IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Contributing Towards Village Economic Growth: A Case of Villages in
Desai Rishabh Rajesh1 Himanshu J Padhya2
PG Student 2Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India
Abstract— With the growing urbanisation sprawl and in Methods
order to restrict the migration from rural to urban areas some Cooking fuel LPG , Wood
economic sufficiency with sustainable parameters must be Biogas plant
given to rural area to achieve the balanced urban-rural Manure can be made
development and strengthening the rural economic base by Animal No measures
of animal dung and
using sustainable parameters. In nation like India which has waste (openly defecated
human waste through
its agricultural base, rural land must be conserved and its disposal )
economic potential must be raised. By adopting several Solar- wind hybrid Grid supply
sustainable techniques which will improve and sustain Electricity
economic growth. Courtyard Farming , Barren land mass
Key words: sustainable techniques, economic growth, Farming green house , poultry & unplanned
economic sustainability Practice farming , shrimp farming practices
I. INTRODUCTION Table 1: Difference of Economy & Sustainability
As the urban area tend to increase its limit and due to its
growth the villages and rural area near its vicinity gets the II. STUDY AREA
more appreciation in comparison to the interior villages. The study area taken under consideration is the cluster of 5
Thus to make interior villages self-sustainable one has to put villages namely Kundi, Chikhla ,ShankerTalav , Saron and
efforts as a planner. Sarodhi. All villages are inscribed within Valsad Taluka of
It has also been observed that the villages near urban areas Valsad District.
have lost its individual character as it subsides with the The cluster forms the total population of 9687 with
sprawling urban areas. Thus rural activities (i.e. agriculture, total of 2268 family’s residing. The cluster formed has the
grazing, dairy industry etc.) are gradually diminishing as major town of Valsad with average distance of 6 kms and
many of the land which is subjected to the agricultural usage major Dungri village with distance of 4 kms.
is now turning into non-agricultural one for various The economy primary relies on agricultural
purposes. So, as an indirect consequence considerable products such as mango, chickoo, paddy, sugarcane etc.
population tends to migrate to nearby urban or peri-urban Apart from it there are few private limited companies such
areas for employment which later turns into permanent as Balaji Wafers , Anchor Electricals ,Vaada Cosmetics
migration of people from rural area to urban locality though which majorly gives employment to the rural population of
rural area is in near reach from urban locality. So, as a these 5 particular villages summing up to the total almost
process over the years urban areas flourish but rural areas near to 1800 with daily wages ranging from 350-550 per
struggle. So to improve the economic potential is basic day.
concern. It can be improved by developing more
employment opportunity but the rural economic growth can
also be achieved by reducing the expenses by using
sustainable measures which are self-consumable as well as
revenue generating.
A. Objectives
There are several objectives to be achieved;
 To implement the sustainable techniques this will in
terms be cost saving.
 To practice such techniques this will generate income
with conservation of environment.
 To improve village economy by developing Fig. 1: cluster of 5 villages
employment scopes relating to sustainable techniques.
B. Differentiating Economy & Sustainability
Activities Sustainable Measure Current Practice

Agriculture Drip Irrigation , Through canals ,
Sprinkler , Furrow Tube Wells

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Contributing Towards Village Economic Growth: A Case of Villages in Valsad
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/232)

4 Total Unemployed 4555
Total Non
53% of total
5 cultivatedculturable 1317
land in hectares
Total Houseless with
6 329 -
temporary shelter
7 Total Cattles 4260 -
8 Total Main Worker 4114
9 Total Farmer 4610
10 Total Agricultural Labor 1295 -
Total involved in
11 86 -
Household industries
12 Other 1745 -
13 Total Marginal Worker 325 -
Fig. 2: location of village cluster
14 Small Farmers 3379 < 2 Hectares
15 Medium Farmers 775 2-10 Hectares
16 Big Farmer 456 >10 Hectares
17 Total Land 2491.8 -
4.3 Avg
18 Total Families 2268
19 Total BPL Families 534 -
20 Total LPG users 917
Table 3: Primary Particulars
(Source: Census 2001 , 2011 , Village Profile , Primary Data)

A. Biogas
Installing biogas plant of cost 25000 , almost 11000 is given
as a part of subsidy on biogas household installation.
It produces 10 tonnes of natural fertilizer per year
Fig. 3: Land Use Classification which will save almost 300 per month and with its
household installation for cooking , charges of LPG can also
III. DATA COLLECTION be reduced with the saving of 4200 rs per annum.
For this research work some of the primary and secondary The size of the biogas plant is to be decided based
data are need to collect. on availability of raw material. It is generally said that,
Primary data is collect through questionnaire, in average cattle yield is about 10 kg dung per day. For eg.the
which there are several questions regarding the space average gas production from dung may be taken as 40 lit/kg.
availability, willingness of recipients for household of fresh dung. The total dung required for production of 3
enterprise, income, mode of employment, willingness for m3 biogas is 3/0.04= 75 kgs. Hence, a minimum of 4 cattle
sustainable techniques etc. are included and data is acquired. is required to generate the required quantity of cow dung.
For collection of secondary data collection Sl. No. Feed Stock Litre /kg of dry matter %
wedbsite of Ministry of Home Affairs, Census of 2001 and 1. Dung 350* 60
2011 website has been visited. From website secondary data 2. Night-soil 400 65
like employment data, demographic data , amenities data etc 3. Poultry manure 440 65
are acquired. Apart from it Data from District Statistical 4. Dry leaf 450 44
Department Village Directory and Village Profiles are 5. Sugar cane Trash 750 45
acquired. 6. Maize straw 800 46
7. Straw Powder 930 46
IV. DATA ANALYSIS Table 4: Biogas Requirement
Collected data was analysed in Excel. SWOT Analysis has (Source: MHA guidelines)
been carried out judging Strength, Weakness, Opportunity Sl. Quantity of Dung / Night Soil
Living Beings
and Threat of the established parameter is carried out No. produced (kg/day)
Sr.No Particular Total Identification 1 Cow, Heifer 10.0
1 Total Population 9691 - 2 Bullock 14.0
5 Average 3 Buffalo 15.0
2 Total Households 1939 4 Young bovine 5.0
3 Total Workers 4114 42.5% 5 Horse 14.0

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Contributing Towards Village Economic Growth: A Case of Villages in Valsad
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/232)

6 Horse, young 6.0 Particular Feeding space Watering space
Pigs, over 8 Cattle 75 m / animal 75m/ animal
7 2.5
Pigs, under 8 Buffalo 75 m / animal 75 m/ animal
8 1.0 Table 9: Feeding & Watering space requirement
Ewes, rams and (Source: MURD Guidlines on Animal Husbandary)
9 1.0 CB.
goats Buffalo
10 Lambs 0.5 Cows
11 Duck 0.1 No of animals 1 1
13 10 hens 0.4
14 Human beings 0.4 Animal Cost of one animal( including
30,000 35,000
Table 5: Cattle Requirements transportation and insurance)
(Source: Handbook of MORD) Type Of Average milk yield
12 8
Use Quantity requirement (liters/day)
Cooking 336 - 430 1/ day / person Selling price of milk/lit (Rs/-) 13 22
Gas Stove 330 1/ hr /5 cm burner
Sale of manure/animal/year
470 1/hr/10 cm burner 500 500
640 1/hr/15 cm burner
Culled value/ animal at the end of fifth
Burner Gas 126 1/lamp of lighting equivalent to 100 8,000 10,000
lactation (Rs/-)
Lamp watt filament lamp.
70 1/hr/1 mantle lamp Veterinary aid /animal/year 750 500
140 1/hr/2 mantle lamp
1691/lir/3 mantle lamp Rate of interest (%) 12 12
Dual fuel Residual value of shed and equipment
425 1/hp/hr N0 NO
engine to be taken(yes/no)
Table 6: Biogas Utility
(Source: Handbook of MORD) Repayment period(years % ) 3 80
Minimum number of
Plant Size in m 3 Of net surplus towards repayment 3 80
cattle required
2 3 Table 10: Costing
3 4 (Source: MURD Guidlines on Animal Husbandary)
4 6
6 10
8 15
25 45
Table 7: Dung Requirements
(Source: Handbook of MORD)
1) Performance:
About 5 kg of waste is required for a 1 cubic metre plant
which is equal to 0.43 kg of LPG. It is estimated that 100
cubic metres of biogas could produce 5 KW of energy to
meet a 20-hour power requirement of a house.
Cattle dung can also be used for commercialising
fertilizers or for own courtyard requirement.
B. Cattle Breeding
Total 4260 cattles are registered totally under the cluster of
slected study area of 5 villages . On an average a cattle gives
8 -10 litres of milk.
Rates will be 25 rs per litre (cow) and 40 rs per
litre( buffalo) are received from the Milk Collection Centre
of the village so additional income can be 250-400 per day.
Near most dairy is Vasundhara Dairy in Chikhli
Table 11: Financial & Profitability Listing
which is almost 13 Km away from the cluster.
(source: MURD Guidlines on Animal Husbandary)
Covered area open area No of pens required
3.5m2 7.0m2 50 / pen
2 2
4.0m 8.0m 50 / pen
12.0m 12.0m 1 / pen
Table 8: Floor space requirement

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Contributing Towards Village Economic Growth: A Case of Villages in Valsad
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/232)

Connected Load Watt Hour Watt-Hour
3 Tube 120 6 720
3 CFL 135 6 810
3 Fan 240 8 1920
1 TV 150 4 600
1 Refrigerator 259 6 1500
Total Load 995
Table 13: Load Capacity
(Source; Handbook on Rural Electrification)
For Grid System
Consumption = 6 KWH
PerMonth Consumption = 6*30= 180 Units
Monthly bill=180 x 4=Rs.720/-
Annual bill=720 x 12=Rs.8640/-
Approximate annual bill=Rs.9000/- per annum
For S-W Hybrid System
Solar panel watt capacity= 6kwh/7hours x 1.1=0.94kw or
321.42watts per day
Solar panel cost= 942.4 x 150=Rs .98, 213/- (as per table
given below)
For wind generation:-
For 800 w generation of electricity considering value from
Table 12: Profitability
Wind System Cost=0.8 x 45,000= Rs. 36,000/-
(Source: MURD Guidlines on Animal Husbandary)
Total Cost =Rs 98,213 + 36,000 + 8000 + 8000 = Rs.
C. Solar-Wind Hybrid System 1,50,213/-
Net Savings with it at the end of 5 years will be almost 2.5
Lacs savings.
D. Courtyard Farming
By introducing the courtyard farming technique , the
residents will get tangible as well non tangible benefits .
Such farmers and villagers who don’t have large agricultural
can practice such measures by growing various fruits and
vegetables which will be used for daily consumption and
thus the rationing cost will also be reduced and if produced
on larger scale will be sold to the vegetable market .
Income – Expense Analysis
Following Consideration taken in it;
Average Family size of 4.3 members,
Average 2 working members per household,
Atleast one cattle per household,
Almost 60% are involved in Job and 45% employement is
related to Agricultural activity.
Income Expenditure
Particular Income Particular Expenditure
Fig. 1: Concept of S-W Hybrid system
Job 18000 Transportation 1500
It works on the concept of altering the seasonal
weather fluctuation. Solar energy is utilized during the day Milk
9000 Food for Cattle 2000
time through the solar panel and wind mill seeks the wind
energy during windy period. It is very economical yet LPG fuel 350
effective source where grid electrification is not possible. Electricity bill 500
Total Cost of Solar and wind hybrid system=Rs. Set Top
1,00,213/-Total Cost of utility supply= Approximately Connection
Annual bill + initial cost (substation, transformer and fertilizer 300
transmission line cost = Rs.1,00,000 + 3,000= Rs. 1,03,000/- misc&
As calculated the convention grid supply charge for unforeseen
transmission of electricity in one house depending upon the clothing 5000
maximum demand is 3,40,000 INR for the period of 10 Rationing 2500
years. Per month 27000 Per month 16950
Table 14: Income - Expenditure Chart

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Contributing Towards Village Economic Growth: A Case of Villages in Valsad
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/232)

Sustainable Cost of activities Expenses
Practices benifited (reduced)
LPG Cost 350
Manure Cost 300
Courtyard 20% of
Food Cost
Farming Rationing
S-W Hybrid
Electricity 500
5 % of
Dairy Products
Cattle Breeding Rationing
Net Savings 2650
Table 15: Expense reduction through sustainable practice

The expenses of almost Rs 2500 monthly can be reduced of
average household by implementing such sustainable
practices. Such Sustainable measures can also be made
available for commercial basis. So the community can be
best served with increasing their income as well as
considerable expense reduction which is currently recurred.

The Authors thank to the Sarpanch, Talati of Village as well
as District Statistical Department , Valsad for providing
useful data required to conduct this study.

[1] Retrieved from Hanbook of Rural Electrification.
[2] Retrieved from Ministry of Home Affairs (sustainable
[3] Retrieved from Animal Husbandry Handbook of
[4] Retrieved from Rural Agriculture Practice Guide of
Aspen Ridge.
[5] Retrieved secondary data from Dsitrict Data

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