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Population Dynamics


Plate Tectonics

Landforms and Landscape Processes

Weather, Climate & Natural Vegetation

15 Inter-relationships between natural environment and

human activities


Agricultural Systems

Industrial Systems

Leisure Activities and Tourism
June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia

Energy and Water Resources

19 Environmental Risks & Benefits:

Resource Conservation & Management

Copyright 2015, 2014 by Z Notes

First edition 2014, by Zubair Junjunia for the 2014 syllabus
Second edition 2015, updated by Saif Asmi for the 2016 syllabus

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia


Poor health care/few hospitals/doctors/nurses/clinics
REASONS FOR POPULATION EXPLOSION Poor sanitation/poor hygiene/lack of toilets/dirty places
Improved medical care vaccinations, hospitals, doctors, new drugs Poor access to safe/clean water/water borne diseases
and scientific inventions Limited food supplies/malnutrition/starvation
Improved sanitation and water supply HIV/AIDS
Improvements in food production (quality & quantity) Natural disasters/drought/flood
Improved transport moving food, doctors etc. Lack of vaccinations/medicines/cannot cure diseases
Decrease in child mortality Lack of education about healthy lifestyles e.g. smoking/diet
MAIN COMPONENTS INFLUENCING POPULATION GROWTH Lack of provision for elderly e.g. pensions/old peoples homes
Migration: movement of people (or animals) from one country or LOW BIRTH RATES IN MEDCS
region to another Availability of contraception/family planning/abortions
Birth rate: average number of live births in a year for every 1000 Educated in contraception/family planning
people Able to afford contraception/family planning/abortions
Death rate: average number of deaths for every 1000 people Traditionally small families
Fertility rate: The average number of children a female is expected to Expense of bringing up children
have in their lifetime.
Many women have careers/women are educated;
RESOURCES Low infant mortality rate
Population growth is related to the amount of resources available for Lack of religious beliefs/dont object to contraception
example water, wood and minerals PROBLEMS OF
Carrying Capacity: number of people the environment can support Overpopulation Underpopulation
without there being negative effects to the population. Unemployment Shortage of workers
Optimum Population: amount of people that a region/country can Shortage of hospitals/schools Less paying taxes
ecologically support, usually less than carrying capacity. Shortage of housing Schools, hospitals & transport
Under-population: when country has declined too much that it cant Congestion routes close; few customers
support its economic system. Inflation (excess demand) Less innovation/development
Overpopulation: too much population of an area: overcrowding, Shortage of water & electricity Hard to defend
depletion of resources. Nosie, air & water pollution Have to attract migrants
Population Density: number of people living in a given area (km2)
Population Distribution: how a population is spread out around a
country or an area
o HIV-1 arose in Central Africa
o HIV-2 arose in West Africa
HIV mostly occurs in women. When women give birth, they infect the
child as well resulting in low death rate for infants.
Death rate of mothers results in a higher orphan generation. (Year
2000 600 000 orphans). Due to the countries being poor, there is a
lack in state welfare, resulting in poverty and lack of education.
Population Pyramid: a type of graph that shows the age and sex
structure of the country.

= 100


Causes of Sparse Population Causes of Dense Population
Stage 1: high birth rate; high death rates; short life expectancy; less Mountainous area Coastal areas
dependency (since there are few old people and children have to Very hot or very cold area Flat relief; easy to build on
work anyway) A heavily forested area Close to a supply of water
Stage 2: high birth rate; fall in death rate; slightly longer life Areas that flood a lot No jobs Areas with natural resources
expectancy; more dependency as there are more elderly Poor supply of electricity, gas Fertile agricultural land
Stage 3: declining birth rate; declining death rate; longer life and water Developed transport links
expectancy; more dependency Poor communications Plenty of available jobs
Stage 4: low birth rate; low death rate; highest dependency ratio; Shortage of natural resources Available electricity and water
longest life expectancy No schools or hospitals Good communications
Regular natural disasters Good quality schools/hospitals
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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Migration: movement of people from one area to another Site: describes the physical nature of where a settlement is
Causes of Voluntary Migration Causes of Forced Migration located the actual piece of land
Find a job, or a better paid job Avoid religious/political Situation: describes settlement in relation to other settlements
Pioneers developing new areas persecution and physical features around it this determines whether or not
Trade & economic expansion Avoid war the situation will grow into a large city or remain a small town or
Territorial expansion Slavery/prisoner of war village
Better climate Racial discrimination PHYSICAL FACTORS
Social amenities Famine Wet point sites: these have a good water supply
Be with friends/family Natural disasters Dry point sites: these are away from the risk of flooding
Overpopulation Building materials: availability of things like stone, wood, clay etc.
Internal migration is within a country e.g. rural/urban, regional Defensive sites: within a river meander or on a hill with steep
External or international is between countries e.g. Negro slaves to sided and commanding views
America (forced) or Mexicans into the US (voluntary) Fuel supply: for heating and cooking
Emigrant: A person who leaves a country to migrate to another. Food supplies: land suitable for rearing animals and growing crops
Immigrant: A migrant arriving in a new country. Nodal points: where routes converge
Advantages Disadvantages Bridging point: may originally have been at a ford in the river or
Losing Country where river was shallow enough to build a bridge
Reduces pressure on Loss of people in working age Aspect: settlements often found on sunny side of a deep valley
resources Loss of educated/skilled Shelter: from cold prevailing winds and rain.
Decline in birth rate people
Migrants bring back new skills Division of families FUNCTIONS
Money is sent back Left with elderly population Rural Areas: tend to have a lot less functions than urban areas.
Gaining Country The main purpose of settlements in rural areas is normally
Overcomes labor shortage Pressure on jobs agriculture and possibly tourism. This is because rural areas have
Dirty unskilled jobs done Low quality & overcrowded less people, poorer transport, poorer communication, less
Will work long hours for low housing technology and the land is better used for other purposes.
salary Racism Urban Areas: tend to have a lot more functions ranging from
Cultural advantages and links Language problems shopping functions, to educational functions, to transport
functions, to administrative functions and residential functions.
Less healthy
The bigger the urban area, the more functions that it normally
Less religious amenities for
Urban Sprawl: The spread or growth of an urban area into the
REFUGEES AND IDPS rural-urban fringe
Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their home and HIERARCHY
their country. This might be because of a natural disaster, war,
religious or political persecution.
Persecution: When someone is attacked for what they believe in
e.g. their religion or political belief.
Internally displaced person (IDP): When someone has been
forced to leave their home but not their country.
Asylum Seekers: Someone who is trying to get refuge (residency)
in a foreign country because their life is in danger in their home
country, usually because of their political or religious beliefs.


Determining order of importance:

o The population size
o The range and number of services
o The sphere of influence
An isolated, building Buildings are strung Buildings are Sphere of Influence: The distance or area people travel from to
or a group of two or along a line of grouped together, access a service.
three buildings, communication, for initially for defense, Services: Facilities that are offered to people e.g. supermarket.
separated from the example a main or a common Services have a threshold population, which helps explain why
next by 2 or 3 km. road, a river valley, resource. bigger settlements have more services.
or canal Range: This usually refers to the number of different services e.g.
a school, a post office, etc.

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Threshold Population: The minimum amount of people required URBAN PATTERNS IN LEDCS
for a service to be offered and remain open. Model of a typical LEDC city:
High Order Goods (Comparison): Goods that people buy less
frequently. They tend to be more expensive and people will
normally compare quality and price before purchasing e.g. a car
Low Order Goods (Convenience): Goods that people buy every
day. They don't usually cost much money and people would not
normally travel far to buy them e.g. bread and milk.
The CBD:
o Centre point of the city and has highest land prices
o Most accessible point in the city
o High-rise buildings and skyscrapers
Functions: retail, entertainment, financial services and other
professional services Both MEDC and LEDC cities have a CBD - often oldest part of city.
Land uses: In LEDCs, poorest housing is found on the edge of the city, in
o Leisure and recreation - may include open land contrast to MEDC cities
o Residential - High/multi-storey buildings. Areas of poor quality housing found on the edge of cities in LEDCs
o Transport - road and rail networks, stations and airports are called squatter settlements or shanty towns
o Business and commerce - offices, shops and banks Favelas: illegal settlements created due to massive influx of people
o Industry - factories, warehouses and small production centers migrating into urban areas
The CBD is located in the center because it is: LAND USE MODELS
o A central location for road/railways to converge
Burgess (concentric) Hoyt (sector)
o The most accessible location for workers
o Accessible to most people for shops and businesses
Problems that CDB face: congestion, pollution and lack of space
Old inner city area (a.k.a. twilight zone):
o Typically found next to CBD
o Has mainly terraced houses in a grid like pattern.
o Originally built to house factory workers who worked in inner
city factories (now closed down).
Suburbia: Based on idea that land values Based on circles in Burgess
o Urban sprawl and owning cars led to construction of well- are highest in the center model, but adds sectors of
planned and spacious houses. Because competition is high in similar land uses in parts of the
o Usually larger than inner city terraces and most have a garden. central parts of the settlement city.
o Typically, detached or semidetached Limitations Some zones, e.g. industry zone,
o Roads are arranged in cul-de-sacs (dead-end) and wide o Model quite old & radiate out from the CBD,
avenues. developed before mass car probably following the line of a
o Land prices cheaper than in CBD and inner city, although ownership. main road or a railway.
demand can make some areas expensive. o New working/housing trend
Outer city estate: o Every city is different
o Located on the fringes of cities with varied types of housing PROBLEMS OF URBAN GROWTH
o people relocated here when inner city was being redeveloped
For People For Environment
The rural urban fringe:
Overcrowded Loss of vegetation
o This is found at the edge of a town or city
Unable to obtain jobs/low pay Loss of habitats
o Mixture of land uses e.g. housing, golf courses, allotments,
Pressure on schools/hospitals Impacts on food chains
business parks and airports.
Increased crime rates Pollution of rivers
INDUSTRIAL AREAS Difficulties of waste/litter Death of fish/other species
Factories were built: Traffic congestion Pollution of ground water
o As close as possible to the CBD but with enough space Noise pollution Air/atmospheric pollution
o Next to canals and railways to transport materials, Lack of sanitation Rivers dry up
o Next to rivers for cooling, power source or waste disposal Poor quality of life
o Next to land where lots of workers could live. Food shortage
Villages - low order services, services in towns will be higher order
Why people want keep old
Mainly/entirely convenience goods, whilst towns will offer Reasons for it houses and improve them
Older properties fallen into Older houses retain culture
Examples of village services (e.g. post office, church/mosque) disrepair/high cost of repair; Old houses often large/well
Services which require small threshold population; Use land more intensively; constructed;
Services which have small sphere of influence demand for apartments People cant afford to move;

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Building of houses with better Community spirit; Constructive: occur
amenities/or examples; Cheaper option for authority; when two plates
New road developments; To restrict outward expansion move away from
New leisure/shopping centres; each other.
Example: North
Greenbelts: area of land around urban areas that is protected from Eurasian Plate
development. Stops greenfield sites being built on and alternative
like brownfield sites being used.
Conservative: occur
Urban Wedges: urban growth allowed to take place in wedges when two plates
ensuring some green areas protected throughout city slide past each other.
Brownfield sited: increasing building on brownfield sites allows Example: North
less pressure to be put on rural areas American Plate and
Housing density: increasing housing density means less land will be the Pacific Plate
Destructive: occur
GREENFIELD SITES when oceanic plate is
Advantages Disadvantages subducted by a
Land never used not polluted Conflicts with other land users continental plate.
Often near rural-urban fringe Many sites are now protected Example: Pacific
so good transport links by the government Plate and the
Less congestion Public protests for building on Eurasian Plate
Room to expand greenfield site
Advantages Disadvantages
Often cheap to buy Site polluted expensive to DISTRIBUTION
Near the CBD clean up Plate boundary Volcanoes? Earthquakes? Fold mountains?
Closer to transport routes No room to expand Constructive Gentle Gentle No
May not be in desirable shape Destructive Violent Violent Yes
or location Collision None Violent Yes
Conservative None Violent No
TECTONIC PLATES o Encircle the whole of the Pacific Ocean
Oceanic crust: younger, heavier, can sink and is constantly being o Extend down entire length of the mid-Atlantic Ocean
destroyed and replaced o Stretch across southern Europe and Asia
Continental crust: older, lighter, cannot sink and is permanent Volcanoes:
Plate movement is caused by convection currents in the mantle o Encircle the whole of the Pacific Ocean
o Extend down the entire length of the mid-Atlantic Ocean
o Some in southern Europe, the Caribbean and east Africa
At a destructive plate margin, the oceanic plate is subducted whilst
the continental plate is crumpled upwards to form a mountain
At collision margins, both plates forced upwards in a series of folds
Two types of fold mountains
o Young: 10 to 15 million years of age e.g. Rockies and Himalayas
o Old: Over 200 million years of age e.g. Uralas and Appalachians
Created by uplift and folding of tectonic plates as they move
towards each other and collide
PLATE BOUNDARIES Movement of two plates forces sedimentary rocks upwards into a
Diagram Description
series of folds
Collision: occur when
two continental VOLCANOES
plates move towards A vent in the earth's surface where magma, gas or ash escapes
each other. onto the earth's surface or into the atmosphere.
Example: Indo- Causes:
Australian and the o At constructive margin: plates move away from each other;
Eurasian Plate magma rises to fill the gap;
o At destructive margin: oceanic crust melts from friction and
heat from mantle; newly formed magma is lighter so it rises to

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
A series of vibrations or movements in the earth's crust
Caused when two plates stick; pressure builds up; one plate jerks
forward sending shock waves to the surface
Features Effects
Focus: point of earthquake Large number of deaths
Epicenter: point directly above Fires breaking out
the focus, on the ground Water pipes burst
Seismic waves Water contamination,
Shaking ground diseases
Shock waves Subduction zone: occurs at Corpses: human & animal
destructive margin, one plate Accessibility difficult
goes under the other Building damaged/destroyed
Tsunami can follow
Volcanic plug: lava shoots up, falls down into the vent and solidifies Reconstruction costs
Explosive eruptions can produce mud flows called lahars Prediction Preparation
Active Volcano: A volcano that has erupted recently. Measure earth tremors, Build earthquake-proof
Dormant Volcano: A volcano that has not erupted in recent history pressure, and release of gas buildings and roads
but may erupt again in the future. Use maps and facts to find Train emergency services
Extinct Volcano: A volcano that is unlikely to ever erupt again, pattern in time/location Set up warning system
because no magma is being produced under it. Unusual animal behavior Create evacuation plan
Emergency food supply
Practice drills
Earthquake-Proof Buildings
Computer-controlled weights on roof to reduce movement
Fire-resistant building material
No bricks or reinforced concrete block
Gentle slopes, slow Steep slopes, violent Mix of cone and Rubber shock-absorbers between foundations and superstructure
flowing lava eruption shield, eruption Foundation sunk deep into bedrock avoiding clay
varies in strength, Roads to provide quick access by ambulances and fire engines
made of layers of ash Open areas where people can assemble if evacuated
and lava (unstable) Automatic shutters come down over the windows
Advantages Disadvantages Interlocking steel frames which can sway during earth movements
Tourist attraction: income and Destruction of land, property,
employment jobs, homes, transport LANDFORMS AND LANDSCAPE PROCESSES
Creates fertile soil: good Rebuilding costs WEATHERING
agricultural land to grow crops Unemployment
Weathering is disintegration and decomposition of rocks in situ.
Geothermal heating: Fires breakout
o Natural renewable Diseases from poor sanitation PHYSICAL WEATHERING
resource Gas from eruption suffocates Physical weathering: weathering where there is no change in the
o Heating (hot water) Pyroclastic flow chemical composition of the rock, due to physical processes.
o Geyser and mud baths Freeze-thaw: occurs where there are cracked rocks and
Prediction Preparation temperatures fluctuate around freezing point, repeated freezing
Tremors within volcano Set up warning system and thawing causes cracks to widen.
Ground temperatures rises, Create evacuation plan
detect by heat-seeking Train emergency services
cameras Organize post-eruption plan
Volcano swells and bulges Emergency food supply
Volcano emits gas and steam
Animal behavior changes
LAHARS Exfoliation: occurs in very warm climates where there are
Causes: Effect: exposed, non-vegetated rocks. The outer layers heat up and cool
Melting snows Loss of life down faster than the inner layers causing stresses in the rock; the
Heavy rainfall/water content Destroy buildings/homes outer layer peels off.
of magma Destroy crops/livestock
Mix with ash Disrupt communications
Flow down steep Bring down power
slopes/gravity lines/damage water pipes
Triggered by earthquakes Occur without warning/at
great speed

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia


Biological weathering: roots widen weaknesses in the rock until
part of the rock detaches

Chemical weathering: occurs in warm, moist climates
Carbonation: Carbon dioxide in air reacts with rainwater and CHANGES DOWN THE RIVER
forms carbonic acid/acid rain. This reacts with calcium carbonate Long Profile:
or chalk forming calcium bicarbonate or calcium hydrogen
carbonate which is soluble in water. this widens/ deepen cracks
Oxidation: If rock contains iron, it is oxidized in the presence of
water forming iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) or rust. This gives the rock a
reddish brown colour. The rock is weakened & eventually
crumbles away.
Tropical areas tend to experience more weathering because of:
Large amounts of rainfall increasing chemical weathering Cross Profile:
Large amounts of vegetation increasing biological weathering Upper Middle Lower
They are nearer to the equator so there are high temperatures
and faster rates of chemical reaction
Some areas (high areas and desert areas) have higher diurnal
temperature range. Course Long Profile Cross Profile
Upper Steeply sloping Steep sided v-shaped valley.
RIVER TERMINOLOGY towards the lower Thin river channel, deep in
Drainage basin: the area of land drained by a river. sections of the river. places.
Watershed: the edge of highland surrounding a drainage basin. It Middle Shallow slopes V-shaped valley remains with a
marks the boundary between two drainage basins. towards the mouth wider valley floor and the river
Source: the beginning or start of a river. of the river. begins to meander across it. The
Confluence: the point at which two rivers or streams join. river channel begins to widen
Tributary: a stream/smaller river which joins a larger stream or and become deeper.
river. Lower Almost at sea level, Wide, shallow valley, with large
Mouth: point where river comes to end, usually when entering very gently sloping flood plains and meanders. The
sea towards its mouth. river channel is wide, deep and
smooth sided.

Bed: the bottom of the river channel.

Bank: The sides of the river channel. A river has two banks.
Wetted perimeter: length of bed and banks in contact with river.
Channel: The route course (between bed and banks) that a river
Drainage basins act as a system with: flows. The flow of the river is often described as channel flow.
o Inputs: precipitation Thalweg: The fastest part of the river, always near the middle of
o Transfers: infiltration, percolation, surface runoff, throughflow the river channel, where there is least friction.
& groundwater flow
o Stores: interception, surface storage, soil moisture storage &
groundwater storage
o Outputs: evaporation & transpiration or evapotranspiration

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia

Traction: rolling stones along the bed V-shaped valley:
Saltation: small particles bounce along bed in a leapfrog motion o Valley is narrow with a
Suspension: silt and clay-sized are carried within the water flow narrow, shallow river
Solution: minerals dissolve in the water channel
o Valleys have steep sides
o Channel has a steep
o Water is mainly slow
flowing as most of the
rivers energy is used to
overcome the friction of
the river bed &
o Load is mainly large,
EROSION angular and rough
Attrition: large particles such as boulders collide and break into Interlocking spurs: In the upper valley a river is in the mountains.
smaller pieces (occurs at higher part of river) Water takes the easiest path downhill so twists & turns around
Hydraulic action: the sheer force of the river dislodges particles the high land (spurs) forming interlocking spurs.
from its banks and bed Waterfalls:
Abrasion: smaller particles rub against the river banks and bed like o They occur because the river flows over hard rock which
sand-paper; occurs at low part of river (smaller particles) erodes slowly.
Solution: acids in river dissolve rocks (occurs at any part of river) o Beneath is softer rock which is eroded faster to form a step.
o The force of the water erodes the bottom of the waterfall to
form a plunge pool.
o The hard rock gets undercut as the soft rock erodes so that it
eventually collapses.

When a river lacks the energy to carry its load; it begins with the
heaviest particles; happens when there is less water or where the Rapids: They form also where the river passes over hard rock, but
current slows down. either the band of rock is not very deep or there are a series of
Large boulders are deposited at the top, and very small particles shallow rock bands.
are deposited at the end, resulting in sorting. Potholes: Can be found in the
BRADSHAW MODEL upper & middle valley where a
river flows over solid rock.
o Wide sweeping bends found in
the lower part of the river.
o They are formed by a
combination of lateral erosion
& deposition.
Ox-bow Lakes:
o Form when the neck of the meander becomes very narrow.
o During high flow or floods the river cuts through the neck &
straightens its course.
o Deposition occurs on the bank of the river
o The cut-off meander is an ox-bow lake.

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
o Deltas occur where a river that carries a large amount of
sediment meets a lake or the sea. Dams:
o This meeting causes the river to lose energy and drop the o Often built along the course of a river in order to control the
sediment it is carrying. amount of discharge.
o Deltas form where river mouths become choked with o Water is held back by the dam in a reservoir and released in a
sediment, causing the main river channel to split into hundreds controlled way which controls flooding.
of smaller channels or distributaries. o Building dams is expensive, can affect farmers and cause
erosion downstream
River engineering:
o The river channel may be widened or deepened allowing it to
carry more water.
o A river channel may be straightened so that water can travel
faster along the course.
o The channel course of the river can also be altered, diverting
floodwaters away from settlements.
o Altering the river channel may lead to a greater risk of flooding
downstream, as the water is carried there faster.
Leves: when a river floods, the coarsest material is deposited o Trees planted near to the river meaning greater interception of
first, on the edges of the river, forming a natural embankment rainwater and lower river discharge.
called a leve. o This is a relatively low cost option, which enhances the
environmental quality of the drainage basin.
Managed flooding: The river is allowed to flood naturally in
places, to prevent flooding in other areas
o Local authorities and national government introduce policies
to control urban development close to or on floodplain
reducing chance of flooding and risk of damage to property.
o However, enforcing planning regulations and controls may be
harder in LEDCs
Flood plain:
o Area of alluvial deposits found beside the river in its lower
o As meanders move slowly down the course of the river they
erode away the valley to create a wide valley floor, and they
deposit layers of alluvial material on the slip off slopes building
up into a large flood plain

The greater the lag time, the less chance there is of a flood
A rise in discharge on the graph is called the rising limb
The falling limb shows a decrease in discharge.
Constructive Destructive
CAUSES OF RIVER FLOODING Low wave height & usually High wave height & the beach
Steep-sided channel: a river channel surrounded by steep slopes beach gradient is gentle. tends to be steep.
causes fast surface run-off. Waves spill forward gently Wave plunges forward onto
Lack of vegetation or woodland: surface run-off will be high as creating a strong swash. beach so swash is weak, but
trees and plants wont intercept precipitation. Water drains away through rotation of water causes a
Drainage basin, consisting of mainly impermeable rock: water beach material so backwash is strong backwash.
cannot percolate through rock layer, and will runoff surface weak. These waves tend to erode
Drainage basin in an urban area: these consist largely of These waves deposit material beaches.
impermeable concrete, which encourages overland flow. & build up beaches.
Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation, and population
pressures cause soil erosion causes sediment to go into rivers
decreasing the cross-sectional area

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A band of weaker rock extends through a headland.
More erosion occurs producing caves on both sides of headland
Continued erosion produces an arch through the headland.
Eventually the roof is weakened & collapses forming a stack

Swash: when a wave breaks & washes up the beach.
Backwash: when the water drains away back into the oncoming
The size of waves depends upon three factors:
o The strength of the wind.
o The length of time the wind has been blowing.
o The fetch or distance over which the wind can blow.
Corrasion: large waves hurl beach material at the cliff BEACHES
Corrosion: salts and acids slowly dissolve a cliff
In bays the waves diverge outwards.
Attrition: waves cause stones to collide and disintegrate
The wave energy is dissipated creating a low energy environment
Hydraulic action: force of waves compresses air in the cliffs hence deposition to form beaches.
When waves approach the coast at an angle the swash moves up Bays are formed due to softer rock
the beach at an angle. getting eroded easily.
The backwash, however, drains straight back down the beach. Headlands are usually formed since
This will gradually move sand/stones along the beach in a zig-zag they are made of resistant rock and so is
motion. eroded more difficultly.


o Spits form when the coastline changes direction. Longshore
drift continues to carry material in the same direction.
o Sand & shingle is built up to form the spit.
o End of spit curves due to wave refraction or secondary winds.
Salt marsh:
CLIFF AND WAVE-CUT PLATFORM o Mud is deposited by the tides. The beach builds up above sea
Wave erosion is concentrated at the foot of the cliff so a wave-cut level forming mudflats.
notch is formed. o Plants start to grow in mud & trap more sediment, forming a
The cliff is undercut & collapses. salt marsh.
Repeated collapse causes retreat of the cliff producing a platform Bars: A spit that connects two headlands or runs across the face
of flat rock at the cliff foot extending out to sea. of a small cove (bay)

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Diagram showing optimal conditions for their growth:

Sand dunes form behind wide sandy beaches.
Onshore winds pick up the dry sand from above the high-water
mark & carry it landward by saltation. Problems faced by mangrove swamps and their solutions:
If they encounter an obstacle the wind loses energy & deposits Problem Solution
sand in the lee of the obstacle. Emersion due to overflow of Plants adapt to water
Eventually a dune is formed. Plants then grow on it which stabilize water environment
it & trap more sand. Saline environment Plants have waxy covering
prevents entry of salt
CORAL REEF Lack of oxygen Long roots take in air through
Conditions required for growth of coral reef:
pores when possibly
o Warm water/seas; temperatures above 20C
Benefits and drawbacks of mangrove swamps:
o Shallow water; not more than 60 meters deep
o Water free from sediment/clear/availability of light
o Provide habitat and protection many aquatic life
o Plentiful supply of oxygen in water/unpolluted
o Important area for fishing industry
o Plentiful supply of plankton
o Slows water flow allowing for fertile deposits
o Lack of strong currents
o Protects coast from erosion dissipates wave energy
Fringing reef Barrier reef Coral atoll
o Advance outwards leaves fertile land for settlements
Coral reefs grow in Due to plate These form
o Mangrove wood collected for firewood
the shallow water tectonics island around islands
o Work like a natural water cleaning system
of the coast in starts to sink that are sinking.
tropical areas Reef grows to Coral growth
o Noxious and impenetrable
keep up with the keeps up with this
o Full of disease
sinking, but a & island keeps
Interdependence between Coral Reefs and Mangrove Swamps:
lagoon develops sinking
between reef & Eventually island
land sinks below sea
level forming a
ring of coral with a
lagoon in the

Hard Engineering
Rip-rap: giant boulders placed at the foot of cliffs, designed to
absorb waves energy and protect cliffs behind. Can be effective,
but does look ugly, reduces access to beach and can be expensive
Gabion: uses large boulders placed in cages which means can be
installed quickly and is fairly effective. However, it also looks ugly,
reduces access and can be expensive.
MANGROVE SWAMPS Groynes: designed to stop longshore drift transporting away
Trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats beach material. Can be effective in maintaining a beach, but need
Conditions for mangrove swamps to grow: replacing regularly, look ugly and can cause problems down coast.
o Topical or subtropical environment Sea wall: made out of concrete and are aimed to absorb waves
energy. Sometimes curved to direct waves energy back out to sea.
o Shore is soft and muddy easy to take root
Very effective, but are expensive, ugly and reduce access
Shoreline must be undisturbed for them to prosper

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Breakwater: are built out into the sea and are a coats first line of Wet & dry bulb thermometer (hygrometer):
defence. Instead of breaking on coast, waves, break on Dry bulb is a normal mercury
breakwater. Often found around the mouths of rivers and ports. thermometer and it measures actual air
They are expensive and can disrupt shipping and animals. temperature
Revetments: similar to sea walls, but often built out of wood. Wet bulb is same but bulb is covered with
Found at the foot of cliffs and are designed at absorb the waves a fine cloth which is connected to a
energy. Need replacing regularly & dont protect against storms reservoir of water.
Soft Engineering Water evaporates from the cloth & cools
Dune Stabalisation: planting vegetation on berm of beach or on the temperature so it reads a few degrees
dunes, making them more stable (roots) and reducing the lower than air temp.
moisture content (root uptake) Both wet & dry bulb temperatures read
Cliff Regrading: make cliffs less steep; reducing angle reduces
undercutting and risk of cliff collapsing Barometer: Measure air pressure
Beach Nourishment: adding more sand to the beach. Beaches are An aneroid barometer has a corrugated
natural defences, so by making them bigger, you are creating a chamber containing a vacuum
natural defence. As air pressure rises & falls, the
Beach Drainage: removing some of the excess water reduces chamber contracts & expands.
stress on the cliff. Levers conduct this movement to a
Managed Retreat: allowing sea to take back land. Low value land spindle which moves the pointer on the
is often chosen to be flooded by sea. dial which records the air pressure in
mm of mercury.
Anemometer: Measures wind speed.
Three light rotating cups (mounted on a
Rain Gauge: has a fixed diameter so that
high pole) are blown around by the
they collect the same amount of water & so
wind the revolutions are counted &
comparisons can be made
converted into m/s, km/h or knots
Made of a hollow cylinder (C) containing:
o Funnel (A) to collect the water.
Wind vane: Records wind direction
o Container to collect water which may
The fletching is blown by the wind so that
be graduated. It is emptied once every
the arrow head points into the wind.
24hrs at the same time.
Mounted on a high pole.
o Rain is measured in millimeters.
o Sunk into ground, but not level so
Stevensons Screen: contains the thermometers
splashes or surface water cant get in
Max-min thermometer: record max. & min. temp. over 24hr period Painted white to reflect the sun with a double lid for insulation.
Slatted sides to let the air circulate, but slanted downwards to
Max thermometer contains
mercury & min contains alcohol prevent light getting in.
Legs 1m long to prevent heating from ground.
As temp. rises, mercury expands &
pushes up a metal index and when it On short grass so its standardized i.e. same amount of
cools, mercury contracts and index is reflectivity.
left in place at highest temp.
As temp. falls, alcohol contracts &
pulls metal index with it, but as
alcohol expands, it flows past
index, leaving it in place at
lowest temp.
Both indexes read once every 24hrs
from bottom of index.
Sunshine Recorder (Heliograph):
records the amount of sunshine at a
given location
Burns a timeline
Traces sun shine not the hours of
The glass ball focus the light
This burns a line onto the card

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Cirrus: found high in the atmosphere, common throughout the
world, thin and wispy in appearance and move fairly quickly
Tropical Rainforest Tropical Desert
Stratus: low level, usually grey in colour, move fast and can
produce light rain and snow. Around equator, between
Between 5 and 30
Tropic of Cancer and
Cumulonimbus: large clouds up to 10km high and across, produce Location north and south of
Tropic of Capricorn =
rain, thunder and lightening, usually found in spring and summer the equator
Cumulus: fairly low clouds, look like lumps of cotton wool, can
Mean temp.
produce light rain and each individual clouds has a short life cycle
of hottest 25C 30C
Cloud cover: measured in eighths. Hold sheet directly above your Mean temp.
head & estimate the cloud cover directly above you. of coldest 25C >18C
Annual temp.
<5C <5C
>2000mm <250mm
Same throughout year Irregular
Wind Low Strong
Cloud Heavy Almost none
Humidity High Low
Pressure Low High
Warm and cold front symbols:
Latitude: closer to the equator = higher temperature
Distance from the sea: coastal area = warmer winters and cooler
Prevailing winds: seasonal difference in heating between land
and sea affects temperature of prevailing wind. Warm prevailing
wind = rise in temperature
Ocean currents: warm currents raise winter temperatures in
coastal areas; cold currents cool them down in summer
Altitude: higher altitude = lower temperature (1 per 100m)
Pressure Systems:
Depression Anticyclone
Air movement Upwards Downwards
TYPES OF RAINFALL Air pressure Low High
Relief Rain Frontal Rain Convectional Rain Wind Anticlockwise towards Clockwise away from
Warm moist air Warm airmass Sun heats ground direction the centre the cente
from the sea meets colder air which heats air Isobars Close together Far apart
Forced to rise over mass Warm air rises Short sunny spells; Dry; usually sunny;
mountain/hill Warm air mass Cools as it rises Associated
longer periods of wind light winds; nights may
Cools as it rises rises over colder Condensation cloud and rain be cold
Condensation Condensation Clouds form All year mostly in
Clouds form Frequency Ocassionaly in winter
Clouds form Rain summer and winter
Rain Rain E.g. South of UK
E.g. West of UK E.g. All of UK in
Winter Vegetation grows in distinct layers.
Emergent layer: tall trees up to 50m. Few lower branches. Grow
above others to get full sunlight.
Main canopy: trees 30-40m forming a continuous canopy. Few
lower branches.
Under canopy: trees 20m high (& young trees) less dense can
survive in less sunlight.
Weather: Shrub layer: low shrubs & saplings. Shade plants.
o The mix of events that occur in our atmosphere, including Forest floor: little grows except fungi too little light.
changes in temperature, rainfall and humidity Since the trees grow tall, have large buttress roots for support
o This can vary from day to day and from place to place Lianas use large trees as a support in order to reach the sunlight.
Climate: Epiphytes grow on trees to get light & have hanging roots that
o This is the average conditions over a longer period of time, collect rainwater.
usually a few years Leaves shed water easily having drip tips & channels to direct
the water.

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia


Environmental Hazards Environmental Oppurtunities
Volcanic eruptions Renewavle energy sources:
Earthquakes o Droughts = solar power
Tropical storms o Volcanic land = geothermal
Flooding Medical research and genetic
Flooding = alluvium = fertile
Reasons for deforestation:
Tourism = source of wealth
o Farming: demand for food increases with population - need to
Tropical rainforests = wood
clear more usable ground
o Hydro-Electric Power: land may need to be removed to build DEVELOPMENT
damn or floodable area
Affluence: general level of prosperity enjoyed by population
o Mining: demand for resources increase rainforests hold
Appropriate Aid: resources suited to basic conditions prevailing in
receiving country
o Road building: increased congestion requires new roads
Development: progress in terms of economic growth, use of
rainforest in the way
technology and human welfare
o Settlements: population increase causes cities to become
Development Gap: difference in standards of living between
bigger requiring more land
richest and poorest countries
o Timber: self-explanatory
Free Trade: trade between countries is not restricted by laws and
Problems due to deforestation:
o Flooding: less interception by vegetation thus more flash
floods Quality of Life: often used as an umbrella term taking into account
o Landslides: removal of vegetation causes soil to become GDP and human welfare
o Biodiversity Loss: deforestation kills off unknown species, since Birth Rate: number of births in a year per 1000 of total population
they will have no home Death Rate: number of deaths in a year per 1000 of total
o Less Photosynthesis: causes imbalance of oxygen and carbon population
dioxide in atmosphere
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): total value of goods and services
o Silting: rivers, seas and oceans become more difficult to
produced annually
navigate due to reduced depth
GDP per Capita: GDP per head of population
o Desertification: soil loses components vital to survival of plants
Human Welfare: condition of population i.e. diet, housing,
become hard
healthcare, education, etc.
o Indigenous: these people lose their homes, more importantly
Infant Mortality: avg. number of deaths of infants under 1, per
impact their society
1000 live births, per year
o Less Rainfall: Less interception = less transpiration = fewer
clouds = less rainfall Life expectancy: average number of years a person might be
expected to live
ECOSYSTEM: TROPICAL DESERT Intermediate Technology: simple, easily learned technology used
Plants such as cacti: in economic activities
Have thick, waxy cuticles to reduce transpiration; Human Development Index (HDI): measures and compares
Fleshy stems to store water; international development
Leaves reduced to spines to reduce surface area for transpiration
& prevent animals eating them & sunken stomata.
Shrubs have: Process in which the world is becoming increasingly
Small, waxy leaves & long tap roots to reach down to water table
and/or shallow roots to collect any moisture before it evaporates. Causes of globalization:
o Improvements in transportation
Seeds can lie dormant for years. After rain they germinate quickly,
o Freedom of trade
flower & produce seeds within 2-3 weeks.
o Improvements of communications
o Labour availability and skills

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia


Positive impacts of globalization: Successful Year Bad Year
o Economies of scale, cost per item reduced when operating on a Buying more land Sell some of your livestock
larger scale Buying better and newer Sell some of your land
o TNCs helps countries; provide new jobs & skills for local people equipment e.g. new tractor Diversify by opening a shop
o TNCs bring money and foreign currency to local economies Improving drainage/irrigation Try and farm more intensively
o Allows for sharing of ideas, experiences and lifestyles of people Buying new varieties of seed, by buying more fertilisers and
and cultures (GM crops) pesticides
o Increases awareness of events in far-away parts of the world New buildings/more farms
Negative impacts of globalization:
o Globalisation operates mostly in interests of richest countries FACTORS AFFECTING FARMING
o No guarantees that wealth from inward investment will benefit Temperature determines crops grown
local community Crops grow where there is an adequate growing season
o Profits are sent back to the MEDC where the TNC is based There must be sufficient rainfall for crops to grow
o TNCS, with massive economies of scale, may drive local Irrigation needed if insufficient rain
companies out of business Cereal crops/vines need sunshine to ripen
o If cheaper in another country, TNC might close down factory Too much rainfall may flood crops/require drainage system
making locals redundant In areas with frost/long winter hardy animals may be kept
o Absence of laws may allow TNCs to operate in LEDCs in ways If it is windy wind breaks are needed etc.
not allowed in MEDCs Better/alluvial soil means arable farming otherwise pastoral
o Threat to the world's cultural diversity, such as the traditions Flat relief means arable and hilly relief means pastoral
and languages
o Industry may begin to thrive in LEDCs at expense of jobs in GREEN REVOLUTION
MEDCs The introduction of modern western style farming techniques in
LEDCs during the late 1960's and 1970's.
Human Physical o Developed to try and end food shortages by increasing yields.
Process Outputs
Inputs Inputs o Were first developed by cross pollinating different varieties
Things that The events o This is now being done through genetic modification.
Natural things
are built or that take Things that are Successes Failures
that are found
made by place on a produced on a HYV did increase food Required fertilisers &
on a farm or
humans and farm to turn famr that are production and made pesticides polluted water
added to a
added on to a inputs into often sold countries more self-sufficient The HYV were more prone to
farm ouputs Food prices began to fall disease and drought
Labor/rent Soil Rearing Profits making; affordable for poor More water had to be diverted
Machinery Precipitation Shearing Meat Shorter growing season, more to growing crops
Building Temp. Ploughing products crops could be grown Many poorer farmers couldnt
Animal feed Length of Fertilizing Wool The yields were more reliable afford to buy expensive HYV
Fertilizers Season Weeding Milk Different crops were grown Mechanisation led to
Pesticide Alluvium Irrigating Waste adding variety to local diet unemployment
Market Floods Cultivating Crops There were surpluses so crops Many natural varieties lost
demand Relief Harvesting Pollution could be traded commercially Countries & farmers became
Government Drainage Slaughtering Erosion Farmers became wealthier dependent on foreigners
controls Planting
Growing of only one type of crop
CLASSIFICATION OF FARMING TYPES Cash crops: crops that are normally grown in large plantations for
1. Specialisation the purpose of selling and making a profit
Arable Pastoral Mixed Advantages Disadvantages
(crops) (animals) (both) Become more efficient If demand falls, no profit
2. Economic Status Profitable Less variety
Commercial Subsistence Can have high yields Bad season, no profit
(for profit) (to survive) Easily controllable Labor becomes deskilled
3. Intensity of Land Use Low training required Only source of income
Extensive Intensive
Normally a larger farm Normally a smaller farm ORGANIC CROPS AND FARMING
Few inputs per hectare High inputs per hectare Farming that uses natural varieties and natural farming
Few workers per hectare Lots of workers per hectare techniques. There is only very limited use of fertlisers.
Low yields per hectare High yields per hectare Advantages Disadvantages
4. Land tenure Longer to ripen; better flavour Crops are not uniform
Shifting & Nomadic Low fertilizer use; less run-off May be susceptible to disease
Sedentary Less chemicals to consumers Take longer to grow
(where farmers move from one
(farm location is permanent) Higher prices when sold May need more water
area to another)

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
An LEDC e.g. Ghana
GM CROPS AND FARMING Majority in primary sector:
Genetically modified crops are crops that have their genes altered o Lack of machinery available in
to improve quality and/or quantity farming, forestry and mining.
Advantages Disadvantages o Farming very important because
Uniform in shape easy to Natural species may die most eat what they grow.
transport/ appeal consumers Tastse often not as good Few in secondary sector:
Growing season shorter Lead to development of super o Lack of factories because machinery is too expensive
Drought resistant less water weeds stronger than GM o MNCS manufacture instead
Higher yields No one knows long term effect Tertiary may be larger than secondary:
on humans o Most informal work is in the tertiary sector
FAMINE o Growth of jobs in tourism
An NIC e.g. Brazil
When demand for food exceeds supply of food leading to
undernourishment. Prolonged undernourishment can damage While Brazils economic base is
people's health and eventually lead to starvation. developing, there are still a large
number of people employed in
Human Causes Physical Causes
primary industries such as farming.
Increasing population; supply Too hot or cool temperatures
There are a large proportion of people
cannot keep up with demand can kill crops and animals.
employed in tertiary industries.
Overgrazing reduces integrity Shortage of rainfall kills most
One reason may be growth of Brazil as a tourist destination.
of soil and can cause topsoil crops or require irrigation
Also, there have been significant improvements in the provision of
erosion and soil degradation. Too much rainfall can flood &
health care, education and transport.
Overcultivating causes soil kill crops or wash away topsoil
degradation, using up and not reducing soils fertility leading THE INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
giving nutrients recovery time to low yield Input: resources which may be physical (natural) such as iron ore
Deforestation of woodland, Natural disasters can destroy or human (artificial) such as labour.
damages integrity of soil as large areas of agricultural land Processes: turning raw materials into usable things such as
well as its source of nutrients. and kill or injure farmers. steelmaking and also turning usable things into other things for
Farming and industrial If soil is infertile because the example assembling cars.
pollution can both degrade bedrock contains few minerals Outputs: profit or loss + waste materials
land and reduce crop yields it can be hard to cultivate land
Corruption of government and lead to low yields. LOCATING AN INDUSTRY
Effects: Physical Factors
Hunger Power/energy: the industry should be near the raw materials or a
Susceptible to infectious diseases port/station where the materials come from
Impair physical and mental development Natural routes: river valleys and flat land is good for transport
Reduce labour productivity Site and land: flat land & enough space might be needed, cheap
INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Human & Economic Factors
Labour: quantity (industry might need many people) and/or
SECTORS quality (very-skilled workers, close to a university)
Primary industry: industry, such as farming, fishing, forestry and
Capital: (money)
mining that extracts raw materials directly from the land or sea.
Markets: size and location of market
Secondary industry: an industry that processes or manufactures
Transport: cost increases when items are bulky (steel), fragile
primary raw materials, assembles parts made by other industries
(glassware), heavy (steel) or perishable (fruit/veg.)
or is part of the construction industry.
Government policies
Tertiary industry: an occupation, such as health, education,
Leisure facilities: countryside views / amenities
transport and retailing, which provides a service to people
Hi-Tech Industries
EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES High-tech industries are footloose as they do not need to be near
An MEDC e.g. the UK raw materials so are located:
Low proportion in primary sector: o In a pleasant working environment near to large markets and
o Mechanizations of jobs in primary major transport routes. OR
o Primary resources exhausted o Companies (especially foreign) may be tempted by the
o Resources are now imported. government to locate in former industrial areas which often
Numbers falling in secondary sector: had higher levels of unemployment
o Mechanization - as machines are
taking over jobs in factories.
Tertiary sector is main growth area: Tourism: the occupation of providing information,
o Most work in hospitals, schools, offices & financial services accommodation, transportation and other services to tourists.
o Greater demand for leisure services as people have more free
time and become wealthier.
o More jobs become available in the tertiary sector.

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia
Consolidation: Growth continues with resources diverted to
FACTORS THAT LEAD TO CHANGES IN TOURIST PATTERNS tourism sector. Areas may change to the exclusive use of tourists,
Transport and accessibility: access to various means of possibly alienating locals.
transportation such as trains, cars, planes, ships etc.
Stagnation: Increased opposition to tourism, tourist facilities may
Scenery: the landscape and visual appearance of a place. become tired and number of tourist arrival plateaus or declines.
Weather: depending on the type of vacation wanted, climate is Rejuvenation: A tourist destination rebrands itself or improves
important e.g. for a ski trip, a cold destination is necessary. tourist facilities, offers promotions or improves transportation.
Accommodation: quality of hotels, camps, resorts, parks and their Decline: No improvements are made to the tourist destination
affordability. and the number of tourists continues to declines.
Amenities: the various recreational, historical, leisure facilities
and sites that are offered and can be accessed. ECOTOURISM
Ecotourism: Holidays that involve eco-related activities and are
REASONS FOR INCREASE IN TOURISM sustainable e.g. hiking, bird-watching, horse riding, etc.
Greater affluence: higher salary + holiday with pay Sustainable tourism: Tourist activities that are socially,
Greater mobility: increase in car ownership + more aircraft environmentally and economically sustainable.
Improved accessibility and transport facilities: How Ecotourist Resorts Can Be
o Better roads Typical Ecotourism Activities Eco-friendly
o Larger airports, online reservation, package holidays Hiking Use renewable energy sources
More leisure time: longer vacations, shorter working hours, Kayaking Build using only local products
people work from home, more elderly
Bird watching Serve only local food, using
Changing lifestyles: changing fashions, earlier retirements
Safari (animal watching) locally sourced products
Change in recreational activities Employ only local staff
Advertising of holiday destinations: TV and the Internet Recycle all waste
Beach cleaning
Green tourism Treat and clean all water
Tree planting
ADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Completing bird and animal Educate guests about the
Encouraging tourism will give country a chance to improve and surveys importance of protecting the
increase its GDP per capita rate (overall income is increased.) environment
Brings in foreign money, culture, tradition; diversity Promote local culture
Provides jobs for the unemployed ENERGY AND WATER RESOURCES
Creates more business opportunities
Positive compliments from tourists will increase the publicity TYPES OF RESOURCES
To please the tourists, new infrastructure will have to be built Non-renewable resources: These are finite. Fossil fuels were
such as roads, bridges, buildings etc. initially produced by photosynthesis. In theory they are
Cultural festivals may become a tourist attraction renewable, but it takes millions of years for them to form. E.g.
coal, oil, gas, (uranium).
DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM Renewable resources: These are continuous e.g. solar, wind,
Increased congestion and pollution water, geothermal. They are therefore sustainable.
Damage to physical landscape
Global brands may replace local businesses NON-RENEWABLE
Traditional culture lost Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) used mainly by MEDCs
Inflation affecting locals Uranium for nuclear energy
Seasonal unemployment Fuel-wood is a non-commercial source of energy in MEDCs but
A shortage of services e.g. water supplies important in LEDCs; women walk long distances each day to
Social/cultural problems collect wood. They cook over open wood fires or wood stoves
Advantages Disadvantages
BUTLERS PRODUCT CYCLE Lasts 300yrs, now become Cost of production high,
Exploration: newly discovered more efficient, needed to produces lot of GH gases,

tourist location that only make coke dangerous, open cast = visual
receives a very small amount pollution, costly to transport,
of tourists. acid rain
Involvement: area becomes More efficient than coal, Lasts only 50-70yrs, oil spills,
better known; tourism is easier to transport, diversity releases GH gases, prices

supported by local population of uses, petro-chemicals fluctuate, refineries use lot of

and start to build basic tourist space, acid rain
Cleanest of fossil fuels, Releases methane, explosive,
Development: tourism cheaper than oil, easy to prices fluctuate, acid rain, GH
becomes an important sector

distribute gases.
of economy. More investment
from foreign tour firms.
Infrastructure becomes developed.

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June 2014 CIE IGCSE GEOGRAPHY (0460) Zubair Junjunia


Types Advantages Drought: below average supply of water over a prolonged period.
Geothermal Reduce dependence upon fossil fuels Famine: crops fail & livestock die due to water shortage
Wind Alleviate the worlds energy crisis Groundwater supply deplete and aquifers begin to dry up
Solar Offer opportunities for development of Conflict arise if there is a limited supply of water and water
Bio fuel alternative energy sources resources are shared
Hydroelectric They do not pollute People may be forced to relocate due to famine and drought
Tidal They do not add to Global Warming Stagnant dirty water = increased risk of waterborne diseases
Wave The source lasts forever Eutrophication due to run-off from farms containing fertilizer
Disadvantages Dirty water and eutrophication may cause loss of biodiversity
Difficult to generate quantities of electricity required
Energy produced incomparable to fossil fuels
Unreliable supply of constant energy; wind doesnt blow everyday RESOURCE CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT
Some countries do not have the conditions for these sources
Cost of renewable energy technology very high PROBLEMS WITH DEVELOPMENT
Cost of fossil fuel generation much less Soil erosion
Occurs in farms, where rainforest is cleared soil is washed away
NUCLEAR POWER by rain because there are no tree roots to retain it.
Benefits Drawbacks In the Amazon rainforest, eroded soil goes into rivers and pollutes
Technology for nuclear power Risk of nuclear accidents the drinking water.
exists (Chernobyl) Global warming
Abundance of radioactive Risk of nuclear plants as Greenhouse effect is when infrared radiation passes through the
supply as fuel terrorist targets atmosphere, and some is absorbed and re-emitted in all
Releases very low amounts of Nuclear technology can be directions by greenhouse gas molecules.
greenhouse gases used to make WMDs The effect of this is warming of surface and lower atmosphere
Reduces dependency on fossil Risky to transport material Global warming happens as a result of too much greenhouse gas
fuel countries Cost of power plants are high Effects:
Nuclear waste stored safely Risk of nuclear radiation o Melting ice-sheets = rising sea levels = increase in storms
underground related to cancer o Change in the distribution of precipitation
Electric supply altered easily Uranium mining dangerous o Plants and wildlife might not have the time to adjust
based on demand and polluting o Lower crop yields in Africa, parts of Asia and Latin America
Remains radioactive for long o More people at risk from insect-borne & water-borne diseases
o CO2 from burning fossil fuels or wood
Needs geologically stable ground (away from plate margins and
o Methane from decomposing organic matter and waste gases
o CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons from aerosols, air conditioners,
Needs flat land which is easier to build on
foam packaging and refrigerators (now banned)
Needs to be near a large coal supply as coal is heavy to transport o Oxides of Nitrogen from car exhausts, power stations and
and a lot is needed agricultural fertilizer
Needs impermeable rock Air pollution: cars and power stations
Needs to be close to a railway to bring in large amounts of fuel Carbon monoxide: incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
Needs a water source substances causes oxygen starvation
SITING OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION Sulfur dioxide: combustion of fossil fuels causes respiratory
Needs high rainfall and low evaporation levels problems and acid rain
Needs a steep sided valley Nitrogen oxides: nitrogen and oxygen from air combine in a hot
Needs impermeable rock environment (furnace or engine); same effect as sulfur dioxide
Needs to be away from large centers of population Lead oxide: burning leaded petrol; damages nervous system
Water Pollution:
SITING OF NUCLEAR POWER STATION Nitrates & phosphates from fertilizers cause eutrophication
Needs large amounts of water for cooling purposes so is often by Oil spilling into the sea
the coast / a river Acid rain:
Needs geologically stable ground (away from plate margins and o Makes lakes/ponds acidic and damage fishes gills, killing them
earthquakes) o Destroys top of trees and damages roots = dead tree
Needs flat land which is easier to build on Health hazards for humans
Needs impermeable rock Damages limestone buildings and sculptures
Needs to be away from large centers of population Fewer crops can be grown on an acidic field
Visual pollution: all man-made things are ugly compared to the
WATER USES unspoiled nature
Agriculture: to water the plants etc. Noise pollution:
Domestic: cooking, cleaning and drinking Vehicles (including planes)
Industrial: heated to make steam in order to turn turbines, and for Machinery in industries and farms
cooling down reactors Noisy humans

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