IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Cost Estimation of a Particular Biomass Power Plant
Rakesh Das1 Writwik Balow2 Raju Basak3 Sobhan Chakraborty4 Avik Ghosh5
Lecturer 2,5Assistant Professor 3Research Scholar 4U.G Student
Department of Electrical Engineering
Calcutta Institute of Technology (Second Shift) Uluberia, Howrah, West Bengal, India
Ideal institute of engineering Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Jadavpur University Kolkata – 700 032; West Bengal, India
Dr. Sudhir Chandra Sur Degree Engineering College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Abstract— All the living matter, its total biomass, exists in and others produce pyrolysis oils that can be used to replace
the thin surface layer called Biosphere, In nature the energy liquid fuels. Boiler fuel can include wood chips, pellets,
that has been stored in the biomass of plants is liberated sawdust, or bio-oil. Steam from the boiler is then expanded
through a series of conversions this involves metabolic through a steam turbine, which spins to run a generator and
process such as respiration in living matter, physical process produce electricity.
such as re-radiation of heat energy & the evaporation. In general all biomass system contains fuel storage
Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels produced from biomass. space and some type of fuel handling equipment and controls.
The two most commonly used biofuels are ethanol and A system using wood chips, sawdust or pellets typically use
biodiesel. Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the a bunker or silo for short-term storage and an outside fuel
anaerobic digestion of organic matter including manure, yard for larger storage. Manual equipment, like front loaders,
sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste can be used to transfer biomass from the piles to the bunkers,
or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic but this method involves significant cost for labor and
conditions. Day by Day main sources of energy is decreasing equipment operations and maintenance (O&M).
and becomes costly. Generating companies are constantly Wood chip-fired electric power systems typically
looking for the best alternative sources. Biomass can be one use one dry ton per megawatt-hour of electricity production.
of the sources of energy production. In this paper attempt has This approximation is typical of wet wood systems and is
been made to estimate the cost of 10 MW Biomass Power useful for a first approximation of fuel use and storage
plants, which gives rough idea about installation and requirements but the actual value will vary with system
Generation of particular capacity biomass plant efficiency. Most wood chips produced from green lumber
Key words: S Biomass, Power Plant, Alternative Source, will have a moisture content of 40% to 55%, wet basis, which
Generation, Installation means that a ton of green fuel will contain 800 to 1,100
pounds of water. This water will reduce the recoverable
I. INTRODUCTION energy content of the material, and reduce the efficiency of
Most biomass power plants use direct-fired combustion the boiler, as the water must be evaporated in the first stages
systems. They burn biomass directly to produce high- of combustion.
pressure steam that drives a turbine generator to make The biggest problems with biomass-fired plants are
electricity. In some biomass industries, the extracted or spent in handling and pre-processing the fuel. This is the case with
steam from the power plant is also used for manufacturing both small grate-fired plants and large suspension-fired
processes. These combined heat and powersystems (CHP) plants. Drying the biomass before combusting or gasifying it
greatly increase overall energy efficiency to approximately improves the overall process efficiency, but may not be
80% from the standard biomass systems with efficiencies of economically viable in many cases.
approximately 20%.
A simple biomass electric generation system is II. COSTS OF TECHNOLOGY
made up of several key components. For a steam cycle, this There are many companies, primarily in Europe, that sell
includes some combination of the following items small-scale engines and combined heat and power systems
 equipment for fuel storage and handling that can run on biogas, natural gas, or propane. Some of these
 furnace systems are available with outputs from about 2 kilowatts
 Boiler (kW) and approximately 20,000 British thermal units (Btu)
 Pumps per hour of heat, to several megawatts (MW). In addition,
 Fans small (100 to 1,500 kW) steam engine/gen-sets and steam
 Steam turbine turbines (100 to 3000 kW) that are fueled by solid biomass.
In some areas direct combustion is the common
 Generator
method of producing heat from biomass. Small-scale biomass
 Condenser
electric plants have installed costs of RS 220000/- to RS
 Cooling tower
280000/- per kW, and a cost of energy of RS 60/- to RS 65/-
 System control per kilowatt hour (kWh).
Direct combustion systems feed a biomass There are two types of chip-fired direct combustion
feedstock into a combustor or furnace, where the biomass is systems, stationary and traveling-grate combustors and
burned with excess air to heat water in a boiler to create atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors.
steam. Instead of direct combustion some developing
technologies gasify the biomass to produce a combustible gas

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Cost Estimation of a Particular Biomass Power Plant
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III. FIXED-BED SYSTEMS cooling tower basin etc. The cost of laying in plant roads,
There are various configurations of fixed-bed systems, but fencing drains and sewers is also included as part of civil cost.
the common characteristic is that fuel is delivered in some The RCC/structural steel work for the turbogenerator
manner onto a grate where it reacts with oxygen in the air. building is also included under the heading of Civil Works
This is an exothermic reaction that produces very hot gases cost. No piling has been envisaged for the building as well as
and generates steam in the heat exchanger section of the for equipment foundations and only open foundations are
boiler. considered.
The civil work quantities and the cost of civil are
IV. BED SYSTEMS only estimates and will have to be suitably modified and
firmed up after the equipment supply is finalized and
In either a circulating fluidized-bed or bubbling fluidized-bed adequate data regarding the loading dimensions of equipment
system, the biomass is burned in a hot bed of suspended, are available from the manufacturers and suppliers during the
incombustible particles, such as sand. Compared to grate engineering stage and also on the actual soil conditions
combustors, fluidized-bed systems generally produce more encountered at different stages of construction is given in
complete carbon conversion, resulting in reduced emissions Table -5 in the appendix.
and improved system efficiency. In addition, fluidized-bed
boilers can use a wider range of feedstocks. Furthermore, VII. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS
fluidized-bed systems have a higher parasitic electric load
than fixed-bed systems due to increased fan power The project cost includes the cost of all other auxiliary
requirements. systems of the power plant, like the cooling water system
consisting of cooling tower, and the pumps, DM water
V. COST ESTIMATION OF A 10MW BIOMASS POWER PLANT system, compressed air system, ventilation system, fire
fighting, Steam piping, high pressure and low pressure, feed
It deals with the estimates of the total cost of the power water piping, cooling water piping and all other piping of the
project. The estimate is also based on the budgetary offers power plant.
received from the various manufacturers for the major The transmission lines for evacuating power are also
equipment and in house cost data compiled for power plants. considered in the electrical estimation. The cost of the
Contingency provision has been made, but not the escalation, generator transformer for meeting the power requirement at
as the project is expected to be implemented within short 415 voltage level for power plant, the power control center
period. for feeding power to the plant, the cables and ducts, complete
This chapter deals with the estimates of the total cost earthling of the plant and lighting are included in the cost.
of the power project. The estimate is also based on the Cost for the plant erection, testing and commissioning have
budgetary offers received from the various manufacturers for been included in the equipment cost. Also the cost estimates
the major equipment and in house cost data compiled for given in the report are inclusive of the taxes and duties and
power plants. Contingency provision has been made, but not insurance.
the escalation. The cost of the two years spares is estimated to be
The cost of the power plant given in this chapter two percent of the mechanical and electrical equipment cost
covers all the costs associated with the construction of the which is included in the cost of the equipment included in the
plant which includes the civil construction cost, cost of works cost estimate.
equipment for power generation, cost of auxiliaries and The total cost of the mechanical and electrical works
utilities. The total cost is arrived at by adding to this cost, the is expected to be around Rs. 3305 Lakhs
pre operative expenses inclusive of project design and Equipment/ Machinery Amount
engineering, start up and training expenses, interest during Steam Turbine & generator 1100.0
construction and the margin money for working capital.
Boiler 1250.0
Table-1 gives the details of the Land & Site
Development.Table-2 gives the details of the estimate of DM plant 20.0
Machinery cost including Electricals.Table-3 indicates the Cooling water arrangement and piping 50.0
Miscellaneous Fixed asset. Fuel handling 150.0
Particulars Amount Ash handling 50.0
Cost of Land 40.0 EOT Crane 20.0
Cost of development of land 10.0 Substation 200.0
Cost of roads 10.0 Electrical Plant 40.0
road connecting to the Main Road 5.0 Cooling tower 70.0
Internal roads 10.0 Fire protection 20.0
Cost of fencing 10.0 Air conditioning 45.0
Cost of Gates 5.0 water & Air comp. 45.0
Total 90.0 Erection 85.0
Table 1: Development of Land and Site (Rs. Lakhs) Transmission lines 120.0
Miscellaneous 40.0
The civil work includes the earthwork and concrete work for Table 2: MACHINERY COST (Rs. In Lakhs)
the power house building, equipment foundations, tanks,

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Cost Estimation of a Particular Biomass Power Plant
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/197)

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS FIXED ASSETS Integrating Terrestrial and Oceanic Components"
The cost of miscellaneous fixed assets is estimated to be Science 281 (5374), 237240,PMID 9657713., P 1998
Rs.82 Lakhs based on the budget from the suppliers. The [8] RandorRadakovits, Robert E. Jinkerson, Al Darzins,
details are as under: Matthew C. Posewitz1 "Genetic Engineering of Algae
Amount for Enhanced Biofuel Production". Eukaryotic Cell 9 (4),
Particulars 486-501, 2010
Rs in Lakhs
[9] Field, C.B. Bergenfield, M.J. Randerson, J.T.
The laboratory equipment 35.00
Falkowski,, "Primary production of the Biosphere
Workshop equipment 25.00 Integrating Terrestrial and Oceanic Components”
Vehicles 15.00 Science 281 (5374), 237–240., P 1998
Furniture 5.00 [10] Liu, G. E. D. Larson, R. H. Williams, T. G. Kreutz and
Office equipment 2.00 X. Guo, "Making fischer-tropsch fuels and electricity
from coal and biomass: Performance and cost analysis."
Total 82.00
Energy & Fuels 25, 415–437. 2011
Table 3: miscellaneous fixed assets [11] Rajvanshi, A. K. "Biomass Gasification." Alternative
Energy in Agriculture, Vol. II, Ed. D. Yogi Goswami,
The repairs and maintenance cost for this project has been [12] Kunkes, E. L. Simonetti, D. A. West, R. M.Serrano-
assumed as Rs.148 Lakhs in first year, which is given in Ruiz, J. C. Gartner, C. A.Dumesic, J. A.. "Catalytic
Table-4. The salaries and wages of the operation and Conversion of Biomass to Nonfunctional Hydrocarbons
maintenance personnel of the power generation plant are and Targeted Liquid-Fuel Classes” Science 322 (5900),
separately considered and the same have been worked out as 417–421, PMID 18801970. 2008
Rs.68 Lakhs including a provision for contract labor service [13] Kobayashi, Hirokazu, Yabushita, Mizuho; Komanoya,
charges Tasuku, Hara, Kenji, Fujita, Ichiro; Fukuoka, Atsushi.
Expenses Amount "High-Yielding One-Pot Synthesis of Glucose from
Repairs and Maintenance 60 Cellulose Using Simple Activated Carbons and Trace
Salaries and Wages 68 Hydrochloric Acid", ACS Catalysis 3 (4): 581–587.
Consumables 20
[14] Chheda, Juben N. Román-Leshkov, YuriyDumesic,
Total 148 James A.. "Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and
Table 4: furfural by dehydration of biomass-derived mono- and
poly-saccharides" Green Chemistry 9 (4), 2007
X. CONCLUSION [15] Knight, Chris. "Wireless Sensor Networks and
The organic matter that makes up those plants is known as Ecological Monitoring". Smart Sensors, Measurement
biomass. Biomass can be used to produce electricity, and Instrumentation 3,pp-151–178.2013
transportation fuels, or chemicals. The use of biomass for any
of these purposes is called bioenergy.
This can be the one of the alternative for sources of
energy. Renewable energy contributes a considerable
percentage of the total energy produced now days. Estimating
the cost of 10 MW Biomass Power plants, proves that it is
quiet economic and useful.

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