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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Miniaturize Micro Strip Patch Antenna with DGS Technology

Jagdish Chaudhary1 Gautam D. Makwana2
P.G Student 2Assistant Professor
SK Patel Engineering College, Visnagar, Gujarat, India
Abstract A defected ground structure(DGS) is proposed to
compact size of microstrip patch antenna. The main goal of =
this paper is to miniaturize a microstrip patch antenna 2 r + 1
resonating at 2.4 GHz. for this purpose DGS has been employ 2) Effective length of the patch
to shift resonance of an initial MPA from 5.5GHz to 2.4GHz
by disturbing the antennas current distribution. The propose 2
DGS is incorporated in the ground of MPA to improve its
performance. Finally a miniaturization up to 82.83% with
respect to conventional MPA. The simulation results can be
carried out by CST software.
Key words: Microstrip patch antenna (MPA), Defected
Ground Structure, Miniaturization

Microstrip patch antennas are most commonly used now
days. Due to its low-profile, ease of fabrication, versatility,
light weight it has gained more momentum than other
antennas. Microstrip antennas are often known as planar
antenna because its elements are usually flat [2]. The 3) Extended length
radiating patch can be square, rectangle, circle, hexagonal or
any other shapes. Although there are few demerits which [ + 0.3] [ + 0.264]
= 0.412
MPAs suffers like- low efficiency, narrow bandwidth, less [ 0.258] [ + 0.8]

gain because of their small size and high return loss. Many
4) Actual length of patch
researches till now have been done in MPAs to show better
L=Leff - 2L
result and in removing all the demerits. Many designs have
already proposed in enhancing all the demerits. In this paper
also a design is proposed to compact of microstrip patch
antenna [3]. Many types of miniaturization techniques, such
as using of dielectric substrate of high permittivity, slot on The proposed microstrip patch antennas structure shown in
the patch, DGS at the ground plane or a combination of them Fig. 2. In this design the substrate FR4 is used due to its low
have been proposed and applied to microstrip patch antennas cost and easy fabrication. The substrate height is 1.6 mm, the
[6]. In this paper DGS are used to miniaturize the rectangular dielectric constant is 4.4 and the loss tangent is 0.021. The
microstrip antenna. The present work deals with design and dimensions of our antenna are optimized by using CST
analysis of a rectangular compact microstrip antenna for Microwave Studio tool.
wireless application. The design incorporate like hammer
shaped defected ground structure which is in the ground
plane, which disturbs shielded current distribution in ground
plane [6], [8]. Initially the antenna is designed for the
resonant frequency of 5.5GHz and the using DGS the
resonant frequency is shift to 2.4 GHz. So a size reduction of
82.83 % is achieved..


Microstrip antennas are designed with different types of
substrate like FR4, PTFE, RT duroid 5880 etc depending
upon design requirement. The Microstrip patch antennas are
basically designed by etching the antenna structure on the
substrate. Depending on the relative permittivity, operating
frequency the width, length, feed distances are decided [3]. Fig. 2: Top view of our patch antenna Resonating at
Here FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6 mm and relative 5.5 GHz
permittivity of 4.4 is used. So the desired length and width
can be calculated design equation [1].
1) Width of patch

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Miniaturize Micro Strip Patch Antenna with DGS Technology
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/199)

properties, specially the resonance frequency. Then we

introduce a third circle of DGS at middle of two circles and
do the same study. Both of these simulations have been
carried out by CST Microwave Studio.
A. With Two Circle Dgs:
In absence of DGS, we have seen in Section II that the
resonance frequency of our microstrip patch antenna is at 5.5
GHz. Now with two circles type DGS with radius equal to
5mm introduced at the edge of patch with y-center 9 and -9,
the simulation result obtained for the return loss is shown in
Fig. 6. We can see that the resonance frequency has been
signicantly inuenced by the DGS, namely, it has been
brought to about 4.9 GHz.
Fig. 3: Simulated return loss of the patch Antenna
Resonating at 5.5 GHz.
The simulated return loss obtained for this antenna
is shown in Fig. 3. We can see that the adaptation is
better than 10 dB and the resonance frequency is around 5.5


DGS is an etched periodic or non-periodic cascaded
configuration defect in ground of a planar transmission line
(e.g., coplanar, microstrip and conductor backed coplanar
wave guide) which disturbs the shield current distribution in
the ground plane cause of the defect in the ground. This
disturbance will change characteristics of a transmission line Fig. 5: Microstrip patch antenna with two circles
such as line capacitance and inductance. In the other word, DGS (a =5 mm, b = 5 mm)
any defect etched in the ground plane it will increasing
effective capacitance and inductance[8].
Different types of shapes etched in the microstrip
line ground plane is shown In Fig. 4, including spiral head,
arrowhead-slot and H-shape slots and more complex DGSs
to improve the circuit presentation are open-loop dumbbell,
square open-loop with middle section slot. The newly
develop DGS unit can control the two transmission zeros near
the pass band edges and easily control the frequency of the
slot by changing the length of the metal fingers [9]

Fig. 6: Simulation Of Return Loss For The Antenna With

Two Circles DGS:
B. With Three Circle Dgs:
Now we introduce the third circle of DGS at middle of two
circles radius equal to 7.80mm to our proposed antenna as
shown in Fig. 7. With three circle DGS, the obtain return loss
for this structure is -20.25dB presented in Fig. 8 and is also
shows that the resonance frequency has been shifted to
Fig. 4: Different Geometries of DGS around 2.4 GHz. Thus, we can say that we have obtained very
acceptable result with simulation. Namely, we have designed
V. MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITH DGS microstrip patch antenna with DGS resonating at 2.4 GHz.
microstrip patch antenna with DGS resonating at 2.4 GHz.
We deploy DGS in order to shift the resonance frequency of
the microstrip antenna previously presented in Fig. 1. First
we introduce two circle type DGS with radius equal to 5mm
and it is symmetrically located at edge of the patch with y-
center 9 and -9 and we study its e ect on the antenna

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Miniaturize Micro Strip Patch Antenna with DGS Technology
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/199)

Fig. 7: Microstrip patch antenna with three circle

DGS (a =7.80 mm, b = 14.80mm).

Fig. 10: Microstrip Patch Antenna With DGS Resonating

At 2.4ghz
B. Radiation Pattern:
The radiation patterns shown in Figs. 11 and 12 are obtained
for our conventional microstrip antenna and for a DGS
microstrip antenna at 2.4 GHz, respectively. In these gures
we can see that the simulated gain for the conventional
antenna is 8.57 dB as for the DGS antenna the simulated gain
is 8.62 dB.

Fig. 8: Simulation of return loss for the Antenna with three

circles DGS.



A. Size Comparison:
Figure 9 and 10 shows a size comparison between a
conventional microstrip antenna and the antenna that we
have previously designed using three circles types DGS, and Fig. 11: Radiation pattern for the conventional antenna
both resonating at 2.4 GHz. We can see that employing a
defected ground plane beneath the microstrip patch antenna
allows us to reduce the conventional surface up to 82.83%.

Fig. 12: Radiation pattern for the DGS antenna

The miniaturized microstrip patch antenna has been carried
out by DGS structure at 2.4 GHz frequency. Initially
Fig. 9: Conventional microstrip patch antenna resonating at microstrip patch antenna resonates at 5.5 GHz after
2.4GHz employing three circle DGS initially shift resonant frequency
2.4GHz and compare these structure with conventional MPA
resonating at 2.4 GHz finally 82.83% miniaturization has
been carried out by this DGS structure.

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Miniaturize Micro Strip Patch Antenna with DGS Technology
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/199)

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