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APPOINTMENT VS.

DESIGNATION

Appointment is the selection by the proper authority of an individual who is to exercise the functions of an office. Designation, on the
other hand, connotes merely the imposition of additional duties, upon a person already in the public service by virtue of an earlier
appointment or election (Santiago vs. Commission on Audit, 199 SCRA 125; Political Law Review by Gonzales, pp. 184-185). A
mere "designation" does not confer upon the designee security of tenure in the position or office which he occupies in an "acting"
capacity only. Thus did this Court made such a distinction:

Appointment may be defined as the selection, by the authority vested with the power, of an individual who is to exercise the
functions of a given office. When completed, usually with its confirmation, the appointment results in security of tenure for the person
chosen unless he is replaceable at pleasure because of the nature of his office. Designation, on the other hand, connotes merely the
imposition by law of additional duties on an incumbent official . . . It is said that appointment is essentially executive while
designation is legislative in nature.

Designation may also be loosely defined as an appointment because it likewise involves the naming of a particular person to a
specified public office. That is the common understanding of the term. However, where the person is merely designated and not
appointed, the implication is that he shall hold the office only in a temporary capacity and may be replaced at will by the appointing
authority. In this sense, the designation is considered only an acting or temporary appointment, which does not confer security of
tenure on the person named.

Even if so understood, that is, as an appointment, the designation of the petitioner cannot sustain his claim that he has been illegally
removed. . . Appointment involves the exercise of discretion, which because of its nature cannot be delegated." (Binamira vs.
Garrucho, 188 SCRA 158.)

PERMANENT VS. TEMPORARY

(1) Permanent status. A permanent appointment shall be issued to a person who meets
all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed, including
appropriate eligibility prescribed, in accordance with the provisions of law, rules and
standards promulgated in pursuance thereof.

(2) Temporary appointment. In the absence of appropriate eligibles and it becomes


necessary in the public interest to fill a vacancy, a temporary appointment shall be
issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being
appointed except the appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, That such
temporary appointment shall not exceed twelve months, but the appointee may be
replaced sooner if a qualified civil service eligible becomes available.

DISMISSAL VS. EXPIRATION OF TERM

Expiration is the ending of an agreement pursuant to its terms without any action by a
party to the agreement. Expiration commonly occurs at the end of a defined period of
time for example, a lease may expire at the end of one year.? Expiration may be linked
to other events, however. For example, a patent license agreement may expire when the
underlying patent expires.

Termination is the ending of an agreement as the result of an action taken by a party to


the agreement. For example, an agreement may provide that either party may terminate it
upon ten days written notice if the other party breaches the agreement and does not cure
the breach during the ten-day notice period.

CAREER VS. NON-CAREER


Career Service.The Career Service shall be characterized by (1) entrance
based on merit and fitness to be determined as far as practicable by
competitive examination, or based on highly technical qualifications; (2)
opportunity for advancement to higher career positions; and (3) security of
tenure.

Non-Career Service.The Non-Career Service shall be characterized by (1)


entrance on bases other than those of the usual tests of merit and fitness
utilized for the career service; and (2) tenure which is limited to a period
specified by law, or which is coterminous with that of the appointing authority
or subject to his pleasure, or which is limited to the duration of a particular
project for which purpose employment was made.