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4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

**Simulink Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with using DC-DC Converter
**

Krishnakant D. Tandel1 R. K. Patel2 Smit S. Tandel3

1

Student 2Assistant Professor

1,2,3

Department of Electrical Engineering

1,2

L.D. College of Engineering (G.T.U.), Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 3MGITER (G.T.U.), Navsari,

Gujarat, India

Abstract— This paper present the Simulink model of theory. In this section the all equation are explained so we

Photovoltaic array in different temperature and irradiation. can understand easily about the behavior of photovoltaic

The output power of this model is using for grid connected cell. In section 2 the simulation of the photovoltaic module

PV system. The output power of this model in KW. Detailed in detailed. In section 3 the results are shown of the

modeling of this system and mathematical equation are simulation of the PV module. In section 4 presents the

present in this paper. The proposed model is very useful for discussion and conclusion of the modelling process

generation of electricity. In this model the 25 PV module and

in each PV module there are 36 PV cell are series and 36 PV

cell are in parallel. This is known as solar farm. The

complete mathematical model of grid connected PV system

is developed by MATLAB. This model is very useful for

expert and engineers who require the fast and accurate model

for implementation. DC-DC boost converter is using for

boost the output voltage of PV array.

Key words: DC-DC Converter, Photovoltaic Module

Fig. 1: Basic block diagram of PV system[1]

In this block diagram the PV module is connected

I. INTRODUCTION

with the DC-DC converter for step up the output voltage of

Now a days global warming is one of the biggest problem PV array and MPPT is connected between the output power

for human. Every people just think about it but nobody can of PV module and DC-DC converter after this the converter

take a fast action on it. The human activities in daily life connected with inverter for converting the DC into AC and

contribute to the global warming of the planet. As a result, the power give to the grid

every country is work on it and try to reduce carbon

emissions. There are lots of actions taken by government of II. THE CIRCUIT OF PV ARRAY

different country to explore alternative sources of energy

and to achieve pollution reduction. The PV system is getting In the photovoltaic cell single diode is connected parallel

popular day by day as the crude oil price is unstable in the with the light generated current source (Isc) as shown in the

market and the pollution is increased.[1] figure [1].

The population is increasing day by day so the

requirement of energy is more and more so the conventional

source like thermal. This are some specific and finite fuel

that’s why the photovoltaic system are most important

because of their huge and infinite solar energy [2].

In whole world there are 3500 MW photovoltaic

system have been installed. The production of solar cell Fig. 2: Photovoltaic cell [1].

increased 32% in 2003 in all over the world this result is The common model of the photovoltaic cell are

given by earth policy institute (EPI). Production of energy is I=??? -?? (2.1)

increased to 742 MW, the global production is 3145 MW at Where

the end of year 2003. This energy is enough to meet the one qVOC

million homes. Referring to EPI, some extra ordinary ID=Iscref [exp ( ) − 1] (2.2)

KAT

growth is doing by improvements in materials and The light current depends on both irradiance and

technology. The growth of the PV system since 2009 has temperature. It is measured at some reference conditions

σ

been impressive. In 2009, the global PV system market ISC= [(I)scref +Ki(Tk -Tref )]* (2.3)

1000

installed 7.2 GW by end of 2011, there was a total of about Where

62GW of PV plant installed all order the world. In 2011 to Isc= photocurrent

2012, India went from 2.5 MW grid connected PV system to Tk= actual temperature

over 1000 MW after 2012 the installed capacity in India has Tref= reference temperature

increased to 1040.67 MW and India expects to install an Ki= short circuit current/temperature co-efficient.

additional 100000 MW by 2017 and after the total capacity ?

??? − ?? − ? − ??? = 0 (2.4)

is 20000 MW by 2022. This all facts can conclude that the ??

photovoltaic (solar energy) is a very promising and most Thus,

??

useful in next generation energy source [2]. ???= ??? − ?? − (2.5)

??

In this paper the section 2 is explained about the And the reverse saturation current is given by

mathematical model of the photovoltaic cell and equation

**All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 493
**

Simulink Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with using DC-DC Converter

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/134)

????

??? = ?????? [??? ( ) − 1] (2.6)

?????

The module saturation current Io varies with the

cell temperature which is given by;

???

?? =??? [(?⁄? ) 3 ∗ ? ⁄?? *(1⁄? -1⁄?)] (2.7)

??? ???

Where Io is the diode saturation current. The basic

equation that describes the current output of the photovoltaic

(PV) module Ipv of the single-diode model is as given in

equation (8)

q(VPV+IPV RS

IPV = NP ISC − NS IO {exp( )-1}- VPV +

NS AkT

IPV RS

( ) (2.8)

RP

Where Fig. 4: final PV output model

k= 1.38*10-23 J Boltzmann constant

q= 1.602*10-19 C

A= diode ideality factor

Rs= series resistance(Ω)

Ns= number of cells connected in series

Np= number of cells connected in parallel

A procedure based on Simulink model to determine

the values to these parameters is proposed. The evaluation

of these model parameters at real condition of irradiance and

temperature of the target PV modules are then determined

according to their initial values [1].

Solar 60PV module is taken as the reference

module for simulation and the data sheet details are given in

table. In this model there are 25 module connected [2].

No. Solar PV module

parameter variable Value Fig. 5: I-V char. varying irradiation and constant temp [2].

1 Maximum power Pm 60W

2 Maximum voltage Vm 17.1V

3 Current at maximum power Im 3.5A

4 Open circuit voltage Voc 21.06V

5 Short circuit current Isc 3.74A

6 Total no. of cell in series Ns 36

7 Total no. of cells in parallel Np 25

Table 1: Solar PV Module

This is the final model of all above six equation

using commonly used blocks. In this model the output

power of Pv array are shown in figure. In this model the

output are shown in different graphs [2].

**Fig. 6: P-V characteristic varying irradiation and constant
**

temperature [2].

**Fig. 3 Simulink of all six model
**

In this model the output is connected with scope

and display. Fig. 7: I-V characteristic varying temperature-constant

irradiation [2].

**All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 494
**

Simulink Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with using DC-DC Converter

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/134)

**reversed and the two supply in series so the output
**

voltage is increased by this boost converter. [5]

**Fig. 10: conduction mode [5].
**

The boost converter is used in regulated DC power

supplies is output of PV module. In PV module the output is

changing because of temperature and irradiation. The boost

converter can operate in two different states depending upon

the relative length of the switching period and its energy

storage capacity. In this figure shown the model of boost

Fig. 8: P-V characteristic varying temperature-constant converter only four components needed diode, inductor,

irradiation [2]. capacitor, and IGBT switch. In this model IGBT switch is

used [5].

III. DC-DC CONVERTER

A. Continuous Conduction Mode

In PV system the output of PV module is unregulated

because of rapidly changing in atmospherics condition. DC- 1) Mode 1 = {0<t≤ton}

DC converter is using for regulate the output voltage by Mode 1 = when IGBT's is switched on at t=0 and terminates

controlling the duty cycle. The duty cycle is controlled by at t=ton. The equivalent circuit for the mode 1 is shown in

MPPT. Many different techniques are using for controlling Figure 4.4 The inductor current iL(t) greater than zero and

the duty cycle. In next section we have to discuss this ramp up linearly. The inductor voltage is Vi.

MPPT. DC-DC converter has numbers of different

topologies. In photovoltaic system the dc-dc converter is

using for regulated the DC output voltage and boost up the

PV module voltage [5].

In PV application, the grid connected system use

these type of converter is use to step up the DC output of pv

module[5]

The main principle of boost converter boost up the Fig. 11: circuit diagram of DC-DC boost converter [5].

output voltage of PV module and regulate the output voltage 2) Mode 2 = {ton<t≤Ts}

of PV module by using a MPPT and controlled the duty Mode 2 = when IGBT's is switched off at t=ton and

cycle of converter. [5] terminates at t=Ts. The equivalent circuit for the mode 2 is

shown in Figure 4.5. The inductor current decrease until the

IGBT's is turned on again during the next cycle. The voltage

across the inductor in this period is Vi-Vo. In steady state

time integral of the inductor voltage over one time period

Fig. 9: Boost Converter [5]. must be zero.

Stage 1: when the switch is on; current flow in ?? ??? + (?? − ?? )???? = 0 (3.1)

clockwise direction through the inductor and inductor Where,

store in energy. The inductor polarity of left side is Vi: The input voltage, V.

positive. Vo: The average output voltage, V.

Stage 2: when the switch is off, current will be reduced ton: The switching on of the IGBT’s,

because of impedance is higher, therefore reduction in toff:: The switching off of the IGBT’S.

current will be opposed by the inductor so the polarity Dividing both sides by Ts and rearranging items yield

will be reversed means negative polarity on left side of Vo/Vi=Ts/toff=1/(1-D) (3.2)

the inductor after this the two sources will be in series Where;

causing a higher voltage to charge the capacitor Ts: The switching period, s.

through the diode D [5]. D: The duty cycle.

The Boost converter consists of two distinct states

(see figure).

In the On-state, the switch S (see figure 1) is

closed, resulting in an increase in the inductor current;

In on state the switch is closed so the current is

increased in inductor and inductor is charging during

this state.

In off state the switch is open and the only path for

current flowing through the fly back diode. In this state

the inductor is discussed and the polarity will be

Fig. 12: CCM mode of boost converter [5].

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**

Simulink Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with using DC-DC Converter

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/134)

**(a) Mode 1 {0<t≤ton} (b) Mode 2 ton<t ≤ (D+D1)Ts (c)
**

Mode 3 (D+D1)Ts <t≤Ts

If we equate the integral of the inductor voltage as

shown in Figure 4. over one time period to zero,

Vi D T s+ ( Vi - Vo) D1 Ts = 0 (3.3)

Then;

Vo / Vi = ( D1 + D ) / D1 (3.4)

And

Io/Ii = D1 /( D1 + D ) (since Pi=Po) (3.5)

From Fig 4.6c, the average input current, which is

equal to the inductor current, is

Ii=(Vi/2Lb) (DTs) (D+D1) (3.6)

Using Equ. (4.22)

Io=[(ViTs)/(2Lb)]DD1 (3.7)

In practice, since Vo is held constant and D varies

in response to variation in Vi, it is more useful to obtain the

Fig. 14: waveforms of voltage and current output of Boost

required duty cycle, D, as a function of load current for

converter

varies values of Vo/Vi. The critical inductance, Lbc, is

defined as: (at the boundary edge between continuous and

discontinuous modes) IV. CONCLUSION

Lbc = R *D (1-D)2/2*F (3.8) In this work, the details of photovoltaic cell and the

where; Simulink model are developed by using basic equation. The

R : The equivalent load, Ω. Simulink model are devolved in very detailed so easy to

Fs : The switching frequency, Hz study of this photovoltaic model. This PV model using for

The switching frequency chosen carefully because generation of very large power and after that the

limit the loss of device and minimize the side of the boost photovoltaic array is connected with MPPT for maximum

inductor. In higher switching frequency the loss in IGBT power output and than connect with DC boost converter.

increase and reduce the overall efficiency. In lower The output voltage is in DC form so we have to convert in

switching frequency the capacitor and inductor size AC by using the inverter. This AC voltage is connected with

increase. grid by using step up transformer.

Sr.no Parameter Variable Value

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Simulink Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with using DC-DC Converter

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