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# IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

**Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on
**

MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform

Khushali B. Bhatt1 Nilofar A. Sheikh2 Madhusudan V. Gohil3

1

M.E Student 2Assistant Professor

1,2

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

3

Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

1,2

SVIT, Vasad, Gujarat, India 3VIER ,Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Abstract— In today's world as the problem of pollution and net energy for which the consumer will be either credited and

global warming and decreasing fossil fuels is increasing the carried over to the next billing cycle.

need has arise to switch over to renewable energy sources for

generation of electricity. Solar energy is available in II. THEORETICAL STUDY

abundance and so research has been done on increasing use

of solar energy at consumer level. In net metering system the A. Basics Of Net-Metering:

consumer supply surplus solar energy generated to grid and Net metering is an electricity policy which allows utility

when solar energy is not available the energy is consumed customers to offset some or all of their electricity use with

from grid so the power measurement becomes complex. This self produced electricity from renewable energy systems [8].

paper presents the mathematical modelling of the solar PV Net metering facilitates the self-consumption of electricity

call, and the net metering system in MATLAB/SIMULINK generating by the rooftop project and allows for feeding the

platform . Three cases are considered that determines the net surplus energy into the distribution network or grid.

metering mechanism. Depending on whether the customer used more electricity

Key words: Solar energy, Net metering than was generated or exported more to the grid, If net

consumption is positive, customer pays electricity bill. If net

I. INTRODUCTION consumption is negative, customer receives credit on

electricity bill. Net metering policies can vary significantly

Increasing concerns towards global warming has created the by country and by state or province: if net metering is

interest in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, available, if and how long you can keep your banked credits,

including those emitted during electricity generation from

and how much the credit are worth (retail/wholesale). Most

conventional sources like coal, oil, and natural gas has

net metering laws involve monthly rollover of kWh credits, a

created the need to surge for the alternative power generation

small monthly connection fee, require monthly payment of

options. Moreover, the energy security concerns have urged

deficits (i.e. normal electric bill), and annual settlement of

nations to look for sustainable sources of energy to replace any residual credit. Unlike a feed-in tariff (FIT), which

depleting fossil fuels. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) like requires two meters, net metering uses a single, bi-directional

solar and wind and fuel cell provide sustainable and

meter and can measure current flowing in two directions. Net

environmental friendly alternatives for power generation.

metering can be implemented solely as an accounting

Along with increasing environmental issues the problem of

procedure, and requires no special metering, or even any prior

increasing demand is also becoming main concerns.

arrangement or notification. Net metering is a policy

Nowadays the demand of electricity is increasing day by day designed to foster private investment in renewable energy.

while the generation is not sufficient to meet that energy Net metering works by utilizing a meter that is able to spin

demand this leads to the idea of net metering and self

and record energy flow in both directions. The meter spins

generation using renewable energy resources like solar PV,

forward when a customer is drawing power from the utility

wind etc.

grid (i.e., using more energy than they are producing) and

Solar energy is a very easily available and clean spins backward when energy is being sent back to the grid

source of energy. Though the energy received form solar PV (i.e., using less energy than they are producing). Net metering

is intermittent, uncertain it have the advantages as it gives

works only for grid connected systems and what makes it so

sustainable and clean energy . The solar Photovoltaic cell is a

beneficial, besides offsetting a home’s energy consumption

current source to made up of semi-conductor material and

with a RES-E system, is that excess energy sent to the utility

when exposed to sunlight it acts like a diode and generates

can be sold back at retail price.

DC current in output.

This approach allows the residential consumers to B. Variations And Misconceptions About Net Metering:

become producers of electricity. The solar PV plant can be Market net metering and Time of Use metering (TOU) are

installed on roof-top of consumer's house according to the some variations of net metering mechanisms.TOU uses a

capacity of area and requirement of load which becomes a specializes reversible smart meter that determines the usage

stand-alone system. The further advancement in this field of electricity at any time during the day. The utility rates are

lead to the grid-connected roof-top solar PV plants wherein assessed depending on when the electricity is used i.e. day or

the consumers can supply there surplus generated energy to night or seasonal rates. Generally the production cost of

the grid.To measure this exported energy as well as consumed electricity is higher during day peak usage period as

energy a different type of energy meter i.e. bidirectional compared to night so the rates of electricity consumed are

energy meter need to be used. This meter can measure the charged more during the daytime while at night the rates are

power flow in both the direction and it will also calculate the comparatively low but TOU scheme is a issue for renewable

energy sources as for example, The solar systems produce

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**

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

**energy only during day time and produce almost no power at
**

night when the electricity rates are low.[3] In market rate net G: Irradiance (W/m2), Gref : Irradiance at STC=

metering systems, the user's energy use is priced dynamically 1000 W/m2, DT =Tc - Tc,ref (Kelvin), Tc,ref : Cell

according to some function of wholesale electric prices [17]. temperature at STC = 25+ 273 =298 K, lSC : Coefficient

The users' meters are programmed remotely to calculate the temperature of short circuit current (A/K), provided by the

value and are read remotely. Net metering applies such manufacturer, Iph,ref : Photocurrent (A) at STC.

variable pricing to excess power produced by qualifying The reverse saturation current I0 is determined by

systems. equation (3) given below. Here the actual reverse saturation

Misconceptions about net metering scheme, are current is the ratio of reverse saturaton current at Tc= actual

such as that net metering hurts the utility bottom line by cell temperature K and Tc,ref = standard cell temperature

reducing revenues. This argument is similar to the one against (25+273) K.

energy efficiency that customers reducing their purchases of

electricity hurt utility revenues .This would be true if all

households would put PV systems on their roofs. The current ... (3)

market is small and does not affect even a fraction Another ɛG: Material band gap energy (eV), (1.12 eV for Si),

misconception is that net metering tends to be a burden for A is the ideality factor related to the technology of the PV cell

small utilities. The opposite is actually true because large used. In the presented case the material of PV cell is si-poly

organizations are better equipped to handle more complicated thus it have ideality factor of 1.3 and K is the Boltzmann

arrangements. Net metering is as simple as it gets to constant.

administer because it requires no special equipment, no new The total current I total can be determined by

rates to establish and no new procedures. All that is required subtracting the diode current Id from the photocurrent Iph as

is that the utility adds a line in the ledger for each net metering given in equation (4)

customer to carry forward credits until the end of the year. A

survey found that the cost of reading the extra meters for

residential PV systems alone outweighed the cost of net ... (4)

metering [3-10].

D. Modeling Of Inverter:

C. Modeling Of Solar PV Cell: The modeling of inverter is done on the basis of the basic

The model does not take into account the internal losses of circuit of a single phase inverter with 4 mosfet i.e switching

the current. A diode is connected in anti-parallel with the light elements which are given gate signal by using Sinusoidal

generated current source. The output current I is obtained by Pulse Width Modulation technique which compares the AC

Kirchhoff law from fig.1: sin wave from the Grid to the reference signal and triggers the

I = Iph - Id mosfet in synchronization with the Ac signal from grid. The

detailed MATLAB/SIMULINK model of single phase

inverter is shown in fig.5.

E. Modeling Of Net Metering System:

The modeling of entire net metering system is done by

providing the output from PV model to the boost converter

with the MPPT algorithm i.e. the boost converter will boost

up the maximum power obtained by tracking Maximum

Fig. 1: Equivalent circuit of a solar cell Power point using Perturb & Observe method. Then the

Iph is the photocurrent, Id is the diode current which output from converter is fed to Grid-tied Single phase inverter

is proportional to the saturation current and is given by the which will converter the boosted DC- AC and then that

equation 1.. supply is provided to the R-L load. The power consumption

at the load is calculated using rms value of voltage and

current from the PV cell which gives power generated by the

... (1) PV array. The load is also connected in parallel to grid. The

where, load consumption is calculated which show the amount of

VT = k ×Tc /q power provided by the PV array and the amount of power

V is the voltage imposed on the diode. I0 is the consumed by the load. The detailed MATLAB/ SIMULINK

reverse saturation or leakage current of the diode (A), VTc = model of the net metering system is shown in the figure

26 mV at 300 K for silisium cell, Tc is the actual cell below.

temperature (K), k Boltzmann constant (1.381 × 1023 ) J/K, q III. SIMULATION AND RESULTS

is electron charge (1.602 × 1019 C).

The modeling of entire system is done in

The determination of Iph is done using the equation

MATLAB/SIMULINK environment represented by

(2) which show that the photo current Iph is directly

Fig.2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 below. The value of duty cycle D, L and

proportional to the ratio of the Irradiance G and the reference

C for the boost converter are determined by the equation (6),

irradiance Gref at standard test condiotion i.e the ideal value

(7) & (8) repectively as:

of irradiance.

D = 1- Vi/Vo ... (6)

L = (1- D)2 R/ 2 Fs ... (7)

... (2) C = D / Fs× R1 × (∆V/V) ...(8)

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**

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

Where,

Vi = Input Voltage, Vo = Output Voltage, Fs= Switching

frequency and ∆V is the difference of input and output

voltage.

**Fig. 5: Detailed model of single phase SPWM grid-tied
**

inverter with bi-directional calculation of power.

Fig. 2: Detailed model of I0

Fig. 6: Detailed model of MPP algorithm P & O method.

Fig. 3: Detailed model of Iph

Fig. 7: Detailed model of entire system

Fig. 4: Detailed model of I total

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**

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

50 180

PV Current

160 Grid Current

40 Load Current

140

Module Power (P PV)

120

30

Current (A)

100

80

20

60

40

10

20

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Module Voltage (V PV) Time

**Fig. 8: P-V Characteristics of the PV subsystem Fig. 11: Case-1 Grid provides more power than the PV array
**

as requirement is more.

Case-2 : Here we consider that the load requirement

of the apartment is 15 KW then the power generated by the

PV array is 8.9 KW and thus the remaining load requirement

is fulfilled by power from grid which is approximately 7 KW.

**Fig. 9: I-V characteristics of the PV system.
**

2

1.5

Current

1

0.5

Fig. 12: The PV current generated is more so the power

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 required from grid is less to match load requirement.

Case-3 : In this case we can see from the figure 13

300

that as the load requirement of the apartment is 15 KW both

200 the sources i.e PV array and grid supplies equal amount of

Voltage

**100 power to the load. The circuit is designed such a way that the
**

0

load will connect to grid when the Power generated from the

PV will be less than the load requirement. The power

-100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 generated by the PV and the that consumed from grid are both

Time shown in the MATLAB/SIMULINK model as in fig.5.

Fig. 10: Output voltage and current of Boost converter 100

We take three case of load requirement of an 90 PV Current

apartment with maximum load requirement of 30 KW, the Grid Current

80 Load Current

simulation results are shown below in fig 11 ,12 ,13,

70

respectively.

60

Current (A)

**Case-1 : Here we consider the load requirement of
**

the apartment is 28 KW then from the simulation result below 50

we can see that the output power from the PV array is 40

**approximately 6.9 KW and the remaining power required by 30
**

the load is provided by the grid which is approximately 22.5 20

KW. 10

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Time

**Fig. 13: Case-3 This result show that both solar n grid
**

sources provides almost equal amount.

Thus from the three cases discussed above we can

see that the power generated from PV is utilized in the load

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**

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

and the surplus power required by the load is fulfilled from IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference(EPEC),

the grid. If the load requirement is less than the power 2009,PP-1-6.

generated by PV array we can feed it to the grid thus [11] Adam M. Payne, Richard D. Duke, Robert H. Williams,

becoming the generator of our own electricity. “The Impact of Net metering on the Residential Rooftop

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IV. CONCLUSION California”, Energy policy 39,2011,pp.5243-5253.

In this paper we discuss about the basics of net-metering [12] G.Ravi Kumar, A.Hari Prasad, N.Satya Saketha,

policy and variations & misconception about net metering. K.Saichandana,” A New Innovative Design principle of

The paper represent the MATLAB/SIMULINK model of the Grid Interactive Roof Top Solar Photovoltaic Power

PV array and the entire net metering system along with the Generation”,International Journal of Education and

boost converter and the single phase inverter. The Perturb & applied research, Issue Spl-1, Vol. 4, Jan - June 2014

Observe Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm is also ,pp.37-41.

implemented which gives maximum power from the solar PV [13] Rashid Al Badwawi1,*, Mohammad Abusara1 and

array. The simulation results show that by using roof-top Tapas Mallick1 “A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and

solar PV the power required from grid reduces to much extent Wind Energy System” Smart Science Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.

as the requirement is met with power from PV array. 127-138(2015)

[14] Market”, Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , 2000 ,pp.

1391 – 1394.

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