been Working for the Drug Squad
lems
were
over
with the arrival of jazz-trained [Topper]
is a commentary on the infamous "Operation Julie" drug
[9]
Headon.
bust that saw the largest LSD production ring in the world,
based in Wales, dismantled by an undercover police operation. The song also makes a reference to the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" in the opening line, Its Lucy in the sky and all kinds of apple pie.
Julies Been Working for the Drug Squad was originally
titled Julies in the Drug Squad, as listed on the original
pressing of the album. The songs title was changed when
Give 'Em Enough Rope was released on CD.

7.4.3 Track listing


All tracks written by Joe Strummer and Mick Jones, except where noted. All lead vocals by Strummer, except
Stay Free by Jones.

During recording of the album, Joe Strummer's trade- 7.4.4 Personnel


mark Telecaster guitar needed to be taken in for repairs,
so he played a hired semi-hollow Gibson ES-345 for most The Clash
of the sessions.[5] Sandy Pearlman, who produced the
original album, was not a big fan of Joe Strummers voice,
Joe Strummer lead and backing vocals, rhythm
to the point that he ensured the drums were mixed louder
guitar
than the lead singers vocals on the entire album.[6]
Mick Jones lead guitar, backing and lead vocals
Other songs recorded during the sessions was the single
"(White Man) In Hammersmith Palais", as well as B Paul Simonon bass guitar, backing vocals
sides "Pressure Drop", 1-2 Crush on You and The Prisoner. Four more songs were recorded: One Emotion,
Topper Headon drums
"Groovy Times", Ooh Baby Ooh (Its Not Over)" (AKA
Rusted Chrome, later reworked and released as Gates
of the West) and RAF 1810 (This song was mentioned with:
by Joe Strummer in an interview to promote GEER as one
Allen Lanier - piano on Julies Been Working for
that never made the nal cut of the album. I doubt this
the Drug Squad (uncredited)
song was ever recorded or played live and thus is the great

7.4. ''GIVE 'EM ENOUGH ROPE''

157

Stan Bronstein (of Elephants Memory) - saxophone [10] Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. (2004). The
Clash. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. London:
on Drug Stabbing Time (uncredited) [17]
Bob Andrews - keyboards on Stay Free (uncredited) [17]
Production

Fireside. pp. 167168. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Retrieved


24 September 2011. Portions posted at The Clash > Album Guide. rollingstone.com. Retrieved 24 September
2011.
[11] Rosegen, Je. Give Em Enough Rope. Tiny Mix Tapes.
Retrieved 10 September 2015.

Sandy Pearlman producer


Corky Stasiak engineer

[12] Christgau, Robert (25 December 1978). Christgaus


Consumer Guide. The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

Paul Subblebine mastering engineer

[13] Pazz & Jop 1978: Deans List

Dennis Ferrante sound engineer

[14] Pazz & Jop 1978

Gregg Caruso sound engineer

[15] Greatest Albums of All Time. NME. London: 29. 2


October 1993.

Kevin Dallimore sound engineer

[16] 100 Best Punk Albums. Q. London: 135. May 2002.

Chris Mingo sound engineer

[17] (Fletcher: The Clash: The Music That Matters)

Gene Greif cover designer

[18] Discography The Clash. SwedishCharts.com. Archived


from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 23 February
2008.

Hugh Brown concept designer, cover photograph

7.4.5

Charts

7.4.6

Certications

7.4.7

References

[1] UK Chart Archive.


February 2008.

[19] British album certications The Clash Give 'Em


Enough Rope. British Phonographic Industry. 31 December 1979. Enter Give 'Em Enough Rope in the eld
Keywords. Select Title in the eld Search by. Select album
in the eld By Format. Select Gold in the eld By Award.
Click Search

everyHit.co.uk.

Retrieved 17

[2] Marcus, Greil (25 January 1979). The Clash Give 'Em
Enough Rope > Album Review. Rolling Stone (283).
Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved
20 January 2007.
[3] The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums at
AllMusic. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
[4] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,
Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, The Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment; Dorismo;
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 41:0045:00. ISBN 07389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.
[5] Sounds Magazine 17 June 1978
[6] NME Magazine 16 March 1991
[7] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Give 'Em Enough Rope at
AllMusic. Retrieved 13 September 2004.
[8] Give 'Em Enough Rope. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved
10 September 2015.
[9] Q. London: 1523. December 1999.

7.4.8 Further reading


Fletcher, Tony (2012) [2012]. The Clash: The Music That Matters. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN
978-1780383033.
Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). London: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
60668626.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.

158

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash prepared for their third album.[13]:89,91
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN Once in Vanilla Studios, the group began performing
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.
cover songs from a variety of genres, such as rockabilly,
rock 'n' roll, rhythm and blues, and reggae.[2][13]:937 In
contrast to previous rehearsal sessions, the band kept
these rehearsals private, and disallowed hangers-on from
7.5 ''London Calling''
attending the Vanilla sessions.[13]:90 This seclusion alThis article is about the album. For other uses, see lowed the band to rebuild their condence without worrying about the reaction from outsiders, who were familiar
London Calling (disambiguation).
with their older punk rock musical style.[13]:97
London Calling is the third studio album by English punk
rock band the Clash. It was released as a double album in the United Kingdom on 14 December 1979 by
CBS Records, and in the United States in January 1980
by Epic Records.[1] London Calling is a post-punk album that incorporates a range of styles, including punk,
reggae, rockabilly, ska, New Orleans R&B, pop, lounge
jazz, and hard rock.

The band developed an extremely disciplined[13]:98


daily routine of afternoon musical rehearsals, broken
by a late-afternoon social football game, which fostered
a friendly bond between the band members.[13]:98100
The daily football match was followed by a couple of
drinks at a local pub, which was itself followed by a second musical rehearsal session at Vanilla Studio in the
evening.[13]:98100

The band gradually rebuilt their musical and songwriting condence during these rehearsal sessions during the
summer of 1979, with the styles of the sessions early
cover songs setting the template for the diverse material that would be written for London Calling.[13]:98 The
band were also encouraged by a growing appreciation of
drummer Topper Headons drumming skills, which they
realised could be used to perform music in a wide array
of genres and styles beyond punk rock.[13]:95 The Clash
wrote and recorded demos, with Mick Jones composing
and arranging much of the music and Joe Strummer genThe album received widespread acclaim and was ranked erally writing the lyrics.[2][13]:100103
at number eight on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 GreatClash had started to
est Albums of All Time in 2003.[7] London Calling was As early as their second album, the[14]
depart
from
the
punk
rock
sound.
While touring in
a top ten album in the UK, and its lead single "London
the
United
States
twice
in
1979,
they
chose supporting
[8]
Calling" was a top 20 single. It has sold over ve milacts
such
as
rhythm
and
blues
artists
Bo
Diddley, Sam &
[7]
lion copies worldwide, and was certied platinum in the
Dave,
Lee
Dorsey,
and
Screamin'
Jay
Hawkins,
as well as
[9]
United States.
neotraditional country artist Joe Ely and punk rockabilly
band the Cramps. This developed fascination with rock
and roll inspired their approach for London Calling.[15]
The albums subject matter included social displacement,
unemployment, racial conict, drug use, and the responsibilities of adulthood.[2] While working on The Card
Cheat, the band recorded each part twice to create
a sound as big as possible.[3] Lovers Rock advocates safe sex and planning.[4] The nal track, "Train
in Vain", was originally excluded from the back covers
track listing.[5] It was intended to be given away through
a promotion with NME, but was added to the album at the
last minute after the deal fell through.[6]

7.5.1

Recording and production

In August 1979, the band entered Wessex Studios to begin recording London Calling. The Clash asked Guy
Stevens to produce the album, much to the dismay of
CBS Records.[16] Stevens had alcohol and drug problems
and his production methods were unconventional.[2] During a recording session he swung a ladder and upturned
chairs apparently to create a rock & roll atmosphere.[2]
The Clash got along well with Stevens, especially bassist
Paul Simonon, who found his work to be very helpful and
productive to his playing and their recording as a band.
The album was recorded during a ve- to six-week period
Prior to this move to the Vanilla Studios rehearsal space,
involving 18-hour days,[17] with many songs recorded in
the Clashs songwriters Mick Jones and Joe Strummer
one or two takes.[2]
had experienced a period of writers block.[13]:91 They
had not written a new song from scratch in over one year,
with the material on their recently released Cost of Living
EP, composed of a cover song and three songs that had
all been written over 12 months earlier.[13]:91 The Clash
arrived at Vanilla in May 1979 without a single new song
After recording their second studio album Give 'Em
Enough Rope (1978), the band separated from their manager Bernard Rhodes.[10] This separation meant that the
group had to leave their rehearsal studio in Camden
Town and nd another location to compose their music.
Tour manager Johnny Green and drum roadie Baker had
found the group a new place to rehearse called Vanilla
Studios, which was located in the back of a garage in
Pimlico.[11][12][13]:88

7.5. ''LONDON CALLING''

7.5.2

159

Music and lyrics

lyrics, which discuss an individuals paranoid outlook on


life, but was encouraged by Strummer to continue work[29]
On "Death or Glory", Strummer examines
According to the music critic Mark Kidel, London Call- ing on it.
his
life
in
retrospect
and acknowledges the complications
ing was the rst post-punk double album and exhibited a
and
responsibilities
of
adulthood.[31]
broader range of musical styles than the Clashs previous
records.[18] Stephen Thomas Erlewine said the album ap- Lovers Rock advocates safe sex and planning.[32] The
propriated the "punk aesthetic into rock & roll mythology nal track, "Train in Vain", was originally excluded from
and roots music", while incorporating a wider range of the back covers track listing.[33] It was intended to be
styles such as punk, reggae, rockabilly, ska, New Orleans given away through a promotion with NME, but was
R&B, pop, lounge jazz, and hard rock.[19] According to added to the album at the last minute after the deal fell
Greg Kot, the bands embrace of specic musical tradi- through.[34]
tions deviated from punks iconoclastic sensibilities.[20]
Regarding London Calling, Jack Sargeant remarked that
whether the Clash completely abandoned their punk 7.5.3 Artwork
roots or pushed punks musical eclecticism and diversity
The albums front cover features a photograph of bassist
into new terrain remains a controversial issue.[14]
Paul Simonon smashing his Fender Precision Bass (on
The albums songs were generally written about Londisplay at the Cleveland Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as of
don, with narratives featuring both ctional and life-based
May 2009)[35] against the stage at The Palladium in New
characters, such as an underworld criminal named Jimmy
York City on 20 September 1979 during the Clash Take
Jazz and a gun-toting Jimmy Cli aspirer living in Brixton
the Fifth US tour.[36][37] Simonon explained in a 2011
("Guns of Brixton"). Some had more widely contextuinterview with Fender that he smashed the bass out of
alised narratives, including references to the evil presifrustration when he learned the bouncers at the concert
dentes working for the "clampdown", the lingering efwould not let the audience members stand up out of their
fects of the Spanish Civil War ("Spanish Bombs"), and
seats. Pennie Smith, who photographed the band for the
how constant consumerism had led to unavoidable politalbum, originally did not want the photograph to be used.
[21]
ical apathy ("Lost in the Supermarket"). Sal Ciol of
She thought that it was too out of focus, but Strummer
PopMatters felt that the songs encompass an arrangement
and graphic designer Ray Lowry thought it would make
of urban narratives and characters, and touch on themes
a good album cover.[37][38] In 2002, Smiths photograph
such as sex, depression and identity crisis.[22] Music critic
was named the best rock and roll photograph of all time
Tom Carson viewed that, while the album draws on the
by Q magazine, commenting that it captures the ultimate
entirety of rock and rolls past for its sound, the concepts
rock'n'roll moment total loss of control.[39]
and lyrical themes are drawn from the history, politics
The cover artwork was designed by Lowry and was an
and myths associated with the genre.[23]
homage to the design of Elvis Presley's self-titled debut
London Calling, the albums title track, was partially
album, with pink letters down the left side and green text
inuenced by the March 1979 accident at a nuclear reacross the bottom.[40][41] The cover was named the ninth
actor at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania. Strummers
best album cover of all time by Q magazine in 2001.[42]
lyrics also discuss the problems of rising unemployment,
In 1995, Big Audio Dynamite (a band fronted by former
racial conict and drug use in Britain.[24] The second
Clash member Mick Jones) used the same scheme for
track, "Brand New Cadillac", was written and originally
their F-Punk album. The album cover for London Calling
recorded by Vince Taylor and was the rst track recorded
was among the ten chosen by the Royal Mail for a set of
for London Calling. The band cite the song as one of the
Classic Album Cover postage stamps issued in January
rst British rock'n'roll records and had initially used it
2010.[43][44]
[25][26]
"Rudie Can't
as a warm up song before recording.
Fail", the albums fth song, features a horn section and
mixes elements of pop, soul, and reggae music together.
7.5.4 Release
Its lyrics chronicle the life of a fun-loving young man
who is criticised for his inability to act like a responsi- The album was released in the United Kingdom on vinyl
ble adult.[27] Strummer wrote Lost in the Supermarket in mid-December 1979, and in the United States on vinyl
after imagining Jones childhood growing up in a base- and 8-track tape two weeks later. A gatefold cover dement with his mother and grandmother.[28] "Clampdown" sign of the LP was only released in Japan. Though Lonbegan as an instrumental track called Working and don Calling was released as a double album it was only
Waiting.[29] Its lyrics comment on people who forsake sold for about the price of a single album. The Clashs
the idealism of youth and urge young people to ght the record label, CBS, at rst denied the bands request for
status quo.[30]
the album to be released as a double. In return CBS gave
"The Guns of Brixton" was the rst of Paul Simonons permission for the band to include a free 12-inch single
compositions the band recorded, and the rst to have that played at 33 rpm. Ultimately, the planned 12-inch
him sing lead. Simonon was originally doubtful about its record became a second nine-track LP.[12]

160

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Upon its release, London Calling sold approximately two


million copies.[7] The album peaked at number nine in
the United Kingdom[8] and was certied gold in December 1979.[45] The album performed strongly outside the
United Kingdom. It reached number two in Sweden[46]
and number four in Norway.[47] In the United States, London Calling peaked at number 27 on the Billboard Pop
Albums chart[48] and was certied platinum in February
1996.[9] The album produced two of the bands most successful singles. "London Calling" preceded the album
with a 7 December 1979 release. It peaked at number 11
on the UK Singles Chart.[8] The songs music video, directed by Letts, featured the band performing the song on
a boat in the pouring rain with the River Thames behind
them.[49] In the United States, "Train in Vain", backed
with London Calling, was released as a single in February 1980. It peaked at number 23 on the Billboard Hot
100 singles chart and London Calling"/"Train in Vain
peaked at number 30 on the Billboard Disco Top 100
chart.[50]
A UK only cassette was released in 1986. A CD was released in the US in 1987, with a remastered version in the
UK in 1999 followed by the US in 2000, along with the
rest of the bands catalogue. In 2004, a 25th anniversary
Legacy Edition was published with a bonus CD and DVD
in digipack. The bonus CD features The Vanilla Tapes,
missing recordings made by the band in mid-1979.[51]
The DVD includes The Last Testament The Making of
London Calling, a lm by Don Letts, as well as previously
unseen video footage and music videos. A limited edition
picture disc LP was released in 2010.

7.5.5

Reception and legacy

London Calling received widespread critical acclaim


when it was rst released in 1979.[61] In a contemporary review for The New York Times, John Rockwell said
the album nally validated the acclaim received by the
Clash up to that point because of how their serious political themes and vital playing were retained in music with
innovative features and broad appeal: This is an album
that captures all the Clashs primal energy, combines it
with a brilliant production job by Guy Stevens and reveals depths of invention and creativity barely suggested
by the bands previous work.[62] Charles Shaar Murray
wrote in NME that it was the rst record to be on-par with
the bands hype, while Melody Maker critic James Truman said the Clash had discovered themselves by embracing American music styles.[13]:412 Rolling Stone magazines Tom Carson claimed the music celebrated the romance of rock & roll rebellion and was vast, engaging,
and enduring enough to leave listeners not just exhilarated but exalted and triumphantly alive.[23] In the opinion of Down Beat journalist Michael Goldberg, the Clash
had produced a classic rock album which, literally, denes the state of rock and roll and against which the very
best of [the 1980s] will have to be judged.[55] Charlie

Gillett was less impressed, believing some of the songs


sounded like poor imitations of Bob Dylan backed by a
horn section. In Sounds, Garry Bushell was more critical and gave the record two out of ve stars, claiming the
Clash had retrogressed to Rolling Stones-style outlaw
imagery and tired old rock clichs.[13]:412
London Calling was voted the best album of 1980 in the
Pazz & Jop, an annual poll of American critics published
by The Village Voice.[63] Robert Christgau, the polls creator and supervisor, also named it the years best record
in an accompanying piece and remarked that it generated an urgency and vitality and ambition (that Elvis P.
cover!) which overwhelmed the pessimism of its leftist
world-view.[64] In a retrospective review, he called it the
best double album since the Rolling Stones' Exile on Main
St. (1972) and said it expanded upon rather than compromised the Clashs driving guitar sound in a warm, angry,
and thoughtful, condent, melodic, and hard-rocking
showcase of their musical abilities.[54]
According to the English music writer Dave Thompson,
London Calling established the Clash as more than a simple punk band on what was a potent record of neurotic
post-punk, despite its amalgam of disparate and occasionally disjointed musical inuences.[65] Don McLeese
from the Chicago Sun-Times hailed it as their best album
and punks nest hour, as it found the band broadening
their artistry without compromising their original vigor
and immediacy.[53] PopMatters critic Sal Ciol called it
a big, loud, beautiful collection of hurt, anger, restless
thought, and above all hope that still sounds relevant
and vibrant.[22] In a review of its reissue, Uncut wrote
that the songs and characters in the lyrics cross-referenced
each other because of the albums exceptional sequencing, adding that The Vanilla Tapes bonus disc enhanced
what was already a masterpiece.[66]
Accolades
London Calling has been considered by many critics to
be one of the greatest rock albums of all time,[67] including AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine, who said
that it sounded more purposeful than most albums, let
alone double albums.[19] According to Acclaimed Music, it is the 6th most ranked record on critics lists of the
all-time greatest albums.[68] In 1987, Robert Hilburn of
the Los Angeles Times named it the fourth best album of
the previous 10 years and said while the Clashs debut was
a punk masterpiece, London Calling marked the genres
coming of age as the band led the way into fertile postpunk territory.[69] In 1989, Rolling Stone ranked it as the
best album of the 1980s, despite its 1979 release date.[70]
In 1999, Q magazine named London Calling the fourth
greatest British album of all time,[71] and wrote that it is
the best Clash album and therefore among the very best
albums ever recorded.[57] In 2002, Q included it on its
list of the 100 Best Punk Albums,[72] and in 2003, Mojo
ranked it twenty second on their list of the Top 50 Punk

7.5. ''LONDON CALLING''


Albums,[73] while British writer Colin Larkin named it
the second greatest punk album of all time.[74]

161
Mickey Gallagher organ

The Irish Horns brass


London Calling was ranked as the sixth greatest album of
the 1970s by NME,[75] and the second best by Pitchfork
Production
Media,[76] whose reviewer Amanda Petrusich said that it
was the Clashs creative apex as a rock band rather
Guy Stevens producer
than as a punk band.[77] In 2003, London Calling was
ranked number eight on Rolling Stone's list of The 500
Bill Price engineer
Greatest Albums of All Time.[7] Entertainment Weekly's
Jerry Green additional engineer
Tom Sinclair declared it the Best Album of All Time in
his headline for a 2004 article on the album.[78] In 2007,
Ray Lowry design
London Calling was inducted into the Grammy Hall of
Fame, a collection of recordings of lasting qualitative or
Pennie Smith photography
historical signicance.[79] The album was included in the
BBC Radio 1 2009 Masterpieces Series, marking it as
one of the most inuential albums of all time, some thirty 7.5.9 Charts
years after its original release.[80]
Notes

7.5.6

Planned lm

[1] London Calling 25th anniversary edition

In December 2010, the BBC reported that a lm about


the recording of London Calling was in the early stages 7.5.10 Certications
of production. Mick Jones and Paul Simonon were executive producers for the lm. The script was written by Jez 7.5.11 References
Butterworth and shooting was planned to begin in 2011.
Alison Owen and Paul Trijbits had been chosen as the [1] Homann, Frank (2005).
producers.[81][82]
Sound. Routledge. p. 397.

7.5.7

Track listing

All tracks written by Joe Strummer and Mick Jones, except where noted.
On the original version of the album, Train in Vain
was not listed on the sleeve, nor the label on the
record itself, but an extraneous sticker indicating the
track was axed to the outer cellophane wrapper. It
was also scratched into the vinyl in the run-o area
on the fourth side of the album. Later editions included the song in the track listing.

7.5.8

Personnel

The Clash
Joe Strummer lead and backing vocals, rhythm
guitar, piano
Mick Jones lead guitar, piano, harmonica, backing
and lead vocals
Paul Simonon bass guitar, backing vocals, lead vocals on The Guns of Brixton
Topper Headon drums, percussion
Additional performers

Encyclopedia of Recorded

[2] Sinclair, Tom. The Best Album of All Time Archived


25 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Entertainment
Weekly. 24 September 2004. Retrieved 20 February
2008.
[3] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October
2004. p. 68.
[4] Spicer, Al (1999). Rock: 100 Essential CDs : The Rough
Guide. Rough Guides. p. 44. ISBN 1-85828-490-2.
[5] Green 2003, p. 218.
[6] Back, Johnny. The Greatest Songs Ever! Train in Vain
(Stand by Me)"". Blender. April/May 2002. Retrieved
18 February 2008. Archived 21 February 2009 at the
Wayback Machine.
[7] Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. 8| London
Calling The Clash. Rolling Stones 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN
1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. Retrieved 18 June
2005.
[8] UK Chart Archive Archived 17 April 2016 at the
Wayback Machine.. everyHit.co.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
[9] RIAA Searchable Database Archived 26 June 2007 at
the Wayback Machine.. Recording Industry Association
of America. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
[10] Gilbert 2005, pp. 212213.
[11] Green 2003, p. 156.

162

[12] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October


2004. p. 58.
[13] Gray, Marcus (2010). Route 19 Revisited: The Clash and
London Calling. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-59376-391-3.

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[34] Back, Johnny. The Greatest Songs Ever! Train in Vain


(Stand by Me)"". Blender. April/May 2002. Retrieved
18 February 2008. Archived 21 February 2009 at the
Wayback Machine.

[14] Barber, Chris; Sargeant, Jack (2006). No Focus. Headpress. p. 41. ISBN 1-900486-59-8.

[35] Exhibit and Information Guide. p. 5. Retrieved 17 May


2009. Archived 17 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

[15] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. The Clash. AllMusic. Retrieved 9 July 2013.

[36] Green 2003, pp. 195196.

[16] Gilbert 2005, p. 235.

[37] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October


2004. p. 70.

[17] Michie, Chris (1 November 2000). Classic Tracks: The


Clashs 'London Calling'". Mix. Retrieved 18 January
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[18] Kidel, Mark (1980). Explorations of Heartache. New
Statesman. 99. London. p. 225.

[38] Godwin, Richard (15 June 2010). London Calling


again. London Evening Standard. Retrieved 16 June
2010. Lowry: Actually, I had no idea it was out of focus.
Half-blind at the best of times and half-pissed at the time,
that simply had to be the one.

[19] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. London Calling The


Clash. AllMusic. Retrieved 7 April 2016.

[39] Judd, Terri. One hundred timeless rock'n'roll moments,


and the photographers who .... The Independent. 24 January 2002. Retrieved 17 February 2008.

[20] Kot, Greg (13 February 2000). Rebel Recall. Chicago


Tribune. Retrieved 9 July 2013.

[40] Green 2003, p. 194.

[21] Taylor, Steve (2006). The A to X of Alternative Music.


Continuum. p. 67. ISBN 0-8264-8217-1.
[22] Cioi, Sal (10 March 2004). The Clash: London Calling
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[23] Carson, Tom (3 April 1980). The Clash London Calling > Album Review. Rolling Stone (314). Retrieved 22
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[24] The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: The Clash London Calling Archived 9 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Rolling Stone. 9 December 2004. Retrieved 18
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[25] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October
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[26] Gilbert 2005, p. 237.
[27] Guarisco, Donald A. Rudie Can't Fail Review.
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[41] Tryangiel, Josh. The All-TIME 100 Albums: London


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[42] O'Connor, Mickey. Londons Q magazine picked these;
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[46] Discography The Clash.
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SwedishCharts.com.

Re-

[28] London Calling: 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition. The


Last Testament The Making of London Calling. Information about the recording of London Calling. Retrieved
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[47] Discography The Clash Archived 3 March 2016 at the


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[29] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October


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[48] The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums.
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[30] Guarisco, Donald A. Clampdown Review. AllMusic.


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[49] Sweeting, Adam. Death or Glory. Uncut. October


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[31] Gilbert 2005, p. 259.

[50] The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles.
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[32] Spicer, Al (1999). Rock: 100 Essential CDs : The Rough


Guide. Rough Guides. p. 44. ISBN 1-85828-490-2.
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Anniversary Legacy Edition (CD liner notes). September
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163

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136. February 2002.

[55] Goldberg, Michael (1980). The Clash. Down Beat.


Chicago. 47: 4, 3235.

[74] Larkin, Colin (1994). Guinness Book of Top 1000 Albums


(1 ed.). Gullane Childrens Books. p. 234. ISBN 978-085112-786-6.

[56] Larkin, Colin (2011). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th


ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-857-12595-8.
[57] Review: London Calling. Q. London: 1523. December 1999.
[58] Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. (2004). The
Clash. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. London:
Fireside. pp. 167168. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Retrieved
21 September 2011. Portions posted at The Clash >
Album Guide. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 September
2011.
[59] Clash Reissues. Select. London (114): 88. December
1999.
[60] Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig, eds. (1995). The Clash.
Spin Alternative Record Guide. New York: Vintage
Books. ISBN 0-679-75574-8.

[73] Top 50 Punk Albums. Mojo: 76. March 2003.

[75] The Greatest Albums of The '70s.


September 1993.

NME: 18.

11

[76] Top 100 Albums of the 1970s. Pitchfork Media. 23


June 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
[77] Petrusich, Amanda (21 September 2004). The Clash
London Calling: 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition > Review. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 3 April 2006.
[78] Sinclair, Tom (24 September 2004). The Best Album of
All Time. Entertainment Weekly.
[79] Grammy Hall of Fame Award Archived 7 July 2015 at
the Wayback Machine.. National Academy of Recording
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
[80] Lowe, Zane (2 December 2009). Masterpieces. BBC
1. Retrieved 3 December 2009.

[61] Strong, Martin Charles (2006). The Essential Rock


Discography. Canongate U.S. p. 206. ISBN 1-84195860-3.

[81] Clash album London Calling to spawn rock biopic. Entertainment & Arts. BBC News. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.

[62] Rockwell, John (4 January 1980). The Pop Life; 'London


Calling' helps the Clash live up to billing. The New York
Times. p. C12. Retrieved 4 June 2014. (subscription
required)

[82] Mick Jones and Paul Simonon working on Clash 'London


Calling' lm. NME. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 14
February 2011.

[63] The 1980 Pazz & Jop Critics Poll. The Village Voice. 9
February 1981. Retrieved 21 March 2005.
[64] Christgau, Robert (9 February 1981). The Year of the
Lollapalooza. The Village Voice. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
[65] Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. Hal Leonard
Corporation. p. 271. ISBN 0-87930-607-6.
[66] Review: London Calling [25th Anniversary Legacy Edition]". Uncut. London: 122. October 2004.
[67] Joe Strummer Of The Clash Dead At 50. MTV News.
23 December 2002. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
[68] The Clash. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved 10 September
2015.
[69] Hilburn, Robert (17 May 1987). 10 Years Later A
Critics List of the Best Albums of the Decade. Los Angeles Times. p. 56. Retrieved 10 July 2013. (subscription
required)

[83] Discographie The Clash. AustrianCharts.at. Retrieved


17 February 2008.
[84] Top Albums/CDs Volume 33, No. 8, May 17, 1980.
RPM. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
[85] Discography The Clash. Charts.org.NZ. Retrieved 28
July 2012.
[86] Discography The Clash. Irish-Charts.com. Retrieved
28 July 2012.
[87] Discography The Clash. SwissCharts.com. Retrieved
17 February 2008.
[88] The Clash London Calling. SpanishCharts.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
[89] London Calling at AllMusic
[90] Ocjalna lista sprzeday. OLiS. 24 September 2012.
Retrieved 21 September 2012.
[91] Canadian album certications The Clash London
Calling. Music Canada. 1 July 1980.

164

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

[92] Italian album certications The Clash London Calling (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana.
Retrieved 9 March 2014. Select Album e Compilation in
the eld Sezione. Enter The Clash in the eld Filtra. The
certication will load automatically
[93] British album certications The Clash London Calling. British Phonographic Industry. 31 December 1979.
Enter London Calling in the eld Keywords. Select Title
in the eld Search by. Select album in the eld By Format.
Select Platinum in the eld By Award. Click Search
[94] Jones, Alan (7 August 2015). Ocial Charts Analysis:
The Maccabeess Marks To Prove It takes No.1 albums
slot. Music Week.
[95] American album certications The Clash London
Calling. Recording Industry Association of America. 14
February 1996. If necessary, click Advanced, then click
Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH

Miles, Barry (1981). The Clash. London and


New York: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-0288-7.
OCLC 7676911.
Needs, Kris (25 January 2005). Joe Strummer and
the Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 085965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
Quantick, David (2000). The Clash. Kill Your
Idols. London: Unanimous. ISBN 1-903318-03-3.
OCLC 59417418.
Tobler, John & Barry Miles (1983). The Clash.
London and New York: Omnibus. ISBN 0-71190288-7. OCLC 21335564.
Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

Works cited

7.5.13 External links


Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion:
The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London:
Aurum Press. pp. 212213, 235237, 259260.
ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC 61177239.
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
ed.). London: Orion. pp. 156158, 161162, 165,
194196, 218219. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
52990890.

7.5.12

Further reading

The Clash ocial website


London Calling By The Clash Mix Magazine,
2000 Very detailed article with recording setup
details from the albums engineer, Bill Price.

7.6 ''Sandinista!''
This article is about the album by The Clash. For information about the political organisation, see Sandinista
National Liberation Front.

Clash, The (2008). The Clash: Strummer, Jones, Simonon, Headon. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN Sandinista! is the fourth studio album by the En1-84354-788-0. OCLC 236120343.
glish band the Clash. It was released on 12 December 1980 as a triple album containing 36 tracks, with 6
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return
songs on each side.[1][2] Anticipating the "world music"
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lontrend of the 1980s, it features funk, reggae, jazz, gospel,
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC
rockabilly, folk, dub, rhythm and blues, calypso, disco,
60668626.
and rap.[1][2][3] For the rst time, the bands traditional
Gray, Marcus (2010). Route 19 Revisited: The Clash songwriting credits of Strummer and Jones were replaced
[2]
and London Calling. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1- by a generic credit to the Clash, and the band cut the
album royalties, in order to release the 3-LP at a low
59376-293-3.
price.[4][5]
Letts, Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Si- The title refers to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, and its
monon, Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick El- catalogue number, 'FSLN1', refers to the abbreviation
good, The Clash (2001). The Clash, Westway to the of the partys Spanish name, Frente Sandinista de LibWorld (Documentary). New York, NY: Sony Music eracin Nacional.[3][4][6]
Entertainment; Dorismo; Uptown Films. Event occurs at 49:3055:00. ISBN 0-7389-0082-6. OCLC Sandinista! was voted best album of the year in the Pazz
& Jop critics poll in The Village Voice, and was ranked
49798077.
number 404 on the Rolling Stone list of "The 500 Greatest
Lowry, Ray (2007). The Clash. Warwick: An- Albums of All Time" in 2003.[3] Slant Magazine listed the
ISBN 1-906283-36-2.
OCLC album at number 85 on its Best Albums of the 1980s
gry Penguin.
165412921.
list in 2012.[7]

7.6. ''SANDINISTA!''

7.6.1

Background and recording

The album was recorded over most of 1980, in London,


Manchester, Jamaica and New York. It was produced by
the band (which essentially meant Mick Jones and Joe
Strummer), recorded and mixed by Bill Price, and engineered by Jeremy Jerry Green (Wessex Sound Studios), J. P. Nicholson (Electric Lady Studios), Lancelot
Maxie McKenzie (Channel One Studios), and Bill Price
(Pluto + Power Station Studios). Dub versions of some
of the songs and toasting was done by Mikey Dread,
who had rst worked with the band for their 1980 single "Bankrobber". With Sandinista! the band reached
beyond punk and reggae into dub, rhythm and blues,
calypso, gospel and other genres.[3] The album clearly displays the inuence of reggae and producer Lee Scratch
Perry (who had worked with the band on their 1977 single "Complete Control" and who had opened some of the
bands shows during its stand at Bonds in New York in
1980), with a dense, echo-lled sound on even the straight
rock songs.[1][2]

165
The triple-LP set was, like London Calling, a subject of
trickery towards the record company from the band. Two
contradictory accounts of the release of the album exist.
Some say that the Clash pulled the same trick a second
time by saying they wanted to include a 12 single with
their double album, and then getting 3 full-length discs
pressed before executives became wise. Another belief
is that the Clash surrendered all of their album royalties
for the rst 200,000 copies sold in order to make the 3-LP
set a reality. Joe Strummer said in an interview by Judy
McGuire for Punk Magazine: Well, now you're talking
to a man who forwent the royalties on Sandinista!"[9] Regardless of which of these is true, either situation paints
the band in a good light, putting their fans before and
above any other involved entity.[2][4][5]

A one-LP distillation of the album, called Sandinista


Now!, was sent to press and radio. The side one track
listing was Police on My Back, Somebody Got Murdered, The Call Up, Washington Bullets, Ivan
Meets G.I. Joe and Hitsville U.K.. The side two track
listing was Up in Heaven (Not Only Here)", The MagWhen recording began in New York bass guitarist Paul nicent Seven, The Leader, Junco Partner, One
Simonon was busy making a lm called Ladies and Gen- More Time and The Sound of Sinners.[2][5]
tlemen, The Fabulous Stains, and he was replaced briey The song "Washington Bullets" was lyricist Joe Strumby Ian Dury and the Blockheads bassist Norman Watt- mer's most extensiveand most specicpolitical stateRoy; this later caused some bad feeling when Watt-Roy ment to date. In it, Strummer name checks conicts or
and keyboard player Mickey Gallagher, a fellow Block- controversies from around the world; namely in Chile,
head, claimed they were responsible for co-composing Nicaragua, Cuba, Afghanistan and Tibet. (In reference to
the song "The Magnicent Seven", as the song was based the rst three, Strummer seems to side with what he sees
on a tune of theirs. Dread, too, was upset that he was not as popular leftist movements or governments, while in the
credited as the albums producer, although he was cred- latter two, he sharply criticises the policy of Moscows
ited with Version Mix. Other guests on the album in- and Beijings communist governments for what he sees
clude singer Ellen Foley (Jones partner at the time), gui- as their imperialist actions). The original Rolling Stone
tarist Ivan Julian formerly of the Voidoids, former Eddie review of Sandinista! calls Washington Bullets, along
and the Hot Rods member Lew Lewis, and Strummers with The Equaliser and The Call Up, the heart of the
old friend and musical collaborator Tymon Dogg, who album.[5][10]
plays violin, sings on and wrote the track Lose This
Skin"; he later joined Strummers band the Mescaleros. The original, 3-disc vinyl release of Sandinista! included
Gallaghers children also made appearances: his two sons, a tri-fold lyric sheet cleverly titled The Armagideon
Luke and Ben, singing a version of Career Opportuni- Times, no. 3 (a play on Armagideon Time, the b-side
ties from the bands rst album, and his daughter Maria from the single London Calling.) Armagideon Times, nos.
singing a snippet of The Guns of Brixton, from London 1 and 2 were Clash fanzines. The lyric sheet featured cartoons credited to Steve Bell, as well as hand-written (but
Calling, at the end of the track Broadway.[1][2][8]
still legible) lyrics of all the original songs. The 2-CD reThis is also the only Clash album on which all four mem- lease contains a facsimile of the lyric sheet considerably
bers have a lead vocal. Drummer Topper Headon made reduced in size.[1][2]
a unique lead vocal contribution on the disco song Ivan
Meets G.I. Joe, and bassist Paul Simonon sings lead on Joe Strummer once told Rolling Stone magazine that the
concept for a triple-LP (a rarity in the rock music world)
The Crooked Beat.[2]
came from friendly competition with American artist
Bruce Springsteen. When their earlier LP London Calling was released in 1980, critics said that Springsteens
7.6.2 Releases
upcoming double-disc album The River would outsell the
Clash eort and wipe away any impact. Strummers reFour singles were released from the Sandinista! sessions
sponse was: Right Bruce. Suck on this!" The band then
in the UK: "Bankrobber" (which did not appear on the
expanded Sandinista! into a triple album.[4][5]
album), The Call Up, Hitsville UK, and The Magnicent Seven.
Police On My Back was also released for promotion.

166

7.6.3

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

Reception

John Piccarella, in a review for Rolling Stone headlined


The Clash Drop The Big One, argued that in eect,
the band said to hell with Clash style, theres a world
out there.[5][21] Some critics have argued that the album
would have worked better as a less-ambitious, smaller
project, while Piccarella (in his Rolling Stone review) and
others think of the album as a breakthrough that deserves comparison to the Beatles' White Album.[4] Robert
Christgau wrote in The Village Voice, if this is their
worstwhich it is, I thinkthey must be, er, the worlds
greatest rock and roll band.[20]
The triple album won several best of the year critics
polls in 1981. It was voted the best album of the year in
The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics poll. Dave Marsh
noted that it was a record whose topic was as many years
ahead of its time as its sound.[22] Alternative Press magazine included Sandinista! on its 2000 list of the 10 Essential Political-Revolution Albums[23] In 2003, the album was ranked number 404 on Rolling Stone magazines
list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.[3] The College
Media Journal ranked Sandinista! number two on its list
of the Top 20 Most-Played Albums of 1981.[24]
The Sandinista! Project, a tribute to the album featuring the Smithereens, Camper Van Beethoven, Jon Langford (Mekons) and Sally Timms, Amy Rigby, Katrina
Leskanich (of Katrina and the Waves), Wreckless Eric,
Willie Nile, Matthew Ryan, Stew, Mark Cutler, Sex
Clark Five, Sid Grin & Coal Porters, Haale, the Blizzard of 78 featuring Mikey Dread, Ruby on the Vine,
and many others, was released on 15 May 2007, on the
00:02:59 Records (a label named after a lyric from the
Sandinista! song Hitsville U.K.). The album also features a collaboration by Soul Food and Mickey Gallagher
on Midnight Log.[25][26][27]

Additional musicians
Tymon Dogg (credited as 'Timon Dogg') - vocals
& violin on Lose This Skin, violin on Lightning
Strikes (Not Once but Twice)", Something About
England, Mensforth Hill and The Equaliser,
keyboard on Sound of the Sinners
Mickey Gallagher (Blockheads) - keyboards
Norman Watt-Roy (Blockheads) - bass
J.P. Nicholson (also one of the albums engineers)
Ellen Foley - co-lead vocal on Hitsville U.K.
Davey Payne (Blockheads) - saxophone
Rick Gascoigne - trombone
Band Sgt. Dave Yates
Den Hegarty (Darts) - vocals
Luke & Ben Gallagher - vocals on Career Opportunities
Maria Gallagher - coda vocals on Broadway
Gary Barnacle - saxophone
Arthur Edward Bill Barnacle (Garys father) trumpet
Jody Linscott - percussion
Ivan Julian (Voidoids) - guitar
Noel Tempo Bailey (aka Sowell,
artist/session man) - guitar

reggae

Anthony Nelson Steelie (Wyclie Johnson of Steely


and Clevie)
Lew Lewis (Eddie and the Hot Rods) - harmonica

7.6.4

Track listing

The compact disc release has the rst three sides on the
rst CD and the latter three sides on the second CD.
All tracks written by the Clash, except where noted.

Gerald Baxter-Warman
Terry McQuade (had a small role in Rude Boy)
Rudolph Adolphus Jordan
Battersea

7.6.5

Personnel

Joe Strummer lead and backing vocals, guitar


Mick Jones guitar, backing and lead vocals
Paul Simonon bass guitar, backing vocals, lead vocals on The Crooked Beat
Topper Headon drums, lead vocals on Ivan Meets
G.I. Joe

Mikey Dread - vocals on The Crooked Beat


Production
The Clash producers
Bill Price chief engineer
Jerry Green engineer
J. P. Nicholson engineer
Lancelot Maxie McKenzie engineer

7.6. ''SANDINISTA!''
Mikey Dread version mix
Pennie Smith photography
Steve Bell cartoonist

7.6.6

Chart positions

167

[7] Best Albums of the 1980s. Slant Magazine. Retrieved


2012-08-13.
[8] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Sandinista! Review. AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
[9] McGuire, Judy.
Joe Strummer Interview.
punkmagazine.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-22

Album

[10] Peet, Preston (2001-07-09). wheres the clash when we


need them?". Disinformation. Retrieved 2008-02-19.

Singles

[11] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Sandinista! The Clash.


AllMusic. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

7.6.7

Certications

7.6.8

References

[1] Letts Don; Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon,


Topper Headon, Terry Chimes, Rick Elgood, the Clash
(2001). The Clash, Westway to the World (Documentary).
New York, NY: Sony Music Entertainment, Dorismo,
Uptown Films. Event occurs at 55:0063:00. ISBN 07389-0082-6. OCLC 49798077.
[2] Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. 8-13, Epilogue, Discography, Bibliography. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story
of the Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. pp. 321,
332, 362, 367, 373388. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC
61177239.
[3] Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. 404)
Sandinista
http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/
6626684/404_sandinista". Rolling Stones 500 Greatest
Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround.
ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. External link
in |chapter= (help)
Related news articles:

[12] The Clash: Sandinista!". Alternative Press. Cleveland


(140): 7475. March 2000.
[13] Wolk, Douglas (21 August 2007). The Clash: Sandinista!". Blender. New York. Archived from the original on
2 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
[14] Larkin, Colin (2011). Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th
ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-857-12595-8.
[15] The Clash: Sandinista!". Q. London (159): 15253. December 1999.
[16] Piccarella, John (5 March 1981). Sandinista!". Rolling
Stone. New York. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
[17] Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. (2004). The
New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. pp.
16768. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
[18] Clash Reissues. Select. London (114): 88. December
1999.
[19] Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig, eds. (1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN
0-679-75574-8.

The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.


Rolling Stone. San Francisco, California: Straight
Arrow (Special Collectors Issue). 11 December
2003. ISSN 0035-791X. OCLC 1787396.

[20] Christgau, Robert (2 March 1981). Christgaus Consumer Guide. The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved
10 September 2015.

The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Special Collectors Issue. Rolling Stone. 2003-11-18.
Retrieved 2008-01-08.

[21] Piccarella, John (5 March 1981). Red-Hot Rock and


Roll, A Joyful Noise and Politics That Live: The Clash
Drop the Big One. Rolling Stone: 5758.

404) Sandinista!". Special Collectors Issue. Rolling


Stone. 2003-11-01. Retrieved 2008-02-19.

[22] Dave, Marsh (1999) [1989]. The Heart of Rock and Soul:
The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made. New York, N.Y.:
Da Capo Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-306-80901-X. OCLC
40200194.

[4] Interviewer: Unknown; Presenter: Kurt Loder. MTV


Rockumentary.
London, England http://www.
londonsburning.org/art_mtv_rockumentary_2.html.
MTV. line feed character in |location= at position 16
(help); Missing or empty |series= (help)
Related news articles:
MTV Rockumentary Part 2. londonsburning.org.
Retrieved 2008-02-20.

[23] 10 Essential Political-Revolution Albums. Alternative


Press: 144. November 2000.
[24] Top 20 Most-Played Albums of 1981. College Media
Journal: 8. 5 January 2004.

[5] Deeth, John. Turning Rebellion Into Money: The Story


of the Clash. jdeeth.home.mchsi.com. Archived from
the original on 24 January 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-18.

[25] Clash, The; Joe Grushecky; Katrina Leskanich; Willie


Nile; Ship & Pilot.; Soul Food (Musical group); Sunset
Heroes (2004-09-21). The Sandinista! Project A Tribute
to the Clash (Compact Disc). England: 00:02:59 Records.
OCLC 178980813.

[6] Jaee, Larry. The Politics of Rock. Popular Music and


Society, Winter 1987, pp. 1930.

[26] The Sandinista Project. sandinista.guterman.com. Retrieved 2008-02-20.

168

CHAPTER 7. ALBUMS

[27] Cary Bakers conqueroo - The Sandinista! Project Announcements. conqueroo.com. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
[28] "Charts.org.nz The Clash Sandinista!". Hung Medien.

Song Histories: Junco Partner at Everyday Companion Online.


JAMES WEE WILLIE WAYNE biography at
Rockabilly.nl.

[29] Discography The Clash. NorwegianCharts.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008.


[30] Discography The Clash.
trieved 26 October 2008.

SwedishCharts.com.

Re-

[31] The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums.
Allmusic. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
[32] Top Albums/CDs - Volume 34, No. 15, March 21,
1981. RPM. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
[33] American album certications The Clash Sandinista!". Recording Industry Association of America. 199904-20. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format,
then select Album, then click SEARCH
[34] British album certications The Clash Sandinista!".
British Phonographic Industry. 2013-07-22. Enter Sandinista! in the eld Keywords. Select Title in the eld
Search by. Select album in the eld By Format. Select
Gold in the eld By Award. Click Search

7.6.9

Further reading

7.7 ''Combat Rock''


For the Doctor Who novel, see Combat Rock (novel).
For the song by Sleater-Kinney, see One Beat.
Combat Rock is the fth studio album by the English
rock band The Clash.[2] It was released on 14 May 1982
through CBS Records. In the United Kingdom, the album
charted at number 2, spending 23 weeks in the UK charts
and peaked at number 7 in the United States, spending 61
weeks on the chart.
Combat Rock is the groups best-selling album, being certied double platinum in the United States. It contained
two of The Clashs most popular songs, the singles "Rock
the Casbah" and "Should I Stay or Should I Go". Combat Rock was the last Clash album featuring the classic
lineup; Topper Headon left the band after completing the
album and Mick Jones left in 1983.[3][4]

Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC 7.7.1 Background
61177239.
Following the triple-album Sandinista!
(1980),
Gray, Marcus (2005) [1995]. The Clash: Return singer/guitarist Joe Strummer felt the group was
of the Last Gang in Town (5th revised ed.). Lon- drifting creatively.[5] Bassist Paul Simonon agreed
don: Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-905139-10-1. OCLC with Strummers dissatisfaction towards the boring
60668626.
professionalism of The Clashs then-managers Blackhill
Enterprises.[5][6] Strummer and Simonon convinced
Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot
their bandmates to reinstate the bands original manager
of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd
Bernie Rhodes in February 1981, in an attempt to restore
ed.). London: Orion. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC
the chaos and anarchic energy of The Clashs early
52990890.
days.[6] This decision was not welcomed by guitarist
Gruen, Bob; Chris Salewicz (2004) [2001]. The Mick Jones, who was becoming progressively estranged
[7]
Clash (3rd ed.). London: Omnibus. ISBN 1- from his bandmates.
903399-34-3. OCLC 69241279.
During this period, drummer Topper Headon escalated
Needs, Kris (2005-01-25). Joe Strummer and the his intake of heroin and cocaine. His occasional drug uscosting him 100
Legend of the Clash. London: Plexus. ISBN 0- age had now become a habit that was
[8]
This drug addicper
day
and
undermining
his
health.
85965-348-X. OCLC 53155325.
tion would be the factor that would later inspire his band Topping, Keith (2004) [2003]. The Complete Clash mates to re him from The Clash, following the release
(2nd ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN of Combat Rock.
1-903111-70-6. OCLC 63129186.

7.6.10

External links

7.7.2 Recording

The album had the working title Rat Patrol from Fort
Bragg during the recording and mixing stages.[9] After
Scholtes, Peter S. (21 July 2006). Complicated early recording sessions in London, the group relocated
Dread: the Mikey Dread interview. Complicated to New York for recording sessions at Electric Lady StuFun. City Pages.
dios in November and December 1981.[10] Electric Lady
Sandinista! at the Clash ocial website.

7.7. ''COMBAT ROCK''

169

Studio was where the band had recorded its previous al- 7.7.4 Music and lyrics
bum Sandinista! in 1980.[11]
Rock is the impact and afterWhile recording the album in New York, Mick Jones A recurring motif of Combat
[20]
math
of
the
Vietnam
War.
"Straight to Hell" describes
[11]
lived with his then-girlfriend Ellen Foley.
Joe Strumthe
children
fathered
by
American
soldiers to Vietnamese
mer, Paul Simonon and Topper Headon stayed at the
[21]
mothers
and
then
abandoned,
Sean
Flynn describes
Iroquois Hotel on West 44th Street, a building famed for
the
photojournalist
son
of
actor
Errol
Flynn
who disapbeing the home of actor James Dean for two years during
[20]
peared
in
1970
while
covering
the
war.
[11][12]
the early 1950s.
After nishing the New York recording sessions in December 1981, the band returned to London for most of
January 1982. Between January and March, The Clash
embarked on a six-week tour of Japan, Australia, New
Zealand, Hong Kong and Thailand.[9] During this tour,
the albums cover photograph was shot by Pennie Smith
in Thailand in March 1982.[5]

7.7.3

Mixing and editing

Biographer Pat Gilbert describes many songs from Combat Rock as having a trippy, foreboding feel, saturated in a colonial melancholia and sadness reecting
the Vietnam War.[22] The band was hugely inspired by
Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 lm about the Vietnam
War, Apocalypse Now, and had previously released the
song Charlie Don't Surf on Sandinista!, which referenced the lm.[20]
Other Combat Rock songs, if not directly about the Vietnam War and U.S. foreign policy, depict American society in moral decline.[20] Red Angel Dragnet was inspired by the January 1982 shooting death of Frank
Melvin, a New York member of the Guardian Angels.[22][23][24] The song quotes Martin Scorsese's 1976
movie Taxi Driver, with Clash associate Kosmo Vinyl
recording several lines of dialogue imitating the voice of
main character Travis Bickle. Bickle sports a mohawk in
the later part Taxi Driver, this was a hairstyle adopted by
Joe Strummer during the Combat Rock concert tour.[25]

Following the Far East tour, The Clash returned to London in March 1982 to listen to the music that they had
recorded in New York three months earlier.[13] They had
recorded 18 songs, enough material to possibly release as
double-album.[13] Having previously released the doubleLP London Calling (1979) and the triple-LP Sandinista!
The song, Ghetto Defendant, featu