# IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on
Khushali B. Bhatt1 Nilofar A. Sheikh2 Madhusudan V. Gohil3
1
M.E Student 2Assistant Professor
1,2
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
3
Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
1,2
Abstract— In today's world as the problem of pollution and net energy for which the consumer will be either credited and
global warming and decreasing fossil fuels is increasing the carried over to the next billing cycle.
need has arise to switch over to renewable energy sources for
generation of electricity. Solar energy is available in II. THEORETICAL STUDY
abundance and so research has been done on increasing use
of solar energy at consumer level. In net metering system the A. Basics Of Net-Metering:
consumer supply surplus solar energy generated to grid and Net metering is an electricity policy which allows utility
when solar energy is not available the energy is consumed customers to offset some or all of their electricity use with
from grid so the power measurement becomes complex. This self produced electricity from renewable energy systems [8].
paper presents the mathematical modelling of the solar PV Net metering facilitates the self-consumption of electricity
call, and the net metering system in MATLAB/SIMULINK generating by the rooftop project and allows for feeding the
platform . Three cases are considered that determines the net surplus energy into the distribution network or grid.
metering mechanism. Depending on whether the customer used more electricity
Key words: Solar energy, Net metering than was generated or exported more to the grid, If net
consumption is positive, customer pays electricity bill. If net
I. INTRODUCTION consumption is negative, customer receives credit on
electricity bill. Net metering policies can vary significantly
Increasing concerns towards global warming has created the by country and by state or province: if net metering is
interest in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, available, if and how long you can keep your banked credits,
including those emitted during electricity generation from
and how much the credit are worth (retail/wholesale). Most
conventional sources like coal, oil, and natural gas has
net metering laws involve monthly rollover of kWh credits, a
created the need to surge for the alternative power generation
small monthly connection fee, require monthly payment of
options. Moreover, the energy security concerns have urged
deficits (i.e. normal electric bill), and annual settlement of
nations to look for sustainable sources of energy to replace any residual credit. Unlike a feed-in tariff (FIT), which
depleting fossil fuels. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) like requires two meters, net metering uses a single, bi-directional
solar and wind and fuel cell provide sustainable and
meter and can measure current flowing in two directions. Net
environmental friendly alternatives for power generation.
metering can be implemented solely as an accounting
Along with increasing environmental issues the problem of
procedure, and requires no special metering, or even any prior
increasing demand is also becoming main concerns.
arrangement or notification. Net metering is a policy
Nowadays the demand of electricity is increasing day by day designed to foster private investment in renewable energy.
while the generation is not sufficient to meet that energy Net metering works by utilizing a meter that is able to spin
demand this leads to the idea of net metering and self
and record energy flow in both directions. The meter spins
generation using renewable energy resources like solar PV,
forward when a customer is drawing power from the utility
wind etc.
grid (i.e., using more energy than they are producing) and
Solar energy is a very easily available and clean spins backward when energy is being sent back to the grid
source of energy. Though the energy received form solar PV (i.e., using less energy than they are producing). Net metering
is intermittent, uncertain it have the advantages as it gives
works only for grid connected systems and what makes it so
sustainable and clean energy . The solar Photovoltaic cell is a
beneficial, besides offsetting a home’s energy consumption
current source to made up of semi-conductor material and
with a RES-E system, is that excess energy sent to the utility
when exposed to sunlight it acts like a diode and generates
can be sold back at retail price.
DC current in output.
This approach allows the residential consumers to B. Variations And Misconceptions About Net Metering:
become producers of electricity. The solar PV plant can be Market net metering and Time of Use metering (TOU) are
installed on roof-top of consumer's house according to the some variations of net metering mechanisms.TOU uses a
capacity of area and requirement of load which becomes a specializes reversible smart meter that determines the usage
stand-alone system. The further advancement in this field of electricity at any time during the day. The utility rates are
lead to the grid-connected roof-top solar PV plants wherein assessed depending on when the electricity is used i.e. day or
the consumers can supply there surplus generated energy to night or seasonal rates. Generally the production cost of
the grid.To measure this exported energy as well as consumed electricity is higher during day peak usage period as
energy a different type of energy meter i.e. bidirectional compared to night so the rates of electricity consumed are
energy meter need to be used. This meter can measure the charged more during the daytime while at night the rates are
power flow in both the direction and it will also calculate the comparatively low but TOU scheme is a issue for renewable
energy sources as for example, The solar systems produce

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform
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energy only during day time and produce almost no power at
night when the electricity rates are low.[3] In market rate net G: Irradiance (W/m2), Gref : Irradiance at STC=
metering systems, the user's energy use is priced dynamically 1000 W/m2, DT =Tc - Tc,ref (Kelvin), Tc,ref : Cell
according to some function of wholesale electric prices [17]. temperature at STC = 25+ 273 =298 K, lSC : Coefficient
The users' meters are programmed remotely to calculate the temperature of short circuit current (A/K), provided by the
value and are read remotely. Net metering applies such manufacturer, Iph,ref : Photocurrent (A) at STC.
variable pricing to excess power produced by qualifying The reverse saturation current I0 is determined by
systems. equation (3) given below. Here the actual reverse saturation
Misconceptions about net metering scheme, are current is the ratio of reverse saturaton current at Tc= actual
such as that net metering hurts the utility bottom line by cell temperature K and Tc,ref = standard cell temperature
reducing revenues. This argument is similar to the one against (25+273) K.
energy efficiency that customers reducing their purchases of
electricity hurt utility revenues .This would be true if all
households would put PV systems on their roofs. The current ... (3)
market is small and does not affect even a fraction Another ɛG: Material band gap energy (eV), (1.12 eV for Si),
misconception is that net metering tends to be a burden for A is the ideality factor related to the technology of the PV cell
small utilities. The opposite is actually true because large used. In the presented case the material of PV cell is si-poly
organizations are better equipped to handle more complicated thus it have ideality factor of 1.3 and K is the Boltzmann
arrangements. Net metering is as simple as it gets to constant.
administer because it requires no special equipment, no new The total current I total can be determined by
rates to establish and no new procedures. All that is required subtracting the diode current Id from the photocurrent Iph as
is that the utility adds a line in the ledger for each net metering given in equation (4)
customer to carry forward credits until the end of the year. A
survey found that the cost of reading the extra meters for
residential PV systems alone outweighed the cost of net ... (4)
metering [3-10].
D. Modeling Of Inverter:
C. Modeling Of Solar PV Cell: The modeling of inverter is done on the basis of the basic
The model does not take into account the internal losses of circuit of a single phase inverter with 4 mosfet i.e switching
the current. A diode is connected in anti-parallel with the light elements which are given gate signal by using Sinusoidal
generated current source. The output current I is obtained by Pulse Width Modulation technique which compares the AC
Kirchhoff law from fig.1: sin wave from the Grid to the reference signal and triggers the
I = Iph - Id mosfet in synchronization with the Ac signal from grid. The
detailed MATLAB/SIMULINK model of single phase
inverter is shown in fig.5.
E. Modeling Of Net Metering System:
The modeling of entire net metering system is done by
providing the output from PV model to the boost converter
with the MPPT algorithm i.e. the boost converter will boost
up the maximum power obtained by tracking Maximum
Fig. 1: Equivalent circuit of a solar cell Power point using Perturb & Observe method. Then the
Iph is the photocurrent, Id is the diode current which output from converter is fed to Grid-tied Single phase inverter
is proportional to the saturation current and is given by the which will converter the boosted DC- AC and then that
equation 1.. supply is provided to the R-L load. The power consumption
at the load is calculated using rms value of voltage and
current from the PV cell which gives power generated by the
... (1) PV array. The load is also connected in parallel to grid. The
where, load consumption is calculated which show the amount of
VT = k ×Tc /q power provided by the PV array and the amount of power
V is the voltage imposed on the diode. I0 is the consumed by the load. The detailed MATLAB/ SIMULINK
reverse saturation or leakage current of the diode (A), VTc = model of the net metering system is shown in the figure
26 mV at 300 K for silisium cell, Tc is the actual cell below.
temperature (K), k Boltzmann constant (1.381 × 1023 ) J/K, q III. SIMULATION AND RESULTS
is electron charge (1.602 × 1019 C).
The modeling of entire system is done in
The determination of Iph is done using the equation
(2) which show that the photo current Iph is directly
Fig.2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8 below. The value of duty cycle D, L and
proportional to the ratio of the Irradiance G and the reference
C for the boost converter are determined by the equation (6),
irradiance Gref at standard test condiotion i.e the ideal value
(7) & (8) repectively as:
D = 1- Vi/Vo ... (6)
L = (1- D)2 R/ 2 Fs ... (7)
... (2) C = D / Fs× R1 × (∆V/V) ...(8)

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

Where,
Vi = Input Voltage, Vo = Output Voltage, Fs= Switching
frequency and ∆V is the difference of input and output
voltage.

Fig. 5: Detailed model of single phase SPWM grid-tied
inverter with bi-directional calculation of power.

Fig. 2: Detailed model of I0

Fig. 6: Detailed model of MPP algorithm P & O method.

Fig. 3: Detailed model of Iph

Fig. 7: Detailed model of entire system

Fig. 4: Detailed model of I total

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

50 180
PV Current
160 Grid Current
140
Module Power (P PV)

120
30

Current (A)
100

80
20
60

40
10
20

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Module Voltage (V PV) Time

Fig. 8: P-V Characteristics of the PV subsystem Fig. 11: Case-1 Grid provides more power than the PV array
as requirement is more.
Case-2 : Here we consider that the load requirement
of the apartment is 15 KW then the power generated by the
PV array is 8.9 KW and thus the remaining load requirement
is fulfilled by power from grid which is approximately 7 KW.

Fig. 9: I-V characteristics of the PV system.
2

1.5
Current

1

0.5
Fig. 12: The PV current generated is more so the power
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 required from grid is less to match load requirement.
Case-3 : In this case we can see from the figure 13
300
that as the load requirement of the apartment is 15 KW both
200 the sources i.e PV array and grid supplies equal amount of
Voltage

100 power to the load. The circuit is designed such a way that the
0
load will connect to grid when the Power generated from the
PV will be less than the load requirement. The power
-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 generated by the PV and the that consumed from grid are both
Time shown in the MATLAB/SIMULINK model as in fig.5.
Fig. 10: Output voltage and current of Boost converter 100
We take three case of load requirement of an 90 PV Current
apartment with maximum load requirement of 30 KW, the Grid Current
simulation results are shown below in fig 11 ,12 ,13,
70
respectively.
60
Current (A)

Case-1 : Here we consider the load requirement of
the apartment is 28 KW then from the simulation result below 50

we can see that the output power from the PV array is 40

approximately 6.9 KW and the remaining power required by 30
the load is provided by the grid which is approximately 22.5 20
KW. 10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Time

Fig. 13: Case-3 This result show that both solar n grid
sources provides almost equal amount.
Thus from the three cases discussed above we can
see that the power generated from PV is utilized in the load

Mathematical Modelling and Implementation of Net Metering on MATLAB/SIMULINK Platform
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/196)

and the surplus power required by the load is fulfilled from IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference(EPEC),
the grid. If the load requirement is less than the power 2009,PP-1-6.
generated by PV array we can feed it to the grid thus [11] Adam M. Payne, Richard D. Duke, Robert H. Williams,
becoming the generator of our own electricity. “The Impact of Net metering on the Residential Rooftop
PV from distributed PV for residential customers in
IV. CONCLUSION California”, Energy policy 39,2011,pp.5243-5253.
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policy and variations & misconception about net metering. K.Saichandana,” A New Innovative Design principle of
The paper represent the MATLAB/SIMULINK model of the Grid Interactive Roof Top Solar Photovoltaic Power
PV array and the entire net metering system along with the Generation”,International Journal of Education and
boost converter and the single phase inverter. The Perturb & applied research, Issue Spl-1, Vol. 4, Jan - June 2014
Observe Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm is also ,pp.37-41.
implemented which gives maximum power from the solar PV [13] Rashid Al Badwawi1,*, Mohammad Abusara1 and
array. The simulation results show that by using roof-top Tapas Mallick1 “A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and
solar PV the power required from grid reduces to much extent Wind Energy System” Smart Science Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.
as the requirement is met with power from PV array. 127-138(2015)
[14] Market”, Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , 2000 ,pp.
1391 – 1394.
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