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Working with Reports


Reports are created by performing computations (see also Properties, Strength, Member Check, Web Crippling,
Torsion Properties, and Diagrams Report). All computations are displayed in a temporary window that allows you
to browse the output. If you want to hold this output in a report window for subsequent saving or printing, select
the OK button (or press Enter). Otherwise select the Cancel button (or press Esc).

Outputs from different sections or analyses will automatically result in separate report windows. However, report
windows may contain output from several different computations for the same section or analysis. As long as the
inputs for the section or analysis have not changed between computations, selecting OK will append the original
report with the current output. If changes were made, a new report window will be created, even if a previous
report window exists for the same section or analysis.

The contents of a report cannot be edited. However, you may select portions of the report and copy it to the
clipboard using the Copy command on the Edit menu, or pressing Ctrl-C. Once on the clipboard, you may paste it
into another application such as WordPad.

Once a report is created, it may be printed by selecting Print from the File menu. If you print the inputs for the
associated section or analysis at the same time as the report, these printouts may combine to conserve paper.
They share the same heading information.

A report may be saved with its associated section or analysis. When you save a section or analysis and there is
an associated report window, they are saved together. When you open that file later, the report window will be
redisplayed.

If you change any inputs to the section or analysis after creating a report, that report loses its association with the
section or analysis, and cannot be saved. Also, a report cannot be saved by itself, separate from a section or
analysis.

Properties Report
The Properties report is created when you select Properties from the Compute menu (only available for sections).
This report includes full and net section properties in accordance with conventional methods of structural design.
These properties are computed using mathematically rigorous derivations, including integration through the bend
radius segments and across the material thickness. The calculations for torsional properties use exact
integrations for thin-walled sections that incorporate the bend radius segments as well.

For sections containing more than one part, and any of the parts do not have a principal axis on the principal axis
of the section, the location of the shear center (Xo and Yo) is an approximation. The torsional warping constant
(Cw) and St. Venant torsion constant (J) are computed as the sum of the Cw and J values for the individual parts.
Element connectivity between parts tends to change these properties. In such cases, you should manually
determine and enter an override in the Section Inputs window. These overrides are then shown in this report
instead of the values computed by CFS.

Strength Report
The Strength report is created when you select Strength from the Compute menu (only available for sections). If
ASD is selected on the Compute menu, this report includes strengths for the Allowable Stress Design method. If
LRFD is selected on the Compute menu, this report includes design strengths for the Load and Resistance Factor
Design method. The strength values in this report are for the fully braced case. In other words, axial and bending
strengths are based on the initiation of yielding.

This report includes strengths for compression, tension, shear, and bending. A positive moment about the X axis
has compression above the X axis. A positive moment about the Y axis has compression to the right of the Y axis.

The compression and bending strengths are accompanied by the effective section properties used in determining

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the nominal strength of the section, where the maximum stress is the yield stress. The effective widths of
elements are determined in accordance with Procedure I of the 1996 AISI Specification for carbon steel, and
Procedure I of the 2002 ASCE Specification for stainless steel (see Element Behavior).

If the section has any holes, the effective properties are computed based on the net section. This is because fully
braced failure will occur at the weakest point in the member.

The yield stress used for each strength type is increased to the appropriate calculated value if you choose to
apply strength increase from cold work of forming in the Section Inputs window (for carbon steel only), and the
section meets the other specification criteria necessary to use the increase.

Since CFS allows you to specify radii of different sizes, it uses a generalized form of the AISI calculation for the
strength increase: Fya = (SAcFyc + SAfFy)/(SAc+SAf), where Ac and Fyc are the area and the tensile yield point
of each corner, and Af is the area of each flat, disregarding any holes. For axial loads, the summations apply to all
elements. For bending loads, the summations apply to flats at the extreme fiber of the full section parallel to the
axis of bending, and the adjacent corners. If there are no flats along the extreme fiber, no strength increase is
used. Any bend with R/t>7 or angle of bend (exterior angle) <60 does not get a strength increase (Fyc=Fy).

Since the strength increase applies only if r = 1 for all elements in the section, each strength type (tension,
compression, +Mx, -Mx, +My, and -My) independently determines whether its strength increase is allowed. Since
fully braced strengths are computed using the net section, the strength increase will only apply if both the full
section and the net section are fully effective with the extreme fiber at Fya.

There is an unusual case for the lateral buckling strength calculation (not computed in this report), where the
moment causing initial yield at the extreme compression fiber of the full section is calculated. This could result in a
tension stress greater than Fy and a compression stress greater than otherwise calculated. Since this situation
might not be fully effective, whereas it might have been with the extreme tension fiber at Fy, this special case
requires the additional check for a fully effective full section.

It is important to note that since CFS allows the definition of any general shape, the assumptions made by CFS
for determining these strengths may not always be appropriate. It is the responsibility of the engineer to evaluate
these assumptions and determine the validity of the results.

Member Check Parameters


This window is displayed when you select Member Check from the Compute menu, and the active window is a
section. After you enter the appropriate values, press the OK button and the Member Check output will be
displayed.

Unbraced Lengths

Lx, Ly, Lt The unbraced lengths of the member for buckling about the X axis (in the Y direction),
buckling about the Y axis (in the X direction), and torsional buckling, respectively. For
lateral-torsional buckling of beams symmetrical about the X axis and bending about
the X axis, Ly and Lt are the controlling unbraced lengths.
Kx, Ky, Kt The effective length factors applied to the respective unbraced lengths.
Lm The distance along the length of the member between discrete rigid restraints that
restrict distortional buckling. If there are no discrete restraints for distortional buckling,
leave this as a large value (such as the span length) and CFS will calculate the
distortional buckling wavelength. If the member is fully restricted against distortional
buckling, use Lm = 0. If the shape does not have a distortional buckling failure mode,
the value of Lm has no effect.

In cases where rotational stiffness is provided to the braced flange by connection to


bracing material, Lm does not represent the spacing between fasteners. It is the
distance between rigid restraints against distortional buckling, if they exist.

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Coefficients

Cbx, Cby The bending coefficients used to determine the elastic critical moments for the
member about the X axis and Y axis, respectively. The value is dependent on the
moment gradient throughout the unbraced length. You may conservatively use the
default value of 1. For bending about a non-symmetric axis, you must enter the
reciprocal of CTF as the value of Cb, which may also be conservatively set to 1.
Cmx, Cmy The moment coefficients used in the combined compressive axial load and bending
interaction equation, for moments about the X axis and Y axis, respectively. You may
conservatively use the default value of 1.
Braced Flange For members having one flange fastened to deck, sheathing, roof system, or other
continually connected system, select the flange that is attached: Bottom, Top, Left, or
Right. Otherwise, select None.
Reduction Factor, R If there is a braced flange, enter the moment reduction factor as defined in the AISI or
ASCE Specification for your situation. For example:
R=0.70 for continuous span Z sections
R=0.60 for continuous span C sections
R=0.70 for simple span C or Z section, depth 6.5"
R=0.65 for simple span C or Z section, 6.5" < depth 8.5"
R=0.50 for simple span Z section, 8.5" < depth 12"
R=0.40 for simple span C section, 8.5" < depth 12"
Stiffness, kf The rotational stiffness provided to the braced flange by connection to the bracing
material (deck, sheathing, etc.). This stiffness is incorporated in the distortional
buckling calculations for the flange which is braced (bottom, top, left, or right). The
units for this input are moment/radian/unit length (such as k-in/rad/in) which is then
reduced to a force (such as k). Refer to the AISI Specification and Commentary for
more information on determining what value to use.

Internal Forces

P The axial force (factored for LRFD) applied to the section. Positive loads are
compression and negative loads are tension.
ex, ey The axial load eccentricity in the X and Y direction, measured from the origin of the
section. Positive ex is horizontal to the right of the origin and positive ey is vertically
above the origin. The combination of the axial load and these eccentricities produces
additional bending moment if the unbraced length is greater than zero.
Mx The moment (factored for LRFD) about the X axis applied to the section. Positive
moments produce compression above the X axis.
Vy The shear force (factored for LRFD) in the Y direction applied to the section. This
generally accompanies a moment about the X axis.
My The moment (factored for LRFD) about the Y axis applied to the section. Positive
moments produce compression to the right of the Y axis.
Vx The shear force (factored for LRFD) in the X direction applied to the section. This
generally accompanies a moment about the Y axis.

Locations to Check
This window is displayed when you select Member Check or Web Crippling from the Compute menu, and the
active window is an analysis. It offers three options on which design checks to include in the report:

Report controlling location among all load combinations

This option will check all critical locations (as described below) for every load combination, and report only the

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one with the highest unity check value. It will also change the current load combination to the one that
controlled.

Report controlling location for this load combination

This option will check all critical locations (as described below) for the current load combination, and report
only the one with the highest unity check value.

Report selected locations for this load combination

This option lets you select which locations to check and include in the report. It provides a list of critical
locations from which to choose. For member checks, you may also specify any other location in the analysis
to check.

Locations For member checks, this list includes locations of shear and moment minima and maxima,
and ends of members. For web crippling checks, it includes locations of each load carrying
support and each concentrated load. If a particular location could have different results on
each side of the location (due to a difference in shear, unbraced length, axial load, or end
of a member), then the entry will indicate left side or right side. You may select as many of
these locations as you want.
Check All Button You may quickly select all the locations in the list by pressing the Check All button. Then
the button will change to Uncheck All, which you may use to deselect all the locations.
Add Button The list of locations may not necessarily contain all controlling locations. For example, if
the unbraced length varies significantly within a member span, the maximum forces may
not occur within the controlling unbraced length. To add a different location to the list, enter
it here and press the Add button. This will add it to the list and select it. If the location could
have different results on each side of the entered location, the entry will indicate left side or
right side, or there could be one entry for each side.

Member Check Report


The Member Check report is created when you choose Member Check from the Compute menu. For sections,
you must enter the member check parameters and loads. For an analysis, you must select the member locations
to perform the check(s).

This report consists of a summary of the parameters, the loads (total or entered, applied, and strength), and the
interaction equations for combined axial and bending, and combined bending and shear.

For section member checks, 'Applied' loads are the same as the 'Entered' loads except additional moments will
occur with axial load eccentricities, measured from the point of application to the centroid of the effective section.
For the 2016 and later editions of AISI, moment amplifiers for P-d effects are incorporated into the 'Applied' loads
for beam-columns. Additionally, angle sections might have an extra moment of PL/1000 applied as required by
the Specification.

For analysis member checks, `Total' loads are those determined from the analysis force and moment distribution,
and are applied to all members that exist at the location being checked. 'Applied' loads are the portions of the
'Total' loads seen by the member being checked. For axial loads, this is proportioned by the full section area. For
bending and shear loads, this is proportioned by the full section moment of inertia. These loads may also include
adjustments for eccentricities, as stated above for section member checks.

The 'Strength' values are the design strengths for the section computed according to the selected specification.
Global column buckling and lateral-torsional buckling stresses are calculated using analytical methods based on
elastic theory.

The effective section properties are computed at the axial and bending loads applied to the full section. These

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may be used for independent calculations of deflections or working stresses. The interaction equations for
combined axial load and bending and combined bending and shear are shown. Note that the combined bending
and shear equation is for unreinforced webs.

Web Crippling Parameters


This window is displayed when you select Web Crippling from the Compute menu, and the active window is a
section. After you enter the appropriate values, press the OK button and the Web Crippling output will be
displayed.

Load Applied To This is the surface of the section that the concentrated load or reaction is
applied to. Select from Bottom Flange, Top Flange, Left Flange, Right Flange.
Concentrated Load or Reaction The magnitude (factored for LRFD) of the load applied to the flange.
Moment at Point of Load The moment (factored for LRFD) in the member about the axis of bending
under consideration. If the load is applied to the top or bottom flange, this
moment should be the moment about the X axis. If the load is applied to the
left or right flange, this moment should be the moment about the Y axis.
Bearing Length Actual length of bearing for the applied load or reaction.
Flange fastened to support Indicates whether the bearing flange is fastened to the support. This can
affect the web crippling strength.
Distance from edge of bearing The distance along the member from the edge of bearing to the end of the
to end of member member. If the bearing is close to the end of the member, the web crippling
strength is lower.
Distance from edge of bearing The distance along the member from the edge of bearing to the edge of a load
to edge of opposite load applied to the opposite flange of the member. If an opposing load is near this
load, the web crippling strength could be lower. If there is not an opposing
concentrated load, then enter a distance of several times the member depth.

Web Crippling Report


The Web Crippling Check report is created when you choose Web Crippling from the Compute menu. For
sections, you must enter the web crippling parameters and loads. For an analysis, you must select the member
locations to perform the check(s).

This report consists of a summary of the web crippling parameters and loads, web crippling strength
computations, and the appropriate interaction equation(s). For an analysis with multiple members at the specified
location, the bearing load and bending moment on each member is proportional to its moment of inertia about the
axis of bending.

The web crippling strength of the section is determined by summing the strengths of all the web elements. If other
elements in the section lie between a web element's bearing flange and the bearing surface, that web element will
be excluded from the strength summation.

The appropriate web crippling equation from the selected specification is determined for each web. The following
abbreviations are used in classifying the type of calculation performed for each element:

FS Fastened, Stiffened flange


FU Fastened, Unstiffened flange
US Unfastened, Stiffened flange
UU Unfastened, Unstiffened flange
EOF End-One-Flange loading
ETF End-Two-Flange loading
IOF Interior-One-Flange loading

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ITF Interior-Two-Flange loading

If any parameters exceed the limits imposed by the selected specification (R/t, h/t, N/t, N/h, etc.), those limits are
noted for each web element checked.

For web elements that do not have a bearing flange, the same equations are used with a zero bend radius. For
web elements with holes, the hole is assumed to be positioned longitudinally at the edge of bearing. Although the
hole provisions apply to C-sections with centered web holes, CFS uses the same calculations for other conditions.

If the bearing flange is not perpendicular to the direction of loading, the strength in the direction of loading is
determined by dividing the strength by the cosine of the angle between the flange and the surface perpendicular
to the direction of loading. This assumes that the component parallel to the flange is resisted by an adequate
connection.

If any of the web element strengths listed should not be considered, be sure to subtract it from the section
strength. This might occur if the support does not contact all of the assumed bearing flanges.

Torsion Properties Report


The Torsion Properties report is created when you select Torsion Properties from the Compute menu (only
available for sections with one part). This report contains key properties at several locations in the section which
may be used to calculate torsional stresses. These properties include:

Ro Perpendicular distance from shear center to centerline of element

Wn Normalized unit warping, used for warping longitudinal stress

Sw Warping statical moment, used for warping shear stress

The locations reported include both ends of each flat element of the section, as well as the location of the peak
value of Sw in each flat element, where Wn is equal to 0. The shear center location (Xo, Yo), warping constant
(Cw) and St. Venant torsion constant (J) are also included for convenience.

Warping longitudinal stresses can be calculated for any location in the section as EWnf'', where E is the
modulus of elasticity and f'' is second derivative of the rotational displacement function with respect to the
distance along the member.

Warping shear stress can be calculated for any location in the section as ESwf'''/t, where t is the material
thickness and f''' is the third derivative of the rotational displacement function with respect to the distance along
the member.

Pure torsional shear stress can be calculated as Gtf', where G is the shear modulus and f' is the first derivative
of the rotational displacement function with respect to the distance along the member.

Diagrams Report
This report is created when you click the Report button on the Diagrams window. It contains the maximum shears,
moments, and deflections for the current load combination, or for the envelope of all load combinations if selected
on the Diagrams window. Inflection points are also shown if the report is not for the envelope solution.

This output can be appended to an analysis report containing other analysis outputs, such as member checks and
web crippling checks. See Working With Reports.

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