Você está na página 1de 421

PROPOSEDCOLOMBOPORTCITYDEVELOPMENTPROJECT,

COLOMBO,SRILANKA


SUPPLEMENTARYENVIRONMENTALIMPACT
ASSESSMENTREPORT


PROJECTAPPROVINGAGENCY

CoastConservation&CoastalResourceManagementDepartment

PROJECTPROPONENT
MinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment



LEADCONSULTANT
CENTRALENGINEERINGCONSULTANCYBUREAU


DECEMBER,2015

SUPPLEMENTARYENVIRONMENTALIMPACT
ASSESSMENTREPORT

PROPOSEDCOLOMBOPORTCITYDEVELOPMENTPROJECT

ProjectApprovingAgency:
DepartmentofCoastConservation&CoastalResourceManagement


ProjectProponent:
MinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment


EIAConsultants:
LeadConsultant:CentralEngineeringConsultancyBureau

AssociateConsultants: GSMBTechnicalServices(Pvt)Ltd.
NationalAquaticResourcesandResearchAgency
LankaHydraulicInstituteLtd.
UniConsultants,UniversityofMoratuwa
CDRInternationalB.V,theNetherlands

DECEMBER2015


TABLEOFCONTENTS


Chapter1:Introduction
1.1 BackgroundoftheProject 01
1.1.1 TheWesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlanof2004 01
1.1.2 TheColomboPortCityProject:TheAdministrativeProcess 02
1.1.3 KeyTermsoftheProjectAgreement 03
1.1.4 TheEIAProcessforReclamation 04
1.1.5 SandExtraction&BasisforCommencementofReclamationWorks 05
1.1.6 OtherPermitssecured 06
1.1.7 TheSuspensionofConstructionandWayForward 07
1.2 ObjectiveandJustificationoftheProject 07
1.2.1 ObjectivesinRelationtoWesternRegionMegapolisStructurePlan(CESMAPlan) 07
1.2.2 TheStrategicObjectivesofColomboPortCity 08
1.2.3 PermissibleDevelopmentswithinColomboPortCity 09
1.2.4 ForcesthatProduceFinancialCentres:SomeTheory 09
1.3 ObjectiveoftheSEIAReport 10
1.3.1 The2StageEIAProcess 10
1.3.2 Precedenceof2stageEIAProcess 11
1.4 Extentandscopeofthestudy 11
1.5 MethodologiesandtechnologiesadoptedinSEIAreportpreparation 12
1.5.1 12
DeskStudies
1.5.2 FeasibilityDesignInvestigationsandtheirrelevancetotheEIAProcess 12
1.5.3 12
WaveandHydrodynamics
1.5.4 GeophysicalInvestigations 13
1.5.5 13
BathymetrySurvey
1.5.6 13
EcologicalStudies
1.5.7 AssessmentofSocioeconomicEnvironment 17
1.6 Mainbeneficiaries 18
1.6.1 ImportanceofWesternRegionDevelopment 18
1.6.2 KeyEconomicBenefitsfromColomboPortCity 18
1.7 Applicablelawsandregulations 19
1.7.1 SriLankaLandsOrdinanceandUDAActNo41of1978 19
1.7.2 NationalEnvironmentalActNo.47asamendedbyActNo.56of1988(NEA) 19
1.7.3 CoastConservationActNo.57of1981 20

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagei

1.7.4 MinesandMineralActNo.33of1992(MMA) 20
1.7.5 MarinePollutionPreventionActNo.59of1981 20
1.7.6 TheAntiquitiesOrdinanceNo.9of1940 21
1.7.7 CivilAviationAuthorityActNo14of2010 21
1.8 ConformitytoCoastalResourcesManagementPlanandanyotherdevelopment/ 22
conservationplansofthearea
1.8.1 TheCoastalZoneManagementPlan(CZMP) 22
1.8.2 TheMasterPlanforCoastalErosionManagement 22
1.9 Approvalsneededfromrelevantagenciesandanyconditionslaiddownbysuch 22
agenciesforreclamation,sandandrockextraction
1.9.1 GeologicalSurveyandMinesBureau 22
1.9.2 UrbanDevelopmentAuthority 22
1.9.3 DepartmentofCoastConservation&CoastalResourcesManagement 22
1.9.4 ColomboMunicipalCouncil 23
1.9.5 MarineEnvironmentalProtectionAuthority(MEPA) 23
1.9.6 DepartmentofFisheries 23
1.9.7 BoardofInvestmentofSriLanka 23
1.9.8 StrategicDevelopmentAct 23
1.9.9 LandCommissionsDepartment 23
1.9.10 DepartmentofArchaeology 23
1.9.11 RoadDevelopmentAuthority 24

Chapter2:DescriptionoftheProposedProjectandReasonableAlternatives
2.1 JustificationoftheProposedProject 01
2.1.1 JustificationinrelationtotheWesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlan 01
2.1.2 JustificationforPortCityintermsofGovernmentPolicy 04
2.1.3 IndependentReportsonRealEstateMarketIndicatingPentupdemand 05
2.1.4 InternationalTrendsandExamplesofCreatingNewLandbytheSea 05
2.2 ProjectLocation 09
2.2.1 ReclamationArea 09
2.2.2 Extentofthesite 13
2.2.3 Estimatedreserves 13
2.2.4 Quantityofsandtobeextracted 13
2.2.5 Waterdepthtothesanddeposit 13
2.2.6 Proposedminingdepthfromthesurfaceofthedeposit 13
2.2.7 Mininghistoryofthesiteanditsenvirons 15

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pageii

2.3 ProjectDetails 17
2.3.1 Designofreclamationschemeanddetailandfunctioningofmarineworks 18
2.3.2 Detailsofreceptionfacilities 38
2.3.3 Supplyofquarrymaterialforconstruction 38
2.3.4 Dredgingandextractionofsand,forreclamationof269Ha.fortheproposedport 60
cityproject
2.3.5 GeneralDescriptionofFutureDevelopmentActivitiesonreclaimedlandincluding 71
timeframes
2.3.5.1 ProposedDevelopmentActivitiesUnderCESMAPlan 71
2.3.5.2 Architecturalconceptplantogetherwiththelayout/masterplanforColomboPort 71
City
2.3.5.3 LandUsePlanandGrossFloorArea 73
2.3.5.4 UrbanDesign 76
2.3.5.5 Infrastructure&UtilitiesResponsibilitiesUndertheProjectAgreement 80
2.3.5.6 RoadsResponsibilitiesUndertheProjectAgreement 80
2.3.5.7 ColomboPortCityanintegratedecocycleapproachtoinfrastructuredesign 80
2.3.5.8 PowerSourceandRequirement(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA) 81
2.3.5.9 SewerageandWastewaterSource&Requirement(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase 82
2EIA)
2.3.5.10 WaterSupply(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA) 83
2.3.5.11 SolidWasteCollection&Disposal(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA) 84
2.3.5.12 IT&CommunicationsInfrastructure(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA) 85
2.3.5.13 Transportation&TrafficStrategywithinPortCity(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2 85
EIA)
2.3.5.14 ExternalRoadTransportation&TrafficConnectingPortCity 86
2.3.5.15 Maintenance 89
2.4 Evaluationofalternatives 90
2.4.1 Projectlocationandpossiblealternatives 90
2.4.2 Approachtotheoverallconceptualdesign 91
2.4.3 Sitespecificlayout 95
2.4.4 Scaleofreclamation 105
2.5 WorkForce:Availabilityofworkforceduringconstruction&EmploymentofSri 105
Lankans
2.6 Futureexpansionofproject 105
2.6.1 Phasedimplementationschedule 105
2.7 FinancialCommitments 107

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pageiii

Chapter3:DescriptionoftheExistingEnvironment

3.1 PhysicalEnvironment 01
3.1.1 Bathymetryofthereclamationarea 01
3.1.2 BathymetryoftheSandminingareaand1kmbeyondthesandminingsites 03
3.1.3 Detailsofhydrauliccirculationanddescriptionandassessmentofprevailingcurrent 05
fieldsincludingcurrentcharacteristicssuchasvelocity,speedsanddirectionsand
tides.
3.1.3.1 Tide 06
3.1.3.2 Current 07
3.1.3.4 Descriptionandassessmentofprevailingwaveconditionsincludingwaveheights 10
anddirections.
3.1.5 Descriptionandassessmentofcoastalmorphologyandthedominantcoastal 12
processes
3.1.6 Coastalfeaturesincludingbeachprofile 13
3.1.7 Coastalerosionand/oraccretiontrends 16
3.1.8 Waterqualityofprojectarea 21
3.1.8.1 ReclamationArea 21
3.1.8.2 SandDredgingArea 25
3.1.9 Descriptionofexistingnaturalandmanmadedrainageoutfallsdischarginginto 29
projectarea
3.1.9.1 BeiraLakeOutfall 29
3.1.9.2 Otherdrains 37
3.1.9.3 DetailsofDrainageOutlets 40
3.2 BiologicalEnvironment 43
3.2.1 Descriptionandassessmentofpresentdistribution,biodiversityandhealthofcoral 43
reefs.
3.2.2 Healthofthereefs 50
3.2.3 Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentdistributionandlivingstateofseagrass 54
beds.
3.2.4 Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentdistribution,speciescompositionand 55
richnessofseabottommacrozoobenthos.

3.2.5 Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentoccurrenceofendangeredspeciesor 61
extraordinarynaturalresources3.2.7Descriptionofbiodiversityprofilewithinthe
sandborrowsites
3.2.6 Descriptionofthepresentconditionsconcerningnutrientdynamic,algaeblooms 64
andwaterturbidity.
3.2.7 Descriptionofbreadinggrounds/spawninggroundsandmigratoryroutsforcommercial 74
andecologicallyimportantmarineorganisms
3.2.8 Descriptionofbiodiversityprofilewithinthesandborrowsites 78

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pageiv

3.2.9 Identificationandmappingoffishinggrounds 79
3.3 AmbientAirQualityoftheReclamationArea 81
3.3.1 AmbientAirQualityStandards 81
3.3.2 AirQualityMeasurements 81
3.4 SocioCulturalConditions 83
3.4.1 Descriptionandassessmentofresourcesintheprojectarea 83
3.4.2 Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentfisheryandaquacultureresources 83
inthestudyarea
3.4.2.1 Numberoffishers(FishingPopulation) 83
3.4.2.2 Numberandtypesoffishingcraftsoperatedandtheirsizes 85
3.4.2.3 Numberandtypeoffishinggearsused 88
3.4.2.4 NumberofBeachseine 88
3.4.2.5 Seasonsoffishingoperations 88
3.4.2.6 Speciesdiversityandquantityoffishcaptured 89
3.4.2.7 Incomelevelofthefishers 91
3.4.2.8 No.ofdependents 91
3.4.2.9 Seasonalmigration/Movement 92
3.4.3 Descriptionandassessmentofthefishery 92
3.5 Archaeologicalandculturalaspects 93

Chapter4:AssessmentofanticipatedEnvironmentalImpacts
4.1 Physical/Chemicalconditions 01
4.1.1 Hydrauliccirculation 01
4.1.2 Waveconditions 06
4.1.3 CoastalMorphology 18
4.1.3.1 Erosionofadjacentshorelineduetochangeofcurrent,waveheightregimes 23
attributedtothecoastalstructureswithreclamationarea

4.1.3.2 Erosioneffectsineithersidesofthecoastalstretchbeforeandafterconstructionas 25
wellasinlongterm.
4.1.3.2 Changesinsedimenttransportpatternonbothperiods(Shorttermsandlong 30
terms)
4.1.4 Suspendedsediments 31
4.1.4.1 DredgingProcess 35
4.1.4.2 DumpingProcess 39
4.1.5 Waterquality 56
4.1.5.1 BeiraLake 56

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagev

4.1.5.2 DredgingandReclamation 64
4.1.6 Drainage 66
4.1.7 ColomboSouthPort 67
4.1.7.1 ImpactsofPortCityonthePortStructures 67
4.1.7.2 ImpactsofPortCityontheWaveatNavigationChannel 68
4.1.7.3 ImpactsofPortCityontheMorphologynearthePort 70
4.2 BiologicalEcologicalConditions 71
4.2.1 CoralReefs 71
4.2.2 Seagrassbeds 73
4.2.3 Softbottommacrozoobenthos 73
4.2.4 Endangeredspecies 74
4.2.5 Impactoffishinggrounds/breadinggrounds/spawninggrounds 75
4.3 Socioculturalimpacts 78
4.3.1 Aestheticandrecreationalvalue 78
4.3.1.1 AerialViewsofColomboPortCityinRelationtoImportantLandmarks 78
4.3.1.2 GeneralPrinciplesofMassingAesthetics 80
4.3.1.3 HeightofPortCityBreakwateranditsVisualImpact 80
4.3.1.4 TheOpenSpaceConceptofPortCity 81
4.3.1.5 TheCanal 83
4.3.1.6 Aestheticsoflandfill 84
4.3.2 FisheryandAquaculture 84
4.3.2.1 Areasoffishinggroundsandaquaculturedirectlyimpactedbytheprojectduring 84
dredgingandreclamationandtheirimportancetothelocalandregionalsocio
economy
4.3.2.2 Areasoffishinggroundandaquacultureindirectlyimpactedbytheprojectduring 84
constructionduetoincreasednoiselevelsinthewatercolumnsorthroughthereleaseof
suspendedsediments,increasedlevelofpollutantsorchangedcurrentpatterns.
4.3.2.3 Valueoffisheryandaquacultureimpactedbytheproject 84
4.3.2.4 Employmentinfisheryandaquacultureimpactedbytheproject. 85
4.3.2.5 Impactsonfoodfishandornamentalfishcatches(quantityanddiversity),fishing 85
seasons,economicgainstofishercommunities
4.3.2.6 Proposedsocioeconomicbenefitsprogramduetodisturbancesoffishingactivities 85
(ifany)
4.3.3 Employment 86
4.3.3.1 Descriptionandassessmentoftheeffectsoftheprojectontheemployment 86
opportunities.
4.3.3.2 Socioculturalandsocioeconomicbenefits(otherthanemployments)tothelocal 87
people

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagevi

4.3.4 Transportationofquarrymaterial 87
4.3.5 Demandforquarrymaterial 88
4.3.6 Handlingandstockpilingofmaterial 89
4.3.7 Culturalandarchaeologicalissues 89
4.3.8 Noiseandvibration 89
4.3.9 Navigation 92
4.3.9.1 Safetyrequirementduringconstruction 94
4.3.9.2 Safetyrequirementspostconstruction 95
4.3.9.3 Postconstructionmodificationstoshippinglanesandanchorageareas 96
4.3.9.4 Safetyrequirementsforsubmergedcablesandpipelinesduringconstruction 96

Chapter5:ProposedMitigationMeasures
5.1 IntroductiontoMitigatoryMeasures 01
5.2 MitigatoryMeasuresAdoptedintheDesignPhase(MitigationbyDesign) 01
5.3 MitigationMeasuresPhysicalResources 02
5.3.1 DredgingSite
5.3.1.1 DredgingofSandandTransportation 02
5.3.2 ReclamationSite 03
5.3.2.1 MitigationontheCoastalEnvironment 03
5.3.2.2 MitigationforTransportbySeaofDredgedSandintheDredger 03
5.4 MitigationMeasures:BiologicalandSocioCulturalResourcesincludingFisheries
5.4.1 MitigationofImpactsonBiological&SocioCulturalResourcesatDredgingSites 04
5.4.1.1 ImpactsfortheSensitiveHabitats 04
5.4.1.2 ImpactsofBreadinggrounds/Spawninggrounds 04
5.4.1.3 Impactstothesoftbottommacrozoobenthos&endangeredspecies 04
5.4.1.4 Suspendedsedimenteffectsonsessile,slowmovinginvertebrates&fish 05
5.4.1.5 Suspendedsediment(turbidity)effectonphytoplankton&otheraquaticplants 05
5.4.1.6 Impactforwaterquality 06
5.4.1.7 MitigationofImpactsonfisheries 06
5.4.1.8 MitigationthroughaccesstoSLLRDCborrowarea 07
5.4.1.9 Methodologyforassessingproposedincomesupport&benefitsprogrammefor 07
potentialincomelossbyfisherman
5.4.2 ReclamationSite 08
5.4.2.1 MitigationofAccidentsduringTransportofSandforReclamation 08
5.4.2.2 MitigationofImpactsonRoadSurfaceduetoTransportationofMaterial(Quarry 08
Material,ArmourRocketc.,)forProtectionWorks

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagevii

5.4.2.3 MitigatoryMeasuresforImpactsduetoHandlingandStockpilingofQuarry 11
Materials
5.4.2.4 Noiseandvibrationcontrolmeasures 12
5.5 MitigationMeasuresBiologicalEcologicalResources 13
5.5.1 ReclamationArea: 13
5.5.1.1 Proposedsewageandwastewatertreatmentsystems,solidwastedisposal 13
methods.
5.5.1.2 MitigationoftheImpactsonBeiraLake 14
5.5.1.3 Possiblemitigationmeasurestominimizeblockageofstormwateroutlets 16
5.6 RiskManagementandDisasterMitigation 20
5.6.1 MarinePollutionandOilSpillagearisingfromaccidents 21
5.6.2 Collisionsofvessels 22
5.6.3 Sealevelrelatedhazards 22
5.7 MechanismforimplementationoftheMitigatoryMeasures 22

Chapter6:ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysis
6.1 Introduction 01
6.2 IdentificationofPotentialImpacts 01
6.3 MultipliereffectsandLongtermOutcomes 02
6.4 ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysis(CBA) 03
6.4.1 ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysisforthereclamationstage 04
6.4.1.1 BenefitStreams 04
6.4.2.1 CostStreams 07
6.4.2 ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysisfortheCPC 07
6.4.2.1 Economicbenefits 08
6.4.2.2 Economiccosts 08
6.4.2.3 Others 08
6.5 OverallAssessment 09
6.6 SummaryofCBA 11
6.7 SensitivityAnalysisNPV 12
6.7.1 Reclamationand20yearsofBusinessOperations 13

Chapters7:Environmentalmanagementplan
7.1 PurposeofanEnvironmentalManagementPlan 01
7.2 ImplementationofMitigatoryMeasures 01
7.3 ImplementationofMonitoringProcedures 01

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pageviii

7.4 InstitutionalArrangementsforComplianceMonitoringandImpactConfirmation 01
Monitoring
7.5 EnvironmentalMonitoringProgramme(EMoP) 02

Chapters8:Conclusion

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pageix

Volume2oftheSEIAReport
LISTOFANNEXES

AnnexI :TermsofReference(ToR)

AnnexII :References

AnnexIII :SourcesofdataandInformation

AnnexIV :Listofpreparersincludingtheirworkallocation

AnnexV :StructuredQuestionnaireusedforInterviews

AnnexVI :Listofpersonsandorganizationscontacted

AnnexVII :Maps,charts,tables,layoutplanandotherdetails

AnnexVIII :ApprovalsreceivedfromGovernmentAgencies.

SEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagex

Volume2oftheSEIAReport
APPENDICES
AppendixI :ProposedColomboPortCityMasterPlan

Appendix2 :ArchaeologicalImpactAssessmentReport

Appendix3 :AssumptionsfortheExtendedCostBenefitAnalysis

Appendix4 :CBACalculations

Appendix5 :AssumptionsApprovedEnvironmentalManagementPlan(2014)

SEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagexi

ABBREVIATIONS

ADB AsianDevelopmentBank
AG AttorneyGeneral
ANZECC AustralianandNewZealandEnvironmentandConservationCouncil
ARs ArtificialReefs
BOI BoardofInvestment
BRT BusRapidTransit
CA ConcessionAgreement
CBA CostBenefitAnalysis
CBD CentralBusinessDistrict
CBOs CommunityBasedOrganizations
CCA CoastConservationAct
CCCC ChinaCommunicationsConstructionCompany
CC&CRMD CoastConservationandCoastalResourcesManagementDepartment
CCD CoastConservationDepartment
CEA CentralEnvironmentalAuthority
CEB CeylonElectricityBoard
CHEC ChinaHarbourEngineeringCompany
CMA ColomboMetropolitanArea
CMC ColomboMunicipalCouncil
CMP ComplianceMonitoringPlan
CMR ColomboMetropolitanRegion
CPC ColomboPortCity
CPCDP ColomboPortCityDevelopmentProject
CPEP ColomboPortExpansionProject
CPTU PeizoconeTest
CPUE CatchperUnitEffort
CRMP CoastalResourcesManagementPlan
CSD CutterSuctionDredger
CSH ColomboSouthHarbour
CZMP CoastalZoneManagementPlan
DFAR DepartmentofFisheriesandAquaticResources
EIA EnvironmentalImpactAssessment
EMC EnvironmentalMonitoringCommittee
EMP EnvironmentalManagementPlan
EMoP EnvironmentalMonitoringProgramme
ETA EstimatedtimeofArrival
FADs FishAggregatingDevices
FDI ForeignDirectInvestment
FEM FiniteElementMethod
GCWMP GreaterColomboWastewaterManagementProject
GFA GrossFloorArea
GFG GalleFaceGreen
GIS GalerkinInterfaceStabilization

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagexii

GND GramaNiladhariDivision
GOH GrandOrientHotel
GPS GlobalPositioningSystem
GSMB GeologicalSurveyandMinesBureau
GSMBTS GSMBTechnicalServices
GoSL GovernmentofSriLanka
ICT InformationTelecommunicationTechnology
IEE InitialEnvironmentalExamination
IMO InternationalMaritimeOrganization
JCT JayeContainerTerminals
JICA JapaninternationalCorporationAgency
JLL JonesLangLasalle
LWOST LowWaterOrdinarySpringTide
MEPA MarineEnvironmentalProtectionAuthority
MoM&WD MinistryofMegaPolisandWesternDevelopment
MMA MinesandMineralAct
MEPA MarinePollutionPreventionAct
MoU MemorandumofUnderstanding
MSL MeanSeaLevel
MTB MechanizedTraditionalBoasts
NARA NationalAquaticResources,ResearchandDevelopmentAgency
NBRO NationalBuildingResearchOrganization
NBSB NonMechanizedBeachSeineBoat
NBT NationBuildingTax
NFD NegamboFisheriesDistrict
NEA NationalEnvironmentalAct
NTRB NonMechanizedTraditionalBoasts
NWSDB NationalWaterSupplyandDrainageBoard
OBM OutboardMotor
ODA OfficialDevelopmentAssistance
OFRP OutboardMotorFiberReinforcedPlasticBoats
PAA ProjectApprovingAgency
PRDA ProvincialRoadDevelopmentAuthority
RDA RoadDevelopmentAuthority
SCARC StandingCabinetAppointedReviewCommittee
SEIA SupplementaryEnvironmentalImpactAssessment
SLLRDC SriLankaLandReclamationandDevelopmentCorporation
SLPA SriLankaPortsAuthority
SLT SriLankaTelecom
Sp. Nonidentifiedspeciesofagenus
Spp. Nonidentifiedspeciesofthesamegenus
SPT StandardPenetrationstest
STPM SuctionTubePositionMonitoring
TEC TechnicalEvaluationCommittee
TIA TransportImpactAssessment

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagexiii

TIWTE TianjinResearchInstituteofWaterTransportEngineering
TOR TermsofReference
TSHD TrailingSuctionHopperDredger
TSS TotalSuspendedSolids
UAU UnderwaterArcheologyUnit
UDA UrbanDevelopmentAuthority
UoM UniversityofMoratuwa
VAT ValueAddedTax

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Pagexiv

EXECUTIVESUMMARY

SUPPLEMENTARYENVIRONMENTALIMPACTASSESSMENTSTUDY:COLOMBOPORTCITY
DEVELOPMENTPROJECT

Introduction

This Supplementary Environmental Impact Assessment (SEIA) study is carried out for the
expansionofthereclamationareaoftheColomboPortCityprojectfromanareaof200ha,which
was approved by the Project Approving Agency, the Department of Coast Conservation and
CoastalResourcesManagement,subsequenttoanEnvironmentalImpactAssessment(EIA)study
thatwassubjecttopubliccommentsviaanoticeplacedinnewspaperson11thJune2011,toan
altereddesigncomprisinganareaof269ha,togetherwiththeimpactsofextractionofsandfrom
the identified borrow areas and quarry material required for the entire landfill and protective
works. The abovementioned EIA for 200ha did not cover environmental impacts of sand
extraction as a separate and inconclusive Initial Environmental Impact Assessment (IEE) process
wasadoptedbytheSriLankaPortsAuthorityinthisrespect,andthislacunaisbeingaddressedvia
thisSEIAstudy.

NotwithstandingtheEIAof2011for200habeingapprovedafterthepublicreviewprocess,this
SEIAstudycoverstheentirereclamationfootprintandtheextractionofquarrymaterialandsand
requiredfortheentireproject.

TheProjectProponenttothisSEIA,theMinistryofMegapolis&WesternDevelopment,appointed
theCentralEngineeringConsultancyBureau(CECB)asLeadConsultanttoexecutethisSEIAstudy.
ThisSEIAisguidedbythefollowingimportantprinciples:
(a) TermsofReferencefortheSEIAissuedbytheDepartmentofCoastConservationandCoastal
Resources Management (CCD) to the Ministry of Urban Development, Water Supply &
Drainage on 30th August 2015 titled: Terms of Reference For the Supplementary
Environmental Impact Assessment Report of the Reclamation, Dredging, Construction of
Protection Structures such as Breakwaters and Revetments and Extraction of Sand and
Quarry Material required for reclamation and protection works for proposed Colombo Port
CityDevelopmentProject
(b) TheTermsoftheAgreemententeredintobetweentheMinistryofPortsandShipping,acting
onbehalfoftheGovernmentofSriLanka(GOSL),andCHECPortCityColombo(Pvt)Ltd(the
Project Company), signed on 16th September 2014 and extended on 17th September 2015
(hereafterreferredtoastheGOSLAgreement)andtheConcessionAgreementattachedto
the said GOSL Agreement as a binding annexure (hereafter referred to as the Project
Agreement), stipulates inter alia that the Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA)/GOSL is
responsibleforsecuringtherequiredenvironmentalpermitsandapprovals.
(c) TheDecisionoftheCabinetofMinisterson17thJune2015thatauthorizedtheUDAtostep
intotheroleofSLPAand,pendingtherequiredlegalformalitiesbeingfinalized,theMinistry
of Urban Development, Water Supply and Drainage would to take responsibility for
implementingmattersconnectedtothisSEIAastheProjectProponent.WiththeUDAbeing
assigned under the Ministry of Megapolis & Western Development, this Ministry has now
takenoversuchresponsibilities.
(d) IntermsoftheProjectAgreement,theColomboPortCitywillbedevelopedintwodistinct
phases,withrequiredenvironmentalapprovalsobtainedintwophasesaswellasfollows:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage1

Phase1EIA:ForReclamation,sandextractionandconstructionofcoastalstructuresto
protectthelandfillandlandscapingaestheticsfortheproposedColomboPortCity.This
SEIA is a continuation of work connected to Phase 1 and being carried out as a
supplementary to the approved EIA for 200 ha. Reclamation works will recommence
uponthisSEIAreceivingrequiredapprovals.
Phase 2 EIA:ConstructionofthebuildingsandinfrastructureofthePortCity. This EIA
study will be based on the concept master plan and infrastructure requirements
submitted to the UDA (and described in this SEIA in Chapter 2). The construction of
permanent structures/built environment on the landfill will take place only upon
receivingnecessaryapprovalsforthePhase2EIAstudy.

OriginsofColomboPortCity

Expansion of the Colombo Central Business District (CBD) by reclaiming the sea was originally
proposed under the Governmentinitiated Western Region Megapolis Regional Structure Plan
dated July 2004, prepared by the Singapore based urban planning consultants, CESMA
InternationalPte.Ltd.AccordingtotheColomboCoreAreaPlanofthePlan(referredtoasthe
CESMAPlan),theColomboCBDwastobeexpandedtoreleaselandsforrealestatedevelopment
by:
(a) Reclaiming145haoflandfromtheseatotheSouthoftheproposedColomboSouthPort
breakwaterby2010(i.e.thecurrentlocationofColomboPortCity)
(b) Relocating port related activities at the existing Jaye Container Terminals (JCT) to the
ColomboSouthPort,releasingaround76haoflandforrealestatedevelopment
(c) Creating 221 ha (145ha+ 76ha) of new waterfront lands adjacent to the Colombo Port,
which includes a marketable land extent of 139.5 ha, to meet the real estate needs of
ColomboCBDupto2030

In comparison, the Colombo Port City project proposes to create a total land area of 269 ha
includingamarketablelandareaof173ha.Therefore,themarketablelandenvisagedunderPort
City is 24% higher than the 139.5 ha land extent envisaged under the CESMA Plan, within the
samegeographicarea.Moreover,theCESMAPlanenvisagedtheSouthPortreclamationandJCT
areadevelopmentstocommencein2010andmeetthecityslandrequirementsfor20yearstill
2030. The Colombo Port City development plan is intended to span a 25year period ending in
2040. Accordingly, under both plans, the average land extent to be released for development
worksouttoaround7haperannum.

An important aspect that should be noted when comparing the CESMA Plan and the Colombo
Port City Project is that, under the latter, the entirety of the proposed new land area is to be
createdbyreclamationwithoutanyinterferencewithand/orrelocationofexistinginfrastructure,
whereasundertheCESMAPlanpartofthenewlandwastobecreatedbyrelocationofexisting
facilitiesattheJayeContainerTerminals

Therefore,creatingalandfillforrealestatedevelopmentadjacenttothePortofColombounder
theColomboPortCityProjectisnotanewconcept.Itisaninitiativethatfallswithinthebroad
parameters of the master plans developed by CESMA approximately 11 years ago, which are
currentlybeingupdated.

Ifalargescalereclamationprojectwastobeundertakenwith minimumimpactto thecoastto


capitalizeontheadvantageofthesitebeinganareawheresandwouldnaturallyaccumulate,the
onlylocationtechnicallyandfinanciallyfeasibleiswithintheshadowofthesouthernarmofthe
breakwater of the newly built Colombo South Port Project. The new South Port breakwater,

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage2

fundedbytheADB,wasthemostchallengingCoastal/PortEngineeringprojectundertakeninSri
Lanka.Apartfromthebreakwaterextending1.5kmperpendiculartothebeach,thusactingasa
protectivebarriertoPortCity,dredgingfortheSouthPortinvolvedanareaofabout820haand
the reclaimed area covered about 340 ha. This SEIA report will demonstrate that Colombo Port
CitydevelopmentscoveredunderthisSEIAhasfarlessenvironmentalimpactsthantheColombo
SouthPort.

Colombo Port City A Collaboration between the Project Company and Government of Sri
Lanka

The CPC project was initially conceived as a public sector/Government funded project to be
undertakenbyTheSriLankaPortAuthority(SLPA).Consequently,theSLPAcommissionedatits
owncostanInitialTechnicalFeasibilityStudyinApril2010forthereclamationoflandSouthof
thenewbreakwater.AroundJune2010,anEIAstudywascommissionedbySLPAalsoatitsown
cost through the University of Moratuwa (UoM) for a reclamation area of 200 ha. In October
2010, the UDA completed a master plan study based on the above mentioned Initial Technical
FeasibilityStudyandsubmittedaProjectProposaltotheSLPAforconsideration.
In April 2011, based on an unsolicited concept proposal submitted by China Communications &
ConstructionCompany(CCCC),theparentoftheProjectCompany,theGovernmentofSriLanka
(GOSL)decidedtonottocommitpublicfundstoconstructthePortCityProjectandproceededto
negotiate with CCCC to implement the project entirely as a foreign direct investment, with no
financialguaranteesbytheGovernmentontheinvestment.
After a 2 year period of negotiation with a Standing Cabinet Appointed Review Committee
(SCARC) and a TEC represented by 16 Government organizations, on 16th September 2014 an
Agreement (referred to hereafter as the Project Agreement) was entered into between the
Project Company and the Secretary to the Ministry of Highways, Ports and Shipping (acting for
and on behalf of the GOSL). The Agreement was signed and the projects construction works
ceremonially inaugurated on the same day in the presence of the President of the Peoples
RepublicofChinaandthePresidentoftheDemocraticSocialistRepublicofSriLanka,duringthe
ChinesePresidentsStatevisittoSriLanka.
DuringtheperiodleadingtothesigningoftheProjectAgreementandintermsoftheAgreement
itself, the responsibility for carrying out the required environmental studies and obtaining the
required permits and consents in relation to the reclamation and sand extraction has been the
responsibilityoftheSLPA,and,intermsofClause3oftheabovementionedGOSLAgreementand
the Project Agreement annexed thereto, all rights, obligations and liabilities of the SLPA are
deemedasrights,obligationsandliabilitiesoftheGOSL.
TheProjectAgreementstatesthatofthetotalmarketablelandareaatPortCity(i.e.landtobe
sold or leased under applicable laws in Sri Lanka to third party investors for development after
allowingforpublicparks,roadsandbeaches)shallbenolessthan170ha.Ofthis,nolessthan62
ha will be allocated to the GOSL/SLPA (to be replaced by UDA) and no less than 108 ha will be
allocated to the Project Company. It should be noted that the allocation of marketable land
between the Project Company and GOSL would be carried out on an equitable basis where the
Project Company will first select a marketable land extent of less than 10 ha and then the
Government will select a similar extent. This process of alternative selections will be repeated
until such time one of the Parties has reached the maximum amount of marketable land to be
allocatedtothatParty.Therefore,themarketablelandsallocatedbetweentheGovernmentand
ProjectCompanywillbeinnoncontiguousblocks.Notethatthepublicareassuchasroads,parks,
beacheswillbeundertheGOSL/UDA/CMC

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage3

Inconsiderationofreceivingitsshareofthecommerciallydevelopableland(63hawithacurrent
marketvalueofRs225 billion),theSLPA/GOSLwouldberesponsibleforensuringthesupplyof
utilities(water,power,sewerage)totheboundaryofthereclamationsiteatasuitableconnection
pointandwithsufficientcapacityasandwhenneededandimprovethetransportinfrastructure
leading to the site. This is a common arrangement in priority investment projects where the
developer meets the cost of all common infrastructures within the site and the Government
agencies concerned provide infrastructure connections to the periphery (e.g. industrial parks,
housingprojectshavebeenimplementedinSriLankaonthisbasis)

ObjectiveoftheSEIAReport ThetwoStageEIAProcess

Several important issues were raised in the Initial Technical Feasibility Study of 2010 and the EIA
studyof2011forthe200hareclamation.Theywere:
(a) TheproposedPortCityhastobedevelopedintwostages.Thefirststagewillbethelandfill,
the offshore breakwater and the coast protection for the protection of the landfill. The
SecondStagewillbetheplanneddevelopmentofPortCitywithallinfrastructureandsupport
services
(b) If there is a modification to the overall design, then environmental consultants would be
commissionedtopresentanaddendumtotheEIAtoconfirmthatthechangesandresultant
environmental impacts will not make a significant change to the findings of the initial EIA
completedfor200ha.IfchangestothedesignaresignificantthenafreshEIAwillbecarried
out.
(c) AdetailedEIAwillhavetobecarriedoutfortheinfrastructuredevelopmentplanofthePort
Cityandtheproposeddevelopmentsonthereclaimedland.

The objective of this Supplementary EIA is a consequence of (b) above: that is, to capture the
designchangessincethecompletionoftheEIAof2011andtosubjecttopublicscrutinytheaspects
covered in the Addendum to the EIA of 2013 and subsequent changes. It is noted that the
AddendumtotheEIAof2011wasnotopentopubliccommentsin2013.

Varying approaches can be undertaken for environmental studies. It is the prerogative of the
GovernmentpolicymakersledbytheProjectApprovingAgency(PAA)todecideonthescopeofthe
environmental studies. Accordingly, the respective Government appointed review committees
evaluatingthePortCityprojectrecommendedtotheCabinetofMinisterstoadheretoa2stage
EIA process for Port City, and accordingly provision was made for such a course of action in the
ProjectAgreementsignedbetween the GOSLandtheProject Company. Therefore,as mentioned
earlier, Colombo Port City will be developed in two distinct phases, with required environmental
approvalsobtainedviatworelatedEIAstudies.

ThisSEIAisthereforetobereadasaSupplementarytotheapprovedEIAof2011.ThePhase2EIA
for the construction of the buildings and infrastructure of the Port City, including traffic impact
assessmentwillcommenceinparallelorimmediatelyaftercompletingthisSEIAstudy.

EnvironmentalApprovalsleadingtothecurrentSEIA

The Department of Coast Conservation & Coastal Resources Management (CCD), as the Project
Approving Agency (PAA), made the EIA report of April 2011 for 200ha available for public
commentsasrequiredunderSection16Subsection2(b)oftheCoastConservationActNo57of
1981.Inthisrespect,theCCDplacedadvertisementsinmajornewspaperson21stJune2011inall

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage4

three languages informing the availability of the report for review at 11 locations including the
CEA,UDA,CMC,GSMBetc.Publiccommentsreceivedwererespondedtoasnecessary.

InviewoftheinvestmentproposalsubmittedbyCCCC,in2012proposingareclamationareaof
233ha,anAddendumreporttothe2010EIAwaspreparedbyUoMandsubmittedviatheSLPAto
theCCDinSeptember2013.ThemainobjectiveoftheAddendumreporttotheEIAwastoinform
thePAAofadeviationwhichhastakenplacetoexpandtheprojectfrom200hato233ha.
Thiswasacceptedandon23rdOctober2014,theCCDissuedaPermitforaDevelopmentActivity
underPartIIISection14oftheCoastConservation&CoastalResourceManagementActNo57
of 1981, for reclamation, dredging and construction of breakwaters, revetments. This permit
contained42conditionsofwhichconditionNo40statesASeparateapprovalshouldbeobtained
fromtheCEAforextractingsandfromtheoffshoretobereclaimedtheproposednearshorearea
andsubmittedtothisdepartmentpriortothecommencementoftheconstruction.

Inparalleltotheaboveprocess,theSLPAcommissionedNARAtocarryouttwoIEEstudiesfor2
sand borrow areas for which the GSMB issued exploration licenses to SLPA for purposes of
securingsandforthereclamationworkstobecarriedoutunderthePortCityProject.TheCEAas
the PAA for this study provided the Terms of Reference for the IEE. Obtaining the required
consentsforthefishermenscompensationprogramwasaprerequisitefortheCEAtograntthe
necessary permits to dredge sand. Despite almost a year of attempting to obtain the required
consents,theSLPAencounteredseveralroadblocksinfulfillingthistask.Inthecircumstances,the
SLPA could not obtain the required sand extraction permits from the CEA for the identified
borrow areas as stipulated in the development permit of the CCD and in terms of the Project
Agreement,whichassignedthisresponsibilitytotheGOSL/SLPA.

The Project Company commenced sand extraction and reclamation works on 16th September
2014consequenttotheGOSLswishtoinauguratetheprojectatthetimeoftheStatevisitbythe
PresidentofChinaandintermsofClause4.1oftheProjectAgreement,whichstatesthatonand
fromthedateofthisAgreement,theProjectCompanyshalldesignandcarryoutthereclamation
works in accordance with the Concession Agreement. In addition, the Project Company was
granted written permission by the SLPA to dredge the Colombo Harbour navigation channel
pending(asunderstoodbytheProjectCompany)thefinalizationofthetwoIEEstudiesbyNARA
foridentifiedsandborrowareas.

Under the above circumstances, where in terms of Article 12.1 of the Project Agreement the
obligation to obtain the necessary/applicable licenses and permits is a responsibility of the
SLPA/GOSL, the Project Company has taken the position that sand extraction and reclamation
workscommencedon16thSeptember2014onthebasisofprovisionscontainedintheAgreement
itselfandonthebasisofwrittenclearancesprovidedbytheSLPA.

Subsequently, the new Government elected on 8th January 2015 appointed an Evaluation
Committee to review the Port City project on 30th January 2015. On the basis of certain
conclusionsreachedbythisCommittee(withoutanyconsultationwiththeProjectCompany),on
4thMarch2015,theCabinetofMinistersmadeadecisiontosuspendtheconstructionworksof
thePortCityProject.ThisdecisionwascommunicatedtotheProjectCompanybytheSecretary
MinistryofPorts,Shipping&Aviationon6thMarch2015.

The said suspension is operative to date. During the period of suspension, the Government has
madethefollowingdecisions,inconsultationwiththeProjectCompanywherenecessary:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage5

(a) TheGOSLAgreementof16thSeptember2014wouldbeamendedtointeraliapermitthe
UDAtostepintotheroleoftheSLPAandtheenddateofthesaidGOSLAgreementwould
beextendedby6monthstointeraliafacilitatethesaidtransition
(b) The necessary amendments to the Project Agreement shall be effected via a tripartite
agreement between the GOSL represented by the Ministry in charge of the UDA (the
MinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment),theUDAandtheProjectCompany.
(c) A Supplementary Environmental Impact Assessment (SEIA) shall be carried out for
expansionofthereclamationareafrom200hato analtereddesignof269 hatogether
with the impacts of extraction of sand from the identified borrow areas and quarry
materialrequiredforthealtereddesign.

ThisSEIAisaconsequenceoftheaforesaiddecisionstakenbytheGovernment.

ObjectiveandJustificationoftheProject

ThelocationofPortCitytakesadvantageoftwinattractionsofproximitytotheColomboCBDand
oceanfront living in a carefully masterplanned area. This is a tried and tested formula by city
centres that aspire to position themselves as destinations for tourism, living, working, shopping
and entertainment. Also, the Colombo CBD has limited oceanfront lands available for
development, especially in view of the land area facing Galle Face, formerly occupied by the
Defenceforces,nowbeingallocatedtoShangriLaandITCHotels.

Presently,ColomboisnotaDestination,butprimarilyatransitpointfortourists.Theaverage
stay by tourists is roughly 1.6 nights for Colombo, which is too low by international norms. (In
comparison,averagestayatabeachlocationofatypicaltouristtoSriLankaisaround5.5nights).
ThelackofvibrancyofColombointermsofshoppingandentertainmentisasignificantdeterrent
toattractingSouthandEastAsiantouriststoSriLanka.SriLankastouristarrivalsbeingimpacted
by cyclicality (with higher arrivals being recorded during the traditional winter season) can be
largelyattributedtoColombonotbeingasoughtaftertouristdestination.

InvestmentDetails&StrategicObjectivesofColomboPortCity

TheobjectivesofColomboPortCityasformulatedbytheProjectCompanyareasfollows:
TofosterintegratedoceanfrontlivingwithintheCBDtoprovidehighqualityoflifethrough
worldclass office, residential and recreational spaces that will attract tourists,
professionals,entrepreneurs,managersandretirees.
PositionColomboasthemostliveablecityinSouthAsia
To create a regional business hub, a city with a distinct brand with high quality public
spaces and infrastructure facilities, attractive to local and international developers and
investors
To create a tourism hub with a unique character that reflects the distinctive local culture
andtheexistingurbanfabric
To design and build a sustainable urban city space that adapts to local climate, creates a
comfortablemicroclimateandmakeefficientuseofenergyresources

Colombo cannot become a destination that appeals to the international business travellers or
tourists with adhoc and fragmented developments and without distinct positioning. Therefore,
Colombo Port City provides an opportunity for the old and historic part of Colombos central
businessdistricttoseamlesslyinterfacewithamodernplannedmetropolislikenootherinSouth
Asia.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage6

TheinvestorinPortCity,CCCC,isaFortune500(No187)andpubliclistedcompanyinHongKong
andamongtheworldslargestconstructionandrealestatecompanieswithassetsofover$100
billion.Itisalsotheworldslargestdredgingcompanyhavingundertakeniconiclandreclamation
projectsinChinaandthemaindredgingcontractorfortheworlds2largestreclamationprojects
the new airport projects at Hong Kong and Macau. The total foreign direct investment in the
reclamation stage of the Port City envisaged at around $1400 million. CCCC has plans to
undertake further investments in a real estate project in Port City upon the completion of the
phase1investmentinreclamationandthephase2EIA.
TheProjectCompanyhasalsohiredworldrenownedinternationalconsultantsworkingtogether
withlocalspecialiststoadviseonvariousaspectsconnectedtothedevelopment:Fore.g:Atkins
ofUK:Masterplanreview;AecomofUSA:Utilitydesign,roaddesignandlandscaping;Swecoof
Sweden: Overall master planning; Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL) and CB Richard Ellis (CBRE) of UK:
financialandmarketingprefeasibilityandCDRInternationalofTheNetherlands:technicalreview
ofdesignsofthecontractor.
Theinvestmentrequiredforthebreakwaterandotherprotectivestructures(bothsubmergedand
abovewater) of the Port City Project is around $225 million. Therefore, in order to recover the
cost of the breakwater and the allocation of 63 ha of marketable land together with 96 ha of
common area land to the Government (a total of 159 ha or 59% out of 269 ha), the Port City
project,ifmadesmaller,wouldnotbefinanciallyviabletotheinvestor.Statedanotherway,the
Project Company will retain only 41% of the reclaimed land extent for marketing to developers
(110haofnoncontiguousland).
It is noted that Port City will have around 45 ha of public parks (9 times the size of Galle Face
Green)anchoredbya22haCentralParkandawellprotectedbeachandsocalledlagoon(water
area between breakwater and beach) suitable for swimming and water recreational activities
currentlynotavailabletoresidentsinColomboCBD.Thereclaimedlandareaisalsoafunctionof
thelengthoftheColomboSouthPortbreakwater andtakesadvantageof thefulllength ofthe
shadowofthebreakwater.

FutureDevelopments
Permissibledevelopmentswithinthe269reclaimedlandareawillbeInkeepingwithSriLankas
planning and building regulations. Developments proposed under the concept master plan for
Port City submitted to the UDA for preliminary planning clearance include commercial
establishments,residential,healthandeducationalinstitutes,smallbusinessesandservices,arts
and entertainment, community developments, marina and convention facilities. No industrial
activitieswillbeallowedwithinPortCity.

Colombo Port City will be implemented over a 25year period. There is no future addition or
expansionenvisagedbeyondthe269haareaafterthereclamationworkscoveredunderthisSEIA
studyiscompleted.

The Hon. Attorney General has opined that the UDA cannot be a signatory to the Project
AgreementreplacingtheSLPAasitlacksthelegalcapacityundertheUDAAct.Uponcreationof
newlandbyreclamationofthesea,theentirePortCitylandwillbegazettedundertheSriLanka
Lands Ordinance, a subject matter falling under the purview of His Excellency the President in
termsofthesaidOrdinance.TheUDAcouldthereforedeclarethelandreclaimedbythePortCity
Project as an Urban Development Area only after the reclamation process is over and a
declarationismadeundertheLandsOrdinance.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage7

Accordingly, the sovereign rights of the Government of Sri Lanka including the right of eminent
domain,isapplicablewithinthereclaimedland.

OutlineofStudiesCarriedOut

A comprehensive review of the modelling work and preliminary designs carried out for the
Feasibility Study of Port City were undertaken during the preparation of this SEIA. This includes
separatecomprehensive2Dand3Dphysicalmodelteststudiesandnumericalmodellingstudies,
which includes interpretation of coastal evolution and siltation due to proposed development,
sediment transport modelling considering dredging and reclaiming and interpretation of
contaminantconcentrationattheBeiraLakeoutfallwiththeproposedmitigationmeasures.

Inaddition,groundinvestigationshavebeencarriedoutoveraperiodofmorethantwoyearsto
better understand the technical requirements that would need to be taken into account in the
implementationoftheproject.Insummary,thefollowingengineeringstudieshavebeencarried
out and reports compiled during the feasibility and environmental study phase of this project
usingtheservicesoflocalandinternationalexperts/organizations:
WaveclimatemodellingLHICoast&Water(LHI)
Hydrodynamicmodelling(LHI)
Wavedisturbancemodelling(LHI)
Sedimenttransportmodelling(LHI)
Sedimentdispersalmodelling(LHI)
Shoreprofilesurvey(LHI)
2D Stability physical model Test on Offshore Breakwater and Revetment for Marina
TianjinResearchInstituteofWaterTransportEngineering(TRIWTE)
3D Physical Model study Test South Part and North Part Nanjing Hydraulic Research
Institute(NHRI)
Analysis(numericalmodelling)ofCoastalEvolutionandSiltationTRIWTE
NumericalmodellingofWaterExchangeTRIWTEandLHI
GroundInvestigationsForthHarbourDesignInstitute
Waterqualitysamplingandanalysis(NARA)
Assessmentofinlandquarrymaterialavailability,permits,transportationroutes,impacts
etc.(GSMBTechnicalServices)
Modelandecologicalstudiesatreclamationarea(UniversityofMoratuwa)
ImpactsonBeriaLakeoutfallandstormwaterdrainoutletsimpactsduetotheproposed
development,including3Dnumericalmodel(CDRInternational,Netherlands)

OtherimportantstudyreportsthisSEIAbuildsoninclude:
ColomboPortEfficiency&ExpansionProject,EnvironmentalImpactAssessmentof2005
carriedoutbyScottWilson.
EIA Study for Proposed Colombo Port City (2011) and Addendum thereto (2013) by the
UniversityofMoratuwa,

SummaryofImportantFindingsonCoastalErosion

The South Port Project breakwater extends 2km in length perpendicular to the coast. This can
potentiallycreateerosionnorthofColombo.However,monitoringoverthelast4yearsorsohas
confirmed erosion has not taken place. This is mainly because of sediment supply from Kelani

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage8

River, discharged north of the Colombo Port. The construction of Colombo South Port had
increasedthewaveshadow,extendingitnorthwards.Asaconsequencewaveconditionsinthis
areahadbecomecalmer,andtheshorelinebetweentheColomboSouthPortandtheKelaniRiver
haveremainedstableafterconstructionoftheColomboSouthPort

The Kelani River is believed to contribute some 100,000 to 200,000 m3/year to the sediment
budget of the area. Historically this is believed to have been much higher, perhaps 400,000
m3/year, but has declined due to sand mining and development upstream. As a consequence
therehasbeenongoingerosionofthecoasttothenorthoftheKelani.Therefore,sincePortCity
isintheshadowoftheColomboSouthPortbreakwater,ithasnoimpactoncoastalerosionnorth
ofColomboPort.

ThecoastalstretchsouthofColomboisstablewithverylittleseasonalchanges.Thenetlongshore
sedimenttransportalongthewestcoastofSriLankaispredominantlydirectedtowardsthenorth
asaresultofthewaveclimate(SouthWestmonsoonseawavesandswell).Transportrateshave
beendominatedbyswellwaves,withseawavescontributinglittlenettransport.Mostofthenet
transport occurs during the southwest monsoon season. However during the NE monsoon the
sedimenttransport(asaresultofwavesfromNorthWest)isusuallydirectedtowardssouthfora
limitedperiod.Therefore,PortCityhasnoimpactonerosionSouthoftheColomboPort

Moreover,whenconsidertheshorelinechangewiththissedimenttransportrateforlast10years,
thereisnosignificantaccretionorerosioninthecoastalstretchnorthorsouthofColomboPort.
Thechangesofshorelineofselectedlocationsoverthelast10yearscorroboratethisfact.

When dredging is taking place for sand, material must be taken away from the active dynamic
zone, where waves do not have an influence on the seabed. In the case of Port City, dredging
areashavebeenidentifiedonthisbasis.Itmustbeemphasisedhoweverthatthechangeofwave
climate due to natural reasons may lead to movement of sand which can take place anywhere
around the island. Accordingly, studies carried out and extensively described in this SEIA report
andannexesclearlyestablishthatPortCitywillnotcausecoastalerosion.

Four years of monitoring of the Colombo South Port Project has illustrated that the turbidity
represented by total suspended sediment near the Kelani River outfall has been always greater
thanthemobilepointsaroundthedredgingandreclamationsites(3mobilestation).Thismeans
thatthenaturalenvironmenthasagreaterimpactontheecosystemthanarisingfromdredging
andreclamation.SedimentladenplumeoftheKelaniRivercanhaveanimpactonecosystem.Itis
notedthatthesedimentladenplumefromtheKelaniRivercoverstheSouthPortregionduring
heavymonsoonrainyweather.

MaterialRequiredtoConstructPortCity

TocompletethePortCityProject,atotalof2.83mncumofquarrymaterialand65mncumof
dredgedseasandwillberequired.Allthequarriesidentifiedforthesupplyofquarrymaterialare
eitherIMLAorIMLBgradequarries.Hence,suchlicensedquarriesareboundtocomplywiththe
environmentalregulationsduringtheoperations.PortCitywillobtainquarrymaterialonlyfrom
independentIMLAlicensedquarrysupplierswhowillindividuallyobtainrequiredlocalauthority,
environmentalandtransportpermits.

Sandistobeextractedfrom2areasdesignatedbyGSMBwithexplorationlicensesEL/177dated
21st June 2011 (Site 1) and Exploration License No: EL/281 dated 8th November 2013 (Site 2)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage9

issuedtotheSLPA.UnderthisSEIA,environmentalimpactshavebeenascertainedforthesesites,
which comprise a combined area of 100 sq. km (46 sq. km for Site 1 and 54 for Site 2) and a
dredgeable/availablesandquantityestimatedat112mncu.m(44mncumforSite1and68mn
cumforSite2)oralmostdoublethesandrequirementforcompletionofPortCity.

SupplyofQuarryMaterial

A total of 11 different quarry sites with required approvals, located in Kaduwela, Hanwella,
Padukka, Delgoda and Divulapitiya area, have been surveyed for obtaining quarry material for
construction of necessary structures to protect the reclamation. According to GSMB Technical
Services estimates, the required quantity of Port City works out to around 43% of the quarry
materialavailableatthesesites.Furthermore,the11quarrysitesrepresentaround79%ofthe
totalregisteredquarriesintheColomboandGampahadistricts.Consequently,theimpactofthis
projectonthenationalquarrymaterialrequirementwouldbenegligibleandthereforenoprice
impact to the construction industry according to the GSMB Technical Services. It was revealed
duringtheGSMBstudythatmostoftheIMLAcategoryquarriesarenotoperatingduetolackof
demand.

Around 300 six wheeler trucks and 38 ten wheelers are to be used for transportation from the
quarrysitestotheprojectsite.Transportationshallbedonethroughtwosessions,avoidingpeak
hours,andviasixdifferentroutestominimizetrafficcongestion.

Thetrucksshallbecoveredtoavoidanyspillingoftransportedmaterialorreleaseofdusttothe
environment. Dust generation during the transportation via unpaved internal roads shall be
controlled by sprinkling water along the roads at regular intervals. Sprinkling water to wash
quarrymaterialsloadedintrucksbeforeunloadingthematthestockpilingsiteshallminimizedust
generationduringtheunloading.ThemovementsofthewetreturningtrucksmaycauseSpitting
mudalongtheroadsurfacesoutsidetheprojectsite.Washingthetiresofthetrucks,beforethey
aremovingoutoftheprojectsiteshallcontrolthisimpact.

There is facility for parking for about 75 trucks around the port gate without disturbing moving
vehiclesalongtheroad.Asthegatewillopenat7am,truckswillenterthestockpilingsitethrough
theroadinsidetheport,whichalsomitigatesroadcongestion.

During the 6month period of construction of Port City from September 16th 2014 to March 6th
2015, prior to entering into supply arrangements with quarry owners, the Project Companys
contractorensuredthatthesupplierhadavalidMiningLicenseandquantitysuppliedwaswithin
allowable limits. Moreover, each quarry site was subject to inspection. The same practice will
continueupontherecommencementofconstructionofthePortCityProject.

DredgingMethodology

NARA, who was commissioned by the Project Proponent to carry out the marine ecological
studies and socio economic impacts, and LHI, who carried out studies on shoreline/coastal
impacts, have recommended guidelines for dredging that are designed to minimize impacts on
thecoastalarea,ecologyandincomefromfisheries.Theimportantapplicableguidelinesforsand
extractionstipulatedinthisSEIAbasedonrecommendationsbyNARAandLHIareasfollows:
1. Use modern dredging methods. It is stated in the SEIA report that 4 modern Trailing
SuctionHopperDredgerswillbeusedinthedredging.
2. Dredging to occur 3km beyond the shoreline and at water depths of 15m or more. The

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage10

dredgingat15mdepthswillensurethattherewillbenoimpactoncoastalerosionbased
onnearshoreactivityandthe3kmdistanceswillminimizeimpactsonfishingroutesand
fishingactivities.Moreoverthe3kmminimumdistancewillensurenoimpactonmadal
fishing.
3. Obtain no greater than 30% of total sand requirement (30% of 65 mn cu m) from SLPA
Site1andtherestfromSite2.ThisisduetoSite1havingsensitivefishspawningareas
4. Dredgingdepthtobelimitedto2mfromthesurfaceofsedimentonSite1andfromsite2
dredging may occur at greater depths provided 0.5 m of sediment is preserved after
extraction
5. Asmuchaspossible,dredginghastobeavoidedinareashavingfishspawningandunique
habitat.
6. DredgingtocommencefromSite2initially
7. Allowfishermentoengageinfishingwithintheallocateddredgingsitesbygivingproper
noticeinadvanceandafterdredgingworkisdonetorecommencefishing.(Thiswillbein
accordancewithCOLREGregulationsissuedbytheInternationalMaritimeOrganization)
8. Implement an income support and benefits program to fishermen (outlined in detail in
Chapter5ofthisSEIAreportandsummarizedbelow)

IndependentofthisSEIA,asamitigationmeasure,theProjectProponent,MinistryofMegapolis&
Western Area Development, has directed the SLLRDC to enter into an arrangement with the
ProjectCompanytosupplysandfromtheadjacent100sqkmborrowareaassignedtoSLLRDCfor
whichenvironmentalapprovalshavealreadyobtainedfromtheCEAfordredgingsandinlimited
quantitiestomeettherequirementsoftheconstructionindustry.Thisborrowareaisestimated
tohaveadredgeablesandquantityof264mncum,thoughsubjecttoexplorationstudiesbeing
carried out. It has been recommended as a mitigation measure in this SEIA that once SLLRDC
obtainsrequiredenvironmentalclearancestodredgeitssite,dredgingactivitiesinSite1wouldbe
reduced even further from levels mentioned above or curtailed altogether. On 19th November
2015,SLLRDChassecuredconcurrencefromtheCEAtodredge4mncumofsandbasedonthe
approvedEIAofNovember2007.SLLRDCintendstomakethisquantityavailableforpurposesof
PortCityreclamation,pendingcarryingoutfurtherexplorationtosecureclearancesfromtheCEA
forextractionofupto70mncumforusebyPortCityandSLLRDCsownuseinthefuture.

AssumingthesandavailableintheSLLRDCborrowpitisaddedasplanned,thesandrequirement
forPortCityisonly17%ofthedredgeablesandavailablewithinthe3designatedborrowareas.
Consideringanaveragedredgingdepthof2meters,theareatobedredgedwillbearound3040
sq.kmoutofatotalareaofaround100sqkmallocatedforSLPAsites1and2(oraround3040%
of area). Assuming that the borrow area allocated to SLLRDC is added, thereby increasing the
dredgingareato200sqkms,thedredgingareawillreducetoonly1525%ofthetotalallocated
area. Accordingly, the mitigation measures suggested during sand extraction such as avoiding
fishinggroundsandroutesarefeasible.

SummaryofEnvironmentalImpacts&Mitigation

Toasubstantialextent,environmentalconsiderationshavebeenincorporatedintotheplanningof
the layout and the feasibility design process from its inception. This has allowed the early
identification of any environmental issues, which may impose constrains on the design. This
approach of Mitigation by Design has reduced the need for a range of specific mitigation
measures.ThekeyfindingsfromthisSEIAstudy,potentialimpactsandsolutionstomitigatethese
impactsaresummarizedbelow:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage11

1. Therewillbenoreductioninfishinggroundsinthereclamationareasincethisisnotan
idealhabitatforfishbreedingduetoalreadysiltedconditions.
2. Therewillbesomebeneficialeffectsofusinggranitebouldersandconcreteelementsfor
protection works, as these will serve as suitable habitats for fauna and flora. Further,
thesewillprovideshelterforbenthicanimalsthatinhabitreefssuchaslobstersandsome
fish.Inadditiontheseboulderswillserveashabitatsforcoralorganismsasobservedin
thenewlyconstructedbreakwatersoftheHambantotaport.Therefore,thepopulationsof
suchanimalmayincrease.
3. Dredgingwilloccuratorbeyondtheminimumstipulateddepthof15mtoamaximumof
30m.Suchdredgingdepthisgreaterthanthedepthofclosureandthereforenoimpacton
theshoreline/coastalerosion.
4. AcomparisonwasmadeoftheworkabilityofaCutterSuctionDredger(CSD)andaTrailing
SuctionHopperDredger(TSHD)workingoffshoreduringthemonsoonandintermonsoon
periods. Based on the environmental and production considerations, TSHD was
considered to be the most environmentally friendly equipment for the reclamation. The
proposedmethodologyoftheuseofTSHDslimitstheimpactofturbidity.
5. As and when necessary, silt curtain will be installed to prevent silt migration. The silt
curtainwillbeformedbypolyesterfibretextilesheetstobehangedfrombuoysandbe
weighted down by steel chains. An opening will be provided to allow for navigation of
TSHDsandotherconstructionvesselsinandoutofthereclamationsite.
6. Sanddredgingisexpectedtocausesometemporaryimpactsbyremovingbenthicfauna
and increasing turbidity as a result of an increase in suspended particles in the water
column. The proposed dredging area experiences turbidity conditions and existing
organisms are likely adapted to high turbidity levels. However, the abovementioned
restrictionofthedredgedepthisexpectedtomitigateimpacts.
7. The dominant fish resources in the area are pelagic, transient species that are likely to
avoid unsuitable environmental conditions and return once normal conditions are
establishedinthelongterm.Theareaselectedfordredginghaspreviouslybeendredged
andassuchisnotacompletelyundisturbedhabitat.Assuchitpresentsthebestpossible
optioncomparedtoalternatesitesthatmaybeinalessdisturbedstate.
8. Several modelling studies were carried out to represent Southwest monsoon, Northeast
monsoon and nonmonsoon periods. During this period, the number of simulations
performedwas21,whichcoversaperiodof252days.Thatis,eachsimulationwasover12
daysrepresenting50dredgingcycles,carriedout21times(21daysx12days=252days).
Underthismodelingfrequency,allpossibleenvironmentalconditions(monsoonaleffects,
tidal effects, wind/wave pattern), dredging process & different stages of dredging,
relevant dredge sediment data were taken into consideration. A significant change of
sediment transport pattern has not been observed in the vicinity of the Port City
development.Clearsedimenttransportpatternsarepresentinthesurfzoneandshallow
areas. Areas where the depth exceeds 1618m do not show the existence of any
sediment transport, especially under sea wave conditions. It was observed from the
results that the concentration of suspended sediments level is less than 1.5x106 g/m3
(1.5 mg/l) for almost all cases. Although spreading is occurring up to certain extent,
concentration of the suspended sediment is less than 2 mg/l, which is insignificant.
Therefore, dispersion of fine sediment due to dredging operations should not have any
impactonthesurroundingenvironment.
9. Thesatelliteremotesensingimagesoftheprojectareaobtainedin2002and2013were
digitally enhanced and compared. Although there have been minor fluctuations of the
shoreline, there has not been any significant change of the shoreline during these 11
years, even after construction of the Colombo South Port. The construction of the
ColomboSouthPortdoesnotseemtohaveanysignificantimpactontheevolutionofthe

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage12

shoreline, which had remained stable. It should be noted that the development of the
PortCitycould,fromtheperspectiveofhydrodynamics,beconsideredasanextensionof
ColomboSouthPort.Assuch,thedevelopmentofthePortCityisnotexpectedtocause
anysignificantchangeoftheshoreline
10. A numerical model was built specifically for assessing the impact of Port City on the
dischargefromtheBeiraLakeoutfall.Thisassumedtheeliminationofcurrentsewerage
discharge into the Lake will not be finalized by the Government prior to completion of
reclamation work of Port City. The final engineering design adpoted at the Beira lake
outfall will not block the outlet but will streamline the continuity of the discharge and
bringwaterfurthertothesea,improvingdispersionandpreventinganyobstructiontothe
Beiraoutlet.TheapporachproposedinthisSEIAhastheadditionaladvantageasitallows
fortheformationofabeachclosetoGalleFaceGreenwithoutobstructingtheoutlet.
11. Existingstormwaterdrainoutletsaroundthesitehavebeenidentifiedandsolutionshave
beenproposedtoavoidanynegativeimpactsforthesedrains.
12. Siltationintensitywithin thePortCityisstudiedusing thenumerical model, considering
both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast Monsoon. It is concluded that the
averagecomputedsiltationintensitywithinthelagoonofthePortCitywillbearound30
mm per year, and normal maintenance dredging should be sufficient at the operation
stage
13. The Colombo South Port is an enclosed water area connected to open water by the
navigation channel. Since there will not be any change to the siltation intensity at the
navigationchannel,itisnotanticipatedthattherewillbeanychangeinsiltationintensity
withintheHarbour.
14. ThemouthoftheKelaniRiverislocatedabout4.5kmnorthoftheColomboSouthPort,
anditiswithinthecomputationdomainofthenumericalmodelcarriedoutforthisstudy.
Fromthechangeinthesiltationintensitycomputedfromthemodel,theconstructionof
PortCitywillnothaveanyimpactonthesiltationrateattheKelaniRivermouth.
15. The construction of Port City on the southern side of the Colombo South Port will not
cause any changes the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the Colombo Harbour,
theKelaniriveroutfallandthenortherncoastalarea.Theimpactisconsideredaslow.
16. Since the Port City is to be constructed on the southern side and in the shadow of the
main eastwest breakwater of the Colombo South Port, it will in no way affect coastal
erosionnorthoftheHarbour.The coastlinenorthofthePort Cityisalreadyshieldedby
the breakwater of the Colombo South Port, which has prevented any transportation of
sedimentbetweenthesouthandthenorth.Assuch,theconstructionofthePortCitywill
notchangethepatternoflittoraldriftattheshorelinetothenorth.
17. ThecoastalstretchsouthofColomboisstablewithverylittleseasonalchanges.Thenet
longshoresedimenttransportalongthewestcoastofSriLankaispredominantlydirected
towardsthenorthasaresultofthewaveclimate(SWmonsoonseawavesandswell).The
comparisonoftheseabedprofilebetween2008and2012indicatesthattheseabedclose
totheshorelineisstableoverthefouryearperiod.Accordingtotheresultsofthesurvey,
thereis noobviousdeposition closetotheshoreafterthe constructionoftheColombo
South Port. It indicates that the influence of the breakwater on longshore sediment
transportationisnotveryobvious.Therefore,thereclamationworkandtheconstruction
of the breakwater of Port City are likely to result in similar insignificant bathymetric
changetotheSouthofColomboPortandtheimpactisnegligiblecomparedtothealready
constructedtheSouthPort.
18. Measurements of suspended sediments of the study area shows the TSS range of 2
25mg/lfordifferentlocationsanddifferentperiods.Althoughspreadingisoccurringupto
certain extent, concentration of the suspended sediment is less than 2mg/l which is
almost equal to ambient concentration. Therefore dispersion of fine sediment due to

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage13

dredgingoperationsdoesntshowanyimpacttothesurroundingenvironment
19. The navigation channel of the Colombo South Port is located to the northwest of the
port. Since navigation of vessels mainly depend on the wave conditions and bed level
changesofthesurroundingarea,hydrodynamicandsedimenttransportmodellingcarried
outinnavigationchannelshowednosignificantcurrentincreaseorimpactonthesiltation
intensityandthereforenosignificantimpactonvesselnavigation.
20. The reclaimed land has no impact on regulation and control of matters related to civil
aviationandaviationingeneral,intermsoftheCivilAviationAuthorityActNo.14of2010

ThePortCityProjectisacollaborativeventurebetweentheGOSL/MinistryofMegapolisandthe
Project Company and both parties would work together to ensure required social and
environmentalobligationswouldbemet.ThelatterisalsoimportantinconsideringthatPortCity
willbepositionedasanecofriendlyenvironmentforlivingandrecreation.

It is intended that the Project Company and the GOSL/Ministry of Megapolis & Western
Development/UDA will enter into an understanding on mitigation measures and resource
requirementsforimplementingsuchmeasures.Thistakesintoaccountthatcertaincommitments
for mitigation are the responsibility of the GOSL (such as the income support and benefits
programforthefishingcommunity).

With regard to improvements in social infrastructure in the vicinity of the project, the Project
Companyhasalreadycommittedtothisaspectbyprovidingover45ha(around1/6thofthetotal
reclaimed area) for parks and other recreational spaces within Port City for use by the general
public.TheProjectCompanyiscommittedtomaintaintheprojectsiteandundertakenecessary
mitigation measures in keeping with the approved EIA, this SEIA and the Ministry of Megapolis
willadheretoandensuretheconditionsinthedevelopmentpermittobeissuedbytheCCDto
theMinistryuponapprovalofthisSEIAwillbeadheredbytheMinistry/UDA/SLPAandtheProject
Company.

IncomeSupport&BenefitsProgrammeforfishermen

This SEIA concludes that sand dredging is expected cause local and temporary impacts on the
biologicalenvironmentduetotheremovalofbenthicfaunaandincreasingturbidityasaresultof
an increase in suspended particles in water columns. Hence it is proposed that the income
support and benefits programme will be worked out in detail by the relevant Ministries and
organizations/departmentsinvolved,withtheinputsofcommunitybasedorganizations(CBOs)
such as the fishermens societies, churches, etc. As mentioned in this SEIA study, under the
ProjectAgreemententeredintobetweentheGOSLandtheProjectCompany,formulationofsuch
aprogrammeandthedisbursementoffundsistheresponsibilityoftheGOSLandnottheProject
Company.

Accordingly,itisproposedthatasumofRs.500millionbeallocatedtotheMinistryofFisheries
andAquaticResourcesDevelopmentviatheMinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopmentto
meettherequirementsoftheproposedfishercommunityincomesupportandbenefitsprogram,
withsupplementaryfundsallocatedasneeded,basedontheevaluationoftheeffectivenessand
actualimpactofdredgingonfisheryandaquacultureafteraoneyearperiod.TheRs500million
willbedepositedinadesignatedaccountininstalmentsforfundstobedisbursednolessthanon
a monthly basis. The Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources will finalize the overall
budgets and guidelines for the income support and community benefits program prior to
commencementofdredgingandinformthefishercommunityandcivicsocietyatlarge.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage14

TheMinistry ofFisheriesand AquaticResourcesDevelopment togetherwiththeDepartmentof


FisheriesandAquaticResourceswillaccordinglyberesponsibleforformulatingandimplementing
anacceptablecommunityincomesupportandbenefitsprogramfortheaffectedfishermen.The
keyobjectiveoftheincomesupportandcommunitybenefitsprogrammewillbetoupliftofthe
socialeconomicconditionsofthefishingcommunitiesinareassuchas:
(a) Communitydevelopmentprogrammes
(b) Research&development
(c) Projectstoupliftthesocialstandardsoftherelevantfishingcommunities
(d) Programs to enhance the marine ecology and fish breeding grounds and other related
programmes
(e) Incomesupporttofishermenwheredirectimpactscanbeestablished
(f) CapacitydevelopmentofFisheriesInspectorstoimprovefisheriesmonitoring
(g) EstablishmentofafisheriesmuseuminNegombo
Theimpactofthedredgingandtheimplementationofthebenefitsprogramshouldbeeffectively
andadequatelymonitoredbytheMinistryofFisherieswithcontinuousfeedbackprovidedtothe
ProjectProponentinordertofinetunetheprogram.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015ESPage15


CHAPTER1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BackgroundoftheProject
1.1.1 TheWesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlanof2004
ExpansionoftheColomboCentralBusinessDistrict(CBD)byreclaimingtheseawasoriginallyproposed
under the Western Region Megapolis Regional Structure Plan of July 2004, designated for
implementationbytheWesternRegionMegapolisTaskForceandtheBoardofInvestmentofSriLanka
(BOI).ThePrincipalTechnicalConsultanttotheWesternRegionMegapolisMasterPlanningProjectwas
CESMAInternationalofSingapore,currentlyknownasSurbanaJurongPteLtd(Surbana),appointedby
theGovernmentofSriLankain2003.SurbanaisaSingaporeGovernmentlinkedfirmofurbanplanning
consultantsestablishedaround50yearsagoformasterplanningtheurbanlandscapeofSingapore.To
dateSurbanahascompletedurbanplanningstudiesinover50countries.
According to the Regional Structure Plan of 2004 (hereafter referred to as the CESMA Plan), the
expansionoftheColomboCBDhadseveralcomponents:
(a) To create new land banks for development and revitalization of the wateredges to form the
waterfrontcityimage
(b) To relocate existing Jaye Container Terminals (JCT) within the proposed Colombo South Harbour
andreleaselandforwaterfrontrealestatedevelopmentstoreinforcethenewCBDfabric.
(c) Figure1.1:ProposedPortExpansion

JayeContainerTerminal NorthPort


Source:RegionalStructurePlanoftheWesternRegionMegapolis(2004)Volume1,page61

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page1

(d) Subsequent to the construction of the ADBfunded new Colombo South Harbour breakwater
(nowcompleted),reclaimfromtheseaaround145haoflandasanextensionoftheCBDby2010.
ThisisthesamelocationasthecurrentColomboPortCityasshowninFigure1.1
(e) ReclamationfortheNorthPortby2030forportexpansionandtoprovidelandsforportrelated
facilities
Accordingly,thereclamationoflandborderingtheColomboSouthHarbourbreakwaterwasenvisaged
11yearsagoundertheWesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlan.
The implementation of the CESMA Plan was abandoned in 2005 primarily due to a change of
Governmentandtheconflictsituationthatprevailedinthecountry.ThePlanwillhoweverbereviewed
and updated in 201516, again with technical assistance from Surbana, assisting the newly created
MinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment.

1.1.2 TheColomboPortCityProject:TheAdministrativeProcess
ItisonlywiththeadventofpeaceinSriLankain2009andthecommencementofconstructionofthe
ADBfundedColomboSouthPortwithits5.4kmlongbreakwaterthatreclamationoflandsouthofthe
breakwaterbecametechnicallyandfinanciallyfeasible.
The administrative process followed by the former Government in conceiving and developing what is
now known as Colombo Port City (CPC) is summarized below. (Section 1.1.4 summarizes the
environmentalapprovalprocess)
(a) The CPC project was initially conceived as a public sector/Government funded project to be
undertakenbyTheSriLankaPortAuthority(SLPA).
(b) Consequently, the SLPA commissioned at its own cost an Initial Technical Feasibility Study in
April 2010 for the reclamation of land South of the new breakwater retaining the services of
coastalengineers(localandforeign)andurbanplanners.
(c) Concurrently, around June 2010, an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) study was
commissioned by SLPA at its own cost for a reclamation area of 200 ha. The University of
Moratuwa (UoM) was appointed as lead consultant and the Coast Conservation & Coastal
ResourcesManagementDepartment(CCD)functionedastheProjectApprovingAgency(PAA)
(d) In October 2010, the UDA prepared a concept master plan for the area to be reclaimed and
submittedaProjectProposaltotheSLPAforconsideration.
(e) On 29th April 2011, China Communications & Construction Company (CCCC) submitted an initial
conceptproposalforColomboPortCitytoSLPAforanenvisagedreclamationareaof200ha,with
theentirefinancialinvestmentfortheprojectcommittedbyCCCCasaForeignDirectInvestment
(FDI),withoutanyGovernmentguaranteesontheinvestment.
(f) WiththeGovernmentdecidingtonottocommitpublicfundstoconstructthePortCityProject,a
Standing Cabinet Appointed Review Committee (SCARC) was appointed to review the above
conceptproposalsubmittedbyCCCC.
(g) InAugust2011,SCARC,whichcomprisedSecretariesofseveralMinistries,agreedtoproceedwith
the project as an unsolicited proposal and recommended that the Secretary, Ministry of Ports,
Highways & Shipping sign a noncommittal MOU between the SLPA and CCCC and to obtain a
detailedproposalfromtheinvestor.SCARCalsorecommendedappointingaTechnicalEvaluation
Committee (TEC) comprising members from SLPA, CCD, Urban Development Authority (UDA),
BoardofInvestment(BOI),andCentralBank.
(h) Further to a recommendation by SCARC, the MoU between SLPA and CCCC was signed in
November2011.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page2

(i) In October 2012, CCCC submitted the detailed project proposal for a 233 ha reclamation and
preliminary designs to the SLPA. The Ministry of Ports forwarded this to SCARC for review and
negotiationbytheTEC.
(j) TheTECthensubmittedTechnicalEvaluationReport1andTechnicalEvaluationReport2to
SCARCinMarch2013andJuly2013respectively.InAugust2013,havingreviewedtheTechnical
Evaluation reports, SCARC recommended that approval of the Cabinet of Ministers be obtained
forimportantcommercialtermsoftheproject.
(k) Following a Cabinet decision dated 13th January 2014, the Port City Project was identified as a
StrategicDevelopmentProjectundertheStrategicDevelopmentProjectsActno14of2008.
(l) On 4th September 2014, the Cabinet of Ministers decided inter alia to implement the Colombo
Port City Project and, subject to approval by the Hon. Attorney General (AG), authorized the
SecretarytotheMinistryofHighways,PortsandShippingtoenterintoanAgreementonbehalfof
theGovernmentofSriLankawithCHECPortCityColombo(Pvt)Ltd,theBOIapprovedcompany
set up to implement the project (the Project Company). It was further decided to authorize the
SLPA to carry out the required obligations under the agreement between GOSL and the Project
Company.
(m) On16thSeptember2014anAgreementwasenteredintobetweentheProjectCompanyandthe
SecretarytotheMinistryofHighways,PortsandShipping(actingforandonbehalfoftheGOSL).
TheAgreementwassignedandtheprojectsconstructionworksceremoniallyinauguratedinthe
presenceofthePresidentofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaandthePresidentoftheDemocratic
SocialistRepublicofSriLanka,duringtheChinesePresidentsStatevisittoSriLanka.

1.1.3 KeyTermsoftheAgreementbetweenGOSL/SLPAandProjectCompany
An Agreement was entered into between the Ministry of Portsand Shipping, acting on behalf of the
GovernmentofSriLanka(GOSL),andCHECPortCityColombo(Pvt)Ltd(theProjectCompany),signed
on 16th September 2014 and extended on 17th September 2015 (hereafter referred to as the GOSL
Agreement) and the Concession Agreement attached to the said GOSL Agreement as a binding
annexure (hereafter referred to as the Project Agreement). The key terms of the GOSL
Agreement/Project Agreement entered into between the GOSL and the Project Company, a fully
ownedsubsidiaryofCCCC,canbesummarizedasfollows:
(a) IntermsofClause3oftheGOSLAgreement,allrights,obligationsandliabilitiesoftheSLPAare
deemedasrights,obligationsandliabilitiesoftheGOSL.
(b) TheGOSLAgreementbindsGOSL,therebymakingtheGOSLresponsible,toobtaintheapplicable
permits for the reclamation works including environmental permits and consents. Accordingly,
article12.1oftheProjectAgreementspecificallyprovidesthattheSLPA(GOSL)shallobtaininter
alia the following applicable permits and consents necessary for the design, construction and
completionofthereclamationworksensuringthatthereisnodelayordisruptiontotheexecution
ofthereclamationworks:
TheenvironmentalclearancespursuanttoanEnvironmentalImpactAssessment(EIA);
SandMiningLicensesforsandborrowzone;
ApprovalfromtheDepartmentofCostalConservationandCostalResourcesManagement
Permitsforquarryoperations
Approvals from the Department of Archaeology, Marine Environment Protection Authority
(MEPA)etc
Accordingly, under the Project Agreement signed on 16th September 2014 and later extended
via an Extension Agreement signed on 17th September 2014, the obligation to obtain the
necessaryenvironmentalapprovals/permitsiswiththeGOSL/SLPA

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page3

(c) The Colombo Port City will be developed in two distinct phases, with required environmental
approvalsobtainedviatwoEIAstudies.Namely:
Phase1EIA:ForReclamationofnolessthan233ha,sandextractionandconstructionof
coastalstructurestoprotectthelandfillfortheproposedPortCity
Phase 2 EIA: Construction of the buildings and infrastructure of the Port City, including
trafficimpactassessment
(d) TheSLPA/GOSLwouldbe responsibleforthesupplyofutilities (water,power,sewerage)tothe
Boundaryofthereclamationsiteatasuitableconnectionpointandwithsufficientcapacity
(e) TheProjectAgreementanticipatedthatthetotalareaofmarketableland(i.e.landtobesoldor
leased to third party investors for development in keeping with prevailing laws of the country)
afterallowingforpublicparks,roadsandbeachesshallbenolessthan170Hectares.Ofthis,the
Project Company shall be allocated no less than 108 Hectares of marketable land and the SLPA
allocatednolessthan62Hectares.
(f) The allocation of marketable lands (no less than 170 ha) between the Project Company and
GovernmentwillbecarriedoutonanequitablebasiswheretheProjectCompanywillfirstselecta
marketablelandextentoflessthan10haandthentheGovernmentwillselectasimilarextent.
This process of alternative selections will be repeated until such time one of the Parties has
reached the maximum amount of marketable land to be allocated to that Party. Therefore, the
marketable lands allocated between the Government and Project Company will be in non
contiguousblocks.

1.1.4 TheEIAProcessforReclamation
FromthetimetheColomboPortCityprojectwastobeimplementedasapublicinvestmentin2010and
after the submission of the investment proposal by CCCC in April 2011, and in terms of the above
mentionedGOSL/ProjectAgreement,theresponsibilityforsecuringenvironmentalandrelatedpermits
connectedtotheproposedprojecthasbeenwiththeSLPA.
Accordingly,theSLPAatitsowncostcarriedoutenvironmentalstudiesforreclamation(withCCDasthe
PAA) and sand extraction (with the Central Environmental Authority as the PAA) in parallel. The Lead
Consultant for the environmental studies on the reclamation was the UoM. For sand extraction, the
NationalAquatic&ResearchAgency(NARA)functionedastheLeadConsultant.
The process followed by the SLPA for the environmental studies connected to reclamation is outlined
below:
(a) The CCD as the PAA appointed a Scoping Committee comprising 16 Government agencies to
developtheTermsofReference(ToR)fortheEIAstudyinJune2010.TheyincludedtheColombo
Municipal Council (CMC), District Secretariat, Sri Lanka Navy, Divisional Secretariat, Ministry of
Defence, Ministry of Economic Development, Department of Fisheries, Urban Development
Authority (UDA), Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, CEA, Road Development Authority
(RDA),MEPA,DepartmentofArchaeology,GeologicalSurveyandMinesBureau(GSMB)andSri
LankaLandReclamationandDevelopmentCorporation(SLLRDC).
(b) InJuly2010theUoMcommencedtheEIAstudyandsubmittedthereport,coveringareclamation
areaof200ha,totheSLPAinApril2011.ThiswasforwardedbySLPAtotheCCD.
(c) AsrequiredunderSection16Subsection2(b)oftheCoastConservationActNo57of1981,the
EIAreportwasmadeavailabletothePublic.TheCCDplacedadvertisementsinmajornewspapers
on21stJune2011inallthreelanguagestoinformthepublicoftheavailabilityofthereportfor
reviewat11locationsincludingtheCEA,UDA,CMC,GSMBandMinistryofFisheries.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page4

(d) On20thSept2011,theCCDwrotetoSLPAforwardingthecommentsreceivedfromthepublicfor
clarification. Acting on behalf of the SLPA, the UoM clarified in writing the relevant public
inquiries,whichwereforwardedtotheCCDbySLPA
(e) Bywayofletterdated7thDecember2011,theCCDwrotetotheSLPAstatingthattheTEChad
grantedpreliminaryapprovaltotheEIA.
(f) InviewoftheinvestmentproposalsubmittedbyCCCCin2012(aftercompletionofthe EIAfor
200ha)wasforareclamationareaof233ha,anAddendumreporttotheEIAwaspreparedby
UoM and submitted via the SLPA to the CCD in September 2013. The main objective of the
AddendumtotheEIAwastoinformthePAAofadeviationwhichhastakenplacetoexpandthe
project(from200hato233ha),primarilytoaccommodatethelandcomponenttobegivento
the Government, an internal canal system and to enhance relevant facilities and services and
improveintegrationwiththeSouthPortandCityofColombo
(g) TheSLPAsoughtapprovaloftheCCDtotheAddendumtotheEIAand,bywayofletterdated27th
November 2013, the CCD wrote to the SLPA communicating no objection to the modifications
proposed to the EIA by the said Addendum. A key condition imposed in this letter was that an
EnvironmentalManagementPlan(EMP)issubmittedforapprovalbytheCCD.
(h) On 23rd October 2014, the CCD issued a Permit for a Development Activity under Part III
Section 14 of the Coast Conservation & Coastal Resource Management Act No 57 of 1981, for
reclamation, dredging and construction of breakwaters, revetments. This permit contained 42
conditions of which condition No 40 states A Separate approval should be obtained from the
CEA for extracting sand from the offshore to be reclaimed the proposed near shore area and
submittedtothisdepartmentpriortothecommencementoftheconstruction.
(i) The Environment Management Plan (EMP) was submitted by the SLPA to the CCD and on 2nd
December2014,theCCDwrotetotheSLPAstatingthattheEMPisapproved.SLPAthewroteto
theProjectCompanyregardingtheapprovalfortheEMP.

1.1.5 SandExtraction&BasisforCommencementofReclamationWorks
AsstatedabovetheSLPAobtainedrequiredapprovalsfortheEIAstudyforreclamationof200haand
thesubsequentAddendumthereto.Thissectionexaminestheadequacyofconsentsobtainedbythe
SLPA for commencement of sand extraction by the Project Company, particularly with regard to
obtainingrequiredapprovalsfromtheCEAinkeepingwithClause40oftheDevelopmentPermitissued
bytheCCD.
Sandextractioninopenseabeyondthe2kmcoastalzonerequiresenvironmentalclearancesfromthe
CEAasPAA,unlesstheCEAdelegatessuchauthoritytoanotherGovernmentbodyinkeepingwiththe
provisions of the National Environmental Act. The process followed during the 20112014 period in
connectionwithenvironmentalapprovalsforsandextractionissummarizedbelow:
(a) InJune2011theDirectorGeneralofGSMB,underprovisionsoftheMines&MineralsActNo33
of1992,issuedtotheSLPAanExplorationLicenseNoEL/177forasandborrowareaof46sq.km
(b) The CEA informed the SLPA in writing that an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) should be
carriedoutforsandextractionfortheaboveborrowarea.Thereafter,theCEAissuedtheToRfor
theIEEtoSLPAon9thSeptember2011
(c) TheSLPAthencommissionedNARAastheleadconsultanttopreparetheIEEreport
(d) In September 2012 NARA submitted the draft IEE report to the SLPA stating that the identified
areaof46sqkmcontainsadredgeablesandquantityof44millioncu.m.
(e) However,thisquantumofsandwasdeemedinsufficienttomeetanestimatedrequirementof65
75millioncu.m.ofsandtocompletereclamation.Furthermoreitwassuggestedthatidentifying
additionalborrowareaswouldmitigatetheimpactonfishing.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page5

(f) The SLPA therefore obtained another exploration license No: EL/281 dated 8th November 2013
fromtheGSMB,coveringanareaof54sq.km.
(g) TheSLPAthencommissionedNARAtocarryoutasecondIEEstudyforthesecondborrowsiteand
completedthedraftIEEreportinDecember2014.Geophysicalinvestigationscarriedoutforthe
second IEE study established that a total sand deposit of 68.3 mn cu. m. was available for
dredging.Accordingly,instudiescoveringbothborrowareas,adredgeablesandquantumof112
mncu.m,orarounddoublethequantityofsandrequiredbyPortCityforreclamationworks,was
identified.

Obtaining the required consents for the fishermens compensation program was a prerequisite for
theCEAtograntthenecessarypermitstodredgesand.Despitealmostayearofattemptingtoobtain
the required consents, the SLPA encountered several roadblocks in fulfilling this task. In the
circumstances,theSLPAcouldnotobtaintherequiredsandextractionpermitsfromtheCEAforthe
identified borrow areas as stipulated in the development permit of the CCD and in terms of the
ProjectAgreement,whichassignedthisresponsibilitytotheGOSL/SLPA.
Onthebasisoftheabove,theSLPAdidnothavetherequiredsandextractionpermitsfromtheCEAfor
theidentifiedborrowareas.
TheProjectCompanycommencedsandextractionandreclamationworkson16thSeptember2014on
thebasisofthefollowing:
Consequent totheGOSLswishtoinauguratetheprojectatthetimeofthe Statevisitbythe
PresidentofChina,thereclamationworkscommencedfromthedateofthesaidGOSL/Project
Agreement,whereandintermsofClause4.1oftheProjectAgreement,itisstatedthatonand
from the date of this Agreement, the Project Company shall design and carry out the
reclamationworksinaccordancewiththeConcessionAgreement.
In addition, the Project Company was granted written permission by the SLPA to dredge the
Colombo Harbour navigation channel, pending (as understood by the Project Company) the
finalizationofthetwoIEEstudiesbyNARAforsandborrowareas.
Under the above circumstances, where in terms of Article 12.1 of the Project Agreement the
obligation to obtain the necessary/applicable licenses and permits is a responsibility of the
SLPA/GOSL,theProjectCompanyhastakenthepositionthatsandextractionandreclamationworks
commencedon16thSeptember2014onthebasisofprovisionscontainedintheAgreementitselfand
onthebasisofwrittenclearancesprovidedbytheSLPA.

1.1.6 OtherPermitssecured
Leadinguptothecommencementofconstructionandsoonthereafter,inkeepingwiththeprovisions
of the Project Agreement, the SLPA obtained permits mentioned below and informed the Project
Companyinwriting:
(a) Letter of Approval from the Department of Archaeology dated 18th July 2012 following the
Archaeological Impact Assessment of the Colombo Port City Project done by the Underwater
Archaeology Unit of the Department of Archaeology from November 2011 to February 2012
pursuanttoarequestmadebytheSLPAbyletterdated22ndJune2010.
(b) IndustrialMiningLicenseforSeaSandNo.IML/A/HO/8328dated16thSeptember2014issuedby
theGSMB
(c) SecurityClearanceandapprovalforcommencementoftheColomboPortCityProjectdated25th
September2014,grantedbytheMinistryofDefence&UrbanDevelopment.
(d) Approval for the Oil Spill Contingency Plan submitted by the Project Company by the Marine
EnvironmentalProtectionAuthoritydated18thDecember2014,issuedundertheMarinePollution
PreventionActNo.35of2008

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page6

(e) Approvaldated2ndDecember2014grantedbytheCCDfortheEnvironmentalManagementPlan
(EMP)submittedbytheProjectCompanyviatheSLPA

1.1.7 TheSuspensionofConstructionandWayForward
Subsequently,thenewGovernmentelectedon8thJanuary2015appointedanEvaluationCommittee
toreviewthePortCityprojecton30thJanuary2015.Onthebasisofcertainconclusionsreachedbythis
Committee (without any consultation with the Project Company), on 4th March 2015, the Cabinet of
MinistersmadeadecisiontosuspendtheconstructionworksofthePortCityProject.Thisdecisionwas
communicatedtotheProjectCompanybytheSecretaryMinistryofPorts,Shipping&Aviationon6th
March 2015. During the period of suspension, the Government has made the following decisions, in
consultationwiththeProjectCompanywherenecessary:
(a) TheGOSLAgreementof16thSeptember2014wouldbeamendedtointeraliapermittheUDA
to step into the role of the SLPA and the end date of the said GOSL Agreement would be
extendedby6monthstointeraliafacilitatethesaidtransition
(b) The necessary amendments to the Project Agreement shall be effected via a tripartite
agreementbetweentheGOSLrepresentedbytheMinistryinchargeoftheUDA(theMinistryof
MegapolisandWesternDevelopment),theUDAandtheProjectCompany.
(c) ASupplementaryEnvironmentalImpactAssessment(SEIA)shallbecarriedoutforexpansionof
thereclamationareafrom200hatoanaltereddesignof269hatogetherwiththeimpactsof
extractionofsandfromtheidentifiedborrowareasandquarrymaterialrequiredforthealtered
design.

ThisSEIAisaconsequenceoftheaforesaiddecisionstakenbytheGovernment

TheevolutionoftheProjectAreafromthetimeoftheoriginalEIAtothecurrentSEIAissummarizedin
Table1.1below
Table1.1ProjectArea&ReclaimedAreaEvolution
EIA* Addendum** SEIA**
MajorElementsofProject(inHectares) 2011 2013 2015
Reclaimedlandarea 200 233.5 269
Beacharea Notspecified Notspecified 19.79
Canalarea None 23.7 15.24
Waterareabetweenlandfill&breakwater 161.8 113
Seabedareaoccupiedbyprotectivestructures 67.3 29.58
TotalProjectArea 351.0 486.3 446.61
Note:*BasedondesignscommissionedbySLPA
**Basedondesignsoftheinvestor,CCCC

1.2 ObjectiveandJustificationoftheProject
1.2.1 ObjectivesinRelationtoWesternRegionMegapolisStructurePlan(CESMAPlan)

TheCESMAPlanof2004identifiesaColomboCoreAreaPlan,whichhasthefollowingdevelopment
objectives:
(a) Colombo to be the economic engine of the country and contribute to improving Sri Lankas
internationalcompetitivenesstorealizeitsprojectedeconomicgrowthrateof10%

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page7

(b) TodevelopandrevitalizethecityofColomboasthefinancialandbusinesshuboftheSouthAsian
region
(c) To attract foreign and local investors to share the responsibilities for accelerating growth and
providetheresourcesneededtoregainlosteconomicinitiative
(d) ToattracttouristsbymakingSriLankatheirpreferreddestination
(e) Toincreaseinfrastructurecapacitieswhileconservingthefragileenvironment
(f) Tomakeprimelandsavailablefordevelopment

It is noted that over 70% of lands identified for development within the Colombo Central Business
District under the CESMA Plan of 2004 were waterfront properties, which in capital cities typically
commandapremiumandconsideredmoredesirabletoliveandwork.

1.2.2 TheStrategicObjectivesofColomboPortCity

TheobjectivesoftheColomboPortCityarebroadlyinharmonywiththepolicyobjectivesenunciated
intheCESMAPlan.ThePortCityprojectwouldreclaim269haofwaterfrontlandthatwillcomprise
around 173 ha of land that will be marketed to local and international developers to undertake
developmentsaccordingtoaphasedmasterplan.TheobjectivesofColomboPortCityasformulated
bytheProjectCompanyareasfollows:
Takingadvantageofthenaturalaccumulationofsandcausedbytheprotectionaffordedbythe
South Harbour breakwater, to significantly expand the Colombo CBD to meet the demand for
suchlandovera2025yearperiod
TofosterintegratedoceanfrontlivingwithintheCBDtoprovidehighqualityoflifethroughworld
class office, residential and recreational spaces that will attract tourists, professionals,
entrepreneurs,managersandretirees.
PositionColomboasthemostliveablecityinSouthAsia
Tocreatearegionalbusinesshub,acitywithadistinctbrandwithhighqualitypublicspacesand
infrastructurefacilities,attractivetolocalandinternationaldevelopersandinvestors
Tocreateatourismhubwithauniquecharacterthatreflectsthedistinctivelocalcultureandthe
existingurbanfabric
To design and build a sustainable urban city space that adapts to local climate, creates a
comfortablemicroclimateandmakeefficientuseofenergyresources

Therefore,thelocationofPortCitytakesadvantageoftwinattractionsofproximitytotheColombo
CBDandoceanfrontliving.Thisisatriedandtestedformulabycitycentresthataspiretoposition
themselvesasdestinationsfortourism,living,working,shoppingandentertainment.
Also, the Colombo CBD has limited oceanfront lands available for development, especially in view of
the land area facing Galle Face, formerly occupied by the Defence forces, now being allocated to
ShangriLaandITCHotels.
Presently,ColomboisnotaDestination,butprimarilyatransitpointfortourists.Theaveragestayby
tourists is roughly 1.6 nights for Colombo, which is too low by international norms. (In comparison,
averagestayatabeachlocationofatypicaltouristtoSriLankais5.5nights).Thelackofvibrancyof
Colombo in terms of multiple shopping and entertainment choices is a significant deterrent to
attracting South and East Asian tourists to Sri Lanka. Sri Lankas tourist arrivals being impacted by
cyclicality(withhigherarrivalsbeingrecordedduringthetraditionalwinterseason)canbeprimarily
attributedtoColombonotbeingasoughtaftertouristdestination.
Colombocannotbecomeadestinationthatappealstotheinternationalbusinesstravellersortourists
withadhocdevelopmentsandwithoutdistinctpositioning.Therefore,ColomboPortCityprovidesan

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page8

opportunity for the old and historic part of Colombos central business district to interface with a
modernplannedmetropolislikenootherindevelopingSoutheastAsia.

1.2.3 PermissibleDevelopmentswithinColomboPortCity

Permissible Developments within the 269 reclaimed land area will be In keeping with Sri Lankas
planningandbuildingregulationsandonthebasisofthereclaimedlandbeinggazetted undertheSri
Lanka Lands Ordinance and subsequently as an Area of Authority under the UDA Act. Samples of
permissible developments under the master plan for Port City already submitted to the UDA for
preliminaryplanningclearancearegivenbelow.Thesearesubjecttothecountrysinvestmentlawsand
anyotherapplicablestatutes:
Commercial:Banks,officesandretail,hotelsandrestaurants,diplomaticembassies
Residential:Dwellinghouses/units,apartmentbuildings,servicedapartments
Institutions:Healthcare,educationalandR&Dinstitutions
Small businesses and services and allied activities: Open air trading areas, beauty salons,
bakeries, laundries, printing, computer repair, small scale art and handcraft workshops, car and
bicycle repair and service, plumbing and carpentry workshops and other local small scale
businessesandservicessuchascafes,kiosks,pavilions,newspaperstands,foodtrucksandbook
shops
Entertainment: Indoor amusement and entertainment establishments, outdoor recreational
spaces
Community:Artgalleries,socioculturalestablishments/communitycentres
Other: Marina and related facilities, tourism business, convention and event facilities, cultural
eventsandfestivals

NoIndustrialactivitieswillbeallowedwithinPortCity.
TheProjectCompanyhasalsohiredworldrenownedinternationalconsultantsworkingtogetherwith
local specialists to advise on various aspects connected to the development: For e.g: Atkins of UK:
Master plan review; Aecom of USA: Utility design, road design and landscaping; Sweco of Sweden:
Overall master planning; Jones Land LaSalle (JLL) and CB Richard Ellis (CBRE) of UK: financial and
marketingprefeasibilityandCDRofHollandfortechnicalreviewofdesignsbytheEPCcontractor.

1.2.4 ForcesthatProduceFinancialCentres:SomeTheory

A key objective of the CESMA Plan and the Colombo Port City project is to position Colombo as a
regional financial centre. There is sufficient empirical evidence, when examining the evolution of
Central Business Districts of regional financial centres such as Hong Kong, Shanghai, Singapore and
Dubai and even New York and Frankfurt that finance has become more concentrated in designated
areas of the CBDs than any other area of commerce. (Example: Wall Street in New York, Dubai
InternationalFinancialCentre).
Significant savings and synergies are possible when financial centres evolve within centralized areas.
Historically, such centres attracted regional headquarters of banks and with them, other financial
institutions, financial intermediaries and corporate headquarters. Being adjacent to a regional hub
port,asisthecaseinColombo,becomesanaddedadvantageinattractingfinanceandcommercetoa
CBD.
This provides a clue as to why financial centres evolved within CBDs of cities: economies of scale.
Centralizationoffinancialservicesistypicallyaresultofseveralneeds:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page9

The need to facilitate the process of information gathering: Finance depends on obtaining
timelyandaccurateinformationandtheprocessofinformationgatheringincreasesthepressure
for clustering. Therefore, market participants tend to gather close to one another and to their
principal sources of information: e.g. corporate headquarters, financial regulators, government
etc.
Theneedtocentralizeparticipantsengagedincomplexfinancialtransactions:Financeexiststo
serve the needs of industry and services. Corporate headquarters are usually located in and
around financial centres, even though production facilities would be located elsewhere. Also,
whencomplexcorporatefinancedealssuchasmergersandacquisitionsneedtobestructured,
participants to the deal including corporate executives, institutional investors, accountants,
lawyersandregulatorsshouldideallybeavailableinonelocation.Forexample,theCentralarea
ofHongKongthesayinggoesisaplacewhereafinanciercanwalkseveralblocksandraise$10
billion.
Theneedtominimizecostsinsearchingforcounterpartieswithwhomtotrade:Forinvestors
and issuers alike, the crucial function of a financial market is price discovery (the process that
finds the right price to optimize supply and demand). These functions work best when many
buyers and sellers are congregated in a financial centre. Therefore, financial market
intermediariesandparticipantssuchasbanks,stockbrokers,fundmanagersandinsurershavea
strongincentivetoclusterinfinancialcentres.
Theneedtorecruitandtrainhighlyskilledfinancialprofessionals:Likemostserviceindustries,
financeisapeopleorientedbusiness.However,specialistskillsrequiredinfinancialservicestend
toconcentrateinacentralfinancialdistrictoftheCBDandhencetheindustrytendstoexpand
aroundit.

It can be argued that the advent of the Internet and connectivity has reduced the propensity for
financialcentrestoclusteraroundacentralbusinessdistrict.However,theaboveforcestakentogether
withacongeniallivingenvironment(suchasanoceanfrontareawithparksandculturalactivities)and
the availability of good regulations, connectivity, infrastructure and strategic proximity to a large
economy such as India would contribute towards financial and related services being concentrated
aroundaCBD.
It is precisely this environment required to establish Colombo as a regional financial centre that
ColomboPortCityisattemptingtocreate.

1.3 ObjectiveoftheSEIAReport
1.3.1 The2StageEIAProcess

SeveralimportantissueswereraisedintheInitialTechnicalFeasibilityStudyof2010andtheEIAstudyof
2011forthe200hareclamation.Theywere:
(a) The proposed Port City has to be developed in 2 stages. The first stage will be the landfill, the
offshorebreakwaterandthecoastprotectionfortheprotectionofthelandfill.TheSecondStage
willbetheplanneddevelopmentofPortCitywithallinfrastructureandsupportservices
(b) If the Project Company developing Port City development modifies the overall design, then
environmentalconsultantswouldbecommissionedtopresentanaddendumtotheEIAtoconfirm
that the changes and resultant environmental impacts will not make a significant change to the
findingsoftheinitialEIAcompletedfor200ha.Ifchangestothedesignaresignificantthenafresh
EIAwillbecarriedout.
(c) AdetailedEIAwillhavetobecarriedoutfortheinfrastructuredevelopmentplanofthePortCity
andtheproposeddevelopmentsonthereclaimedland.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page10

The objective of this Supplementary EIA is a consequence of (b) above: that is, to capture the design
changessincethecompletionoftheEIAof2011andtosubjecttopublicscrutinytheaspectscoveredin
theAddendumtotheEIAof2013andsubsequentchanges.ItisnotedthattheAddendumtotheEIAof
2011wasnotopentopubliccomments.
Varyingapproachescanbeundertakesforenvironmentalstudies.ItistheprerogativeoftheGovernment
policy makers led by the Project Approving Agency (PAA) to decide on the scope of the environmental
studies. Accordingly, the respective Government appointed review committees evaluating the Port City
projectrecommendedtotheCabinetofMinisterstoadheretoa2stageEIAprocessforPortCity,and
accordinglyprovisionwasmadeforsuchacourseofactionintheProjectAgreementsignedbetweenthe
GOSL and the Project Company. Therefore, as mentioned earlier in this SEIA report, Colombo Port City
willbedevelopedintwodistinctphases,withrequiredenvironmentalapprovalsobtainedviatworelated
EIAstudies.
ThisSEIAisthereforetobereadasaSupplementarytotheapprovedEIAof2011.Notwithstanding,this
SEIA study covers the entire reclamation footprint and the extraction of quarry material and sand
required to complete the entire project. The Phase 2 EIA for the construction of the buildings and
infrastructure of the Port City, including traffic impact assessment will commence in parallel or
immediatelyaftercompletingthisSEIAstudy.

1.3.2 Precedenceof2stageEIAProcess

Project Approving Agencies in the past have carried out 2stage EIA processes. In the case of the
Muthurajawela landfill that commenced around 1994, a total of 162 ha of nearshore lands were
reclaimedfromaverysensitivemarshareabydredgingforsandfromthesea.(Thefilledareaisroughly
70%ofthesizeofPortCity).
TheEIAcarriedoutfortheMuthurajawelaproject wasonlyforthehydrauliclandfilland didnotcover
infrastructure aspects and the constructions on the filled land. However, the study covered the
environmentalimpactsofthesandborrowarea.Theindustries/buildingsthatwerebuiltonthelandfill
carriedoutseparateenvironmentalstudiespriorto construction (e.g.Shell Terminal)and thelandwas
marketedatcommercialratesbySLLR&DC.
Alsointernationally,a2stageEIAisarecognisedapproach.IntheNetherlands,whereEIAprocessesare
verystrictlyfollowed,a2stageapproachwasfollowedfortherecentexpansionofthePortofRotterdam
by2000hectares(thesocalledMaasvlakteIIproject).ThefirstEIAwasfortherealisationphaseof
the land reclamation, covering coastal impact, dredging practices, etc. The second EIA was for the
developmentphaseanalysingtheimpactofthenewactivitieswithintheportfortheenvironmentand
surroundingareas.

1.4 Extentandscopeofthestudy
The ToR issued by the Department of Coast Conservation and Coastal Resources Management (CCD),
theProjectApprovingAgency(PAA),definesthescopeofthisSEIAstudy.TheToRisgiveninAnnexI.
ThestudyareafortheassessmentisdefinedintheToRasfollows:
(a) Projectsite/s:ReclamationAreaandBorrowSites
(b) For coastal erosion aspects: Reclamation area and 10 km on either side (Northern area and
SouthernArea)ofthecoastalbelt.
(c) Forallotherstudies:1kmfromtheprojectsites(reclamationareaandborrowsites).
(d) Anyarea beyond theprojectsite/sites,wherethereis potentialforenvironmentalimpacts:The
SEIAstudyteamshalldeterminethelimitsoftheinfluencedarea.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page11

TheToRoutlinesthereportstructureandtheissuestobeaddressedduringthestudy.Thestudycovers
theexistingenvironmentalparametersoftheProjectarea(presentsituation)andimpacts,bothshort
term and longterm in nature. The analysis proposes effective mitigation measures and monitoring
programmes.

1.5 MethodologiesandtechnologiesadoptedinSEIAreportpreparation
AnumberofmethodshavebeenadoptedtoassesstheenvironmentalimpactsoftheColomboPortCity
Project.ThesemethodssupplementthestudiescarriedoutfortheProjectFeasibilityStudies,theEIAfor
200haandthisSEIAstudy.Theassessmentmethodologieshavebeenusedtoevaluateimpactsarising
from the development at the study area, the surrounding areas and the sand borrow areas. These
methodologiesaredescribedintheparagraphsbelow.
1.5.1 DeskStudies
The approach in the preparation of this SEIA report was to draw on and build upon the Project
Feasibility Studies, specific technical studies carried out for the Port City Project, and information
availablefromtheEIAsandEMPsofColomboSouthPort.Relevantdocumentshavebeenreviewedand
additionalstudiescarriedouttovalidateandwherenecessary,supplementtheexistinginformationto
take into account the development of the design under this SEIA study. In addition, previous study
reportshavebeenusedextensivelytoconfirmthebaselinesituationandguidetheSEIAprocess.
1.5.2 FeasibilityDesignInvestigationsandtheirrelevancetotheEIAProcess
Tothemaximumpossibleextent,environmentalconsiderationshavegovernedtheplanningandlayout
of Port City and incorporated into the design process from its inception. This has allowed the early
identificationofanyenvironmentalissues,whichmayimposeconstrainsonthedesign.Thisapproachof
MitigationbyDesignhasreducedtheneedforarangeofspecificmitigationmeasures.
Numerical modelling studies and physical model test studies have led to the development of a
hydraulicallyefficientlayoutwithrespecttooverallimpactsonthecoastalregime.Hydrodynamicand
wavedisturbancemodellingstudieshavebeencarriedouttoinvestigatetheimpactoftheoveralllayout
onthecoastalregimeandtoensuresatisfactorylevelsofwavedisturbancearemaintainedatthewater
areawithinPortCity.
1.5.3 WaveandHydrodynamics
AcomprehensivereviewofthemodellingworkcarriedoutduringPortCitysfeasibilitystudystage,and
preliminary design stage were undertaken for this SEIA. In addition, separate studies have also been
carriedoutandrelevantreportspreparedforthisSEIA.Thesereportsinclude:
(a) FinalreportonHydrographicalSurvey
(b) 2DStabilityPhysicalModelTestontheoffshorebreakwaterandrevetmentformarina
(c) 3DPhysicalmodeltestsouthpartand3DphysicalmodeltestNorthpart
(d) Analysis(numericalmodelling)ofcoastalevolutionandsiltation
(e) Analysis(numericalmodelling)ofwaterexchange
(f) WavephysicalModelTestoftheStabilityofBeachProfile
(g) Analysis (numerical modelling) of Water Exchange Supplementary Report for the effect of Port
CityonBeiraLakeoutfall
(h) Groundinvestigationpreliminaryreport
(i) 3DPhysicalmodeltestontheSouthernPartofColomboPortCityproject

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page12

1.5.4 GeophysicalInvestigation
The geophysical survey was carried out to investigate the potential extractable sand volume and
sedimentologicalstatus.Subbottomprofilingwasconductedtoestimatethesedimentthicknessof
theareawhichleadingtostudysedimentdistribution.Subbottomprofilerwasusedtoinvestigate
subsurfacegeologicalstructuressuchasstratification(thicknessofsubsurfacestrataandextension)
of the area. Innormar SES2000 Sediment parametric echo sounder was used to differentiate
strataanddatawereusedtomeasurethelayerthicknessofthesedimentdepositsintheproposed
site. SESWIN and ISE 1.2 software were applied for data acquisition, processing and thickness
estimation respectively. The subbottom profiler was consists of dual frequency sonar head with
50mpenetrationdepth,However,depthofpenetrationislimitedbytheconditionsofthesediments
and the environmental condition of the survey area. The survey was designed as systematic
samplingmethodandsubbottomprofilingsurveywasdonealongthepredesignedlinesinthearea.
Eachsamplewascollectedwithin2kmgridandsubbottomprofilingwasconductedwith1kmline
spacing. During the analysis isopach map, sediment distribution map and bathymetric map of the
areaweregeneratedusingSurferandArcGISsoftware.
Frequencyofthedataacquisitionfortheinvestigationwasabout8kHz,whilepulserepetitionrate
was 4. Differential Global Positioning System (GDPS) with accuracy +/ 20cm is integrated to the
instrumentduringdataacquisition.Thehypacknavigationsystemisusedtoguidethevesselalong
predetermined survey lines. The average sand layer thickness was used to estimate the sand
volume.
SedimentSampling
Sedimentsamplingprocedurewasdesignedassystematicmanner.Bottomsedimentsampleswere
collectedbymanuallytoidentifysandcharacteristics.
Sieveanalysis
Grain size differentiation of the sediments was done by sieve analysis. Sediment samples were
washedanddriedfordisaggregation.Largershellsandorganicmaterialsweremanuallyremoved.
Percentageratioofsedimentfractionsisusedforclassificationofsediments.
1.5.5 BathymetricSurvey
Bathymetric survey lines were designed with 300m (line spacing) interval using Hypack Max
software. Integrated echo Sounder and positioning system (DGPS) were used for data acquisition.
Transducer of the echosounder was fixed on a lower draft of small boat. The data acquisition
systemcomprisedacomputerwithHypackMaxsoftwareandadisplayunit.Thedisplaynavigates
the boat along the preset survey line with the help of left right indicator. Positioning (Easting X,
NorthingY)anddepthdatafromGPSandechosounder(Z)wererecordedinadatalogfileforeach
surveyline.SoundvelocitywasmeasuredusingSoundVelocityProbe(SVP)twiceadayduringthe
survey, at the beginning and the end of each survey. Echosounder calibration was done by Bar
checkmethod.Waterlevelmeasurements duringthesurvey wastakenandrecordedinevery15
minutesbyTidePole.All(X,Y)coordinateswereconnectedtonationalgridofSriLankaanddepth
wasreferencedtoMSL.
1.5.6 EcologicalStudies:
Thenektoninthemarineenvironmentofthereclamationareawasobservedbyvisualobservations
carried out during underwater surveys while plankton were collected using a 50 plankton net
drawnthroughthewater.Benthosincludingreeforganisms,othermacrofaunaontheseabottom
and sea grass beds were examined during underwater surveys carried along a 1 km long transect
whichwaslocatedinfrontofGalleFaceGreenextendingoverthePalagalareef.(Coordinatesofthe
transectareE79o4912E79o5024andN6o55186o5520)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page13


Thetransectwasatadepthrangingfrom8mto18m.Theentiretransectwasonsoftbottomexcepta
midregion where it crossed the Palagala reef. During underwater surveys, a 1 m x 1 m quadrate was
usedateachsamplingsitetoestimatethecoverofbenthicorganisms.
The percentages of animals and plants were estimated using the visual estimation technique. The
organismswereidentifiedtothelowesttaxonomicgrouppossible.Duringtheperiodoftheunderwater
surveys, due to high turbidity, the visibility was very low being less than 1.0 m. Therefore, the
abundance of fish in this area could not be estimated. The mollusk shells that were washed onto the
shorewerecollectedandidentifiedusingKirthisinghe(1978).
Inordertorecognizetheexistingbiologicalenvironmentintheproposedsandextractionarea,data
and information were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. Existing literature on
describing habitats, resources, environmental conditions was analyzed to ascertain ecological
importanceandassessthepotentialconsequencesofsanddraggingactivities.
Presentdistribution,biodiversityandhealthofcoralreefs/seagrassbeds
Information on coral and seagrass distribution was initially gathered by topography map and
exploiting traditional knowledge of fishermen. Afterwards underwater manta tow survey was
conductedtoensuretheselectedsitesareinacomparablehabitat.VisualsurveysusingUnderwater
Visual Census (UVC) were conducted during daylight hours between 7:00 and 16:00, on the days
where the visibility was relatively fair. Ten dive sites in each representative habitats; reef and
sand/mud were surveyed from 15th September to 10th October 2015. Moreover data gathered
from same techniques for the coral reef survey for Onagala and associated environment in
November2012andMarch2014werealsoused.
BelttransectlaidateachdivesiteswassurveyedbyconcurrentlyemployingtwoexperiencedSCUBA
divers.Theywereinstructedtoswimalongatasteadypacewithoutstopping,sotheygenerallydid
notdeviatefromthebelttransecttoinspectcrevices.Thefishobserverfollowedthebelttransectof
50 x 4 m by swimming along the centerline of the belt transect with a PVC rod as guide. The

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page14

observercount,recordedthespeciesdiversityandtheseconddivervideoedallfishwithinthearea4
mtoeithersideofthecenterlineandalso2mupwardsoftheeyelevel.
At each transect mobile and the sessile fauna and the substrate was recorded in terms of the
percentage cover of sand, rubble, limestone platform, coral or terrestrial rock and mud. Other
benthictaxasuchasblackcoralandwhipcoralandthepercentagecoverofotherconspicuousbiota
suchasseagrassandalgaewerealsorecorded.Transectswerelaidsystematicallyandobjectivelyto
clearlyvisualizethelocalhabitatfeatures.AllsurveypointsweremarkedusingGPS.
Presentdistribution,speciescompositionandrichnessofseabottommacrozoobenthos
Morethantwentyfivefishinmonospecificgroupswereobservedtoestimatethetotalpopulation.
For schools of mixed species the number was estimated for the entire school by making
approximation of the proportion of each species comprising the school. Photographs and videos
werealsousedforestimation,validationandspeciesidentification.Benthicsampleswererandomly
collected using an Ekman Bottom Grab Sampler from the two sand borrow sites so that
representing both muddy and sandy substrates. Samples were
storedin10%formalinandroseBengalsolutionandsievedforthe
identification and enumeration of sediment dwelling macro
organismsbydifferentsizecategoriesresidinginthesediment.
Under water photographs (photo quadrat) and video of the
substrate along the distance of 50 m transect were also made to
validatethepointinterceptmethodfacilitatespeciesidentification.
Photographs were made using a 10 mega pixel Canon IXUS digital
camera. The photos were georeferenced through post processing
of the track recorded by a GPS, being towed by the same diver
taking the photos. The organism lying beneath each point was
identified to the most detailed taxonomic or most precise
taxonomiclevelpossible,dependingontheresolutionofthevideoimagesandphotographsandalso
theskilloftheobserver.Quantitativeanalyseswereperformedbasedonthefollowingeightmajor
benthiccategories:abiotic(subdividedintobarerock,rubble,deadcoral,mud,sand&silt),biotic:
(softcoral,gorgonian,hardcoral,molluscs,seagrass,seaweeds).
Presentoccurrenceofendangeredspeciesorextraordinarynaturalresources
The relevant information on endangered species was obtained from available literature, personal
communicationswiththecoastalcommunitiesandindependentrecordingoftheirsightingsthrough
employing onboard observers at limited occasions. The research platform was an 18 foot OBM
fishing boat. The boat generally ran 46 hour trips between 06:00hrs to 18:00hrs. Two trained
observers recorded sightings from amidships to the bow, one looking to port and the other to
starboard.Theysearchedforcetaceans,seaturtlesbyeyeandusingbinoculars.Itshouldbenoted
thatsearcheffortsceasedduringbadweathernamely,rain,strongwinds,androughseas.Tenvisits
were made during the study period and in each visit, the entire beach stretch was surveyed two
times;earlymorningandnight.Further,informationalsogatheredthroughinteractionswithlocals,
especially fishermen. Questions were asked on the sightings, presence of turtles close or far from
theshore,numberofturtlesincidentallycapturedandspecies.Afterwardsbeachsurveysconducted
todeterminetheturtlenestinginthewestcoast.
Presentconditionsconcerningnutrientdynamic,algaebloomsandwaterturbidity
Totally 22 sampling positions were selected from sand extraction area to study the nutrient
dynamicsandphytoplanktonassemblage.Watersampleswerecollectedatthedepthof0.5mfrom
the surface to study the nutrient levels and preserved at 20o C. Phytoplankton samples were
obtained using a net with a mesh size of 10 m and immediately preserved with Lugols iodine

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page15

solution.Turbiditywasmeasuredbyaturbiditymeter.Inadditiontoturbidity,totalsuspendedsolid
level(TSS)wasmeasured.
Phytoplankton: Supernatant of the preserved phytoplankton sample was decanted without
disturbing the settled cells so that the sample is concentrated to a known volume. One ml of this
concentrated sample was placed in the Sedgwick rafter cell and observed and the number of
phytoplanktonwascountedunderthelightmicroscopeatamagnificationof10x10.Sampleswere
analyzed for determination of phytoplankton abundance, composition and diversity (Newell and
Newell1963;RobertPerry2003;Verlencar,X.N.&SomshekarDesai,2004,Jayasiri,2009).
DeterminationofChlorophyllcontentinwaters:Chlorophyllwasdeterminedbyfiltering1litreof
the water samples using GF/C filters (nominal pore size 0.7 m) under low vacuum. The pigment
extractionwasdonewith10mlof90%acetone.Theopticaldensity(absorbance)oftheextractwas
determined using a UV Visible spectrophotometer (Parsons and Strickland 1963; Richards and
Thompson1952).ChlorophyllaconcentrationswascalculatedusingtheequationsofParsonsetal.
(1984).
Nutrients analysis: Nutrients (NitriteN, NitrateN, PhosphateP and SilicateSi) were analyzed
according to the standards procedure of Parsons et al., (1984) using spectrophotometer (OPTIZEN
3220UV).SamplepreparationfornitriteandnitratewasdoneaccordingtotheCadmiumreduction
methodandabsorbancewasmeasuredat543nmwavelength.Phosphatewasanalyzedaccordingto
the ascorbic method and absorbance was measured at 885 nm wavelength. For the analysis of
silicate,molibdatemethodwasusedandabsorbancewasmeasuredat810nmwavelength.
Total suspended solids (TSS): Filter papers (GF/C [0.7 micro pore size of 47 mm diameter]) were
dried in an oven at 105 C for 1 hour period. Then the initial weights of filter papers (W1) were
measured using analytical balance (Precisa XB 120A). Each 1 litre of samples was filtered using a
filter unit and filter papers were dried in an oven at 105 C for 1 hour until get a constant weight
(W2).Thenthefinalweightsarerecorded.FollowingequationwasusedforthecalculationofTSSin
mgL1.
W2 W1
TSS 1000
Volume

Breeding grounds / spawning grounds, nursery grounds and migratory routs for commercial and
ecologicallyimportantmarineorganisms:
Spawninggroundisaplacewherefishleavetheireggsforfertilization.Manyfishspeciesaggregate
tospawn.Whereassomespeciesmayaggregatebehaviourallyandsomayhaveextensivespawning
grounds that may change location slightly from year to year, other species may aggregate over a
morerestrictedspatialextent.Thegroundswherejuvenilesarefoundathigherdensitiesaretermed
nurserygrounds.Theyhavereducedratesofpredationandhavefastergrowthratesthaninother
habitats, which should result in nursery grounds providing a greater relative contribution to adult
recruitmentincomparisontononnurserygroundhabitats.Migrationoffishisdefinedasanactive
mainmovementfromonehabitattoanother(Nikolsky,1963).Therearethreemainmovementsin
themigratorycycleoffishes;spawningmigration,feedingmigrationandwintermigration.
Themosteffectivemethodologytoadopttoidentifythespawninggroundsistocollectdataonthe
distribution of the planktonic stages of fish eggs and larvae (ichthyoplankton). In a multispecies
situation spawning strategies are varied and as such fish egg and fish larvae data have to be
collected with different target species and spatial and temporal coverage to infer species specific
spawning areas. Since lack of time series data on ichthyoplankton, the present study adopted a
robustandindirectmethodtodelineatespawninggroundsandseasonofselectedspeciesexploiting
researchexperienceandthetraditionalknowledgeoffishermen.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page16

Smallpelagicresourcesarethemainfisheriesinthestudyarea.Thespeciescompositionofthecatch
dominates by Amblygstersirm (hurulla), and Sardinellalongiceps (salaya). Bottom trawling for
shrimpsisthesecondmostimportantfisheryandtheshrimpcatchconsistingmainlyPenaeusindicus
andMetapenaeusdobsoni.Informationonspawninggroundsandseasonsofdominatespecieswere
obtainedfromliteratures.

Therearenumerousmethodsfortracingthemigrationsoffishes.Mostcommonlyappliedmethods
are; marking, tagging, parasite studies, length frequency and catch rates analysis. However, these
methodsaremoreprecisewherelargescalemigrationoccursinmoreextendedareaandalsoitis
hardtofitsuccessfullytagstoallfishspeciesespeciallyforsmallfishtofisheryandallsizegroupsof
fish.Thereforemigrationoffishandshrimpsandretirementweremadethroughlengthfrequency
analysis.

Identificationandmappingoffishinggrounds
Useofstudyareaasafishinggroundwasphysicallyinspectedatsea.Twotothreeobservers(NARA
scientists)wereonboardattheseatorecordtheinformationsuchastypeoftheboat,fishinggear
used, fishing time and target fishery etc. The fishing roots or navigational roots of the boats were
trackedtocollectinformationonthespatialextentoffishingactivitiesinthestudyareausingaGPS.
ThefishinggroundswerethenmappedusingGeographicInformationsystem(GIS).Attributemaps
werealsogeneratedbasedontherequiredvisualrepresentation.
Biodiversityprofilewithinthesandborrowsites
Theinformation/observations/evidencesgatheredintheabovementionedsurveyswereutilizedto
describethebiodiversityprofilewithinthesandborrowsites.
1.5.7 Assessmentofthesocioeconomicenvironment
The socioeconomic assessment of the CPCD area was carried out using both published and
unpublished data. First, a thorough study of socioeconomic conditions of the entire project area
wascarriedout(includingGNdivisionsoftheprojectarea,andColomboMetropolitanArea)using
both published and unpublished secondary data by the Department of Census and Statistics on
labour force , business activities , housing conditions , poverty, income and expenditure patterns
andConstructionIndustry.Inaddition,unpublisheddatawerealsocollectedformthe Ministryof
FisheriesandDistrictFisheriesOfficialsonfishproduction,stockoffishingvessels,andlivingstatus
of fishing communities in Wellawatha, Dehiwala, Modera and Mattakkuliya fish landing centers.
Published reports by the Department of Archeology were also used to assess the impacts on
archeologicalandculturalresources.DataonbusinessactivitiesinFortandPetah,costofmunicipal
services, assessment rates and tax structures were collected form the CMC. Second, a series of
depthinterviewswerealsoconductedwithleadinghoteliersoperatinginimmediatevicinityofthe
project,policymakersandadministratorstoillicitinformationonpotentialimpactoftourism,urban
development,investmentpromotion,businessdevelopmentandtraderelations.
The socioeconomic study related to sand exploration sites was conducted using structured
questioner (Annex V), structured interviews with fishers and semi structured interviews with key
informants of the fishing community. In addition the participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) methods
were applied to extract qualitative data from stakeholders. The updated statistical information of
thefishingcommunitywascollectedfromtheDepartmentofFisheriesinNegombo.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page17

1.6 Mainbeneficiaries
1.6.1 ImportanceofWesternRegionDevelopment
AkeyobjectiveoftherecentlycreatedMinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopmentistoseparate
theWesternregionofSriLankafromtheotherregionstopromoteahigherrateofgrowth,whichwill
notonlybenefittheWesternRegion,butalsootherregionsthroughbackwardintegration.Accordingto
the CESMA Plan of 2004: The spill over effects from a strong economic region with the capability of
launchinginvestmentintootherregionswillleadtoanexpansionofothereconomicactivities.Thefast
developmentoftheWesternRegionisexpectedtoleadtohigherproductionofgoodsandservicesin
otherregionswhichwillinturnleadtohighereconomicgrowthforthecountryasawhole.Thereforeit
isenvisagedthattheinitiativesofthenewlyformedMinistryofMegapolis&WesternDevelopmentwill
spillovertootherregions,reducingregionaleconomicdisparities.
TheColomboPortCityisexpectedtobecomeacatalystintheeconomicgrowthoftheWesternRegion
ofSriLankawithmultiplierbenefitsfromtheprojectpositivelyimpactingtheregions.

1.6.2 KeyEconomicBenefitsfromColomboPortCity
ThekeybenefitsformtheColomboPortCityduringthereclamationphaseoftheprojectaredescribed
below:
(a) A foreign direct investment (FDI) of approximately US$ 1,400 million, the largest private
investmentbyanycompanyinSriLanka,localorforeign,inasingleproject:FDIshassignificant
economicbenefitstoSriLankasbalanceofpayments,technologytransfer,localemploymentand
valuecreation.
(b) BenefitsofaninvestmentbyoneofChinaslargestcompanies,CCCC,andprospectsoffurther
investmentsbythiscompany,relatedGroupcompaniesandothercompaniesfromtheregion:
CCCC,theparentcompanyoftheProjectCompany,isrankedNo187amongglobalFortune500
companieshavingassetsofoverUS$100billionandturnoverperannumofoverUS$60billion.
MajorityownedbytheGovernmentofChina,CCCCisapubliccompanylistedontheHongKong
stock exchange. It is Chinas largest port design and Construction Company and the largest
dredging companyintheworld.The Groupisalsotheleading companyin theworldfor design
and construction of roads and bridges and the leading manufacturer of container cranes in the
world, with 75% of the global market share. The Group has 15 years experience in Sri Lanka
havingsuccessfullycompeted28projectsvaluedat$3.4billion.
(c) LongtermnatureoftheinvestmentsbyCCCC:ThePortCityprojectdoesnotprovideanyreturns
to the investor in the first 58 years from project implementation. In fact the return on
investment and payback from the project to the investor is in excess of 15 years.
Notwithstanding, CCCC has expressed an interest in building Sri Lankas largest office tower on
reclaimed land in Port City upon completion of the required Phase 2 EIA, thus establishing the
companyasalongterminvestorinSriLanka
(d) Valueofland:TheColomboPortCityisestimatedtocontainaround173haofmarketableland.
Thesewillbeleased/soldtothirdpartydevelopersinkeepingwithapplicablelawsandatmarket
pricesjointlydecidedbytheGOSLandProjectCompany.Themarketvalueofthe173haofnew
marketable land, based on the current average market price of approximately Rs 9 million per
perch,canbeestimatedasfollows
ValueofUDA/Governmentlandof63haatcurrentmarketprices:US$1.6billionorRs225
billion
Owning thislandonafreeholdbasiswillconsiderablystrengthenthe balancesheetofthe
UDA.
Valueof110haoflandtobeallocatedtoProjectCompanyisUS$2.8billion
(e) Employment and Technology transfer: The Project Company employed over 1550 direct staff,
almost all Sri Lankan, including 60 Sri Lankan professionals and engineers. (This number has

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page18

reduced by 80% during the suspension period). As explained in greater detail later in this SEIA
report,thedirectandindirectemploymentpotentialwiththerecommencementofconstruction
would be around 6400 representing skilled, unskilled, technical and managerial categories. The
Projecthasalsoemployedbestinclassoverseasandlocalconsultantsforthevariousaspectsof
designandmonitoringaspectsofPortCity.

ThekeybenefitsformtheColomboPortCityafterthereclamationphaseoftheprojectwillbecovered
ingreaterdetailinthePhase2EIAstudy.Theseinclude:
Creation of higher paying service sector jobs through new investments in buildings and
infrastructureatPortCityandtheattractionofnewbusinesses.
EstablishingColomboasabusiness,financialandtourismhubofSouthAsia
Creation of public amenities such as parks, theme parks and other recreational facilities within
ColombosCBDforallstrataofsocietytoenjoy.

1.7 Applicablelawsandregulations
The Project must conform to the National Environmental Impact Assessment requirements identified
below.Inaddition,thereareanumberstatutesandregulationsthatareapplicable(andnotapplicable)
totheproject,whichhavebeentakenintoaccountduringtheplanninganddevelopmentstages.These
applicable/nonapplicablelawsandregulationsarediscussedintheparagraphsbelow.
1.7.1 SriLankaLandsOrdinanceandUDAActNo41of1978
The Hon. Attorney General has opined that the UDA cannot be a signatory to the Project Agreement
replacingtheSLPAasitlacksthelegalcapacityundertheUDAAct.Thisisinviewofthefactthatupon
creationofnewlandbyreclamationoftheseatheentirePortCitylandwillbegazettedundertheSri
Lanka Lands Ordinance, a subject matter falling under the purview of His Excellency the President in
terms of the said Ordinance. The UDA could therefore declare the land reclaimed by the Port City
ProjectasanUrbanDevelopmentAreaonlyafterthereclamationprocessisoverandadeclarationis
madeundertheLandsOrdinance.Accordingly,priorpermissionfromtheLandCommissionerpriorto
completionofreclamationdoesnotarise
1.7.2 NationalEnvironmentalActNo.47asamendedbyActNo.56of1988(NEA)
NationalEnvironmental(Amendment)ActNo.56of1988ofSriLankastipulatesEIAasamandatory
requirementforestablishmentofvariouslargescaledevelopmentalprojectsinSriLankaandassigns
regulatoryfunctionstotheCentralEnvironmentalAuthority(CEA).
According to Part IV C of the above mentioned amendment act, all "prescribed" development
projectsarerequiredtobesubjectedtoEnvironmentalImpactAssessment.
TheNationalEnvironmentalActfurtherstipulatesthatapprovalforallprescribedprojectsshallhave
tobeobtainedfromtheappropriateprojectapprovingagenciesconcernedorconnectedwithsuch
prescribedproject.CentralEnvironmentalAuthority(CEA)isthePAAinpresentcase.
EIAprovisionsarealsoincludedintheFaunaandFlora(Amended)ActNo.49of1993.Accordingto
thisAct,anydevelopmentactivityofanydescriptionwhatsoeverproposedtobeestablishedwithin
onemilefromtheboundaryofanyNationalReserve,isrequiredtobesubjecttoEIA,andwritten
approvalshouldbeobtainedfromtheDirectorGeneral,DepartmentofWildLifeConservationprior
toimplementationofsuchprojects.AlthoughtheEIAisapplicablefortheproject,theprovisionsof
FaunaandFlora(Amended)ActNo.49arenotapplicableastherearenoNationalReserveswithin
onemilefromtheprojectboundary.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page19

1.7.3 CoastConservationActNo.57of1981

The Coast Conservation Act No. 57 of 1981


together with the Coast Conservation
(Amendment)Act,No.64of1988andCoast
Conservation (Amendment) Act, No. 49 of
2011 governs the Coastal Zone. This Zone
comprises mainly the area lying within a
limitofthreehundredmeterslandwardsof
theMeanHighWaterlineandalimitoftwo
kilometers seawards of the Mean Low
Waterline.Anypersondesiringtoengage
inadevelopmentactivitywithintheCoastal
Zone will be required to obtain a permit
issued by the Department prior to
commencingtheactivity.

The EIA process is part of the permit CoastalZonesofSriLanka


procedure mandated in Part II of the Coast
Conservation Act (CCA). Section 16 of the Coast Conservation Act (CCA) confers on the Director
General of Coast Conservation and Coastal Recourse Management Department (CC&CRM), the
discretiontorequestadeveloperapplyingforapermit(toengageinadevelopmentactivitywithin
the Coastal Zone) to furnish an Initial Environmental Examination or Environmental Impact
Assessmentrelatingtotheproposeddevelopmentactivity.TheCCAdoesnothoweverspecifyhow
and when this discretion should be exercised. The Coast Conservation and Coastal Recourse
ManagementDepartment(CC&CRM)interpretsthisprovisionasrequiringanEIAwhentheimpacts
oftheprojectarelikelytobesignificant.
However, the list of prescribed projects published in the Gazette Notification No. 772/22 dated
24.06.1993 under the National Environmental Act states that the CCA applies to those prescribed
projectsonlyiftheyarelocatedwhollywithintheCoastalZone.
Nevertheless, as the Coast Conservation Act states that it is established to regulate and control
development activities within the Coastal Zone, the Coast Conservation and Coastal Recourse
Management Department is the final authority to determine whether to permit a development
activityintermsoftheCCA,eventhoughsuchactivitymayberequiredtogothroughtheapproval
processlaiddownintheNEA.
1.7.4 MinesandMineralActNo.33of1992(MMA)
AccordingtoSection12ofMMA,GeologicalSurveyandMinesBureau(GSMB)isresponsibletoregulate
theminingactivitiesinSriLanka.
1.7.5 MarinePollutionPreventionActNo.59of1981
As per requirements of the Marine Pollution Prevention Act No. 59 of 1981, all ships that enter the
territorialwatersofSriLankashouldcomplywithappropriatemeasuresforpreventingandcontrolling
pollutionoftheseafromawiderangeofsourcesrangingfromsewagetoharmfulchemicals.This
actenablescarryingouttherequirementsandconditionsstipulatedintheinternationalconventionfor
preventionofpollutionfromships(MARPOLConvention)towhichSriLankaisasignatory.
Therefore, ships and barges which supply equipment and machinery for the proposed development
shouldcomplywiththeprovisionsoftheMarinePollutionPreventionAct59of1981.Theexecuting
agencyoftheactistheMarinePollutionPreventionAuthorityofSriLanka.ThesaidActrequiresthat
developmentssuchasPortCityshouldincludesufficientfacilitiesforpollutionabatementofmarine

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page20

watersaswellascontingencymeasuresinplacetocopewiththefailureofsuchsystems.The
contingencymeasuresarealsohelpfultopreventpollutionofthecoastalzonefromoilspills.
TheMarineEnvironmentProtection(DumpingatSea)RegulationNo1of2013isnotapplicabletothe
ProjectCompanyoritsdredgingcontractor.AccordingtotheMarinePollutionPreventionActNo.35of
2008,itisclearthatMEPAistaskedwithpreventionandcontrolofpollutionarisingoutofshipbased
activity and shore based maritime related activity in the territorial waters of Sri Lanka or any other
maritime zone, its foreshore and the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. There is no provision for the Project
Companyoritsdredgingcontractor,whichengagesinreclamationoflandforcommercialdevelopment
bydredgingsandandcreatinglandandbeachesfromsuchsandtoapplyforalicenseorpermitunder
theaboveregulation.

1.7.6 The Antiquities Ordinance No. 9 of 1940 (now Act) and the subsequent amendments, in
particularAntiquities(Amendment)ActNo24of1998
Under the requirements of Sections 43A and 43B of the Antiquities (Amendment) Act No. 24 of
1998,separateapprovalisrequiredfromtheDirectorGeneral,DepartmentofArchaeology,forthe
satisfactorycompletionofanArchaeologicalImpactAssessment.Thisisimplementedthroughthe
'Project Procedure Regulation No.1 of 2000 (published in Gazette Extraordinary No. 1152/14, October
2000).
1.7.7 CivilAviationAuthorityActNo14of2010
Theregulationandcontrolofmattersrelatedtocivilaviationandaviationingeneral,isintermsofthe
CivilAviationAuthorityActNo.14of2010(hereinafterreferredtoastheCivilAviationAuthorityAct
and/or the Act). Section 2 of the Act states that the Chicago Convention shall govern all activities
relatingtocivilaviationinSriLanka.Further,Section3oftheActstatesthattheprovisionsofthisAct
shall apply in respect of all activities relating to civil aviation within the territory of Sri Lanka and in
particular,inrespectofinteraliaregistrationofaircraft,regulation,administrationandsafetyoversight
ofactivitiesrelatingtocivilaviationcarriedoutwithintheterritoryofSriLanka.

Section 32 of the Act states as follows: 32(1): No foreign military or state aircraft may enter the
territoryofSriLanka,withoutaspecialpermissionorauthorisationforthesamebeingobtainedfromthe
SecretarytotheministryoftheMinisterinchargeofDefence.32(2):Noforeigncivilaircraftmayenter
theterritoryofSriLankawithoutaspecialpermissionorauthorisationfromtheDirectorGeneral.

ForthepurposeoftheChicagoConventiontheterritoryofaStateshallbedeemedtobethelandareas
andterritorialwatersadjacenttheretounderthesovereignty,suzerainty,protectionormandateofsuch
State. Article 1 of the Chicago Convention states that: The contracting States recognise that every
Statehascompleteandexclusivesovereigntyovertheairspaceaboveitsterritory.Therefore,interms
of the Act, the DirectorGeneral of the Civil Aviation Authority and/or the Minister in charge of the
subject of aviation have exclusive control over inter alia the registration of aircraft and aerodromes,
licensing, the determination of airworthiness of aircraft, seizure of aircraft and the flight schedule of
aircraftwithintheterritoryofSriLanka.

The reclaimed land has no impact on regulation and control of matters related to civil aviation and
aviationingeneral,intermsoftheCivilAviationAuthorityActNo.14of2010.Thisisinviewofthefact
thatuponcreationofnewlandbyreclamationoftheseatheentirePortCitylandwillbegazettedunder
theSriLankaLandsOrdinance,asubjectmatterfallingunderthepurviewofHisExcellencythePresident
intermsofthesaidOrdinance.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page21

1.8 Conformity to Coastal Resources Management Plan and any other development/ conservation
plansofthearea
1.8.1 TheCoastalZoneManagementPlan(CZMP)
The CZMP was developed in 1990 and revised in 1997 and 2004. The aim of the CZMP (2004) is to
regulatedevelopmentwithinthejurisdictionoftheCCDinordertoensurethatdevelopmentpressures
arenotdetrimentaltocoastalprocesses.Inordertoachievethis,theCZMPhasidentifiedareassuitable
fordevelopmentactivitiesandcorrespondingsetbacklimitsforintendedinfrastructure.
ThePortCityDevelopmentdoesnotfallwithintheframeworkofaroutinedevelopmentactivityonland
withinthecoastalzone.Thespecificenvironmentalandsocialconcernsrelatingtotheimplicationsfor
coastal management of the proposed Port City Development have been identified by the CCD in the
scopingoftheToRforthisSEIAstudy.
1.8.2 TheMasterPlanforCoastalErosionManagement
This is the key plan developed by the CCD to address the growing problem of coastal erosion in Sri
Lanka.Itwasfirstdevelopedin1986andrevisedin1993.TheCCDperiodicallyreviewstheplaninorder
to ensure that a consistent approach is adopted for coast protection. The CCD upgraded the Plan in
2000 under the Coastal Stabilisation Component of the ADB funded Coastal Resources Management
Plan(CRMP).
TheproposedprojectdoesnotimpactonanyaspectsconnectedtotheCRMP.Itispointedoutlaterin
theSEIAreport,inkeepingwithstudiescarriedoutandrecommendationsofLankaHydraulicsInstitute
(LHI),theprocessofsandextractionwouldoccuratdepthsof15mormore,therebyhavingnoimpact
oncoastalerosion.
1.9 Approvals needed from relevant agencies and any conditions laid down by such agencies for
reclamation,sandandrockextraction
1.9.1 GeologicalSurveyandMinesBureau
TheprojectwouldrequiretheSLPA/UDAtoassigntheexplorationandmininglicensesfromtheGSMB
forthesandborrowareasidentifiedbytheGSMBtotheProjectCompany.Priortothecommencement
of construction on 16th September 2014, the SLPA obtained from GSMB the following licenses and
assignedthemtotheProjectCompany:
Exploration License No EL/177 for Map No 59 dated 21st June 2011. (Later an Industrial Mining
LicenseNo:IML/A/HO/832wasissuedbytheGSMBtoSLPAforthesamearea).
ExplorationLicenseNo:EL/281dated8thNovember2013.
This SEIA study is being carried out for the area identified in the above exploration licenses for the
purposeofsandextraction.
1.9.2 UrbanDevelopmentAuthority
TheHon.AttorneyGeneralhasgivenanopiniontotheCabinetappointedOfficialsCommitteeforPort
CitythattheUDAActdoesnotpermitthedeclarationofanylandareaasanAreaofAuthorityunderthe
UDA Act until the reclamation is completed and the reclaimed area is gazetted under the Lands
OrdinanceasterritoryofSriLanka.
1.9.3 DepartmentofCoastConservation&CoastalResourcesManagement
UpontheSEIAprocessbeingconcludedsatisfactorily,astheProjectApprovingAgencyfortheSEIA,the
CCDwillunderPartIIISection14oftheCoastConservation&ResourceManagementActNo57of1981,
shallissueaPermitforDevelopmentforthereclamationworkstorecommence.
Unlessextended,theoriginalDevelopmentPermitissuedbytheCCDforreclamationwouldlapse.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page22

1.9.4 ColomboMunicipalCouncil
ConsentsfromtheCMCwouldnotariseforthereclamationstageoftheprojectandwillbeobtained
duringthePhase2EIA
1.9.5 MarineEnvironmentalProtectionAuthority(MEPA)
The SLPA, on behalf of the Project Company, obtained approval issued under the Marine Pollution
PreventionActNo35of2008fortheoilspillcontingencyplanon18thDecember2014.Inthisregardthe
applicablelawinconnectionofreclamationoflandfromtheseaisasfollows:
AnydevelopmentactivitywithinthecoastalzoneneedsapermitundertheCCDActasmentioned
above.ThereisnospecificprovisionintheMarineEnvironmentalProtectionActthatrequiresa
permittobeobtainedforsuchdevelopmentactivities.
Regulations under the MEPA Act do not apply to the Port City Project and therefore, the
SLPA/UDAisnotboundtoobtainanyfurtherpermitfromMEPA.
1.9.6 DepartmentofFisheries
It is intended that the Department of Fisheries with the assistance of other relevant Government
agencies and local authorities shall be assigned the responsibility of managing the disbursement of
funds allocated to the relevant Ministry for uplifting the socioeconomic conditions and any loss of
fishinggroundsoffishermenimpactedbythesandextraction.
Furthermore,itisproposedthattheroutestobetravelledbythedredgersoftheProjectCompanymay
begazettedundertheFisheries&AquaticResourcesAct.
1.9.7 BoardofInvestmentofSriLanka
TheAgreementbetweentheProjectCompanyandtheBOIwassignedon11thNovember2013.TheBOI
AgreementmayrequirecertainamendmentsatthetimetheUDAstepsintotheroleoftheSLPAunder
theDevelopmentAgreementof16thSeptember2014.
1.9.8 StrategicDevelopmentAct
NotificationunderSection3(2)oftheStrategicDevelopmentProjectsActNo.14of2008,publishedin
theGazetteExtraordinaryNo.1879/6of11thSeptember2014,andNotificationunderSection3(4)of
theStrategicDevelopmentProjectsActNo.14of2008waspublishedintheGazetteExtraordinaryNo.
1889/6of17thNovember2014.TheseGazettenoticeswerepublishedfollowingCabinetdecisiondated
13thJanuary2014approvingtheproposalsmadeinCabinetMemorandumNo.MP&H/2013/21,dated
20thSeptember2013,concerningtheColomboPortCityProject.BythisCabinetdecisiontheColombo
PortCityProjectwasapprovedinteraliaasaStrategicDevelopmentProject.
1.9.9 LandCommissionsDepartment
Approval from the Land Commissioners Department as stated above does not arise for at the
reclamationstageoftheproject,whenreclaimingaseaarea.
1.9.10 DepartmentofArchaeology
SLPA has obtained Letter of Approval from the Department of Archaeology dated 18th July 2012
followingtheArchaeologicalImpactAssessmentoftheColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectdoneby
theUnderwaterArchaeologyUnitoftheDepartmentofArchaeologyfromNovember2011toFebruary
2012pursuanttoarequestmadebytheSLPAbyletterdated22June2010.
Furthermore,theMinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopmenthasobtainedthefollowingconsents
fromtheDepartmentofArchaeologybywayofletterdated21stOctober2015:
1. Duringtheperiodofreclamation,theProjectCompanywillbe subjecttothesupervisionofthe
UnderwaterArchaeologyUnitoftheDepartmentofArchaeology
2. ReclamationshouldoccuronlyinareasindicatedintheapplicationsubmittedtotheDepartment

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page23

3. Ifatanypointintimearchaeologicalartefactsarediscovered,theProjectCompanyshouldinform
the Underwater Archaeology Unit of the Department of Archaeology and immediately cease to
reclaimofdredgeinthespecificareathediscoverywasmade.
1.9.11 RoadDevelopmentAuthority
ApprovaloftheRDA/PRDA/LA(ifrequired)fortransportofquarrymaterialwillbetheresponsibilityof
the individual quarry owners who will supply the material to the Port City site. However, GSMB
Technical Services (Pvt) Ltd, who was appointed by the Project Proponent for the purpose of carrying
outthequarrymaterialextractionstudyhasrecommendedseveralmitigationmeasuresasexplainedin
Chapter3,4and5ofthisSEIAtominimisethepotentialimpactsonroadtransportsystem.
Asmentionedearlier,theTrafficImpactAssessmentforColomboPortCitywillbecarriedoutduringthe
Phase2EIA.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter1Page24

CHAPTER2
DESCRIPTIONOFTHEPROPOSEDPROJECTANDREASONABLEALTERNATIVES
2.1 JustificationoftheProposedProject
2.1.1 JustificationinrelationtotheWesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlan
Under the 2004 CESMA Plan, expansion of the Colombo CBD by reclamation eastward from the
existing CBD was conceived to be the preferred option in satisfying Colombo CBD development
needsuptoyear2030.TheproposedsitesidentifiedforsaleintheNewDowntownareaintendedto
meetthesitesaleprogrammeoftheGovernmentfrom2010to2030isshowninFigure2.1below


Source:RegionalStructurePlanoftheWesternRegionMegapolis(2004)Volume2
Figure2.1:ProposedSitesintheNewDowntownIdentifiedforSale.
According to the CESMA Plan, the total marketable land area for the proposed expansion of the
ColomboCBDupto2030totalled238.7ha(i.e.thetotalareashadedinorangeinFigure2.1above).
Theshadedareaisbrokendowninto3segmentsinTable2.1below.
As observed from the below Table, of the 145 ha of South Port Reclamation proposed under the
CESMA Plan, 77 ha was marketable land. It is also pertinent to note that the total South Port
reclamation and the proposed Water Front Developments at Jaye Container Terminals (JCT) taken
togetherwouldcomprisealandareaofaround221ha(145haofreclaimedlandplusapproximately
76haofgrosslandinJCTarea).Themarketablelandcomponentinbothwaterfrontareaswouldbe
139.5ha(JCTareaof62.4haplusSouthPortReclamationareaof77.1ha).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page1

Table2.1TotalLandAreaIdentifiedforSalefrom20102030underCESMAPlan
LandParcel Location MarketableArea
(ha)
18,1827,3037 CBD&FortArea 99.23
917,29 JayeTerminal(JCT)WaterfrontDevelopment 62.38
3861 SouthPortReclamation 77.05
TOTAL 238.70

ItwouldbesafetoassumethattheGovernmentinthemediumtermwouldnotconsiderrelocating
port related activities at the JCT area. Accordingly, if the JCT area developments and South Port
reclamationenvisagedundertheCESMAPlanwereconsideredasasinglePortAreaDevelopment,
thelandextentcomparisonwiththeenvisagedColomboPortCityof2015wouldbeasshownbelow
inTable2.2andFigure2.2below:
Table2.2:ComparisonofPortAreaLandtobedevelopedunderCESMAPlan(2004)andColombo
PortCity(2015)
Location Area(ha)
JCTWaterfront&SouthPortReclamationArea(CESMAPlan2004)
Totalland 221.00
Marketableland 139.50
PortCityColombo(2015)
Totallandtobereclaimed 269.00
Marketableland 173.00

Therefore, in comparison to the CESMA Plan, the gross total land area proposed under the Port
Citydevelopmentis22%higherandthemarketablelandareaproposedis24%higher.

Sources: CESMA Plan 2004, Vol. 1, pg. 61 (left) and Colombo Port City Master Plan submitted to UDA for
preliminaryplanningclearance(right)
Figure2.2:ComparisonofReclamationadjacenttoColomboSouthHarbour

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page2

ThishigherlandextentinthecaseforPortCitycanbejustifiedinconsideringthefollowing:
(a) TheCESMAPlanenvisagedtheSouthPortreclamationandJCTareadevelopmentstocommence
in 2010 and meet the citys land requirements for 20 years till 2030. Colombo Port City is
intended to span a 25year period ending in 2040. In considering the longterm nature of the
Port City project, a 24% increase in marketable land over what was proposed in 2004 can
thereforebejustified.
(b) The GOSL could face considerable expenses and practical difficulties in relocating the Jaye
Container Terminal area to the newly built Colombo South Harbour as proposed under the
CESMAPlan.Inaddition,ifnotfortheprivateinvestmentbyCCCC,theGovernmentwouldhave
toinvestitsownfundsincreatingthe145halandfill
(c) TheCESMAPlandoesnotshowthebreakwaterandotherprotectivestructures,withoutwhich
the landfill cannot be protected. The investment required for the breakwater and other
protectivestructures(bothsubmergedandabovewater)ofthePortCityProjectisaround$225
million.Therefore,inordertorecoverthecostofthebreakwaterandtheallocationof63haof
marketablelandtogetherwith96ha ofcommonarealand thatwouldincludeinteralia roads
and parks to the Government (a total of 159 ha out of 269 ha), the Port City project, if made
smaller,wouldnotbefinanciallyviabletotheinvestor.
(d) ThereclaimedlandareaisalsoafunctionofthelengthoftheColomboSouthPortbreakwater,
whichactsasaprotectivebarriertothelandfillandcausesanaturalaccumulationofsandinthe
veryareathereclamation,wouldtakeplace.The269hatobereclaimedbytheProjectCompany
takesadvantageofthefulllengthoftheshadowofthebreakwater.(Seefigure2.3below)


Figure2.3:LengthofSouthPortBreakwaterandReclaimedArea

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page3

JonesLangLaSalle (JLL)onbehalfof theProjectCompany has carriedoutthefeasibility reportfor


ColomboPortCity.Accordingtothisfeasibilityreport,a25yeardevelopmentperiodisanticipated
for Port City to be fully developed, subject to favourable policy conditions prevailing in Sri Lanka.
ThereforethecompletionofPortCityisestimatedinyear2040.
Table 2.3 shows the comparison of the average annual land to be released for development
between the CESMA Plan and the Project Companys plan. The land release proposed under the
CESMAplanfortheidentifiedwaterfrontareasof139.5haisattherateof7.00haperannumover
20 years from 2010 to 2030. In comparison, Colombo Port City is expected to release for
development173haover25yearsattherateof6.92haperannum.Thisalmostidenticalnumber
underbothplans,whilstcoincidental,establishesthattheannualaveragelandreleaseenvisagedby
ColomboPortCityisreasonable.
Table2.3:Comparisonofannualaveragelandreleasedfordevelopment
CESMAPlan ColomboPortCity

Annual Cumulative Annual Cumulative
Release(ha) Release(ha) (ha)
Year (ha)
201030 7.00 139.5
201540 6.92 173

Basedontheanalysispresentedabove,theproposedreclamationareaof269haforColomboPort
Citycanbejustified.

2.1.2 JustificationforPortCityintermsofGovernmentPolicy
ThenewlyelectedGovernmentofSriLankaisexpectedtoputinplacefavourablepoliciesthatwill
resultinsignificantgrowthinthebuiltenvironmentoftheCentralBusinessDistrictofColombo.
RecentandanticipatedpolicyactiontobetakenbytheGovernmentthatjustifiestheinvestmentin
ColomboPortCitycanbesummarizedasfollows:
(a) CreationofthenewMinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment,theProjectProponentfor
this SEIA: This will give greater impetus for the development of required infrastructure and
servicesinandaroundColombo
(b) PoliciestopositionColomboasaregionalfinancial,tourism,retailandporthub
(c) ProspectofColombobecomingadestinationfortourists,potentiallydoublingaveragestaybya
typicaltouristinColomboovertimeasmorecityattractionsaremadeavailablewithinPortCity
anditsenvirons.
(d) Colombo emerging as a regional destination for conventions and conferences, especially with
the anticipated construction of new infrastructure for conventions within Port City and the
integratedresort,CinnamonLife,underconstructionbyJohnKeellsHoldings
(e) Possible revisiting of punitive taxes imposed on foreigners leasing property and the complete
banonforeigncompaniesowningfreeholdland(basedonrecentpressreports)
(f) PoliciestoeasedoingbusinessinSriLanka(recentinitiativebyFinanceMinistry)
(g) Encouragementtosetupregionalheadquartersofinternationalcompanies
(h) Easierprocessforinvestorstosecureresidencevisas

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page4

(i) PoliticalstabilityandruleoflawencouragingthevastSriLankanDiasporatosecuresecondor
retirementhomesorstartabusinessinSriLanka
(j) HigherqualityandlevelsofFDI

2.1.3 IndependentReportsonRealEstateMarketIndicatingPentupdemand
Independent publications by international real estate experts such as JLL, who operates a branch
officeinColombo,confirmthatpentupdemandexistsfornewretailsmallswithinColombo
In a report published in 2013, JLL estimated that the shortage of suitable retail space in Colombo
was2.4millionsquarefeetby2015.AccordingtoJLL,consideringtheinadequatesupplyconditions,
theshortageofmallspaceinColombowillcontinuetoremainataround70%until2017.Thestudy
byJLLalsonotedthatthelackofmallspacealongwithashortageofqualityhighstreetpropertiesin
Colombowashinderingtheexpansionofbothinternationalanddomesticretailersandconsumers
and tourists. (Source: Retail Intelligence report of September 2013 published by JLL titled:
RefreshinglySriLanka,anIslandofRetailOpportunity)
AccordingtoaJLLpublicationofAugust2014titledSriLankaScalingNewHeights:TrackingReal
Developments Across Real Estate, limited future supply of quality office space could restrict
businessexpansioninthelongterm.ThereportstatesthatthefuturesupplyofGradeAofficespace
fromtheprivatesectorislargelyconstrained,withonly0.6millionsqftexpectedtocomeonstream
by2016.Takingintoaccounttheproposeddevelopments,JLLstatesthatthisfuturesupplyislow.

2.1.4 InternationalTrendsandExamplesofCreatingNewLandbytheSea
Manycitiesarenowviewingreclaiminglandfromtheseaastheanswertoincreasedurbanization.
Inparticular,portcitiesandothercoastalareasarecentersofeconomicactivityandactascatalysts
fornationalprosperity.AccordingtoUNforecasts,amajorityoftheglobalpopulationof9billionwill
liveincoastalzones,particularlycities.
Typically,ifcitiescantgrowoutward,theygrowupwardsresultinginmorecongestionintermsof
infrastructure and demand for services. While this trend might have at one time seemed the only
solution to solving urbanization, more recently, the dredging industry has developed new
technologies and lower cost solutions for creating new lands through reclamation of the sea.
Consequently,undercertaincircumstances,creatingnewlandthroughreclamationisturningoutto
becheaperthandevelopingexistinglandorbuildinghighrisesonthem.
ThisisparticularlythecaseinColombowherethepriceofCBDlandswasraisedbyalmost100%in
oneyearwhentheDefenseMinistrylandsatGalleFacewereleased/soldtoprivatedevelopersand
thesameifnothigherpriceswereartificiallyappliedbytheGovernmentValuertolandsthatwere
less strategically situated. Hence one can argue that overaggressive land pricing by Government
duringthe200914period(alongwiththefactthattheSouthPortbreakwaterwasbuilt)madethe
economiccaseforconstructingPortCityviaaprivateinvestment.
Importantseareclamationprojectscarriedoutinternationallyinrecenttimesaredescribedbelow:
Thefirstmajorlandreclamationprojectwascarriedoutinthe1970swhenthePortofRotterdam
wasextendedwithsandfromthesea.ThisdevelopmenthelpedthePorttobecomethelargestin
Europe whilst stimulating the economy of Rotterdam. Subsequently, the so called Maasvlakte II
project was carried out between 2008 and 2013, creating an additional 2,000 hectares of land
creating space for further investments and to ensure that the expanded port is in keeping with
futuredemand.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page5

Figure2.4:RecentReclamationofRotterdamPortandIndustrialArea

(a) Eko Atlantic is an entire new coastal city of about 1000 hectares, being presently built on
VictoriaIslandadjacenttoLagos,Nigeria,tosolvethechronicshortageofrealestateinoneof
theworldsfastestgrowingmegacities.Itisafocalpointforinvestorsasagatewaytoemerging
marketsofthecontinent.Theprojectisprivatelyfunded,workinginstrategicpartnershipwith
theLagosStateGovernmentandtheNigerianFederalGovernment.EkoAtlanticisintendedto
supportNigeriasambitiontobecomethefinancialcapitalofAfrica.
(b) In 1975, the government of Singapore decided to build a new airport on the eastern tip of
Singapore.ThenowfamousChangiairportwasbuiltwithover40millioncubicmetersofsand
reclaimed from the seabed, with dredgers working 24 hours. Reclamation from the sea has
continuedinSingaporesince(over20%oflandmassisnowreclaimed),allowingthecitystateto
reinventitselfasacommercial,entertainmentandtouristhub.

Figure2.5:CBDExpansionofLagos,Nigeria,by1000Ha
(c) Manyotherairportsnowoccupyreclaimedland.HongKongsChekLapKokairportisconsidered
themostdaringreclamationprojecttodateandlegendaryfortheskillandspeedwithwhichit
was built. This project is listed among the Top 10 Construction Projects of the 20th Century.
China Harbour Engineering Company (CHEC), a fully owned subsidiary of CCCC and EPC

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page6

contractor for the Port City Project, was contracted for this project for works including land
reclamation,marineworks,overseasbridgeetc.CHECdredgedover90mnm3ofsandfromthe
sea.

Figure2.6:HongKongsChekLapKokairportReclaimedbyCCCC/CHEC

(d) The Macao International Airport Artificial Island Project is the second largest reclaimed land
airportprojectintheworld(afterHongKong).CHECwasawardedacontractvaluedatUS$1.05
billiontoconstructtheartificialisland,connectionbridgeandrunway.Thelandfillconsumed64
millionm3,formingalandareaof192hectares.

Figure2.7:MacaoInternationalAirportReclaimedbyCCCC/CHEC

(e) IntheMaldives,newlandhasbeenclaimedfromtheseatobuildanewisland,Hulhumale,next
toMale.ThishasbeenconceivedtoovercomethecongestionofMale
(f) The most flamboyant waterfront reclamations in the 21st Century have taken place in the
MiddleEast.Tociteafewexamples:
PalmIslands,Dubai,whichthroughlandreclamationhasincreasedDubaiscoastlinebysome
150kilometers,morethandoubledDubaisnaturalcoastline.
OffthecoastofDohalandreclamationhasadded400haofland,30kilometersofcoastline
andwilleventuallyhouse30,000residents.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page7

Coastal reclamation in Bahrain since 2001 has also been extensive. Although Bahrain has an
abundanceofcoastlineandinlandland(beinganarchipelagoofthirtythreeislandswith161
kmofcoast),theGovernmenthasencouragedcoastalreclamationasameansofdiversifying
thecountryseconomicbase.

Dubai is worthy of special mention as a case study in undertaking reclamation of the sea, despite
having an adequate land mass and natural shoreline. Dubais ambitious reclamation projects are
entirelygearedtowardsattractingnewresidentswhowilllive,work,investandspendmoneyinthe
Emiratethroughiconicdevelopmentsandsavvymarketing.Theresultshavebeenspectacular:The
Palm Jumeirah completed in 2005 added 78 kms to Dubais coastline. (See figure 2.8 below.) This
wasthefirstlandreclamationproject,whichused110mncumofsand.ThiswasfollowedbyPalm
JebelAli,whichused325mncu.mofsand.ThencametheDeiraIslands,PalmDeiraandtheDubai
Waterfront. The economic impact of these developments post the 2008 recession has been
remarkableandhascontributedtothediversificationandgrowthofDubaiseconomy.











Figure2.8:ReclamationProjectsinDubai
MentionshouldalsobemadeofotherlargescalereclamationprojectscarriedoutbyCCCC/CHEC
forcityexpansion:Amongtheseare:
Zhuhai Hengqin Island Project, China: a US$ 6 billion Investment including reclamation,
revetment, infrastructure etc. to reclaim 2,000 ha of land. The reclaimed land will contain a
businessdistrict,highendresidencesandbeachresorts
Shantou East economic Development, China: US$ 2.4 billion investment to reclaim 1000 ha of
land
Based on the above, there is strong economic justification for undertaking land reclamation.
Apart from ports and airports, many recreational, housing, business and tourism developments
alongwaterfrontshavebeensuccessfullyconstructedthroughlandreclamation.Clearexamples
existtoestablishthatcreatingareasforintegratedoceanfrontliving,workingandrelaxingaddsto
theeconomicvibrancyofthecity.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page8

2.2 ProjectLocation
2.2.1 ReclamationArea:
District :Colombo
DivisionalSecretariatDivision/s:Colombo
LocalAuthority/s :ColomboMunicipalCouncil
Layout of the proposed project site (reclamation area and sand extraction sites) superimposed on
GoogleImageispresentedinFigure2.9.

Figure2.9:ProjectSiteReclamation&SandExtractionAreas

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page9

Locationoftheprojectsite(reclamationarea)andtheadministrativeboundariesofthesurrounding
areabasedon1:10,000scalemappublishedbySurveyDepartmentandrespectiveGoogleImageis
presentedinFigure2.10&2.11respectively.ProposedplanoftheColomboPortCityDevelopment

Figure2.10:ReclamationareaonSurveyDepartmentMap


Figure2.11:ReclamationareaonGoogleMap

Projectin1:10,000scaleispresentedinFigure2.12.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page10


Figure2.12:ProposedplanoftheColomboPortCityDevelopmentProject

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page11

SandextractionArea:
The proposed sand extraction site extends from Hendala to Basiyawatta. The dredging site 1 (see
Figure 2.13) is located 2.1km away from the Basiyawatta and 2.8 km away from the
Dambagamawatta,whilesite2is5.5kmawayfromtheThalahenaand7.5kmfromPamunugama.
The area is mainly consisted with a sandy seabed and hard bottom habitats. The primary
commerciallyandecologicallyimportantresourceinthesandextractionareaisfisheryresources.

Figure2.13:Locationofthesandextractionarea

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page12

TheminingsitefallswithinthefollowingmetricgridcoordinatesapprovedbytheGSMB.
Table2.4:Metricgridcoordinatesofminingsite
91210 91213 92211 92215 93206 94204 94211
91214 91217 92205 92217 93207 94205 95204
91218 92204 92206 92218 93208 94206 95205
91211 92208 92209 93205 93210 94208 95206
91215 92212 92210 93209 93211 94210 Site1
91212 92216 92213 93213 93212 94207
91216 92207 92214 93204 93214 94209
82213 83216 85213 86216 88213 89216
82214 83217 85214 86217 88214 89217 Site2
82215 83218 85215 86218 88215 89218
82216 84213 85216 87213 88216 90213
82217 84214 85217 87214 88217 90214
82218 84215 85218 87215 88218 90215
83213 84216 86213 87216 89213 90216
83214 84217 86214 87217 89214 90217
83215 84218 86215 87218 89215 90218

2.2.2 Extentofthesite
Thetotalextentoftheproposedsandextractionareaisabout100sqkm.
Extentofthesite146sqkm
Extentofthesite254sqkm

2.2.3 Estimatedreserves
NARAhasestimatesthetotalpotentialsanddepositattheproposedsite1atabout44millioncubic
meterswhileitis68millioncubicmetersattheproposeddredgingsite2.
2.2.4 Quantityofsandtobeextracted
Therequiredsandquantityforthepurposeofreclamationisabout65millioncubicmeters.
2.2.5 Waterdepthtothesanddeposit
Averagewaterdepthattheproposeddredgingsite1isabout16mandthedredgingsite2itis26m.
Themaximumwaterdepthfromthewatersurfacetoseaflooratthesanddepositisabout18mand
36mfordredgingsite1and2respectively.Minimumdepthisabout16mand18matthedredging
site1and2respectively
2.2.6 Proposedminingdepthfromthesurfaceofthedeposit
Although sub bottom data infers that the bedrock profile is often smooth and locally irregular, a
safetymarginof0.5mthicknessshouldbeleftasinextricable.Thereforeproposedminingdepthof
eachtransectsisgiveninTable2.5andFigure2.14.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page13

Table2.5:Proposedminingdepthofeachtransects
Average Proposedmining
Area sediment depth(Afterleaving
thickness 0.5msafetyMargin)
Area1Site1(Line13) 1.1 0.6
Area2Site1(Line45) 2.3 1.8
Area3Site1(Line67) 1.8 1.3
Area4Site1(Line89) 1.3 0.8
Area5Site1(Line1011) 1.2 0.7
Area6Site1(Line1213) 2.2 1.7
Area7Site1(Line1415) 3.0 2.5
Area1Site2[Grid(18)] 2.1 1.6
Area2Site2[Grid(916)] 2.3 1.8
Area3Site2[Grid(1724)] 2.1 1.6
Area4Site2[Grid(2532)] 3.6 3.1
Area5Site2[Grid(3340)] 3.4 2.9

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page14


Figure2.14:Samplinglocationsofthegeophysicalsurvey
2.2.7 Mininghistoryofthesiteanditsenvirons:
QuiteafewlicenseshavebeenissuedbytheGSMBforsandminingoftheadjacentareastothe
proposeddredgingsitesinordertoartificiallynourishcoastalareasandreclamationoflandsfor
variouspurposes.Licensesissuedforsandextractionhaveincludedthefollowingorganizations:
(a) SouthAsianGatewayTerminalProjectin1999
(b) BogalaGraphiteLanka(Pvt)Limitedfrom1999to2001
(c) RoadDevelopmentAuthorityfrom2001to2003
(d) J.L.SExports(Pvt)Limitedfrom2004to2005
(e) VanoordSierraNetworks(Pvt)Limitedfrom2006to2008
(f) AsiaDredgingLimitedfrom2004to2005
(g) Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Authority (SLLRDA) from 2005 to 2008 and
20112012.
(h) SriLankaPortsAuthority,20112013

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page15

Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation (SLLRDC) carried out sand mining in
westernandsouthernpartsofthestudyarea.ThequantityofsandextractedbytheSLLRDCin2008
and2011were2.8millioncubicmeterand3millioncubicmetersrespectively.
Thespatialdistributionofmininghistoryoftheareaisshowninfigure2.15.

Figure2.15:Mininghistoryinandadjacentseaareas

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page16

2.3ProjectDetails
a) Dredgingandextractionofsandforreclamation
Describedinsection2.2above.
b)Design,reclamationandprotectionofthereclaimedland
The subject of design of the reclamation and protection is covered in detail in Section 2.4 under
Alternatives where the options and preferred option is identified in a logical manner. Hence this
sectionisnotrepeatedhere.
c)Supplyofquarrymaterialforconstruction
Pleaserefersection2.3.3(d)fordetails
d)Useofrockfortheproject
Total quantity of rock required for the offshore breakwater and the protection of the sand fill is
estimated to be 3.5 million m3. Of this amount only 2.83m3, is required now as about 0.65m3 has
already been used for construction works carried out prior to the temporary suspension of the
project.
This quantityof material(2.83m3)will besourcedfrommultiple thirdpartyserviceproviderswho
have the licenses to quarry, process and transport the required material. By not having a single
dedicatedlargequarry,thePortCityprojectwillminimizetheimpactsinthegivenlocationofthe
quarrysupplierandprovidelivelihoodopportunitiestoalargenumberofstakeholders.Theamount
ofrockmaterialthatwillbeextractedfortheprojectfromtheselectedquarriesisaround44%of
theestimatedyield(6.54m3)oftheselectedquarries.
e)Reasonsforthedesignalterations
The concept presented by the University of Moratuwa (UoM) in the Initial Technical Feasibility
Report of 2010 commissioned by the SLPA has been refined and developed further by China
HarbourEngineeringCompanyLtd(CHEC),TianjinResearchInstituteofWaterTransportEngineering
(TIWTE) and ICEM Limited of Hong Kong who have jointly undertaken preparing detailed
developmentplansoftheproposedportcity.
There are three reasons for expanding the original design within the geometric framework of the
original conceptual design presented by the University of Moratuwa to SLPA at the time the Port
CityProjectwasenvisagedasaninvestmentbytheGovernment:
1. Firstly, the Master Plan has now incorporated a network of artificial waterways, canal system,
whichalsoservesasopenspacetoimprovetheenvironmentwithintheportcity.
2. Secondly,thenewfootprintextendsandmaximizestheutilizationofthewaterareabetweenthe
oldcitycenterandtheColomboSouthPortbreakwater
3. Thirdly, the new master plan allows the development of a longer artificial beach, which allows
thegeneralpublictogainaccesstotheseaandenjoyrecreationalandleisurelyactivitiesatthe
waterfront.
These reasons are strong justifications for the expansion and modification to the original design
withoutlossofgeneralityandimplementedwellwithintheoriginaldesignconceptandframework
stipulatedintheInitialTechnicalFeasibility.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page17

2.3.1Designofreclamationschemeanddetailandfunctioningofmarineworks
a)Extentandlayoutoftheareatobereclaimedwithtolerances
ThealreadyapprovedEIAisforareclamationareaof200ha.Therearethreereasonsforexpanding
theoriginalreclamationareaof200haareexplainedabove.
Thewidthofthelagoonbetweenthebreakwaterandthebeachwaskeptas300mwithatolerance
ofplusorminus15m.
Thelocationofthebreakwater,afterextension,isstillwithintheshadowofthebreakwaterofthe
ColomboSouthPortinordertoavoidanyimpacttoadjacentshoreline.
Furtherjustificationonthescaleofreclamationispresentedinsection2.4.
b)Reclamationdesignandtechnicalstudies
TheconceptualdesignofthereclamationisshowninFigure2.16below:


Figure2.16:ConceptualDesignofReclamation

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page18

Thereclamationdesigncomprisesofthefollowingelements:
(i) Offshorebreakwater
(ii) Fillingforreclamation
(iii) Groundtreatmenttoreclamation
(iv) Edgerevetments/seawalls
(v) Artificialbeaches
(vi) Submergedgroyne
(vii) Innerbreakwater
(viii)Sandbarriers
(ix) Marinabasin
(x) Lagoonandcanal
FurtherdetailsoftheconceptualdesignofthereclamationareprovidedinAnnexVII.1.
On 16th September 2014, as mentioned earlier, an Agreement was entered into between the
SecretarytotheMinistryofHighways,PortandShipping,onbehalfoftheGovernmentofSriLanka,
andtheCHECPortCityColombo(Private)Limited(TheProjectCompany)tojointlyimplementthe
ColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectforreclamationareaofatleast233ha.
ThetermsandconditionsoftheProjectAgreementwerenegotiatedbetween26thSeptember2012
and16thSeptember2014.Duringthenegotiationprocess,itbecameclearthattheresponsibilities
oftheProjectCompanywouldinclude:
(i) ThedesignandconstructionoftheReclamationworkssoastomeettherequirementsofthe
specifiedcodesandstandards(Clause8.2)
(ii) An assessment, with numerical modeling, for assessing the overall impact of the proposed
developmentonthestabilityoftheshoreline10kmnorthand10kmsouthoftheBreakwater
(Schedule3Clause4.1.1)
(iii) A geotechnical analysis is required for the design of the breakwater sections, in which the
overall slope stability, settlement and construction sequence shall be included (Schedule 3
Clause4.1.2)
(iv) 2D and 3D physical model tests to investigate the stability of armour under wave action
(Schedule3Clause4.1.2,4.7&4.8)andovertopping(Schedule3Clause4.4.2&4.4.4)
(v) Physical model test to assess requirements for the design and construction of the artificial
beach(Schedule3Clause4.5)
InordertominimizethefinancialriskoftheProjectCompany,andtopreventanypotentialdelayto
theimplementationoftheproject,theProjectCompanyhadtakentheinitiativetocarryoutcertain
physicalmodelingstudies,numericalmodelingstudiesandgroundinvestigationinordertobetter
understand the technical requirements that would need to be taken into account in the future
detaileddesignworks.Assuch,thefollowingstudieswerecarriedoutpriortosigningoftheProject
Agreement:
(i) Collectionofdataanddeskstudyofwaves,current,sedimentmovementneartheSite.
(ii) Sitemeasurementofwaves,currentandsedimentdeposit

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page19

(iii) 2Dand3Dphysicalmodelteststoassessthesizeorarmorprotectionrequiredandthestability
ofthebeach
(iv) Numericalmodelingtoassesstheimpactofthereclamationontheadjacentshoreline
(v) Numericalmodelingofwatercirculationandexchange
The above studies were carried out interactively with the evolution of the master plan for future
developmentonthereclaimedlandforsubmissiontoUDA.
The results of the studies had led to the compilation of the following engineering reports. These
studieshavebeenappliedinthedesignofthemarinestructuresforthePortCity:
(i) ReportonHydrographicSurveyFinalReport,
The scope of the survey study includes measurement of tide and current during both SW and NE
monsoon, each for 15 days. Samples of suspended sediment and bed sediment were taken for
analysisofsizedistribution.Thefindingsofthissurveyreporthaveprovidedinputdatafor2Dand
3Dphysicalmodeltests,andnumericalmodelforwaterexchangeanalysisandcoastalevolutionand
siltationanalysis.
(ii) 2DStabilityPhysicalModelTestontheOffshoreBreakwaterandRevetmentforMarina
The objective and scope of this 2D physical model test was to assess the stability of the armour
protection of the offshore breakwater and the marina revetment under waves of different return
periodsapproachingperpendiculartothealignmentofthemarinestructures.Thefindingsofthis2D
physicalmodeltestsformedthebasisforthedesignofthe3Dphysicalmodeltests.
(iii) 3DPhysicalModelTestSouthPartand3DPhysicalModelTestNorthPart
Theobjectivesandscopeofthese3Dphysicalmodeltestsare:
Toassessthestabilityofthemarinestructures,
To assess the stability and deformation of the artificial beaches when subject to waves of
differentreturnperiods,and
Toassesstheovertoppingvolumeofthebeachrevetmentandthemarinarevetment.
(iv) Analysis(Numericalmodeling)ofCoastalEvolutionandSiltation
Theobjectivesandscopeofthisstudyinclude:
Desk study to review the historical evolution of the shoreline, estimation of the littoral drift
regimeandpredictionofthefuturecoastalchanges,
BuildingofMIKE21numericalmodelandcalibrateitusingmeasuredsurveydataofcurrent,tide
andsedimentdistribution
Use of numerical analysis to simulate evolution of adjacent shoreline before and after
constructionofPortCity
UseofnumericalanalysistosimulateandassessthepotentialsiltationwithinPortCityarea.
Useofempiricalformulaetoassesssiltation,erosionandlongshoresedimenttransportcapacity
(v) Analysis(Numericalmodeling)ofWaterExchange
A MIKE21 numerical model was built and calibrated using measured current data. The model
simulatescurrentflowandwaterexchangewithinandaroundPortCityduringboththeSWandthe
NEmonsoon.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page20

(vi) WavephysicalModelTestoftheStabilityofBeachProfile
The2Dphysicalmodelwasbuiltandtestedtoassesstheeffectofsecondarywavesinthelagoonon
theartificialbeachunderdifferencewaveconditionsandwaterlevels
(vii) Analysis (Numerical modeling) of Water Exchange Supplementary Report on Effect of Beira
LakeoutfallonPortCity
ThenumericalstudywascarriedouttoassesstheeffectofPortCityontheBeiraLakeoutfall.The
studywasperformedonthebasisofsitemeasureddataofcurrent,tideandsedimentation,andit
coversbothSWandNEmonsoonseasons.
(viii) GroundInvestigationPreliminaryReport
The ground investigation was carried out from September 2013 to April 2014 and from October
2014 to November 2014. The site investigation covered the reclamation site and the breakwaters
site,aswellasthesandborrowarea.Thecompletedfieldworkincludes:
AtotalofonehundredandtwentyfourboreholeswithinsituStandardPenetrationTests(SPT)
which have been conducted at the reclamation site and the breakwaters site. A total of thirty
boreholeswithinsitufieldtestshavebeenconductedatthesandborrowarea;
A total of thirtyeight CPTU tests, including nine pore water pressure dissipation tests, which
havebeenconductedatthereclamationsiteandthebreakwaterssite;and
Soil samples and rock samples which have been obtained for laboratory testing to determine
designsoilparameters.
Awelldefinedprogramofcomplexlaboratorytestinghasbeenperformed.Thetestingresultshave
beenusedtoaidintheclassificationanddeterminationofengineeringpropertiesforthetypicalsoil
unitsattheprojectsite.
The ground investigation report was prepared to summarize the soil strata information and the
engineeringpropertiesofmajorsoil/rockunitsidentifiedattheprojectsite.
(ix) 3DPhysicalModelTestontheSouthernPartofColomboPortCityDevelopmentProject
This3Dphysicalmodelteststudywasconductedforthefollowingreasons:
Toprovidesupplementaryandfinetunedwavedatafordesignandanalysis
ToassessthechangeofwavefieldandovertoppinginfrontofGalleFaceGreenbeforeandafter
constructionofPortCity
Tooptimizethedesignofthesubmergedgroyne
Tooptimizethedesignoftherevetmentforthemarina
ColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectModelingInvestigation
The main focus of the investigation study was to assess the dispersion of sediment during the
dredging and reclamation operation for the construction of the Port City, and to recommend
mitigation and control measures where necessary. The study was carried out using a numerical
model which has been calibrated with measured data of wave, current, tide and sediment
concentration.
Otherrelevantstudyreportsinclude:
(i) Environmental Impact Assessment Study: Proposed Colombo Port City Development Project
GalleFace,ColomboUniversityofMoratuwa,2011
(ii) ColomboSouthHarbourDetailedEngineeringReport,ScottWilson2005

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page21

c)Perimeterdesignincludingdetailsofbreakwaterandrevetmentsincludingmaintenance
aspectsofsuchstructures
TheoffshorebreakwateristobeconstructedwithintheshadowofthebreakwateroftheColombo
South Port in order to avoid any impact to the adjacent shoreline. The offshore breakwater is
neededtoprovidewaveprotectiontoColomboPortCity.Thekeydesigncriteriaforthebreakwater
include:
(i) Thecrestofthebreakwatershouldbelowenoughinordertoprovideanoceanviewfromland
andfromtheartificialbeaches.Thisimpliesthatahighcrestwillnotfulfiltherequirementsand
in consequence, overtopping is allowed. Therefore the breakwaters function is to break the
energy of the large waves and to reflect low height waves. Larger waves will break on and
overtopthebreakwatergeneratingareducedheightwavetransmittedtothelagoonwaterarea
(ii) Thewidthofthelagoonbehindthebreakwatershallbearound300m,withtoleranceofplusor
minus15meter,inorderprovideareaforacceptablewaterexchange
(iii) Thedesignofthebreakwatershallallowrelativereductionofwaveheightbeyondtheentrance
ofbreakwaterintoPortCity
(iv) The design of the breakwater shall consider the accessibility to the maintenance of the
breakwater.
Theseabedadjacenttothebreakwaterisataround18metersinwaterdepth.Assuch,maintenance
vessels can easily access the breakwater for regular inspection, and carry out maintenance work
wherenecessary.
The reclaimed land shall be protected by means of adequate edge revetment. At the interface
between the beach and the reclaimed land, a short revetment retaining wall with a crest level of
+4.4m LWOST is to be constructed to avoid wave overtopping to affect the land behind. Landing
steps are to be constructed to connect the sand beach and the reclaimed land behind it. Other
reclamationedgesaretobeformedeitherbyslopingrevetmentorverticalseawallaccordingtothe
functionalandtechnicalrequirementsofeachspecificedge.Verticalseawallisadoptedattheedge
ofthecanalstoretainthereclaimedlandbehind.
Theselectionofmaterialandthedesignfortheseedgeprotectionstructureshastakenintoaccount
the design life required in the Project Agreement, and the ease of regular inspection, as well as
convenienceofmaintenanceworkwherenecessary.
Theconceptualdesignofperimeterstructures,includingthebreakwaterandrevetments,isshown
inAnnexVII.1.Theconceptualdesignisbasedonthefindingsofthetechnicalstudies,including2D
and3Dphysicalmodeltestsandnumericalmodelling.Theperformanceoftheperimeterstructures
isdescribedasfollow.

Stabilityoftheperformanceofexternalbreakwaters
Inthisrespecttheimportantaspectisthestabilityandperformanceoftheoffshorebreakwaters,in
particulartheirabilitytoretainexcessiveovertoppingwithoutdamage.Theexternalbreakwateris
designed with a 1 on 1.33 slope. The top level of the breakwater is set at +4m LWOST. Both the
seaward side and landward side of the breakwater will be protected by 17 ton Chinesepode
concretearmourunits.TheseunitshavebeenpreviouslydeployedattheHambantotaPortandhave
performedwell.InfacttheChinesepodisasinglelayerinterlockingarmourunitinthesamefamily
ofAccropodeandCoreLoc,whichhaveallperformedwellglobally.
Theseunitsareusedworldwideasasinglelayerforprimaryarmour.Physicaltestingofthedesign
cross section was carried out in the laboratory using 2D and 3D scaled down models of the

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page22

breakwater. Due considerationwasgiven to testthestabilityof thearmourunits underexcessive


overtopping.Thetestresultsindicatethatthebreakwaterwillremainstablein1in200yearwave
events.ThesamedesigncriterionwasalsousedfordesignofthebreakwatersoftheColomboSouth
Port.

StabilityofinternalprotectionstructuresprotectingtheboundariesofthePortCity
Inthisrespecttherearetwoimportantissues,whichrequireattention:
A. Stability and performance of internal protection structures, protecting the boundaries of the
PortCity.
B. Impact of extreme weather conditions on the water body between the offshore breakwaters
andthePortCityforwhichthreeissuesareidentified.
(i) The hydraulics of water body between the offshore breakwater and the protected landfill
duringextremeweatherconditions
(ii) Impactsoninternalprotectionstructuresand
(iii) Sediment transportleadingtoerosionandaccumulation

A. Stabilityandperformanceofinternalprotectionstructures,protectingtheboundariesofthe
PortCity.
TheboundariesofthePortCitycomprisea20mwideflatartificialsandbeachformedat+3.3mto
+2.5LWOST.Betweentheflatbeachandthebreakwaterisaslopefilledwithmarinesandforminga
stablebeachsuitableforrecreationalpurposes.Betweentheflatsandbeachandtheroadbehindis
aLshapedconcreteretainingwall tosupporttheroadat+4.0LWOST.Preliminaryassessment by
thedesignersconcludesthatthewaverunupinextremeeventwillnotreachtheleveloftheroad,
andtheinfrastructureandbuildingsbehindthebeachwillbeadequatelyprotected.Thisaspectwill
belookedatrightthroughoutthefinalizationofthedetaileddesignandconstruction.

B. Impact ofextreme weatherconditionson the waterbodybetween the offshore breakwater
andtheprotectedreclaimedlandforwhichthreeissuesareidentified.
(i) The hydraulics of the water body in between the detached breakwater and the protected
landfillduringextremeweatherconditions
Thedailyhydraulicperformanceoftheinbetweenwaterbodyhasbeenmodelednumerically
using MIKE 21 software. The driving force of the hydraulic movement is the action of ocean
currentandtidalcurrentofthesurroundingwaterbody.
Thestabilityofthebeachandthelandwardsideofthebreakwaterhasbeentestedusing2D
and 3D physical models. In the physical test, the beach and breakwater were subject to the
direct impact of waves in extreme events. The physical tests conclude that the beach and
breakwaterhavebeendesignedadequatelyagainsttheseextremeevents.
Thebedofthecanalisintentionallydesignedtobeat3mLWOST,therebykeepingashallow
depth of water, and it is part of the wave calming measure. At the northern and southern
entrancetothewaterareaseriesofemergedandsubmergedbreakwatersandsandbarriers,
positionedstrategicallytodeflectionwave,andpreventthewavesfromenteringthecanal.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page23

(ii) Impactsoninternalprotectionstructures
The internal protection structures of the canal consist of concrete block vertical seawalls or
equivalent. The wall will be designed to support the ground behind, as well as any residual
waveforcethatitmaybesubjectedto.
(iii) Sedimenttransportleadingtoerosionandaccumulation
Numerical model has been set up and calibrated with measured results of sediment
concentration, current velocity and current direction. The sedimentation within the lagoon,
canal and the marina has been assessed. Normal level of maintenance is expected to be
adequate.

d)Methodologyofreclamationandsequencingofreclamationandperimeterstructures
ThereclamationforthePortCitymainlyconsistsofthefollowingactivities:
(i) OffshoreBreakwaterconstruction
(i) Sanddredgingforlandreclamationfromapprovedborrowareas
(iii) LandreclamationinPhases

OffshoreBreakwaterconstruction
The breakwater of this project is an offshore marine structure to protect the reclaimed land. The
twoendsofbreakwaterareconnectedtothesouthernandthenorthernsandbarriers.Thegeneral
layout is as shown in Figure 2.17. The typical section of the marine structures protecting the
reclaimedlandisasshowninFigure2.18.

Figure2.17:GeneralLayoutofBreakwater

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page24


Figure2.18Typicalcrosssectionofbreakwater

The general construction process is shown in Figure 2.19. For the purpose of preventing silt
dispersionduringthelandreclamation,andinordertoprovideaccessforthetransportationofland
basedequipment,twotemporaryaccessroads(designatedasroad1androad2),asshowninFigure
2.19, will be constructed first. The construction work will start from the south end of the
breakwater. After reaching the end of the access road 2, access road 1 will be closed, and access
road2willbeusedfortheremainingconstructionworkfromtheendoftheaccessroad2tothe
northendofthebreakwater.


Figure2.19:Generalconstructionprocess

Inordertoconstructtheoffshorebreakwater,thefollowingconstructionworkflowwillbeadopted.
(1) Trench Excavation and Sand Filling (2) Quarry run core, Rubble stone and Bottom inverted
filterlayerrock,10~100kgrockfillingandsandbackfilling(3)Bottomarmourrockfilling(4)
Quarryruncorerockfilling(5)SeasideCoreprofiletrimmingandunderlayerrockfilling(6)
PlacementofseasideChinesepodearmourunits(7)Landsideprofileofquarryruncoretrimming
(8) Landside underlayer rock filling (9) Placement of landside Chinesepode armour units
(10) Trimming the top profile of core rock and filling of underlayer rock (11) Placement of
Chinesepodearmourunitsatthetop

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page25

Sanddredgingforlandreclamationfromapprovedborrowareas
Priortothecommencementofdredgingwork,predredgingsurveywillbeconductedinbothsand
borrow area and reclamation area. Floating debris, wrecks and underwater obstructions will be
removedafterthenecessaryapprovalisgrantedfromrelevantgovernmentauthorities.


Figure2.20:Sandborrowarea
Thesandborrowarea(Site1and2)isdividedintofivezones,whichareZoneC,1,2,3,and4,as
indicatedintheFigure2.20.ThesandminingareaislocatedtothenorthoftheColomboPortand
onthewestsideofNegombodistrict.TheareaofZoneC;(Site1)is46km2withanaveragewater
depthof1518m.TheareaofZone1toZone4is13.5km2each.TheaveragedepthofZone2
and Zone 4 is 2226 m, and average depth of Zone 1 and Zone 3 is about 2740 m. The
distancetothePortCityreclamationsiteisabout16~30km.Thetotalquantityofsandextraction
requiredisabout65millionm.
A comparison had been made of the workability of a Cutter Suction Dredger (CSD) and a Trailing
SuctionHopperDredger(TSHD)workingoffshoreduringthemonsoonandintermonsoonperiods.
Basedontheenvironmentalandproductionconsiderations,aTSHDwasconsideredtobethemost
appropriate.
Thedredgerwouldmoveupanddownintheborrowpit,trailingitsdragheadovertheseabedand
suckingamixtureofsandandwaterupthesuctionpipeandintothehopper.Whenthehopperis
full,thedredgercontinuestoload,buttheexcesswater,andsomefines,isdischargedthroughan
overflowinthebottomofthevessel.Whenthehopperisfullthedredgersailstothereclamation
siteandplacesmaterialsbyeitherbottomdumpingorrainbowing.
Materialwouldbebottomdumpeduptoalevelof8m~10mandthentrimmedtoprofilebythe
TSHD.Sideloadingbargeswouldplacegradedrockinlayersunderwatertoprovideprotectionto
thetoeoftheplacesandmaterial.Additionalsandwouldthenberainbowedontotheunderwater

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page26

mound to bring the reclamation above high water level. Land based plant would then grade the
materialandplacegradedrockfollowedbyconcretearmourunitsontheouterface.
The process of dredging, reclamation and breakwater construction will be fully integrated.
Reclamationbybottomdumpingtocreateasubmergedcoreforthebreakwaterwilltakepriorityto
completepartofthebreakwatertoprovideprotectiontothereclamation.Reclamationabovethe
waterlevelwillbeimmediatelyprotectedagainsterosionbywaveactionandisintegratedwiththe
breakwaterconstruction.
Subject to the condition during the monsoon seasons and the construction progress, up to four
trailersuctionhopperdredgers(TSHD)willbedeployedforsandextraction,transportationandsand
fillingwork.ThedredgingcycleoftheTSHDisshownintheFigure2.21

TSHD dredge at sand mining Sailtodischargelocation


area

Sailtosandminingarea Dischargeatlandreclamationsite
Figure__WorkingCycle

ofTSHD
Figure2.21:DredgingCycleofTSHD
During the working cycle, the TSHD will sail between the sand borrow area and the reclamation
area.Thecontractorwillplantheirtransportroutetominimizeanydisruptiontothemarinetraffic
oftheapproachchannelarea.
















Figure2.22:TSHDNavigationPlan

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page27

At the sand borrow area, the suction tube position monitoring (STPM) system on board a TSHD
monitorsthepositionofthesuctionpipeanddragheadinrelationtotheTSHDandtheverticaland
horizontal offset of the draghead versus the target depth and position at the actual dredging
position.Thensandextractioncanbestarted,andthematerialforreclamationwillbeextractedinto
thehopperthroughthesuctionpipe.Withinthehopper,some,orallofthesolidsinthepumped
mixture will settle out of suspension and the supernatant water is discharged via an overflow
arrangement(Figure2.23).Adjustmentoftheoverflowlevelwillallowsomedegreeofcontrolover
thevolumeandcharacterofdredgedmixtureretainedinthehopper.

Figure2.23:OverflowarrangementofTSHD

LandreclamationinPhases
At the reclamation site, the dredged sand will be discharged into the reclamation area either by
directbottomdumpingorbyrainbowmethodsubjecttothewaterdepth.

Figure2.24:Dredgerinoperation Figure2.25:Reclamationbyrainbow
method

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page28

The dredged sand may also be discharged by pipe line. The TSHD is attached to the shore by a
floating pipeline and land based pipeline, and the dredged material will be hydraulically pumped
intoreclamationarea(Figures2.24and2.25).
AsshowninFigure2.26,thefloatingpipelinewillbeplacedbytugboat,andwillbekeptinposition
by4tonanchorswitha75minterval.Thelandbasedpipelinewillbeplacedbyexcavators.

Figure2.26:Filldeliveredtoshorebyfloatingpipeline

ThelandofthePortCitywillbeformedfollowingtheworkflowasindicatedintheworkflowchart
forthereclamationasshownintheFigure2.27.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page29

Figure2.27:WorkFlowChartforReclamation

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page30

Thedredgedmaterialwillbedirectlydumpedintothereclamationareauntilitreacheselevation
of7mor8mLWOST.Thenrainboworpumpingashoremethodwillbeadoptedtoformthe
landtothedesignedlevelat+3.5mLWOSTfollowingthe(indicative)fillingsequenceasshownin
Figure2.28.Asindicativeplanthereclamationactivitieswillproceedfromarea1toarea8.

Figure2.28:ReclamationSequence

Theoffshorebreakwater,themarinarevetmenttogetherwiththesouthsandbarrierwillprogressin
tandemwiththe sandreclamation area through anadvancedpacetoprotectthe reclaimed area.
Assuming that the construction work of the Port City project will be resumed in the
January/February 2016, the construction sequence of the breakwater and land reclamation is
illustratedinFigures2.29toFigure2.32.
Constructionworkfortheoffshorebreakwaterandtherevetmentofthemarinawillnotbecarried
outbetweenMayandSeptember,inviewoftheseverewaveconditionintheSWmonsoon.Other
work, including sand mining and land reclamation work, will be carried out all year round except
whenextremeweatherconditionisencountered.
The actual construction sequence will have to be defined by the Contractor and substantiated
further,asthiswilldependonmanyfactorslikeproductionsrates,stabilityofrockofthebreakwater
duringmonsoon,expectedmorphologicalchangesofthelandreclamationduringtheconstruction
period,etc.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page31


Figure2.29:ConstructionPlanfromJan.Sep.2016


















Figure2.30:ConstructionPlanfromOct.2016Sep.2017

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page32


Figure2.31:ConstructionPlanfromOct.2017Sep.2018


Figure2.32:ConstructionPlanfromOct.2018Mar.2019

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page33

Where necessary, silt curtain will be installed to prevent silt migration. The silt curtain will be
formedbypolyesterfibretextilesheetstobehangedfrombuoysandbeweighteddownbysteel
chains,asshowninFigure2.33.


Figure2.33:SiltCurtain
AnindicativearrangementofthesiltcurtainispresentedFigure2.34.Anopeningwillbeprovidedto
allowfornavigationofTSHDsandotherconstructionvesselsinandoutofthesite.Thepositionof
the silt curtain may be adjusted time to time according to the construction progress of the
breakwaterandlandreclamation.

Figure2.34IndicativeArrangementofSiltCurtain

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page34

e)Equipmenttobeused
DuringconstructionofthePortCity,thefollowing(seetable2.6)majormarineequipmentwillbe
usedforsandmining,landreclamationandoffshorebreakwater:
Table2.6:Majormarineequipmenttobeusedduringtheprojectimplementation
MarineEquipment Function
TrailerSuctionHooperDredgers(TSHD) Sanddredgingandlandreclamation
GrabDredger Trenchfoundationandcanalexcavation
Flattopbarges Rockdumpingandarmourinstallation
Tugboat,anchorboat Marine equipment towing, anchoring and
transportation

In addition to the marine equipment, land based equipment such as crawler crane, excavator,
bulldozerandlorrytrucksetc.willalsobeusedfortheplacementofbreakwaterarmourunits,land
levelling/compaction,canalexcavation/slopetrimming,andmaterialtransportation.
f)Detailsofreclamationworkandprotectionstructureswhichhavealreadybeencompleted.
(i) Workscompletedjustbeforestoppageofwork
ThefollowingconstructionworkhadbeencarriedoutbetweenSeptember2014andMarch2015;
About 10.7 million m3 sand had been extracted and about 27ha of land had been reclaimed
(Figure2.35).


Figure2.35:Reclaimedareapriortosuspension

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page35

420m of temporary access road along the marina towards the breakwater had been completed.
However, due to the suspension, part of the completed work had been washed away during the
southwestmonsoon,andonly320moftheroadisleftabovethewaterlevel.715mofbreakwater
foundationtrenchhadbeenexcavatedbutithasbeenfilledbysanddeposition.Marinarevetment
ispartiallycompletedfromCh.0+250toCh.0+880m.Constructionofsouthendoftheoffshore
breakwater(forprotectingthelandreclamation)wasinprogressbythetimeofsuspension.

Figure2.36:Sketchshowingthecompletedbeforesuspension

(ii) WorksatthetimeofsubmissionofSEIA.
TheconstructionofthisProjectwassuspendedon6thMarch2015attherequestoftheMinistryof
Ports & Shipping. Due to the erosion of the strong ocean waves, certain parts of the completed
worksweredamagedgradually.Inordertoavoidfurtherdamage,thecontractorwasgrantedthe
permission by the government to carry out certain protection work for the partially completed
marinarevetmentandoffshorebreakwater.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page36

Beforesuspension Current


Figure2.37:Projectcurrentandbeforesuspensionsituation

(iii) Constructionmaintenanceduringthesuspension
Duringthesuspension,onlylimitedcontractorspersonalandequipmentworkedonsite.Therefore,
only maintenance of the access road and marina revetment were performed. In order to prevent
blockageoftheBeriaLakeoutfallbythedriftedsand,thecontractorhadcarriedoutmaintenance
dredgingandexcavationfrequentlytoensureunobstructedflowfromtheBeriaLakeoutfall.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page37

Figure2.38:Constructionmaintenanceduringthesuspension
2.3.2Detailsofreceptionfacilities
AlltherockmaterialusedtoconstructPortCitywillbedeliveredbylicensedquarrysupplierstothe
projectsitevialandsidetrafficroutes.Thesandmaterialwillbedredgedbytrailerhoppersuction
dredgerandwillbetakentotheprojectsitebythedredger,andthenrainbowedorbottomdumped
to form the reclamation. As such, there will be no need for the construction of any reception
facilities.
2.3.3Supplyofquarrymaterialforconstruction
a) Details of the type and amount of the quarry material required for the development and
Sourcesofthequarrymaterials
Detailsofthetypeandamountofthequarrymaterialsrequiredforthedevelopmentofeachofthe
marinestructuresaregiveninthefollowingtables.
Total quantity of rock material requirement for the development of each of the required marine
structureshasbeenestimatedas3.45millioncubicmeters.Detaileddescriptionofquarrymaterial
requirement, including their sizes, for the construction of above marine structures is shown in
followingtables(Table2.7Table2.11).
Table2.7:RockQuantityRequirementforOffshoreBreakwater
TypicalSectionLocationCH1+050
TypeofRock Quantity(m3)per100m
QUARRYRUN1~500kg 37,330.0
RUBBLESTONE(50320MM) 2,953.3
INVERTEDFILTERLAYER(1180mm) 1,495.8
ROCK10~100kg 1,507.2
OtherRockBoulders
ROCK2000~5000kg 6,307.9
ROCK1000~3000kg 9,529.5
ROCK700~1400kg 1,400.0

Totalrockquantityrequiredper100mofOffshoreBreakwater 60,523.6

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page38

Note: Offshore break water length is 3,420m. Hence quantity of rock materials required for the
constructionoftotal3,420mlengthofoffshorebreakwateris2,069,907m3.
Inadditiontotheaboverockmaterials,rockaggregatesofsizevaryingfrom10to20mmwillalsobe
requiredforproducingChinesePodsfortheoffshorebreakwater.Totalquantityofrockmaterials
(aggregatesbetween10and20mmsize)requiredforproductionofChinesePodsisestimatedtobe
around230,941m3.
Therefore,totalrockmaterialrequirementfortheerectionofoffshorebreakwateris2,300,848m3.

Table2.8:RockQuantityRequirementforMarinaRevetment
TypeofRock Quantity(m3)
QUARRYRUN1~500kg 18,125
RubbleStone 7,485
Armorrock4000~6000kg 10,037

OtherRock Armorrock2000~5000kg 8,992


Boulders Underlayerrock2000~3000kg 1,563
Underlayerrock300~500kg 16,382
Underlayerrock700~1400kg 1,686
TotalrockquantityrequiredforMarinaRevetment 64,270


Table2.9:RockQuantityRequirementforSouthSandBarrier
TypeofRock Quantity(m3)
QUARRYRUN1~500kg 171,273
RubbleStone 25,505
Invertedfilterlayer 26,627
OtherRock
Armorrock1000~3000kg 6,861
Boulders
Armorrock3000~5000kg 10,009
Armorrock2000~3000kg 16,928
Underlayerrock300~500kg 19,919
Underlayerrock700~1400kg 28,297
TotalrockquantityrequiredforSouthSandBarrier 305,419




CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page39

Table2.10:RockQuantityRequirementforInnerBreakwater
TypeofRock Quantity(m3)
QUARRYRUN1~500kg 98,139
RubbleStone 10,404
Rock2000~5000kg 2,249
OtherRock
Rock1000~3000kg 22,249
Boulders
Rock2000~3000kg 9,215
Rock300~500kg 9,415
Rock700~1400kg 19,140
TotalrockquantityrequiredforInnerBreakwater 112,470

Table2.11:RockQuantityRequirementforNorthSandBarrier
TypeofRock Quantity(m3)
QUARRYRUN1~500kg 52,236
RubbleStone 12,621
Invertedfilterlayer 6,282
OtherRock
Rock3000~5000kg 10,698
Boulders
Rock2000~3000kg 12,744
Rock300~500kg 17,889
TotalrockquantityrequiredforNorthSandBarrier 170,811

As per above tables, total quantity of rock material requirement to complete the erection of off
shorebreakwater,marinarevetment,southsandbarrier,innerbreakwaterandnorthsandbarrieris
estimatedtobearound2,953,818m3(2,300,848+64,270+305,419+112,470+170,811).
Inaddition,totalquantityofrockmaterialrequirementforsouthandnorthcanalseawall,southand
northbeachrevetmentandsubmergedgroyneisestimatedtobearound500,000m3.
Therefore,totalrequirementofrockmaterialsfortheerectionofmarinestructuresofthePortCity
projectisestimatedtobearound3.45millioncubicmetres.
Inordertostudytheextractionofrequiredquantityofrockmaterials,aquarrysurveywasinitiated
bytheGSMBTechnicalServices(Pvt)Ltd(GSMBTS)for11registeredquarrysitestosupplyquarry
materialsfortheerectionofthemarinestructuresofthePortCityproject.Duringthefieldsurvey,
mineablerockquantitiesineachofthese11quarrieshavebeenestimated.
Namesandaddressesofthestudied11quarrysitesandtheircurrentmininglicensecategoriesas
wellasmineablerockquantitiesareasfollows.(Seetable2.12).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page40

Table2.12:DetailsofquarrysitesstudiedbyGSMBTechnicalServices
IML District MineableRock
No. QuarryName&Address
Category Quantity(m3)
Hesei Construction Ranala South, Colombo 1,406,402
01. IMLA
Kaduwela
Hesei Constriction Diddeniya, Ihala Colombo 130,530
02. IMLB
Hanwella(A.K.T.Premakumara)
SRD Construction Nawagamuwa Colombo 111,492
03. IMLB
South,Kaduwela
SRD Construction Nooranim Estate, Colombo 789,498
04. IMLA
Meepe,Padukka(MetalMixPvt.Ltd)
SMG Holdings Madulawa North, Colombo 68,044
05. IMLB
Padukka
ChinaHarbourEngineeringLiyanwela, Gampaha 561,407
06. IMLA
Padukka
China Harbour Engineering Colombo 529,149
07. IMLA
Halbarawa,HoragalaWest,Padukka
Nimal Enterprises Nawagamuwa, Colombo 2,263,065
08. IMLA
Ranala
Arinma Trading Diddeniya North, Colombo 97,524
09. IMLB
Diddeniya
G. H. P. Solutions Kandewatta, Gampaha 365,237
10. IMLB
Paranawala,Dompe
Sethmi Holdings Hangawatta , Colombo 221,006
11. IMLA
Divulapitiya
Totalamountofrockmaterialavailable 6,543,354

Therefore, total quantity of 6.54 million cubic metres of rock materials could be mined from the
studied11quarries.
b)Existingandrequiredquarrycapacitytoobtaintherequiredrockvolumesandpercentageof
nationalrequirementscomparisondetailsofexistingquarries
According to the above calculations, total quantity of 6.54 million cubic metres of rock materials
couldbeminedfromthestudied11quarriesalone.Thetotalrequirementofrockmaterialsforthe
erectionofmarinestructuresofthePortCityprojectisestimatedtobearound3.45 million cubic
metres.Ofthisamount,0.12millioncubicmetresofrockmaterialshavealreadybeenusedforthe
partly erection of marine structures, prior to temporarily terminated the construction work of the
PortCityProjectinMarch2015.Inaddition,0.50millioncubicmetresofrockmaterialsarecurrently
available at the stockpiling site of the project site and these rock materials could be used for the
projectuponrecommencementofconstructionworks.
Therefore,furtheramountof2.83millioncubicmetresofquarrymaterialsareneededtocomplete
the balance work of erection of marine structures of the Port City Project. Hence, the total
requirement of balance quarry materials (2.83 million cubic metres) for the erection of marine

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page41

structures of the Port City project is only about 44% of the total mineable rock quantity of the
studied11quarrysites(6.54millioncubicmetres).
Requirementof balancerock materialsineachcategoryon monthlybasisto completethemarine
structuresoftheprojectareasfollows.
Table2.13:Monthlyrequirementofrockmaterialineachcategory
No Description tons (m3) Monthly Required Total(m3) Quarry nos
Requirement Months that can
(m3) provide
differentsizes
1 20005000Kg 25 1.12.8 24000 7Months 168,000 1,4,6,7,8,10
Rock
2 10003000Kg 13 0.61.7 15000 1Month 15,000 1,4,6,7,8,10
Rock
3 20003000Kg 23 1.11.7 14000 11 154,000 1,4,6,7,8,10
Rock Months
4 200 500 Kg 0.2 0.11 7500 1Month 7,500 All1to11
Rock 0.5 0.28
5 300 500 Kg 0.3 0.17 6000 5Months 30,000 All1to11
Rock 0.5 0.28
6 700 1400 Kg 0.7 0.39 7000 6Months 42,000 All1to11
Rock 1.4 0.78
7 12002500Kg 1.2 0.671.4 28000 13 364,000 All1to11
Rock 2.5 Months
8 Quarry Run (1 <0.5 <0.28 84000 15 1,260,000 All1to11
500kg) Months
9 Inverted Filter <0.5 <0.28 7000 23 161,000 All1to11
Rock Months
10 Rubble Stone <0.5 <0.28 6000 22 132,000 All1to11
Rock Months
11 10 100 Kg <0.5 <0.28 5000 20 100,000 All1to11
Rock Months
12 150KgRock <0.5 <0.28 16000 5Months 80,000 All1to11
13 GravelStone <0.5 <0.28 9000 20 180,000 All1to11
Months
3,413,500
Bouldersover1m3

InordertostudythepercentageofNationalrequirements,comparisondetailsofexistingquarries;
alltheexistingIML(A,B&C)categoryquarrydetailsofColombo,KalutaraandGampahaDistricts
were obtained from the Geological Survey and Mines Bureau (GSMB). According to these details,

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page42

existingIMLA,B&CcategoryquarriesineachofthethreeDistrictsaredescribedinFigures2.39,
2.40and2.41.
The quarry material requirement for the Port City project is a trivial amount of the total quarry
productionintherelevantdistricts.Outofthetotalquarriesinallthreedistrictsonly7.0%,2.3%and
0.0% of quarries in Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara districts respectively will be used for quarry
materialsupplyfortheColomboPortCityProject.ThisisfurtherdiscussedinSection4.3.5.(Refer:
Table4.21DetailsofExistingQuarriesinColombo,GampahaandKalutaraDistricts)aswell.Hence,
the impact of this project on the national quarry material requirement would be in negligible
proportionsaccordingtotheGSMBTSfindings.
Duringthe6month periodofconstructionofPortCityfromSeptember16th2014toMarch6th2015,
prior to entering into supply arrangements with quarry owners, the Project Companys contractor
ensuredthatthesupplierhadavalidMiningLicenseandquantitysuppliedwaswithinallowablelimits.
Moreover, each quarry site was subject to inspection. The same practice will continue upon the
recommencementofconstructionofthePortCityProject.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page43

Figure2.39:ExistingIML(A,B&C)CategoryQuarrySiteswithinColomboDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page44

Figure2.40:ExistingIML(A,B&C)CategoryQuarrySiteswithinKalutharaDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page45

Figure2.41:ExistingIML(A,B&C)CategoryQuarrySiteswithinGampahaDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page46

c)Detailsoftransportationroutesandtransportationcapacities,typeofvehiclestobeused
Ithasbeenproposedsixroutes(seeTable2.14)fortransportofquarrymaterialsfromtheselected
eleven quarries to the project site. The proposed routes for different quarries are summarized in
tables below (Table 2.14 2.19). Following figures (Figure 2.42 Figure 2.45) present the above
routesgraphically.
Table2.14:ProposedQuarryMaterialTransportRoutes
ProposedRoute QuarrySupplier
Route1 HeseiQuarrySiteRanalaSouth,Kaduwela.
NCP(PVT.)Ltd.QuarrySiteNawagamuwa,Ranala
SRDQuarrySiteNawagamuwaSouth,Kaduwela
Route2 HeseiQuarrySiteDiddeniya,Hanwella.
ArinmaTrading(PVT.)Ltd.QuarrySiteDiddeniya,Hanwella
Route3 ChinaHarbourQuarryHalbarawa,Padukka
ChinaHarbourQuarryLiyanwela,Padukka
SRDQuarrysitePadukka
S.M.G.HoldingsMaduwalaNorth,Padukka
Route4 SRDQuarrysiteMeepe,Padukka
Route5 G.H.P.SolutionsQuarrysiteParanawala,Dompe
Route6 SethmiHoldingsQuarrysiteDivulapitiya

The route 1 is proposed to transport quarry materials from the quarries situated in Bomiriya/
Nawagamuwaareatotheproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable2.15.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page47

Table2.15:DetailsofRoute1
Route Road Road Currentcondition Major
maintained junctions/Cities
authority
B174 UptoAB10at RDA Carpetedroadingood
Kaduwela condition

AB10 KaduwelatoAbatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Kaduwela,
condition Expressway
Interchange

B345 Abatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Angoda,


Orugodawatta condition Kotikawatta
Wellampitiya

StaceRoad Orugodawatta CMC Carpetedroadin Orugodawatta


KosgasJnc acceptablecondition
Layards KosgasJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood KosgasJunction
Broadway JethawanaRd condition
JethawnaRd UptoArmourStreet CMC Carpetedroadingood
Jnc condition
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,
(Hettiyawatta) Kotahyena

AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta


entranceGate condition Junction

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page48

Theroute2isproposedtotransportquarrymaterialsfromthequarriessituatedinHanwellaareato
theproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable2.16.

Table2.16:DetailsofRoute2
Route Road Road Currentcondition Major
maintained junctions/Cities
authority
LocalRoad UptoA4at Local Carpetedroadingood
Pahathgama Authority condition
(Diddeniya
Road)
B145 Pahathgama RDA Carpetedroadin Pahathgama
Hanwella acceptablecondition Junc

AB10 HanwellatoAbatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Hanwella,


condition Kaduwela,
Expressway
Interchange

B345 Abatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Angoda,


Orugodawatta condition Kotikawatta
Wellampitiya

StaceRoad Orugodawatta CMC Carpetedroadin Orugodawatta


KosgasJnc acceptablecondition
Layards KosgasJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood KosgasJunction
Broadway JethawanaRd condition
JethawnaRd UptoArmourStreet CMC Carpetedroadingood
Jnc condition
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,
(Hettiyawatta) Kotahyena

AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta


entranceGate condition Junction,St
Anthonys
Roundabout

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page49

The route 3 is proposed to transport quarry materials from the quarries situated in
Godagama/Padukkaareatotheproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable
2.17.

Table2.17:DetailsofRoute3
Route Road Road Currentcondition Majorjunctions/
maintained Cities
authority
LocalRoad UptoWatareka Local Carpetedroadin
Authority acceptablecondition
(Diddeniya
Road)
B240 Watareka RDA Carpetedroadingood Godagama,
GodagamaMalabe condition Athurugiriya

B263 MalabeKaduwela RDA Carpetedroadingood Malabe


condition
AB10 KaduwelatoAbatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Kaduwela,
condition Expressway
Interchange

B345 Abatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Angoda,


Orugodawatta condition Kotikawatta
Wellampitiya

StaceRoad Orugodawatta CMC Carpetedroadin Orugodawatta


KosgasJnc acceptablecondition
Layards KosgasJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood KosgasJunction
Broadway JethawanaRd condition
JethawnaRd UptoArmourStreet CMC Carpetedroadingood
Jnc condition
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,Kotahyena
(Hettiyawatta)
AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta
entranceGate condition Junction,St
Anthonys
Roundabout

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page50

Theroute4isproposedtotransportquarrymaterialsfromthequarriessituatedinMeepe/Padukka
areatotheproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable2.18.

Table2.18:DetailsofRoute4
Route Road Road Currentcondition Majorjunctions/
maintaine Cities
dauthority
LocalRoad UptoB285 Local Carpetedroadingood
Authority condition
(Diddeniya
Road)
B285 UptoMeepeJnc. RDA Carpetedroadingood
condition
A4 MeepeJnc. RDA Carpetedroadingood MeepeJunction
Godagama condition
B240 GodagamaMalabe RDA Carpetedroadingood Godagama,
condition Athurugiriya

B263 MalabeKaduwela RDA Carpetedroadingood Malabe


condition
AB10 HanwellatoAbatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Kaduwela,
condition Expressway
Interchange

B345 Abatale RDA Carpetedroadingood Angoda,Kotikawatta


Orugodawatta condition Wellampitiya

StaceRoad Orugodawatta CMC Carpetedroadin Orugodawatta


KosgasJnc acceptablecondition
Layards KosgasJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood KosgasJunction
Broadway JethawanaRd condition
JethawnaRd. UptoArmourStreet CMC Carpetedroadingood
Jnc condition
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,Kotahyena
(Hettiyawatta)
AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta
entranceGate condition Junction,St
Anthonys
Roundabout

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page51

Theroute5isproposedtotransportquarrymaterialsfromthequarriessituatedinDompe/Delgoda
areatotheproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable2.19.

Table2.19:DetailsofRoute5
Route Road Road Currentcondition Majorjunctions/
maintained Cities
authority
Local Metal Moderate
Road/Privet Quarry
Road
B95 UptoDelgoda RDA Carpetedroadingood
Junction condition
B214 DelgodaBiyagam RDA Carpetedroadingood Delgoda,Siyabalape
Peliyagoda condition Junc,Biyagama
Junction,
Expressway
Interchange,
Kelaniya

A1 PeliyagodaNew RDA Carpetedroadingood Peliyagoda(4th


KelaniBridge condition milepostJunc.)

AB10 NewKelaniBride RDA Carpetedroadingood


Thotalaga condition
Nagalagam ThotalagaSirimawo CMC Carpetedroadingood
Street BandaranayakeMw condition
Sirimawo InguruKadeJunc. CMC Carpetedroadingood Thotalanga,
Bandaranayake ArmourStreetJnc condition IgurukadeJunc,
Mw,Princeof
WalesAve,
JethawnaRd.
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,Kotahyena
(Hettiyawatta)
AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta
entranceGate condition Junction,St
Anthonys
Roundabout

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page52

Theroute6isproposedtotransportquarrymaterialsfromthequarriessituatedinDivulapitiyaarea
totheproposedsite.Detailsofproposedrouteareshowninbelowtable.

Table2.20:DetailsofRoute6
Route Road Road Currentcondition Majorjunctions/
maintained Cities
authority
LocalRoad UptoB324 Divulapitiya Notingoodin
PS condition
B324 UptoDivulapitiya RDA Carpetedroadingood
condition
B111 Divulapitiya RDA Carpetedroadingood Divulapitiya,
Minuwangoda condition Minuwangoda,
Ekala Kotugoda

A33 EkalaJaEla RDA Carpetedroadingood Ekala


condition
A3 JaElaOldKelani RDA Carpetedroadingood JaEla,Kadana,
Bridge(Peliyagoda) condition MahabageJunc,
Hedala,Wattala,

Sirimawo OldKelaniBridge CMC Carpetedroadingood NawalokaJunction,


Bandaranayake ArmourStreetJnc condition Thotalanga,
Mw,Princeof IgurukadeJunc,
WalesAve,
JethawnaRd
AC11 ArmourStreetJnc CMC Carpetedroadingood ArmourStreet
SirRamanadhanMw condition Junction,Kotahyena
(Hettiyawatta)
AC30,AC31 HettiyawattatoPort CMC Carpetedroadingood Hettiyawatta
entranceGate condition Junction,St
Anthonys
Roundabout

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page53

Figure2.42:MapofquarrymaterialtransportRoute1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page54


Figure2.43:Mapofquarrymaterialtransportroute2,3,4&5
CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page55

Figure2.44:Mapofquarrymaterialtransportroute6

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page56

















Figure2.45:MapofquarrymaterialtransportrouteinColombocityarea

Transportationcapacities
MajorpartofaccessroadsleadingtothePortCityprojectsitefromrespectivequarrysitesareA
/ B grade roads administered by the RDA or C / D grade roads administered by the PRDA of
Western Province or Colombo Municipal Council (CMC). Therefore, all these roads have
transportationcapacitiestotransportquarrymaterialsloadedtrucks.
Initialinteriorroadsectionsofmostofthequarriesareadministered bythe LocalAuthorities.
Hence,approvalofrespectiveLocalAuthoritieswillhavetobeobtainedbythequarryownerto
transportquarrymaterialloadedtrucksalongtheroadsadministeredbytheLocalAuthorities.
Type of vehicles and number of vehicles to be used to transport quarry materials from the
identifiedquarrysitestothePortCityprojectsitesareasfollows.

Table2.21:TypesandnumberofVehiclestobeusedtoTransportquarrymaterials
Typeoftruck Truck No.oftrucksperday
capacity
(eachwithtwotrips)
(Tons)
10wheelers(4.5cubetipper) 20 38trucksx2tripsperday
6wheelers(3cubetipper) 14 300 ucksx2tripsperday
Note:1cube=~2.83m3


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page57

d)Assessmentofimpactofsupplyofquarrymaterialfortheconstruction.
All the quarries identified for the supply of quarry material are either IMLA or IMLB grade
quarries. Hence, the aforementioned licensed quarries are bound to comply with the
environmental regulations during the operations. However, loading activities during night may
createnoisepollutioninsomequarries.Inaddition,dustmaygenerateduringloadinginimproper
manner.
Moreover,dustgenerationduringunloadingofquarrymaterialstothestockpilesmaybeatrivial
matter that can be easily be sorted out. Relevant mitigatory measures are broadly discussed in
Section 5.4.2.2 (ii). Empty trucks moving out of the project site may besmirch surrounding roads
due to spreading of mud from the truck tyres. This impact can easily be minimized by the
mitigatorymeasuresmentionedinsection5.4.2.2(iv).
Nevertheless,supplyof2.83millionm3ofquarrymaterialfromselectedquarries(whichhavethe
capacitytosupplyover6.54millionm3)wouldnotcauseanyadverseimpactontheotherrunning
projects in the vicinity of Colombo and Gampaha districts due to massive (potential) supply
capacities(referSection2.3.3b),oranyadverseupwardmovementinmarketprices.

e)Locationofstockpilling
Tostockpilequarrymaterials,twostockpilingsiteshavebeenidentified(Stockpile1&2).Bothsites
arelocatedwithinthealreadyfilledareaofthePortCityprojectsiteandareashowninFigure2.46,
GPScoordinatesoftheboundariesofbothstockpilingsitesaregiveninthefollowingTable2.22.

Table2.22:GPSCoordinatesofStockpilingSites1and2
NWCorner SWCorner SECorner NECorner

StockpilingSite1 A096480E/ B096511E/ C096706E/ D096675E/


192905N 192810N 192874N 192969N

StockpilingSite2 E096524E/ F096555E/ G096750E/ H096719E/


192772N 192677N 192741N 192836N


AreaofStockpilingSite1:20,505m2
AreaofStockpilingSite2:20,505m2

Atboththesestockpilingsites,itisexpectedtostockpiledifferentsizequarrymaterialsforabout
4mheight.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page58

Figure2.46:Currentandpreviousstockpilinglocations

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page59


2.3.4Dredgingandextractionofsand,forreclamationof269Ha.fortheproposedportcity
project

a)Detailsofthetypeandamountofsandrequiredforfilling
Therequiredsandquantityforthepurposeofreclamationisabout65millioncubicmeters.

b)Identificationoflocationsofsandborrowsites(withgridcoordinatesinrelationtothe
surroundingseaareasandadjacentcoastallines)limitedtoacceptableextractionlimits.
Proposed Sand extraction site is extending from Hendala to Basiyawatta. The dredging site 1 is
located2.1kmawayfromtheBasiyawattaand2.8kmawayfromtheDambagamawattawhilesite2
is 5.5km away from the Thalahena and 7.5 km from Pamunugama as shown in Figure 2.13. The
miningsitefallswithinthefollowingmetricgridcoordinatesapprovedbytheGSMB.
Table2.23:Metricgridcoordinatesofminingsite
91210 91213 92211 92215 93206 94204 94211
91214 91217 92205 92217 93207 94205 95204
91218 92204 92206 92218 93208 94206 95205
91211 92208 92209 93205 93210 94208 95206
91215 92212 92210 93209 93211 94210 Site1
91212 92216 92213 93213 93212 94207
91216 92207 92214 93204 93214 94209
82213 83216 85213 86216 88213 89216
82214 83217 85214 86217 88214 89217 Site2
82215 83218 85215 86218 88215 89218
82216 84213 85216 87213 88216 90213
82217 84214 85217 87214 88217 90214
82218 84215 85218 87215 88218 90215
83213 84216 86213 87216 89213 90216
83214 84217 86214 87217 89214 90217
83215 84218 86215 87218 89215 90218

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page60

C)Proposedminingdepthfromthesurfaceofthedepositsanddistancefromthemainland
Thethicknessofthesedimentdepositvariesfrom1to3.4meters.Theaveragesedimentthickness
isabout1.3and2.7metersatthedredgingsite1and2respectively.Ingeneral,sedimentthickness
increases from north to south, except at the middle stretch at the dredging site 1. Although sub
bottomdatainfersthatthebedrockprofileisoftensmoothandlocallyirregular,asafetymarginof
0.5mthicknessshouldbeleftasinextricable.Table2.24depictstheextractableaveragethicknessof
sedimentsateachtransects(locationoftransectshowsinthefigure2.14).Distancefrommainland
tothesandextractionsitesisgiveninthefigure2.13.

Table2.24:Averagesedimentthicknessofeachtransects
Area Extractable Average sediment thickness
in meters (After leaving 0.5 m safety
Margin)
Area1Site1(Line13) 0.6
Area2Site1(Line45) 1.8
Area3Site1(Line67) 1.3
Area4Site1(Line89) 0.7
Area5Site1(Line1011) 0.8
Area6Site1(Line1213) 1.7
Area7Site1(Line1415) 2.5
Area1Site2[Grid(18)] 1.6
Area2Site2[Grid(916)] 1.8
Area3Site2[Grid(1724)] 1.6
Area4Site2[Grid(2532)] 3.1
Area5Site2[Grid(3340)] 2.9


d)Waterdepthtothesanddeposits.
Averagewaterdepthisabout16mattheproposeddredgingsite1anditis26mforthedredging
site2.Themaximumwaterdepthfromthewatersurfacetoseaflooratthesanddepositisabout18
mand36mfordredgingsite1and2respectively.Minimumdepthisabout16mand18matthe
dredgingsite1and2respectively.Averagewaterdepthofeachtransectsisshownintable2.25.





CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page61

Table2.25:Averagewaterdepthtothesanddeposit
Transect Average Water Depth to the
SandDepositinMeter
Area1Site1(Line13) 16.4
Area2Site1(Line45) 16.4
Area3Site1(Line67) 16.2
Area4Site1(Line89) 17.9
Area5Site1(Line1011) 15.6
Area6Site1(Line1213) 16.2
Area7Site1(Line1415) 16.8
Area1Site1[Grid(18)] 24.9
Area2Site1[Grid(916)] 25.0
Area3Site1[Grid(1724)] 24.7
Area4Site1[Grid(2532)] 27.1
Area5Site1[Grid(3340)] 28.2


e)Methodologyofdredgingwithtimerequirements.
Proposeddetailedsanddredgingplanisasfollows.














CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page62


Proposed Sand Dredging Plan

Working Month Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 Sep-16 Oct-16 Nov-16 Dec-16 Jan-17 Feb-17 Mar-17 Apr-17 May-17 Jun-17 Jul-17 Aug-17 Sep-17 Oct-17 Nov-17 Dec-17 Jan-18 Feb-18 Mar-18 Apr-18 May-18 Jun-18 Jul-18 Aug-18 Sep-18 Oct-18 Nov-18 Dec-18 Jan-19 Feb-19 Mar-19
Sand Mining Zone Zone (C1, C2, C3) Zone (C4, C5) Zone 1,2,34
Dredging Volume1000m 880 880 880 880 804 804 804 804 804 1,565 1,565 1,565 1,565 1,565 1,565 1,565 1,413 1,413 1,413 1,413 1,413 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,478 2,478 2,478 2,478 2,478 1,261 1,261 1,261 1,261 1,261 1,261
Accumulated Volume1000m 880 1,761 2,641 3,522 4,326 5,131 5,935 6,740 7,544 9,109 10,674 12,240 13,805 15,370 16,935 18,501 19,914 21,327 22,740 24,153 25,566 28,348 31,131 33,913 36,696 39,479 42,261 45,044 47,522 50,000 52,478 54,956 57,435 58,696 59,956 61,217 62,478 63,739 65,000
Percentage 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 4.3% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9% 1.9%
Accumulated Percentage 1.4% 2.7% 4.1% 5.4% 6.7% 7.9% 9.1% 10.4% 11.6% 14.0% 16.4% 18.8% 21.2% 23.6% 26.1% 28.5% 30.6% 32.8% 35.0% 37.2% 39.3% 43.6% 47.9% 52.2% 56.5% 60.7% 65.0% 69.3% 73.1% 76.9% 80.7% 84.5% 88.4% 90.3% 92.2% 94.2% 96.1% 98.1% 100.0%
No. of Dredger 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2
No. of Trips 165 165 165 165 150 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 270 270 270 270 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 480 480 480 480 480 240 240 240 240 240 240
Accumulated Trips 165 330 495 660 810 960 1110 1260 1410 1710 2010 2310 2610 2910 3210 3510 3780 4050 4320 4590 4860 5400 5940 6480 7020 7560 8100 8640 9120 9600 10080 10560 11040 11280 11520 11760 12000 12240 12480

1. First Intermonsoon Season - March - April


2. Southwest monsoon season - May - September
3. Second Intermonsoon season - October - November
4. Northeast Monsoon season - December - February

3,000

2,783
2,783
2,783
2,783
2,783
2,783
2,783
2,500

2,478
2,478
2,478
2,478
2,478
2,000

1,500
1,565
1,565
1,565
1,565
1,565
1,565
1,565
1,413
1,413
1,413
1,413
1,413

1,261
1,261
1,261
1,261
1,261
1,261
1,000
880
880
880
880
804
804
804
804
804

500

CECB - SEIA Report Proposed Colombo Port City Development Project- December 2015 Chapter 2 - Page 62

f)Availabilityofsandatidentifiedsiteswithexplorationdetails.
Theaveragethicknessofthesedimentlayeratidentifiedsanddepositsvaryfrom0.6mto2.5mand
1.6 to 2.9 meters at the dredging site 1 and 2 respectively after leaving 0.5meter thick sediment
unexploitedasasafetymargin(Figure2.47).Totalsanddepositavailableattheproposeddredging
site1isabout44millioncubicmeterswhileitis68millioncubicmeterattheproposeddredgingsite
2.Table2.26illustratethesandavailabilityinthearea.

Table2.26:Availabilityofsandinexplorationarea
Area Extractable Available Available Extractable
Averagethickness Volume Volume Volume(million
inmeter(After (Cubic (millionCubic CubicMeter)
leaving0.5m Meter) Meter)
safetyMargin)
Area1Site1(Line13) 0.6 2560000 2.56 2.56
Area2Site1(Line45) 1.7 7000000 7.00 6.00
Area3Site1(Line67) 1.3 5240000 5.24 5.24
Area4Site1(Line89) 0.7 4500000 4.50 4.50
Area5Site1(Line1011) 0.7 5760000 5.76 5.76
Area6Site1(Line1213) 1.7 10380000 10.38 9.00
Area7Site1(Line1415) 2.5 15180000 15.18 11.25
TotalVolume 50620000 50.62 44.31
Area1Site2[Grid(18)] 1.6 12700000 12.70 8.70
Area2Site2[Grid(916)] 1.8 14600000 14.60 10.60
Area3Site2[Grid(1724)] 1.6 12800000 12.80 8.80
Area4Site2[Grid(2532)] 3.1 24900000 24.90 20.90
Area5Site2[Grid(3340)] 2.9 23300000 23.30 19.30
TotalVolume 88300000 88.30 68.30
Source:GSMBTS,NARA

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page64


Figure2.47:IsopachMapofthearea

g)Transportationroutes,typeofvesselstobeused,vesselsandbargeoperationscheduleand
precautionarytobeused
Pleasereferthesection2.3.1(d)above.

h)Sampleanalysisofseasand
The grain size characteristics of the sediment were determined by the Sieve analysis. The
percentageofgravel,sand,siltandclayisestimatedasshowninTable2.27.

Table2.27:Particlesizecategoriesofsediments
SizeCategory Particlesizerange(mm)
Gravel 4.02.0
Sand 2.00.063
Silt/Clay 0.0630.002
Clay <0.002

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page65

In accordance with the visual observation most of the sediment samples were in brown to black
colour,whichrepresentcoarseandmediumtofinegrainsediments.Thegrainshapeisangularto
rounded.Almostallthesamplesareconsistsofcoralandshellfragments.Visualdescriptionofthe
samplesisgiveninTable2.28.

Table2.28:Samplelocationsandvisualobservations
Sample Sediment Grainsize Grainshape Remarks
No color
Site11 Brown Coarse to very Rounded 5%(approximately)ofshell
coarse fragments
Site12 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubAngular shellfragments
Site13 Lightbrown Medium Angular shellfragments
Site14 Brown Finetomedium SubRounded shellfragments
Site15 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubRounded shellfragments
Site16 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubRounded shellfragments
Site17 Brown Coarse to very SubRounded 5%(approximately)ofshell
coarse fragments
Site18 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubAngular 5%(approximately)ofshell
fragments
Site19 Lightbrown Medium SubRounded shellfragments
Site110 Lightbrown Medium SubRounded shellfragments
Site111 Lightbrown Medium SubRounded shellfragments
Site112 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubRounded shellfragments
Site113 Lightbrown Finetomedium SubRounded shellfragments
Site114 whitish Medium SubRounded 25% (approximately) of
brown shellfragments
Site115 Lightbrown Medium SubRounded 25% (approximately) of
shellfragments
Site116 Brownish Finetomedium SubRounded 10%approximatelyofshell
gray fragments
Site117 Lightbrown Coarse to very SubRounded shellfragments
coarse
Site118 Lightbrown Medium SubRounded shellfragments
Site119 Lightbrown Mediumtocoarse SubAngular 5%(approximately)ofshell
fragments
Site120 Lightbrown Coarse SubAngular shellfragments
Site121 Brown Coarse to very SubRounded shellfragments
coarse

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page66

Site122 Blackish Mediumtocoarse SubRounded sediment with high


brown amountoforganicmatter
Site123 whitish Medium SubRounded shellfragments
brown
Site21 Brown Mediumtofine Rounded Shellfragments
Site23 Yellow Mediumtofine Rounded Shell fragments and
organicdebris
Site25 Brown Coarse Angular 80% shell and coral
fragments
Site27 Nosample
Site28 Brown Coarse Angular shellfragments
Site210 Brown Coarse Angular Shellfragments
Site212 Brown Coarsetomedium Rounded Shellfragments
Site214 Nosample
Site215 NoSample
Site217 Brown Mediumtofine Rounded Shellfragments
Site219 Brown and CoarsetoMedium Angular Shellfragments
Blacksand
Site221 Brown Coarse Angular Shellfragments
Site222 Brown to Mediumtocoarse Rounded Coralfragments
Black
Site224 Brown to Mediumtocoarse Angular Shellfragments
Black (Black
Prominent)
Site226 Yellow to Mediumtofine Rounded Coralfragments
Black
Site228 Yellow to Mediumtofine Rounded 80%Coral ,shell and
Black organicdebris
Site229 Yellow to Coarse Angular 80% Shell and coral
Black fragments
Site232 Brown to Coarsetomedium Rounded Shellfragments
Black
Site233 Brown to Mediumtocoarse Angular Shellfragments
Black
Site235 Brown Coarse Angular Shellfragments

ThecumulativefrequencycurvesofthesedimentgrainsizedistributionareshowninFigure2.48(a),
(b) and (c). Percentage cumulative curves were plotted in excel to illustrate the grain size
distribution. Statistical parameters were calculated based on cumulative distribution curves. The
resultsandthedescriptionofthestatisticalparameteranalysisaredescribedintable2.28.
CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page67

100.00 100.00

80.00 80.00

60.00 60.00
Loc
Loc1
12
40.00 40.00
Loc3 Loc
17
20.00 20.00 Loc
Loc5
19
0.00 0.00
2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00

(a) (b)

100.00

80.00

60.00 Loc24
Loc26
40.00
Loc28
20.00 Loc29
Loc32
0.00
2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00

(c)
Figure2.48:Resultsofgrainsizeanalysis

Table2.29:Descriptionofstatisticalparameters
Meangrain Descriptionof
SampIeID Descriptionofsortingcondition(Std)
size meangrainsize
Site11 0.48 coarse Poorlysorted
Site12 0.69 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site13 0.27 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site14 0.52 Fine Poorlysorted
Site15 0.08 Medium Poorlysorted
Site16 0.79 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site17 0.16 Coarse Poorlysorted
Site18 0.71 Medium Poorlysorted
Site19 0.27 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site110 0.06 Medium Wellsorted
Site111 0.97 Medium Moderatelysorted

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page68

Site112 1.14 Medium Moderatelysorted


Site113 1.13 Fine Moderatelysorted
Site114 0.48 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site115 0.83 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site116 1.79 Fine Poorlysorted
Site117 0.43 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site118 1.05 Medium Wellsorted
Site119 0.82 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site120 0.63 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site121 0.62 Coarse Poorlysorted
Site122 0.70 Medium Poorlysorted
Site123 0.47 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site21 1.05 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site23 1.58 Medium Moderatelywellsorted
Site25 0.68 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site28 0.43 Coarse Poorlysorted
Site210 0.98 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site212 0.79 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site217 1.04 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site219 0.40 Coarse Moderatelywellsorted
Site221 0.19 Coarse Poorlysorted
Site222 0.38 Coarse Moderatelywellsorted
Site224 0.94 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site226 1.20 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site228 1.09 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site229 0.50 Coarse Poorlysorted
Site232 1.14 Medium Moderatelysorted
Site233 0.88 Coarse Moderatelysorted
Site235 0.78 Coarse Moderatelysorted

Averagesandsizegraincontributesupto94%fromtotalsamples,whilegravelcontributesto5.5%.
Siltandclaycontributesnegligibleamount(seeTable2.30).


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page69

Table2.30:Sedimenttype
Gravel Sand% Silt/Clay%
SampIeID. % (20.063 (<0.063 Classification
(>2mm) mm) mm)
Site11 4.42 95.43 0.18 SlightlyGravellySand
Site12 3.09 96.87 0.07 SlightlyGravellySand
Site13 6.19 93.78 0.02 SlightlyGravellySand
Site14 4.69 95.20 0.21 SlightlyGravellySand
Site15 6.78 93.21 0.01 SlightlyGravellySand
Site16 1.33 98.54 0.29 SlightlyGravellySand
Site17 22.76 77.19 0.10 GravellySand
Site18 2.96 97.02 0.02 SlightlyGravellySand
Site19 6.43 93.56 0.01 SlightlyGravellySand
Site110 0.24 99.55 0.21 Sand
Site111 1.97 98.03 0.00 SlightlyGravellySand
Site112 0.68 99.05 0.58 Sand
Site113 1.06 98.84 0.15 SlightlyGravellySand
Site114 5.41 94.45 0.08 SlightlyGravellySand
Site115 0.48 99.50 0.05 Sand
Site116 4.91 91.33 6.97 SlightlyGravellySand
Site117 21.48 78.48 0.09 GravellySand
Site118 0.94 99.03 0.04 Sand
Site119 5.34 94.40 0.54 SlightlyGravellySand
Site120 0.32 99.46 0.64 Sand
Site121 2.23 97.74 0.05 SlightlyGravellySand
Site122 1.64 98.22 0.27 SlightlyGravellySand
Site123 25.31 74.66 0.05 GravellySand





CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page70

2.3.5GeneralDescriptionofFutureDevelopmentActivitiesonreclaimedlandincludingtime
frames
2.3.5.1 ProposedDevelopmentActivitiesunderCESMAPlanof2004
ThePlanningintentionsoftheColomboCoreAreaasenvisagedundertheCESMAPlanof2004are
highlightedbelowtodemonstratethattheycorrespondwiththeconceptandstrategyunderpinning
futuredevelopmentactivitiesofColomboPortCity.
TheconceptandneedforexpansionoftheCBDidentifiedundertheCESMAPlanof2004aregiven
below(quotedfromtheDevelopmentGuidePlanoftheWesternRegionalMegapolis):
To create a distinctive and vibrant waterfront city image to accommodate new growth within
thecity
Support its position as the national economic engine of finance, business and touristic
attractions
Providemorevarietyinhousing,recreationandentertainment
To plan for new and improved public facilities and infrastructure to support work/live/play
urbanlifestyles
Toplanwaterfrontedgeswithemphasisonrecreationentertainmentandculturaluses
Torevitalizethelakesandbeachfrontenvironmentforpedestrians
ToexpandtheCBDbyreclaimingmoreprimelandandportfacilitiesanddesignatenewusesto
incorporateapleasureharbourfornewmarinas,cruisecentreandwaterfronthousing
Tostrengthentheculturalandshoppingdistricttopromotelocalbusinesses
Toplanforgreenconnectionswithinthecitytoportraythetropicalislandthemeandprovide
opportunitiestocompleteandrevitalizethegreenandbluenetwork
To formulate Urban Design Guidelines for the CBD to create the character of the countrys
financialandbusinesshubandmakeavailablelandfornewprivateandpublicdevelopmentsto
completetheproposedCBDfabric

2.3.5.2 Architecturalconceptplantogetherwiththelayout/masterplanforColomboPortCity:
The Colombo Port City master plan (please see Appendix 1) has been developed based on the
following:
(a) OverallVision:ColomboPortCityshallbeasustainableadditiontoColombosCentralBusiness
Districtgeneratingbusiness,tourismandahighqualityoflifethemostliveablecityinSouth
Asia
(b) MasterPlanConceptObjectives:
Tocreateasustainableandattractiveurbandistrictwellconnectedtoandintegratedwith
theexistingcity
Tocreateatourismhubwithuniquecharacterthatreflectsthedistinctivelocalcultureand
existingurbanfabric
Tocreatearegionalbusinesshub,acitydistrictbrandwithhigh qualitypublicspacesand
residentialenvironmentsattractivetolocalandinternationaldevelopersandinvestors
To create sustainable urban districts that adapt to local climate, micro climate and make
efficientuseofenergyresources
CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page71

(c) Urban Sustainability Objectives: In the context of global competition of emerging sustainable
cities, the overarching goal is to create a mixeduse area that is liveable and accessible with
reduced urban heat island effect and becomes a resource that is efficient on energy demand.
Thisisdonebythefollowingsustainabilityguidingprinciples:
Urban pattern: Orientation, shape and dimension taking local climate conditions into
considerationandpromotingresourceefficientandconvenientmicroclimate
Urban design principles: Promoting an open city with continuous greenblue and open
spaces,accessibleandattractiveforallpeople
Landuse,trafficandtransport:Promotingaccessibilitythroughwalking,bicyclingandhigh
classpublictransportationsystemminimizingcardependency
Integrated Ecocycle model: Promoting a high quality and efficient solution for resources
management
In keeping with the above vision and objectives, SWECO of Sweden and Atkins of UK, both world
renowned specialists in sustainable urban planning and design, have been responsible for the
detailed master plan for Port City, taking into consideration views of local specialists and advisers.
SWECOhascarriedoutconsultancyprojectsin70countries.Atkinsistheworldslargestengineering
consultancycompany.
By visualizing and unlocking the synergies between urban subsystems, the Masterplan identifies
the links between urban and landscape planning, public and social spaces, storm water
management, architecture, real estate development, urban functions, enterprises and buildings,
energy,wastemanagement,trafficandtransport,watersupplyandsanitation.
Using worldwide best practice, the Master Planning consultants have developed a customized
phasedapproachfordevelopmentofColomboPortCity.ThemasterplanfortheColomboPortCity
project,submittedforpreliminaryplanningclearancebytheUDA,isshowninFigure2.49.


Figure2.49:LocationPlanandArtistsRenderingofMasterPlan

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page72

Colombo Port City land plots will be marketed to local and international investors over a 25year
period.Theoverallmarketingapproachwouldbeasfollows:
(a) Thefirststageof marketingwouldstartwiththe mostvisible partofPort Cityi.e.newCBD
adjacenttooldCBD.TheStrategywouldbetocreatefuturedemandforresidentialcomponents
byattractinginvestmenttothecommercialcomponents.
(b) The marketing strategy in the initial years will attempt to create an iconic lifestyle statement
that will establish Port Citys positioning and enhance visibility locally and internationally,
therebygeneratingdemandforfurtherinvestmentsindevelopment.Accordingly,marketingwill
initiallybeanchoredby:
TheCentralPark:Thelarge22hacentralparkwillworkasacommunityparkwithawide
range of active and passive recreation facilities. For example areas for sport, informal
grassed area, play area, ornamental garden, woodland and naturalistic area for
relaxationandstudywillbecreated
Marina:AlongwithCentralPark,theMarinawillbeakeyanchorformarketing.Private
pleasureboatsandlowrisebuildingsthemedonleisure,diningandentertainmentwill
occupytheMarinaarea.
(c) InvestmentsinPortCitywillemphasizeoffice,hotel,marinarelated,retailandresidential.Based
on demand, investments in theme park, educational institution, health care and convention
centremaybeadvanced
(d) The phased marketing approach for development will emphasize the controlled supply of
developablelandtomatchdemand.

2.3.5.3 LandUsePlanandGrossFloorArea
UDA/CMC Planning Regulations will govern the permissible uses within Colombo Port City. No
Industrialactivitieswillbeallowed.TheMasterPlanLandUsePlanproposedisshownasFigure2.50.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page73


Figure2.50:MasterPlanLandUsePlan
ThelanduseplanbrokendownbytypeofdevelopmentisshowninTable2.31
Table2.31LandUsePlanProposedforColomboPortCity

LandUse Area Percentage
Commercial 371,126m 13.3%
Commercial&Residential 53,128m 1.9%

Cultural/Educational/Health 103,919m 3.7%

Hotel 69,989m 2.5%

LeisureEntertainment 131,292m 4.7%


MarinaFacility 4,739m 0.2%

OpenSpace(Beach) 86,076m 3.1%

OpenSpace(Parks&Squares) 302,385m 10.8%

OpenSpace(Waterfront) 132,809m 4.7%

PublicFacility 19,497m 0.7%

PublicStreets 528,430m 18.9%

PublicUtility 3,325m 0.1%

Residential 508,106m 18.1%

Residential(RM1) 329,146m 11.8%

Residential(RM2) 155,857m 5.6%

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page74

Notethatthelanduseplanhasallocatedaround20%ofthereclaimedareaoraround54haasopen
spaces for use by the public. If roads are included, the public areas cover 110 ha or 40% of the
reclaimedarea
TheGrossFloorArea(GFA)plannedduringthe2325yearlifecycleofthePortCityprojectisshown
inFigure2.51andFigure2.52below.


Figure2.51:ProposedGrossFloorArea(GFA)Planned

The land use plan and proposed GFA broken down into the stages of development are shown in
Figure2.52below.



Figure2.52:StagewiseandtimephasedLandUseandGFADistribution

Fromtheaboveanalysis,ifaGFAcomparisoniscarriedoutbetweenwhathasbeenproposedinthe
ColomboPortCitymasterplanandtheCESMAPlan,theGFAproposedforColomboPortCityis40%
lowerthantheGFAproposedunderthe2004CESMAPlan.
ThiscomparisonisshowninTable2.32below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page75

Table2.32:ComparisonofGFACESMAPlanandColomboPortCity

CESMAPlan PortCity
Waterfront CBDExtension (1)+(2)
(1) (2)
Land(ha) 82* 145 227 270
MarketableLand(ha) 62 77 139 173
GFA(m) 1,724,600 7,402,000 9,126,600 5,498,000
*inclusiveof20hapublicareaat30%i.e.62+20

Source:Table1;WesternRegionMegapolisRegionalStructurePlanof2004(Vol2)andPortCity&
CPCDevelopmentData

ThecomparisonofmarketablelandandGFAbecomesmoresignificantwhentheoveralllandparcels
proposedintheCESMAPlanarecomparedagainstthatofColomboPortCity(Table2.33).

Table2.33:ComparisonofMarketableLandandGFA

CESMAPlan(2004) PortCity(2015)
SaleableLand(ha) 139 173
GFA(m) 9,126,600 5,498,000

Accordingly, the Master Plan of Colombo Port City is significantly less dense than that envisaged
underthe2014CESMAPlan

2.3.5.4 UrbanDesign
ColomboPortCitysMasterPlanismadeupof5distinctiveurbanareas.Eachoftheseurbanareasis
unique, yet complimentary and integral part of the overall Master Plan. The 5 urban areas are
showninFigure2.53below:








CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page76


Figure2.53:IntegratedUrbanDistrictsofColomboPortCity

Ashortdescriptionofthe5UrbanDistrictsasshownabovefollows:
1. Marina:TheMarinaisaleisuredestinationforbothofficeworkersinCBDandresidentsfrom
thewholeofColombo.Restaurants,entertainmentandshoppingarelocatedinsmallscalelow
rise buildings on the pier ranging from 13 floors. The buildings are organized in a village
structurewithsmallintimateinternalstreets.Thequayisaplacetostrollandhavealookatthe
manyleisureboatsinthemarina.Onthequayinthenorthpartthequayisslightlybroaderand
adistinctivebuildingmarkstheendofthemarinawalk.Seebelowformoredetailedlayoutof
MarinaDistrict


Figure2.54:detailedlayoutofMarinaDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page77

2. PortCityCBD:CBDisanaturalextensionofthealreadyexistingbutmuchsmallerCBDintheold
cityneighbouringthesite.Itwillhouseheadquartersfornationalandinternationalcompanies.
Itwillbeanareawithtallofficebuildingsliningupalongthebroadmainboulevard.Thelushand
greenCBDBoulevardwillthencontinueasaspineallaroundPortCity,connectingthedifferent
districts.Thebuildingvolumesbecomelowertowardstheoldcityand the Lighthouse cultural
park. The park and the layout with pavilions and many pedestrian connections help integrate
theoldcityandthenewPortcity.TheimportantmainentrancetothePortCityislocatedhere
andismarkedwithlandmarkbuildingsandalargesquare.Seebelowformoredetailedlayoutof
PortCityCBDDistrict


Figure2.55:detailedlayoutofPortCityCBDDistrict
3. InternationalDistrict:Officesandtheuniversityareawillcreateaneedforpublicplacestorest
andrecreateduring thedayinthispartofPortCity.Thepublic placeswillbesmallparksand
squares. There will be courtyards with greenery. Along the edge towards the existing wall a
buffer park will be created. As office area It is close to the, this area will become a startup
incubator. It has a large green area with larger buildings turning towards bigger inner
courtyards.SeebelowformoredetailedlayoutoftheInternationalDistrict


Figure2.56:detailedlayoutoftheInternationalDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page78

4. ParkLiving:TheParklivingareaisaresidentialareaconcentratedaroundTheCentralParkof
22haandthenorthernpartofaLinearPark.Thehousingvolumessometimesstretchoutinto
theparkstoenhancethefeelingoflivingin,notjustby,agreenopenspace.Orientatingprivate
courtyardstowardstheparksvisuallylinksthesegreenspacestothepublicspacesaddingtothe
senseofopennessandintegration.SeebelowfordetailedlayoutofParkLiving.


Figure2.57:detailedlayoutofParkLiving

5. Living Island: Living Island District is an urban residential area with close proximity to the sea
andbeach,canalandcentralpark.Althoughwithaquietcharacter,themainboulevardoffers
close by shops, restaurants and services for the residents. The qualities of the Living Island
Districtaremany:largepublicbeach,centralpark,localparks,linearparks,andwaterfrontwith
canalquays,amplesquaresandwalks.SeebelowforlayoutoftheLivingIslandDistrict.


Figure2.58:detailedlayoutoftheLivingIslandDistrict

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page79

2.3.5.5 Infrastructure&UtilitiesResponsibilitiesUndertheProjectAgreement
Thesectionsbelowprovideabriefdescriptionoftheresponsibilitiesforinfrastructureandutilities
under the Project Agreement and approach and methodologies to be adopted in securing the
required infrastructure for Colombo Port City. As stated earlier in this SEIA report, the
environmentalimpactsandmitigationmeasuresofthesewillbecoveredunderthePhase2EIA
(a) Project Company Responsibilities under the Agreement: All arrangements and investments
relatingtothedesignandconstructionofelectricity,streetlighting,telephone,water,drainage
and sewerage infrastructure in accordance with the specifications of the relevant utility
suppliers located within the boundary of the reclaimed land shall be the responsibility of the
ProjectCompany
(b) GOSL/SLPA Responsibilities under the Agreement: Utilities such as power, water, sewerage
shallbemadeavailablebytheGOSL/SLPAtotheboundary/peripheryofthereclaimedlandby
therelevantgovernmentutilityprovider,basedonforecasteddemand.

2.3.5.6 RoadsResponsibilitiesUndertheProjectAgreement
AspectsconnectedtoroadsandtransportarealsodealtwithintheAgreementandoutlinedbelow:
(a) ProjectCompanyResponsibilitiesundertheAgreement:Designandconstructionofallvehicle
and pedestrian bridges, road links with existing city including roundabouts, walkways, traffic
signals and parking within the reclaimed area in keeping with guidelines of the UDA/RDA;
provision of required traffic forecasts to SLPA/GOSL to enable the RDA to undertake required
upgradestotheroadnetwork,junctions.
(b) GOSL/SLPA Responsibilities under the Agreement: Ensuring RDA or relevant government
agency undertakes the required upgrading of roads, junctions together with implementing
necessary traffic management plans giving regards to the forecast and progress of
developments on the Project Company land and GOSL/SLPA owned lands allocated from the
reclaimedarea.

2.3.5.7 ColomboPortCityanintegratedecocycleapproachtoinfrastructuredesign

ColomboPortCity,uponcompletionofreclamationworks,willincorporatesolutionsforintegrated
managementofenergy,waterandwasteforlongtermenvironmentalsustainabilityandforcreating
acomfortableenvironmentforitsoccupants,accordingtoanEcocycleconcept.
Theecocyclemodeldescribestheinteractionbetweenreduceddemandsideandhighlydeveloped
supply systems. The overall goal is to reduce the negative environmental impact from Port Citys
emissionsofgreenhousegasesandpollutants.Inordertoachievethesegoalstheecocyclesystems
willcontributeto:
lowestpossibledemandofelectricityandfossilfuelfortransport
lowestpossibledemandoffreshwaterinbuildingsandpublicareas
lowerdemandofenergyforheatingandcooling
highqualityrecyclingofwater,energy,materialandplantnutrients
interactionbetweenfunctionaldemandsidesolutionsandtheoverallinfrastructure

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page80

Port Citys ecocycle concept requires integration with the existing and future plans and
implementation strategies of the GOSL and Ministry of Magapolis and Western Development in
order to realize its full potential and benefits. Therefore constant and effective dialogue and
cooperationbetweenallstakeholdersareessential.

2.3.5.8 PowerSourceandRequirement(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)
It should be pointed out at the outset that power requirement for Colombo Port City will be a
functionoftherateofdevelopmentactivitiesthatwilltakeplaceonthereclaimedland.
TheoverallstrategyofColomboPortCityistosecureelectricitysupplyduringthebuildingphases
andduringtheoperationalphase,andtoreducethedependencyoffossilfuelsinordertoreduce
environmentalimpact.Thiswillbeachievedthroughacombinationof:
Minimizingcoolingdemandthroughenergyefficientbuildingdesign(solarshadingetc.)
Solarheatersonrooftops
Photovoltaiccellsonrooftops
Welldesignedelectricitygriddesigntominimizeimpactofgridfailure
TheCeylonElectricityBoard(CEB)hasrecognizedthattheGreaterColomboandCBDAreawillhave
themostrapidlyincreasingelectricitydemandasaconsequenceofinvestmentsanddevelopments
suchasShangriLa,ITChotelsandPortCity.Consequently,theGOSLhasenteredintoanagreement
(SLP107)withJapanInternationalCorporationAgency(JICA)toobtainasoftloanunderJapanese
Official Development Assistance (ODA) scheme for funding several projects to cater to the above
requirements.
Underthisproject,capacityofthegreaterColomboPowernetworkwillbedoubledthroughanew
220kV underground transmission cable network. Further, the project would improve the existing
power network by construction of four new grid substations, augmentation of five existing grid
substations,layingof37.7kmofundergroundtransmissioncables,layingof92kmofunderground
distributioncablesandinstallationof86new11kVdistributionpanels


Figure2.59:ForecastPowerDemandofPortCityover25Years
TheCEB has confirmed thatitwould constructanew500MVA newprimarysubstationat Chaitya
Road.Thetenderfortheconstructionofthesubstationistargetedtobefinalizebeforeendof2015.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page81

Commissioning of the substation is scheduled by end 2019. Up to 250MVA from the completed
substationistobeallocatedtoCPC.

2.3.5.9 SewerageandWastewaterSource&Requirement(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)
ItiscriticalthatthewastewaterdischargeofPortCitybeconnectedandintegratedwiththeoverall
Colombo wastewater management strategy including wastewater treatment. Discharge of
untreated wastewater to recipient will affect attractive beach areas with odour, bacteria and
pollutants.
ColomboPortCityhasinitiateddiscussionswiththeMinistryofLocalGovernmentandtheColombo
MunicipalCounciltoincludeitsrequirementsundertheADBfundedGreaterColomboWastewater
Management Project (GCWMP). This project is designed to improve the urban environment and
publichealthforurbanandsuburbanresidentsofColombothroughimprovementsofwastewater
managementservices.Theproject(in3phases)involvesupgradingthesewerageinfrastructureof
Colombo, repairing sea outfalls, rehabilitation of main sewerage system, pumping stations and
pumpingmains,strengtheninginstitutionalandoperationalcapacityandprojectmanagementand
implementation.Phase1oftheprojectisongoingatthemoment.
ColomboPortCityenvisagesincorporatingitsrequirementsofsewerageandwastewaterdischarge
intoPhase2andlaterPhase3oftheGCWMPproject,andcurrentlystudiesarebeingcarriedoutin
this respect. Phase 2 of the project scheduled to commence in 2016 entails the South Catchment
Development of Colombo including rehabilitation of nearly 30km of sewer, provision of sewers to
unsewered areas, rehabilitation and upsizing of two existing main pump stations, construction of
treatment plant in Wellawatte. The Phase 2 GCWMP would target wastewater capacity of 50,000
m,targetingapopulationof400,000until2040intheColomboSouthcatchmentarea.Theperiod
ofimplementationofPhase2is20162020
Colombo Port City wastewater generation, assuming recommencement of reclamation in 2016
wouldbe828min2020goinguptoacumulativepeakgenerationof10,879mby2025.(Seetime
basedforecastbelowover25years).ThereforeitispossibleforColomboPortCitytoconnecttothe
wastewatertreatmentplantinWellawattepotentiallyuptoyear2025orlongerdependingonthe
populationgrowthinColomboSouth.


Figure2.60:WasteWaterDemandofPortCityover25Years

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page82

Phase 3 of the GCWMP is scheduled to commence end of 2015 and this will cover the North
CatchmentDevelopmentinvolvingrehabilitationandupsizingofnearly25kmsofsewer,provision
of sewerage to 8 unsewered areas (e.g. Mattakkuliya), rehabilitation and upsizing of one existing
main pump stations and six small pump stations and construction of a Treatment Plant at
Madampitiya.ThemediumtermsolutiontoPortCitysrequirementwillbepotentiallymetbythis
project and the Ministry of Public Administration & Local Government has requested the CMC to
includeColomboPortCityinthestudyontheoptionsfordisposalofwastewaterintoPhase3ofthe
GCWMP.

2.3.5.10WaterSupply(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)
TheoverallstrategyforColomboPortCityistohavearobustandredundantfreshwatersupplysys
tembyusingapressuredpipesystemwithcircularfeedinginternallyandtwoconnectionpointsto
thenetworkoftheNationalWaterSupply&DrainageBoard(NWSDB)
TheNWSDBhasconfirmedthattheproposedwatersupplyprojectforColomboPortCityandother
majordevelopmentsinColomboareunderway.Underthisproject,adedicatedDIdistributiontrunk
main is to be laid from the Maligakanda reservoir to cater to the new demands of Colombo city,
includingthePortCity.Progressachievedtodate:
Constructioncontractwasawarded
Pipelayingworkcurrentlyinprogress
Commissioningofsupplypipenetworkscheduledendof2016.
The estimated water demand for Colombo Port City progressively over time is shown below. The
total demand indicated, which included using fresh water for irrigation, can be reduced via
rainwaterharvestingstrategythatwillbeadoptedforPortCity.


Figure2.61:WaterDemandofPortCityover25Years


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page83

2.3.5.11SolidWasteCollection&Disposal(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)

TheimageandpositioningofColomboPortCityandColomboCitywillsufferifwasteisnothandled
in a proper way, particularly if Port City is seen to add on to Colombos already difficult waste
management situation. Without reliable waste collection, treatment and disposal there is risk of
damagingtheimageofPortCity,inhabitantsandtouristsalike.
The Colombo Port City Master Plan submitted to the UDA has proposed a vision and strategy to
addressthematterofsolidwastemanagementatindividualbuildinglevelandPortCitylevel.The
strategyintheshorttermwillincludethefollowing:
Strategicchoiceofmaterialsforconstructiontoenablecircularflowswillbeintroduced
Awellfunctioningsolidwasteseparationsystemandrecyclingwillbeintroduced
Hazardous solid waste, health care waste, industrial waste etc. according to EU definitions and
EuropeanWasteCataloguewillnotbeallowed.
AcomprehensivesolutionsforcollectionanddisposalsystemwithCMC&otherstakeholderswill
beformulated
Establishing indicators to monitor impacts from waste during both construction and operational
phase

To achieve a wellfunctioning solid waste management system in the medium to long term,
ColomboPortCityintendsontakingasustainableapproachtominimizesolidwastegoingtolandfill
andtoworktogetherwithauthoritiestodevelopasanitarylandfillfordisposalofwaste.
TheTotalsolidwastegeneratedfromPortCityisestimatedtobe1.5kg/capita/day(approximately
370tonnes/day).


Figure2.62:GeneratedSolidWasteofPortCityover25Years

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page84

DuringthepreparationofthisSEIAreport,considerationwasgiventotheEIAReportofAugust2015
pertainingtotheproposedprojectonMetroColomboSolidWasteManagementoftheMinistryof
UrbanDevelopment,WaterSupplyandDrainage.Thisprojectisintendedtoprovideasustainable
10yearsolutionforthesolidwastedisposalneedsoftheMunicipalCouncilsofthemetroColombo
area. The proposal includes a transfer operation from a transfer station at Meethotamulla, rail
transportandoperationofasanitarylandfillatAruwakkalu,Puttalam.
As described in the EIA report for solid waster management, such measures have been proposed
duetononewdumpinglandbeingavailablewithinoraroundColomboCityAreaandtheexisting
solidwastedumpingsitehavingcontributedtosignificantadverseenvironmentalandsocialimpacts
for many years. This EIA report also states that the proposed development plan would meet the
objective of fully supporting the Megapolis/West Region Development Plan, of which the
developmentswithinandaroundthePortofColomboisanintegralcomponent(referCESMAPlan
of2004outlinedearlier).
InconsideringthattheColomboPortCitywillreachfullcapacitybeyond2035,whichisbeyondthe
10yearperiodenvisagedundertheaboveproject,thePhase2EIAwillconsiderthisalongsideother
optionstoformulateanacceptablesolidwastemanagementplaninconsultationwiththerelevant
Governmentagencies.

2.3.5.12IT&CommunicationsInfrastructure(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)
TheIT/CommunicationsinfrastructurewithinPortCityshallbeplannedincorporatingstateofthe
artyetcosteffectivesystemsthatwillenhancethelivingandworkingenvironmentatColomboPort
City.Theintentionistoensurethatsystemsusedaresecureandwillintegratewithmultipleservice
providers and is in keeping with the Governments InformationCommunicationsTechnology (ICT)
strategy. This will also be made possible with intelligent buildings and introducing green and
intelligentICTsolutions.
During discussions held with Sri Lanka Telecom (SLT), the Project Company has received
confirmationthatSLTwillbewillingtoprovideanintegratedtotalcommunicationssolutionbased
onaSmartCityConcept

2.3.5.13Transportation&TrafficStrategywithinPortCity(SubjecttoCompletionofPhase2EIA)
ColomboPortCityisdependantonanefficienttransportsysteminordertobecompetitiveinthe
internationalmarket.For thisreason,itisimportanttodeliverthevisionofColomboPortCityon
the foundation of a sound Transport Plan, which will be based on a separate Transport Impact
Assessmentstudy(TIA)thatwillbecarriedoutunderthePhase2EIA.
The vision for internal transport within Colombo Port City is underpinned by the following
strategies:
Firstpriorityistononmotorisedmodesoftransportsuchaspedestrianwalkingandcyclists.
Secondpriorityistopublictransportation.
Thirdpriorityistoprivatemotorisedtransport.
EachofthesestrategiesforinternaltransportwithinPortCityisdescribedingreaterdetailbelow:
(a) ThePedestrianStrategy:WalkinghasbeengiventhehighestofpriorityintheColomboPortCity
MasterPlan.Themostchallengingaspectofwalkingistheweather.Thehighhumidityandhot
temperaturesaswellastheheavyrainsthatoccurfromtimetotimedetractfromthewalking
experience.EfforthasbeenplacedtonegatetheseaspectswithintheMasterPlan.Byplanting

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page85

trees along the pathways and building arcades along the Boulevards, the pedestrians will be
shaded.Also,byorientingthebuildingstructurestomaximizethebreeze,theclimateonstreet
level will be pleasant. Malls and offices will be linked with high level, roofed, pedestrian
walkways. The walkways will also provide straight links along the spine of the development
where the population of Colombo Port City can cover an extensive distance by foot without
sufferingfromtheelements.
(b) TheBicycleStrategy:Asasustainableformoftransport,thecycleishardmatchedintermsof
green credentials, speed and accessibility. The distances within Colombo Port City are highly
suitable for cycling as any journey by bike can be done within 10 minutes. In addition the
complete lack of gradients within the development lends itself well to cycling. Accordingly,
strategic road sections with a segregated cycleway will be provided along with ample cycle
parking
(c) Public Transport Strategy: A fundamental requirement of a sustainable city concept is to
develop an efficient network of public transport. The Master Plan has been developed to
incorporate a fast and reliable public transport system where the sections will be designed to
provide a segregated space so that public transport is unaffected by general traffic and
congestion. Furthermore, it is envisaged a ferry will service the tourist district to the north
eastern part of Port City and link to the Marina in the southeast. This service will make
intermediatestopsalongthecanalinordertocomplementtheotherformsofpublictransport.
(d) MotorizedTransportstrategy:Motortrafficwillbeallowedthroughoutthedevelopmentwith
exceptionofafewcyclesandwalkwaysadjacenttowaterandthroughparkland.Carswillhave
accesstoallpartsofPortCity,butthismodehasthelowestpriority.Thismeansthatsignalswill
besetuptoservewalking,cyclingandpublictransportusersfirstandprivatemotortrafficlast.
WithinPortCitytheprinciplewillbetospreadtrafficacrossasmanyoftheroadsaspossible.
Wherepossible,privatecarparkswillserveareasprimarilycomprisedofofficeandresidential.A
proportionofspacesequippedwithchargingpointswillbereservedforelectricvehicles.They
shallbelocatedinthemostattractivepartofthecarpark(closetopedestrianaccessandaccess
points,liftsetc.).Allpubliccarparkswillbeequippedwithdetectorsinordertokeeptrackof
enteringandexitingcarssothatvariablesignscanindicateifthereareparkingspacesavailable
ornot.

2.3.5.14ExternalRoadTransportation&TrafficConnectingPortCity
This aspect will be covered in detail under the Phase 2 EIA Study and a comprehensive TIA.
AddressingtheurbantransportproblemscurrentlyimpactingColomboanditsenvironsisaNational
issuereceivingtheattentionoftheGovernment,andtheMinistriesofTransportandMegapolis&
WesternDevelopment.Severallandmarkstudiesonevolvingstrategiestoaddresstransportissues
impacting the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA) have been carried out with the assistance of
donoragenciesonbehalfoftheGovernment.
TheproblemareasimpactingColombotobeaddressedbythevariousMinistriesinclude:
Trafficcongestionandconsequentialeconomicloss
ConcentrationoftripattractionwithintheCMC
Problemsassociatedwithdevelopmentoftransportsectorincludingrailways,busandother
roadbasedpublictransport,roadnetwork,trafficcontrolandmanagement
Many options designed to address the problem of urban transport within the CMA currently
receiving the attention of Government include the following. (Primary reference: Urban Transport

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page86

System Development Project for Colombo Metropolitan Region and Suburbs prepared in August
2014byJapanInternationalCooperationAgency):
(a) Promotionofpublictransportusethroughacombinationofthefollowingmeasures:
Monorailsystems
Multimodaltransporthubandmultimodalcentre
Park&RideandStationPlazaDevelopment
Modernizingofexistingrailwaysystem
IntroductionofBusRapidTransit(BRT)
(b) UrbanTransportInfrastructureDevelopment:
Roadinfrastructureimprovementsincludingelevatedroads,flyoversetc.
Trafficcontrolsystemsimprovementincludingtrafficsignals,parkinginformationetc.
TransportDemandManagementSystems
(c) ReductionofAirPollutants,TrafficNoiseandPromotionofHealth
Enhancementofairpollutantemissionstandards
Promotionofhybridandelectricvehicles
Promotionofwalkingandbicycleuseforenergysavingandhealth
Onthematterofurbanroadinfrastructureimprovements,theprojectsmentionedbelowatvarious
stagesofplanning,areexpectedtohaveamaterialpositiveimpactontrafficcongestiontoandfrom
theColomboCBD,thoughnotinisolationwiththeGovernmentimplementingmostifnotallofthe
abovementionedpolicyinitiatives.
a. SecondnewbridgeovernewKelaniBridgealongwiththeelevatedPortAccessRoad(seeFigure
2.63).ThisprojectwillbefundedviaaSpecialEconomicPartnershipLoanfromtheGovernment
ofJapan/JICA.FeasibilitystudycompletedinAugust2013.LoanAgreementwithJICAsignedon
28thMarch2014.
b. ElevatedPortAccessRoad:5.2kminlengthwith4lanes.Fundingyettobesecured.
c. Connection of Baladaksha Mawatha to Galle Road (See figure 2.64): The CMC has agreed to
proceedwiththisproject,thoughyettoreceivefundingfromtheGovernment
TheaboveinfrastructuredevelopmentinitiativesarerequiredtoachievetheGOSLsstatedvisionof
Colomboemergingasaregionalfinancial,commercialandporthub.Suchpolicyactionarebeyond
thecontroloftheProjectCompany,thoughisapriorityareaofactionfortheProjectProponentof
thisstudy,theMinistryofMegapolisandWesternDevelopment.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page87


Figure2.63:NewKelaniBridgeandPortAccessElevatedExpressway


Figure2.64:ConnectionofBaladakshaMawathatoGalleRoad




CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page88

2.3.5.15Maintenance:
The design of the marine structures within the Port City involves rather conventional design
schemes that had been tested and proven to be successful in many similar projects. Normal
maintenanceproceduresshouldbesufficient.
The stability of the artificial beaches had been studied in 3D physical model tests. It had been
proven that the beaches could survive even the most extreme wave conditions, with reasonable
maintenance.
Siltation intensity within the water area in Port City had been studied by numerical modelling.
Siltationintensityisdefinedastheriseorloweringofthebedleveleachyear,shouldtherebeno
maintenancedredgingcarriedoutwithintheyear.ThesiltationintensityattenlocationswithinPort
Cityhadbeencomputed,andtheresultsaresummarizedbelow.


Figure2.65:Tenlocationswithsiltationintensitycomputed










CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page89

Table2.34:SiltationIntensityinFeaturePoints

CalculatedPoint Annual siltation
intensity(m/a)
#1 0.018
#2 0.036
#3 0.039
#4 0.037
#5 0.035
#6 0.034
#7 0.033
#8 0.032
#9 0.021
#10 0.038
Averaged 0.03
Total siltation 6.00
volume(104m3/a)

Itisconsideredthat,siltationratesareloworhardlyanyandwillnothaveanysignificantimpacton
Port City and the surrounding areas including marine structures. For the canal and marina, some
local,relativelylowfrequentmaintenancedredgingmayberequired,whichisnormalforthistype
of infrastructure. Siltation will therefore not affect the functional performance of the marine
structures.
2.4 Evaluationofalternatives
There are three important aspects relating to the location of coastal development work such as
harboursandreclamation.
(1) LocationintheNationalandRegionalcontext
(2) LocationofSpecificSiteandtheoverallConceptualDesign
(3) SitespecificPreferredLayoutbasedonAlternativeLayouts
(4) Scaleofharboursandreclamation

2.4.1Projectlocationandpossiblealternatives
It is important to note that previous development plans of the Colombo Waterfront, the most
recentbeingtheCESMAPlansoftheearly2000sidentifiedaproposedreclaimedareaatthesiteof
thecurrentPortCityProject,butondifferentscale.Priortothat,creatingalandfillborderingMarine
Drive was contemplated. Hence this is not a new concept but a rather established one. A leading
private company of Sri Lanka too looked at the feasibility of such a development when the South
Portwasunderconstruction.
This is not surprising because if a largescale reclamation project was to be undertaken with
minimumimpacttothecoasttocapitalizeontheadvantagesofwaterfrontliving,theonlylocation

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page90

available is within the safe haven of the south of the southern arm of the breakwater of the
ColomboSouthPortProject.
SouthPortProject,fundedbytheADB,wasthemostchallengingCoastal/PortEngineeringproject
undertakeninSriLanka.Apartfromabreakwaterextendingmorethan1.5kmperpendiculartothe
beach and over 5km in total length, it was necessary to dredge 20 million cubic meters of sand
adjacent to the existing port (dangerous operation by itself) and construct breakwaters and
container terminals. The dredging of the South Port involved an area of about 820 ha and the
reclamationareacoveranareaofabout340ha.Thereclaimedareafortheterminalsandassociated
port works exceeds the area of the proposed Port City. It should be noted that the Sri Lanka
GovernmenthasalreadyconstructedaUshapedportcityintheformofanewportandterminals
occupyingagreaterfootprintoncoastalwatersandreclaiminganareamorethantheproposedPort
City.
During construction and post construction period of the South Port there was no overall negative
impactonthecoastlineandgeneralstateofhealthofthenaturalecosystemsremainedsatisfactory.
Throughout the construction process, including dredging and reclamation, a wide range of
parameters including continuous water quality measurements was made. On more than 95% of
theoccasions(over4years)thetotalsedimentlevelsatthereferencepointatKelaniRivermouth
wasgreaterthanattheprojectsite(3locations),indicatingthenaturalturbidityfromturbulentriver
flow was more significant than that of dredging. More details are presented in section 4.1.5. This
confirms that natural ecosystems such as reef systems will continue to be affected by sediment
laden,riverturbulence.Thissedimentladenplume coversawideareaofthecoastline,northand
southoftheestuary,dependingontheriverdischargeandwind/wavedirection.

2.4.2ApproachtotheoverallConceptualDesign

Illustrationofbasicrequirementsoftheproject
The proposed project requires the provision of approximately 269 ha of reclaimed land for mixed
development together with roads, vehicle and pedestrian access, open areas and facilities for
services.

GeometryofLayoutOptions
Giventhephysicalconstraintsandtherequirementforatotal269haoflandarea,theoptionsare
limited to varying the shape of the reclamation on the west and south boundaries. Having
consideredseveralscenarios,theproposedoutline ofthereclamationisshownin blockformatin
Figure2.66.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page91


Figure2.66:TheOptimumLayout

ProtectionfortheReclamation(EdgeProtection)
Amajorissuetoberesolvedishowbesttoprotecttheedgeofthereclamationtoachievedesired
levelsofstabilityandsafetyofthereclamation,proposedinfrastructureanditsusers.Theapproved
EIAreportfor200hapresentsthreescenarioscommencingwithasimplesandslopeandmovingon
tooffshorebreakwaters.Thesescenariosaredescribedbelowingreaterdetail:
1. SimpleSandSlope
Asimplesandslopewasconsideredbutwasdiscountedasitdoesnotprovideastablesolution.The
existing beach in front of the Galle Face Green has a natural slope of around 1 in 20 with the
contoursparalleltothedirectionoftheprevailingwavefront.ThepresenceoftheColomboSouth
Portbreakwaterwillhaveanimpactonthestableregimeandwillactasaheadlandbehindwhicha
newcurvedstablebeachwillform.Ifsandwereplacedtothegeneralarrangementwithaslopeof
1 to 20 and without any protection, it would in time erode and form a natural concave shaped
beach. This implies that a stable land mass will not be available for development, and scenario is
consideredunacceptable.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page92

2. Protection at the boundary of the reclamation using traditional breakwater designs


(ConcreteandRockArmouredStructures)
It is therefore considered essential to provide hard protection to the edges of the reclamation to
prevent erosion and excessive overtopping during most extreme wave events. After extensive
modeltesting,thetoplevelofthewavewallonthebreakwateroftheColomboSouthPortwasset
at+14mtomaintainwaveovertoppingwithinacceptablelimits.Obviouslytheadoptionofthistype
ofarrangementwouldbetotallyunacceptablefromafunctionalandaestheticviewpointanddoes
notprovidepublicaccesstothewatersedge.Ifimplementedtheentirewaterfrontboundarywill
beenclosedbyamassivewall.Thisapproachisatfullvariancewithoneoftheprinciplefunctional
requirementsofpublicaccessandviewwhichwillbeamajorfactorforthesuccessoftheproject.


Figure2.67:ConcreteArmourUnitsandWavewallProtection

An alternative to a concrete armoured steep slope with a high wave wall would be a wide berm
revetmentwithalowlevelcrest.Thiswouldbedesignedsothattheincomingwavesbreakonthe
outeredgeofthebermandsufficientwaveenergyisdissipatedsothattherunupandovertopping
are limited. Dynamically stable berm breakwaters have been used for port construction and the
designspermitreshapingoftheberm(dynamicstability).Ontheotherhandastaticallystableberm
canbeusedusinglargerstone.
An indicative cross section is given in Figure 2.67, Initial research indicates that a very wide berm
mayberequiredandthatevenwithawidebermitmaybedifficulttocontroltherunupandthe
wateroverthebermcanbecomeveryturbulent.Usuallybermsarelocatedjustaboveorbelowthe
mean water level for maximum energy dissipation. However if a storm takes place at high water,
there is a high potential for the hydraulic efficiency to decrease with very complex wave forms
generatedovertheberm.Forreasonsofsafetyitwouldbenecessarytolimitpublicaccessandto
provideawavewalltolimitrunupandovertopping.Thelargevolumesofrockrequiredinthewide
bermandthedangerouswaterconditionsdonotmakethisanattractiveoption.Theviewtoowill
certainlybenotappealing.




CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page93


Figure2.68:WideBermwithLowCrestProtection

3. Protection at the boundary of the reclamation using Offshore Breakwaters (Preferred
Option)
Havingconsideredtheprevioustwooptions,itseemsthatanoffshorebreakwaterwouldovercome
the conflicting requirements of wave protection and public access to the waterfront areas. The
offshorebreakwaterwouldbealowcrestedstructuresetabout300mawayfromthereclamation
andwouldbedesignedtodissipateasignificantproportionofthewaveenergy.Smallwaveswould
be reflected away from the structure to deeper water and larger waves would break on it. The
overtoppingwaterfromthebreakingwaveandtheenergytransmittedthroughtherockstructure
wouldcreateatransmittedwavewithareducedheightandperiod.
A further advantage of this solution is that it provides an area of relatively calm water protected
from the sea which could be used for water sports. Such an area enhances the value of the
waterfrontdevelopmentandwillcertainlyattractvisitors.Duringhighwaveactivityonewouldbe
able to observe waves breaking over the low crested offshore breakwater. Figure 2.69 shows a
section through the proposed offshore breakwater and Figure 2.70 shows a section through the
edgeofthereclamation.


Figure2.69:OffshoreBreakwater


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page94


Figure2.70:RevetmentProtection
2.4.3SiteSpecificlayout
Whenconsideringthelayoutoftheoffshorebreakwaterandedgerevetmentforthereclamation,
fivelayoutoptionsforthesouthernpartofthereclamationhavebeenstudiedin3Dphysicalmodel
tests, and four layout options have been studied for the northern part of the reclamation. The
summariesoftheperformanceoftheselayoutoptionsarepresentedbelow.
SouthernPartofReclamation
Five options of the reclamation layout plans were studied in physical model tests. These are
includedinFigure2.71Figure2.75.
(a) Plan1
















Figure2.71:Plan1Originalplanconsideredinthedesign

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page95

Plan1wastheoriginalplanconsideredinthedesign.Whensubjectedto200areturnperiodwave+
20%, it was found that the 10T Chinesepode of the marine revetment was unstable, because the
armour units were displaced parallel to the revetment, possibly because of the strong wave
generatedcurrentsatthesouthernendofthebreakwater.Otherthanthat,thearrangementwas
satisfactoryintermsofovertoppingandstabilityofthebeachandstructures.

(b) Plan2


Figure2.72:Plan2Southernendoftheoffshorebreakwater
Plan2wasdevelopedfromPlan1.Thesouthernendoftheoffshorebreakwaterwasshiftedtothe
southtoimprovetheshieldingeffecttothemarinarevetment,whilekeepingtheoveralllengthof
the offshore breakwater unchanged. With such adjustment, the 10T Chinesepode of the marina
revetmentbecamestable.OtherperformanceofthislayoutwassimilartothoseofPlan1.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page96

(c) Plan3


Figure2.73:Plan3Existinginternationalsubmarinecables

Therewereexistinginternationalsubmarine cables close tothe projectsite. Inorder toavoidthe
riskofdamagetothesecables,Plan3wasproposedtoavoidthecables.Theobjectivewastokeep
thedistancebetweentheoffshorebreakwaterandthecableat150mandthedistancebetweenthe
southrevetmentforthemarinaandthecableat100m.Plan3involvedshorteningthesouthernpart
oftheoffshorebreakwaterby110mandmovingthesouthrevetmentofthemarina75mnorth,as
comparedtoPlan2.Thewidthofthesouthentrancewasincreasedto410m.Itwasfoundthatthe
wave height at the entrance to the marina and the canal was increase because the width of the
entrancewasincreased.Longshoredriftnearthesouthentrancewasincreasedand,asaresult,the
deformationofthesandbeachneartheentrancewasincreased.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page97

(d) Plan4


Figure2.74:Plan4Partofoffshorebreakwater

Plan 4 was based on Plan 3, but with the southern part of the offshore breakwater extended by
100mandkeepingthedistancebetweentheheadoftheoffshorebreakwaterandthecable150m.
Thewidthofthesouthentrancewasdecreasedto281m.
Inplan4,thewidthofthesouthentranceis280m.Thewavesinthewaterareasofthemarina,the
canalmouthandthesouthentrancearecontrolledandthesandbeachnearthesouthentranceis
well protected because the width of the south entrance was reduced to 280m. The offshore
breakwater diverts wave away from the south revetment for the marina and every part of the
structuresinplan5isstableatallwaterlevelsandunder200areturnperiod+20%waveaction.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page98

e) Plan5


Figure2.75:LayoutinPlan5

ThelayoutinthePlan5isalmostthesameasthatinPlan4.Theextentofthesandbeachinthe
southpartisreducedandisshifted75mwestward.Thewidthofthemarinaisdecreasedby75m.
Thewaterareaofthemarinaalsodecreasesalittleandtheshapeofthemarinaischanged.Thereis
slightmodificationinthearrangementofthesouthrevetmentforthemarina.
Thelayoutinplan5isalmostthesameasthatinPlan4.Thewavefieldaroundthesouthentrance
andthestabilityoftheoffshorebreakwater,thesubmergedgroyne,thesouthsandbarrierandthe
southrevetmentforthemarinahaveallremainedunchanged.Thesandbeachstabilityinthesouth
partandtheberthingconditioninsidethemarinaareimprovedduetothereductionoftheextent
ofthesandbeachandthewidthofthemarina.Thedecreaseofthewaterareaofthemarinaand
themodificationoftheshapeofthemarinahasapositiveeffectontheberthingconditioninsidethe
marina.ThelayoutshowninPlan5isthereforerecommendedfordetaileddesign.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page99

NorthernPartofReclamation
Fourlayoutplansoptionshavebeenstudiedinphysicalmodeltests,asdescribedbelow.
Plan1,Plan2,andPlan3


Figure2.76:Plan1


Figure2.77:SectionofthenorthouterrevetmentinPlan1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page100


Figure2.78:Plan2


Figure2.79:SectionofthenorthouterrevetmentinPlan2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page101


Figure2.80:Plan3


Figure2.81:SectionofthenorthouterrevetmentinPlan3

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page102


Figure2.82:SectionoftheinnerbreakwaterinPlan3

TheresultsofthephysicalmodeltestsonPlan1,plan2andPlan3clearlyshowthatthestabilityof
thesandbeachincreasesignificantlyafterconstructionoftheinnerbreakwater.
In Plan 3, an inner breakwater with the crest elevation of +4.0m is provided. Comparing the test
results for Plan 1, Plan 2 and Plan 3, it is concluded that Plan 3 is more desirable from the
perspectiveofshoreprotection.Thewavesinthewaterareasofthesandbeachdecreaserelatively
andthedeformationofthesandbeachandsedimenttransportissignificantlyreducedbecausethe
innerbreakwaterdivertsawaythewavesenteringfromthenorthentrance.Thesandbeachiswell
protectedbytheinnerbreakwater.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page103

Plan4


Figure2.83:Plan4

ThelayoutplanrecommendedfordesignisPlan4,anditisimprovedfromPlan3.
Thelocationofthenorthsandbarrierandtheinnerbreakwaterremainsunchanged.Theextentof
thebeachbehindtheinnerbreakwaterremainsunchanged,butthereisslightmodificationinthe
shapeofthebeach.Theshorelinesouthoftheinnerbreakwaterhasbeenmodifiedfrombeachto
verticalseawallfoundedonasandplatformat3mLWOST.
The pattern of wave diffraction, refraction and reflection remains largely unchanged because the
configurationoftheentrance,thesandbarrierandtheinnerbreakwaterhasremainedunchanged.
Thebeacheastofandbehindthebreakwaterremainswellprotectedbytheinnerbreakwaterand
thestabilityofthebeachisnotaffected.
The sand beach south of the inner breakwater in the model is replaced by seawall. It can be
expectedthatunder200areturn periodwaveactionin285degreedirection,thelayoutshownin
Plan4willresultinmuchreducedlongitudinalsedimenttransportationtotheentranceofthecanal.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page104

2.4.4.ScaleofReclamation
Thescaleofreclamationfor269haisconsideredoptimalforthefollowingreasons:
(a) The economic case for the scale of the project has been described earlier in this SEIA report
including some theory and practical examples of the case for Colombo CBD expansion to
encouragethewaterfrontlivingandworkingenvironmentandtopositionColomboasthemost
liveablecityinSouthAsia.
(b) Thefootprintofthereclamationfor269haisstillwithintheshadowcreatedbythebreakwater
of the Colombo South Port while being able to maximize the development potential of the
strategicsite.
(c) It is well established that an offshore breakwater is necessary to protect the reclaimed land.
Thescaleandthereforeconstructioncostofsuchabreakwaterwillnotbemuchreducedeven
iftheareaofreclamationisreduced.Assuch,thefinancialviabilityoftheprojectmaynotbe
justifiableshouldthescaleofreclamationbereduced.
(d) Therearethreereasonsforexpandingtheoriginaldesignwithinthegeometricframeworkof
the original conceptual design. Firstly, the Master Plan has now incorporated a network of
artificialwaterways,canalsystem,whichalsoservesasopenspacetoimprovetheenvironment
withintheportcity.Secondly,thenewfootprintextendsandmaximizestheutilizationofthe
waterareabetweentheoldcitycenterandtheColomboSouthPort.Thirdly,thenewmaster
planallowsthedevelopmentofalongerartificialbeach,whichallowsthepublictogainaccess
totheseaandenjoyrecreationalandleisurelyactivitiesatthewaterfront.
These reasons are strong justifications for the expansion and modification to the original design
withoutlossofgeneralityandimplementedwellwithintheoriginaldesignconceptandframework
stipulatedintheInitialTechnicalFeasibilityStudyof2010

2.5 WorkForce:Availabilityofworkforceduringconstruction&EmploymentofSriLankans
DuringtheconstructionphasefromSeptember2014toMarch2015,theProjectCompanyandits
contractorsemployedaround1600SriLankanpersonsdirectly.TheProjectCompanyhadminimal
difficultiesinrecruitinghighlycapablelocalengineersandotherprofessionalstaff.
Approximately 80% of the workforce of the Project Company and EPC Contractor has been
terminatedduetothesuspensionofconstructionoftheproject.Itisenvisagedthatthecompany
uponrecommencementofconstructionwillemploythepresuspensionworkforce.
Upon the completion of reclamation works, a far larger workforce will secure employment
opportunitiesatColombo PortCitywhenthe constructionofbuildingscommences. However,this
aspectwillbecoveredingreaterdetailinthePhase2EIAstudy.

2.6Futureexpansionofproject
2.6.1Stagedimplementationschedule
ColomboPortCitywillbeimplementedin3stagesovera25yearperiodasdescribedbelow:
(a) Reclamation and Land Formation (year 1 3): Reclamation and land formation (36 months from
year13)
(b) Stage 1 Marketing & Development (Year 3 8): Stage 1 marketing and development will cover
infrastructureincludingservices,roads,marina,CentralParkandlandscaping(24monthsfromyear3
toyear4)andsubsequentmarketingoflandplotsfordevelopmentasshowninFigure2.84Below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page105

(c) Stage 2 Marketing & Development (Year 8 25): Stage 2 marketing and development will cover
implementationofinfrastructureincludingservices,roadsandlandscaping(36monthsfromyear7
toyear9)andmarketingoflandplotsfordevelopment.
ThereisnofutureadditionorexpansionenvisagedforColomboPortCitybeyondthe269haareaafter
thereclamationworkscoveredunderthisSEIAstudyiscompleted.
ThedemarcationoftheStage1and2MarketingandDevelopmentareaisshownintheinFigure2.84.


Figure2.84:Stage1and2MarketingandDevelopmentMasterPlanArea


TheTimephasedImplementationScheduleisshowninFigure2.85below


Figure2.85:TimephasedImplementationSchedule

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page106

2.7FinancialCommitments
The Project Company, CHEC Port City Colombo (Pvt) Ltd, has already secured the commitment of
equity funding and signed the required loan agreements with banks in China to undertake this
approximatelyUS$1.4billioninvestment(almostRs200billion).Thisisaforeigndirectinvestment
(FDI)withnoloanguaranteesoranyotherfromfinancialunderwritingfromtheGOSL.
This is also a very feasible investment to the parent company of the Project Company, China
Communication Construction Company (CCCC), which is among the worlds largest construction
companiesandtheworldslargestdredgingcompany.CCCCisapubliccompanylistedontheHong
KongStockExchange.
It should be pointed out that at the time of suspension of the project, the Project Company has
alreadyinvestedapproximatelyUS$100million(Rs14billion)intheprojectandhascontinuedto
investduringthesuspensionperiod.
It is intended that the Project Company and the GOSL/Ministry of Megapolis & Western
Development/UDA will enter into an understanding on mitigation measures and resource
requirements for such measures. This takes into account that certain commitments for mitigation
aretheresponsibilityoftheGOSL(suchascompensationforanylossofincomefromfishing).
With regard to improvements in social infrastructure in the vicinity of the project, the Project
Company has already committed to this aspect by providing over 45 ha (around 1/6th of the total
reclaimed area) for parks and other recreational spaces within Port City for use by the general
public. The Project Company is committed to maintain the project site and undertake necessary
mitigationmeasuresinkeepingwiththeapprovedEIA(2011),permitsissuedbyCCDandthisSEIA.
ThePortCityProjectisacollaborationbetweentheGOSLandtheProjectCompanyandbothparties
would work together to ensure required social and environmental obligations would be met. The
latter is also important in considering that Port City will be positioned as an ecofriendly
environmentforlivingandrecreation.










CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter2Page107

CHAPTER3
DESCRIPTIONOFTHEEXISTINGENVIRONMENT

3.1PhysicalEnvironment
3.1.1Bathymetryofthereclamationarea,
The bathymetry 10km on either side (Northern area and Southern Area) of the coastal belt up to
16m contour and surrounding 1km radius from the proposed offshore breakwater is shown in
Figure3.1andFigure3.2.

(m)


Figure3.1:BathymetryofReclamationAreabeforeDevelopmentofPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter3Page1

(m)


Figure3.2:BathymetryofReclamationAreaafterDevelopmentofPortCity




CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter3Page2

3.1.2BathymetryoftheSandminingareaand1kmbeyondthesandminingsites.
Proposed sand extraction site is located in the offshore from Dambagamawatta in Wattala to
Basiyawatta in Negombo which marked as Site 1 and Site 2 in Figure 3.3. Average water depth is
about16.5mattheproposeddredgingsite1anditis26mforthedredgingsite2.Theextentofthe
site 1 is 46km2 and that of site 2 is 54km2. Total potential sand deposit at the proposed site 1 is
quantifyas44.3millioncubicmeterswhileitis68.3millioncubicmetersattheproposeddredging
site2.Therequiredsandquantityforthepurposeofreclamationis65millioncubicmeters


Site2

Site1


















Figure3.3:BathymetryatSandMiningArea

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter3Page3

The bathymetry of the proposed study area including sand mining area and reclamation area is
showninFigure3.4.


Figure3.4:BathymetryofWaterAreaaroundPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter3Page4

3.1.3Detailsofhydrauliccirculationanddescriptionandassessmentofprevailingcurrentfields
includingcurrentcharacteristicssuchasvelocity,speedsanddirectionsandtides.
In order to study the effect of the reclamation on the adjacent environment, current direction,
currentvelocityandtideconditionsaremeasured.The measurementwascarriedoutbetween15
August2013and30August2013fortheSWmonsoon,andbetween1January2014and16January
2014fortheNEmonsoon.
Thelocationsofthesitemeasurements(C1,C2,T1andT2)areclosetotheprojectsiteasshownin
theFigure3.5below.


Figure3.5:LocationofSiteMeasurements

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page5

3.1.3.1Tide
The measured water levels (m, MSL) are represented in graphical format with their locations in
Figure3.6below.

WaterLevelVariationduringNEMonsoonatT1
0.3

0.2
WaterLevel(m)

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Date&Time

NEMonsoon_T1

WaterLevelVariationduringSWMonsoonatT1
0.3

0.2

0.1
WaterLevel(m)

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Date&Time

FigureSWMonsoon_T1

WaterLevelVariationduringNEMonsoonatT2
0.5
0.4
0.3
WaterLevel(m)

0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

Date&Time

NEMonsoon_T2
WaterLevelVariationduringSWMonsoonatT2
0.4

0.2
WaterLevel(m)

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Date&Time

SWMonsoon_T2
Figure3.6:MeasuredWaterLevelData

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page6

3.1.3.2Current
Currentspeedsaregenerallyweak.Maximumcurrentspeedof0.10.15m/shasbeenobservedwest
of the existing harbour. These flow north on a rising flood tide and south on an ebb tide. Ocean
current and wind driven currents dominate over the tidal currents and the maximum surface
currentsareoftheorderof0.250.4m/s.Asaresult,directionalchangesofthetidalcurrentsdonot
occurinthepresenceofastrongoceancurrentandstrongwindfield.
Episodic high current speed events were observed on a few occasions during the month of
November 2003 (from the field measurements programme for the design of the Colombo Port
Expansion Project). A desk study showed similar occurrences during November in previous years.
These currents have been observed close to the water surface and throughout the depth of the
watercolumn,indicatingasignificantmovementofthewaterbody.Currentspeedsinexcessof0.4
0.5m/swererecorded.
The measurement of current is taken at current stations C1 and C2. The measurement of the
directionandvelocityofthecurrentissummarizedinTable3.1.
Table3.1:MeasuredCurrentVelocityandDirection

SWMonsoon Main Springtide Neaptide


direction
Velocity direction Velocity(m/s) direction
(m/s)
C1 SE 0.11 151 0.08 144
NW 0.17 338
C2 SE 0.15 172 0.06 139
NW
NEMonsoon Main Springtide Neaptide
direction
Velocity direction Velocity(m/s) direction
(m/s)
C1 N 0.07 334 0.19 342
S 0.06 170
C2 N 0.06 1 0.25 354
S 0.10 154

The graphic presentation of the current velocity and direction is presented in the Figure 3.7 and
Figure3.8.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page7


Figure3.7CurrentVelocityandCurrentDirectioninSWMonsoon


Figure3.8CurrentVelocityandCurrentDirectioninNEMonsoon
Based on the result of the site measurements, a numerical model was built and calibrated in
accordancewiththecurrentandtidemeasurement.Thenumericalmodelwasthenusedtosimulate
the current field of the project site and its adjacent water area. The details of the hydraulic
circulationandcurrentfieldareshownintheFigure3.9andFigure3.10below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page8


Figure3.9:CurrentFieldinNorthDirectionbeforeCommencementofProject


Figure3.10:CurrentFieldinSouthDirectionbeforeCommencementofProject

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page9

3.1.4Descriptionandassessmentofprevailingwaveconditionsincludingwaveheightsand
directions.
The wave climate is characterized by two simultaneous wave systems. A long period swell with a
southerly direction in deep water that becomes more westerly as it approaches the coast. This
exhibitsonlysmalldifferencesofheightduringtheyear.Theothersystemistheshorterperiodsea
waveswhicharegeneratedbythelocal(monsoon)windsbutareinfluencedtoacertaindegreeby
localseabreezes.


Figure3.11:PercentageofOccurrenceforHsofAnnualSwell,Sea&OverallWaveConditions

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page10

CoastConservationDepartment(CCD)andLankaHydraulicInstitute(LHI)haveintermittentlycarried
out measurements in Colombo since 1980. An important feature of the data base is that while
extensivewavedataareavailableoffColombo,mostofthe datapriorto1998donotincludethe
wavedirections.
FortheColomboPortExpansionProject,LHIhasundertakendirectionalwavemeasurementsinthe
vicinityofColomboPortfrom1998.InMay2008thelocationoftheinstrumenthasbeenchanged
(moved southwards) as previous location interfere with ongoing construction work of Colombo
South Port. Figure 3.11 gives the Annual Sea, Swell and Overall waves of Colombo based on the
availableresults.
The swell wave is an underlying wave, which comes from the SW (2102400) throughout the year.
Theseawaveiscreatedbylocalwindsandissuperimposedontheswell.Itsdirectionvarieswiththe
monsoon season. Higher peak representing SW Monsoon sea wave conditions (2102800) and
relativelysmallerpeakrepresentingNEMonsoonseawaveconditions(3003300)couldbeseenfrom
theresults.Asfarastheoverallwaveconditionisconcerned,southwestsectorof2102700couldbe
consideredasthedominantdirectionalsector.

As shown by the figure 3.11, swells are mainly from SW direction and wind waves are multi
directional,spreadingfromSWtoNWdirections.
FordesignoftheBreakwaterofColomboSouthHarbour,ScottWilsonhasconductedextremewave
analysis based on the available measured wave data before 2005. More data had been made
availableforthedesignofPortCity,anddatafromatotalof7.3yearshadbeenanalysed.Theyearly
maximum wave heights have been shown in the Table 3.2 below. Based on these data, extreme
wave height had been analysed by fitting Gumbel distribution. The results of the curve fitting
analysis using Gumbel distribution is presented in Table 3.3. Also shown in Table 3.3 is the
comparisonwiththerecommendedwaveheightofScottWilsonintheirDetailedEngineeringReport
fortheColomboSouthPort.
Table3.2:YearlyMaximumWaveHeights

Date Hs(m) Date Hs(m)


1989811 2.8 2003107 2.26
199162 4.61 200456 2.72
199276 3.55 200595 3.46
1993118 3.7 2006623 2.76
1998714 2.97 200799 3.6
199918 1.34 20081125 2.93
2000612 2.74 2009525 2.79
20011110 1.38 20101110 3.18
20021218 1.39 201122 1.24

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page11

Table3.3:ExtremeWaveHeights(m)
Returnperiod ScottWilson Gumbel
(year)
200 6.4 6.2
100 5.8 5.7
50 5.3 5.1
10 4.2 4.0
2 3.7 2.6

In order to maintain consistency of design wave parameters in the project area, the wave design
parametersrecommendedbyScottWilsonhavebeenadoptedforthePortCityproject.
After construction of the Port City, the wave condition north of the project site, including the
ColomboSouthPort,isnotexpectedtobeaffected.Southoftheprojectsitethewaveconditionof
theGalleFaceGreenwillbereduced.

3.1.5Descriptionandassessmentofcoastalmorphologyandthedominantcoastalprocesses
The entire sea beach is covered by recent beach sand deposits and is devoid of any vegetation.
Ilmenite occurs in applicable amounts along the beach mainly near the Kelani river mouth and
immediately north of this point. The beach rock forms conspicuous feature of coarse to medium
grainedsedimentaryrockandconsistsofIlmenitequartzgrainsandshellfragmentsheldtogether
by a calcareous cement or ferruginous material. The beach rock has a banded appearance and
Ilmenite is arranged in bands. The Ilmenite content of the rock varies from place to place. Other
mineral present are monazite, zircon, garnet, magnetite and rutile. These minerals which occur in
varyingamountsareusuallypresentinquantitieslessthan5%(Hearthet.al.1983).
ThecoastlinefromMutuwalFisheriesHarbourtoNegomboisendowedwithvariedlandformssuch
assandybeaches,beachridges,backwaters,estuaries,dunesandbeachrockresultingfrommarine
agents such as wave, currents and tide. The two main rivers are flowing to the area include the
KelaniGangaandDadugamoyathroughNegomboestuary.
Three segments have been identified as follows to describe the geomorphology of the coastal
stretch.
A.ThebeachwithirregularshapesextendingfromtheHarbourtotheboarderofCrowIsland:
TheshapeofcurvedcoastlinebyrefractedswellisobviousontheshorelinebetweentheHarbour
andCrowIsland.
B.ThebeachparalleltoCrowIslanduptothemouthoftheKelaniRiver:
It is wider and clearly demarcated actual beach and displays the characteristics of sand bar,
extending to the north of Crow Island. South of the river mouth is more or less a broad one and
formeddynamicnatureatthe endof itintheestuary.Achain ofstonesexistsinseaabout1km
fromtheshoreinthedepthrangingfrom5meters,betweensouthboarderoftheCrowIslandand
Dickowita.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page12

C.ThestraightcoastlineextendingnorthwardsfromKelanirivermouthtotheNegombolagoon:
TheshorelinefromKelanirivermouthtoNegomboisunderlainbythebeachrock(sandstone)which
has been formed in the intertidal range within the beach ridge. The rock continues to northern,
dominantly emerges in the tip of Negombo Lagoon (Morawala), and breached elsewhere. The
Negombo estuary barrier is situated on beach rock (Madduma Bandara et. al.,1987), which thus
formsaprotectionfortheestuaryandthebeacheseastofthebarrieritself.Partoftherockistobe
exposedduringtheSouthWestmonsoonperiodduetothesouthwestswell.Thewindblownsands
immediately adjoining the beach are not so well developed but spread up to the Negombo in
varyingheight.
The dominance of marine process in the geomorphological evolution of the area was persisted
duringthelastsixmillenniaandwasstronglyinfluencedbypostglacialsealevelriseuptothemid
Holocenetimeandtheloweringofthesealevelthereafter.Studiesofthecoastallandscapehistory
reveal a sequence of transgressions during Pliocene, a general regression during Pliocene, and a
transgressionduringmidandlateHolocene(Weerakody1992,Preu1989,Katupotha,1988).Lower
sealevelspredominatedinthelatePlioceneandearlyHolocenerespectively(Katupotha1988).But
after a long time of sea levels below the present level the sea level reached present day levels
sometimearound6500B.C.Itthencontinuedtoriseforanother500yearsandthenstayedatabout
2mabovepresentsealeveluntil2000B.C.Thesealevelthengraduallywasloweredtothepresent
day level (Katupotha and Fujiwara, 1988). The barrier of the south west of Negombo lagoon was
formedduringtheregressionaround3000B.C.(Weerakkody,1992).
Thecoasthasbeenestablishedbypastwaterregressionincombinationwithlongshoresediment
depositionandformationofbeachrocks,whichhaveformedstablebarrierchainsobstructingtothe
northerlylongshoredriftfurtherenclosingandstabilizingthecoastline.Thusbeachesshelteredby
the barrier are deprived of one of its main sediment source (Madduma Bandara et al 1987). This
reasoningissupportedbythedataprovidedbyPreu(1989)whostatestherateofbeachretreatof
North of Negombo estuary is about 2.3 m per year but only 1.1m per south of Negombo.
Immediately to the east of Negombo estuary, well developed barrier ridges are found. The ridges
arecoveredbydarkbrowntoyellowsandlightgreytograyishwhite,coarsesandandpebbleswith
clay (Katupotha, 1988). According to the Katupotha (1988) the Muthurajawela Marsh was part of
the Negombo estuary during the high sea level period in mid Holocene. As the sea level was
lowered,thesouthernpartoftheestuarywasgraduallyfilledwithterrestrialandmarinesediments.
Details on the assessment of coastal morphology after construction of Port City are presented in
section4.1.3.
3.1.6Coastalfeaturesincludingbeachprofile
Site reconnaissance of the shoreline on both North and South side of the proposed Port City was
carried out. The coastal features north of the Port City include the Negombo lagoon, reef coast,
coast protection and beach structures, Dikkowita fishery harbor, the Kelani river estuary, and the
ColomboSouthPortprotectedbywestandsouthbreakwaters. ThecoastalfeaturessouthofPort
CityincludethereefandsandycoastlineinfrontoftheGallFaceGreen,theBeiraLakeoutfall,the
beachesandshorelinethatformstheeastboundaryofthePortCity.
ThesalientcoastalfeaturesaroundPortCityarepresentedinFigure3.12andFigure3.13.
Thestraightcoastline(seeFigure3.12andFigure3.13),theslopeofthebeachandthecoarseness
ofthebeachdepositmaterialallindicatethatwaveactionplaysadominantroleintheformation
and evolution of the beach profile. The gradient of the beach is gentle, but the gradient drops
acutelywithinwavebreakingzone.Thisimpliesthatwavesincombinationwithlongshorecurrents
arethemainfactoraffectingsedimentmovementandinshapingthebeachprofile.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page13

Sandbeach

Reefcoast

Beachstructures

Kelaniriverestuary

ColomboSouthPort


Figure3.12: CoastalFeaturesNorthofPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page14


Figure3.13CoastalFeaturesSouthofPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page15

3.1.7Coastalerosionand/oraccretiontrends
Potential impacts to the adjacent shoreline arising from possible changes in the hydrodynamic
regime have been studied in section 4.1.3 for the coastal areas to the south and the north of the
Colombo Port respectively. The following sections describe the findings of previous studies on the
sedimentbudgetalongthestretchofsouthwestcoastlineadjacenttoPortCity:
(1) ThereislittlehistoricalinformationavailableonsedimenttransportinSriLankanrivers.Studies
conducted by CEA and the CCD in 19921997 estimated a total sand transport of 400,000
m3/yearandtheannualvolumeofsandminedfromKelaniRivertobe800,000m3/year.Based
on data from previous studies on sand supply to the coast and the Coastal Resources
Management Project1999, the estimated sand supply to the coast is 100,000m3/yr
representing a significant decline. A study conducted in 1999 estimated that the sediment
outflowfromtheKelaniRiverwouldfurtherdeclineby40%inthenexttwelveyears.
(2) The coastal stretch south of Colombo is stable with very little seasonal changes. The net
longshore sediment transport along the west coast of Sri Lanka is predominantly directed
towardsthenorthasaresultofthewaveclimate(SWmonsoonseawavesandswell).Transport
rateshavebeenshowntobedominatedbyswellwaves,withseawavescontributinglittlenet
transport. Most of the net transport occurs during the southwest monsoon season. However
duringtheNEmonsoonthesedimenttransport(asaresultofwavesfromNorthWest)isusually
directedtowardssouthforalimitedperiod.
(3) TheaveragetransportratesalongtheentiresouthwestcoastofSriLanka(throughoutaverage
seasonal conditions) was analysed as part of the Sediment Transport Study for the Southwest
CoastofSriLanka,(CCDGTZCoastConservationProject,1992).Thepredictedtransportcapacity
for the most northerly unit (Wellawatta) varies between 460,000m3/yr to 1,180,000m3/yr
towardsthenorth.Thisassumesamedianparticlesizeof0.2mmandD90of0.45mm.
(4) It was estimated in the Port City Feasibility Study that about 100,000 150,000 m3/yr is
transportedalongthecoastalstretchMt.LaviniaGalleFaceGreenGalBokkaPoint.
(5) IntheDetailedEngineeringReportfortheColomboSouthPort,theaveragenetannualsediment
transporttothesouthoftheColomboPortwasestimatedtobe74,000m3.Thisislessthanthat
shown by previous studies. The main reason for this was the introduction of greater width of
hardenednonmobilesurfaceontheprofileduetothepresenceofreefsorbeachrock.Without
this, the mean transport would have been about 200,000m3/year, which is the same order of
magnitude as similar studies, but still lower than previous results. Whilst various sensitivity
studies were undertaken there is no reliable calibration data for this length of coast.
Construction of Colombo South Port, having a 2 km long southern main breakwater arm, will
effectivelyestablishaverylonggroyneatthenorthernendofthesoutherncoast.Theseaward
endofthebreakwaterwillbeinabout18mdepthofwater,whichisfardeeperthanthelimitof
significant longshore transport. It is concluded that a significant proportion of longshore
transport will be captured by this "groyne" and will accumulate against the breakwater. Over
timetheareaofaccumulationwillextendbothseawardsandsouthwardsalongthecoast.The
rateofaccumulationseawardswilldependontherateatwhichtransportoccurs.
(6) The Colombo South Port Study has also shown that the transport rate increases rapidly from
effectivelyzerointheareaofMutwalupto200450,000m3/yearseveralkilometersnorthofthe
Kelani. The Kelani River is believed to contribute some 100,000 to 200,000 m3/year to the
sediment budget of the area. Historically this is believed to have been much higher, perhaps
400,000m3/year,buthasdeclinedduetosandmininganddevelopmentupstream.Asaconse
quencetherehasbeenongoingerosionofthecoasttothenorthoftheKelani.Theconstruction

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page16

of Colombo South Port would increase the wave shadow, extending it northwards. As a
consequencewaveconditionsinthisareawouldbecomecalmer.Thesedimentprocesstothe
northoftheportarehighlycomplexduetoinflowfromtheKelaniRiver,theshadowfromthe
harbourandthepresenceofseveralshoreparallelbeachrockstructures.
(7) Whilethenetlongshoresedimenttransportispredominantlydirectedtowardsthenorthasare
sultofthewaveclimate,animportantgeomorphologicalfeaturewithrespecttothestabilityof
thecoastlineisthebeachrockwhichfrontsthecoastlineforlongstretchesbetweenColombo
and Negombo. The existence of beach rock is an indication of a stable coastline over a long
period.Ontheotherhand,theexposureofbeachrockisaclearindicationofsanddeficitand
erosion. The Coastal Resources Management Project (Coastal Stabilisation Component, 2001),
estimatedthatthesedimenttransportcapacityatPalliyawattacoastisaround200,000m3/year.
Studies conducted by CCD have estimated the rate of land loss through coastal erosion as
200,000300,000m2/yrinthe685kmlongwest,southwest,andsoutherncoastalsectors.
(8) A review of the performance of the existing coast protection structures indicate that north of
themouthoftheKelaniRiver,thecoastisprotectedbygroynesandrevetmentsoveradistance
of about one kilometer. A recession exists behind Pegasus Reef. Thereafter, the coast runs
almost straight to Pamunugama and after a slight bend it extends to Pitipana in a convex
manner. Beach rocks exist along the entire coast from Pegasus Reef to Pitipana, extending
northwardintotheseaasarockyreefoveradistanceofabout6km.Thisregionisidentifiedas
a severely eroding coastline. The extent of erosion at a given location varies during the year
depending on the time period. Decrease in sand supply from the river is considered to be the
main reason for erosion north of the river mouth. In the Master Plan for Coast Erosion
ManagementSummary,theerosionratewasidentifiedas2.5m/yearfor70%ofthecoastline
fromPalliyawattetoUswetikeiyawa.Tocombatthemajorerosionproblemalongthecoastline
north of the Kelani Estuary the CCD obtained funding from the ADB to design and construct
suitable coastal stabilisation schemes comprising hard structures, sand fill and artificial
nourishment (hybrid approach). The scheme has considered the sediment deficit arising from
sand mining. It has also given due consideration to the prevention of interference with the
dynamics of the Kelani River outlet. The coast protection scheme implemented is considered
very robust in character, capable of withstanding the predicted changes in hydraulic and
sediment transport regimes from Colombo South Port. A key feature of 'hybrid' schemes is its
ability to accommodate the changes in sediment movement more effectively as opposed to
schemescomprisingasingletypeofcoastprotectionstructure.

The review of previous studies indicates clearly the net movement of sediment in the northward
direction. There remains inconsistency and certain uncertainty in the net volume of sediment
transportation.
InthetechnicalstudyforPortCity,year2009wasselectedasatypicalyearforassessmentofannual
longshoresedimenttransportcapacity,becausethewavedatainthisyearisrelativelycompletein
terms of both wave height and wave direction. Average monthly longshore sediment transport
capacitieswerecalculated,asshowninFigure3.14,usingKamphuis(2002)formula.Theresultofthe
assessmentisasshowninFigure3.15.Thenetlongshoresedimenttransportrateforyear2009is
assessed to be of the order of 160,000 m3/a. The direction of the net longshore sediment
transportation is from south to north. This is considered comparable to the conclusions of other
previousstudieswhichindicatethatthesedimenttransportrateisabout200,000.to250,000m3/yr.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page17


Figure3.14:FeaturesofSedimentTransportinProjectArea


Figure3.15:PotentialLongshoreTransportCapacityin2009
Whenconsidertheshorelinechangewiththisreductionofsedimenttransportrateforlast10years,
itcannotbeseenasignificantaccretionorerosioninthisstretch.Somepocketbeacheswerebuilt
uponlyfewplaceswhererecentlybuiltcoastalprotectionstructures(Somebreakwaters&groynes
northward to Colombo Port). The submerged reefs in south and north sides to the Colombo Port
furtherstabilizetheshoreline.Thechangesofshorelineofselectedlocationsforlast10yearsare
showninfollowingfigures.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page18


Figure3.16:KeyMapofSelectedLocations



Figure3.17:ShorelineEvolutionduringLast10yearsStretchN2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page19

Figure3.18:ShorelineEvolutionduringLast10yearsStretchN1



Figure3.19:ShorelineEvolutionduringLast10yearsStretchS1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page20



Figure3.20:ShorelineEvolutionduringLast10yearsStretchS2

3.1.8Waterqualityofprojectarea
3.1.8.1ReclamationArea
Water quality sampling and analysis were carried out in September, 2014 by National Aquatic
Research Agency (NARA) to determine the baseline water quality for the Port City Development
Project.SubsequentlywaterqualitymeasurementshavebeencarriedoutinNovember&December,
2014,January,February,April,MayandJune2015.Sampleshavebeencollectedfromfivelocations
tomonitorthewaterquality(Figure3.21).
Figure3.22showsthetotalsuspendedsolid(TSS)concentrationatdifferentsites.Eventhoughthe
construction activities of the Port City has commenced, months of November & December, 2014
showlowlevelsofTSSatthereclamationsiteincomparisontothebaselinefigures.Baselinedata
collectionhasbeencarriedoutduringthesouthwestmonsoon.Duringthisseason,generallyrough
sea condition prevails, creating turbulence. This could have affected the resuspension of bottom
sedimentgivinghighTSSvalues.HigherTSSvaluesatBeiraLakeoutfallinDecember,2014couldbe
duetothefreshwaterdischargesofBeiraLakeduringtheheavyrains.
TSSvaluesatBeiraLakeoutfallismarginallyhigherwithcomparedtothebaselinevaluesduringthe
monthsofJanuaryandFebruary,2015.Samevaluesarealsohigheratthereclamationsite.
Figure3.23Figure3.26showsDissolvedoxygen,temperature,salinityandpHatdifferentsiteson
monthly basis. The data indicates that the General Water Quality parameters vary with time,
primarilyduetochangesinenvironmentalconditions.Certaintimesthevaluesarehigherthanthe
baselinevaluesbutalwayswithintheacceptablerangeforaquaticlife.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page21


Figure3.21:LocationsofWaterQualitysampling


Figure3.22:Totalsuspendedsolidconcentrationatsamplingsites

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page22


Figure3.23:Dissolvedoxygenconcentrationatsamplingsites


Figure3.24:Temperatureatsamplingsites

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page23

Figure3.25:Salinityatsamplingsites


Figure3.26:pHatsamplingsites

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page24

3.1.8.2SandDredgingArea
Salinitydistribution
Salinity in the dredging area is dominated by local and regional impact of the monsoons. The
northerlylongshorecurrentscarrytheKelaniRiverandDadugamaOyadischarge.TheBayofBengal
water with an annual mean salinity of 34psu transits through the Western coast into Arabian Sea
(36psu), thusimposearegionaleffect onsalinity,temperature andsealevelatthe dredgingarea.
The annual mean surface salinity of the region is varying from 34 to 34.5psu. The monthly mean
salinityattheprojectareabasedonLevitusdatabaseisgivenontheTable3.4.Theminimumand
maximumsalinitiesareobservedduringtheNovemberandOctoberrespectively.

Table3.4:Monthlymeansalinityvariation
Month MeanSalinity(psu)

January 33.534.0
February 33.534.0
March 34.034.5
April 34.034.2
May 34.334.5
June 33.534.0
July 34.534.8
September 34.035.0
October 34.535.0
November 31.031.5
December 33.534.0

Salinities are profiled to assess the Horizontal and Vertical Salinity Variation. Figure 3.27 show
vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, density and fluorescence (chlorophyll). Y indicates the
depth while X indicates location. In general, the surface water is exceptionally low in salinity,
averaging 23.1 psu only. Surface salinity gradually increases from the coast 22.9 psu at close
proximitytothecoast,whilethefurthestpointrecorded24.6psu.Thebottomsalinityvariesfrom
33.7to34.0,withanaverageof33.9psu.Withdepthsalinitystronglyincreasesuptothedepthof
twometers(from2334psu)andremainalmostconstant(34psu)beyondthetwometerdepth.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page25


Figure3.27:Verticalprofileofphysicalpropertiesattheproposeddredgingsite


Figure3.28:Horizontaldistributionsofphysicalpropertiesattheproposedsite
Salinitywasgraduallyincreasedtowardsthesouthernendofthedredgingsite2asshowninFigure
3.29.
This low saline water mass was flown down by the lagoon. At the bottom of the site, high saline
waterhasflownupward,madeanencounterwiththelagoonwateratthemiddleofthesite.Three
high saline water cells (33.3 psu) were indicated at the bottom of the site. Salinity of the bottom
areawasgraduallydecreasedtowardsthenorth.Highsalineoceanwaterwasatthebottomofthe

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page26

site,buttheintermediatevaluesindicatedahorizontalmixingofbothwatermassesatthemiddleof
thesite.Inadditiontothat,thisimageemphasizedthattherewasnotafreshwaterintrusionfrom
theKelaniRiverduringthesamplingperiod.


Figure3.29:Salinitydistributionofthedredgingsite2

Temperaturedistribution
Temperature intheprojectareaisdominatedbytheimpactofincomingsolar radiation,monsoon
mixing of the upper ocean water and East Indian Coastal Current. The annual mean surface
temperatureoftheregionis28.7oC.Themonthlymeantemperaturevariationoftheregionisgiven
on Table 3.5. The mean temperature varies from 27.5oC to 29.5oC. The low temperatures are
observed during the southwest and northeast monsoon, while the First (April) and Second inter
monsoon(October)resultsinwarmerwater.
Table3.5:Monthlymeantemperaturevariation
Month Mean Maximumin Minimumin
Temperature(oC) theregion(oC) theregion(oC)
January 28.5 29.7 24.3
February 27.75 29.3 22.9
March 27.8 29.2 21.2
April 29.5 30.2 24.3
May 29.25 30.6 27.5
June 28.5 30.7 27.6
July 27.5 31.5 24.6
September 28.5 32.7 24.7
October 28.5 30.0 26.8
November 28.5 29.4 26.4
December 28.0 28.9 24.3

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page27

The average surface and bottom temperatures are 30.9oC and 29.6oC respectively. In general, the
surface water is 1.3oC warmer than bottom water. The horizontal temperature variation is
insignificant (Figure 3.28). With depth temperature slightly decreases (from 31 29.5oC) up to the
depthoftwometersandremainconstantbeyond.Thedailywatertemperaturevariationis1.13oC
only, which indicates the water is well circulated in the study site. The maximum and minimum
temperatures are 29 and 30.1oC respectively. The maximum temperatures are observed at 15.00
hour,whiletheminimumtemperatureisobservedat06.30hour.

Chlorophylldistribution
Chlorophyllisthemostimportantcharacter,whichcanbeusedtoexpressthebiologyofthewater
column. Chlorophyll concentration of the water column in the area was varied between
210 mg/m3. Highest Chlorophyll values were recorded from the seaward side, while the lowest
valueswererecordedinthelandside.
Sealevel
Seasonalsealevelvariationsoccurduetosalinityandtemperaturevariations,effectofwindstress
ontheseasurfaceandairpressurevariations.Duetotheopennessoftheprojectsite,theimpactof
theairpressurevariationonthesealevelvariationisnegligible.Seasonalsealevelvariationsoccur
due to salinity and temperature variations, which cause expansion and contraction of the upper
ocean.TheFigure3.30showsmeanannualsealevelvariationatColombo.Thevariationreachesup
to 20 cm. Higher and lower sea levels are observed during the December and July respectively.
Stormsmaycausealimitedsetuponthenarrowcontinentalshelf,resultinginanadditionalriseof
30cminextremecases.


Source:PSMSLfortheyears193435,1979,195462and199091
Figure3.30:Monthlymeansealevel
Tideissemidiurnal,i.e.therearetwohighandtwolowwatersoneachlunarday(24.84hrs.)atthe
projectsite.Thesemidiurnallunartide,M2withaperiodof12.42hrsisthemaintidalcomponent.
TheTable3.6givesthetypicalfortnightlytidalvariation.
Table3.6:Tidalcharacteristics
Characteristics Rangeincm

Meantidalrange 40
Springtidalrange 60
Neaptidalrange 12

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page28


Figure3.31:Sealevelfluctuation(seasonalsealevelvariation+tide)

Watercurrent
Seasonalreversalsofthemonsooncausecorrespondingreversalsoftheoceancurrentsystem.The
current velocity is stronger during the SouthWest monsoon (May to July) than that of NorthEast
monsoon (November January). The maximum current observed at the study area during the
SouthWestmonsoon(SWM)is27.5cms1,theminimumcurrentis12.5cms1.
The tidal range is comparatively small, thus the strong and extreme currents at the project site is
inducedbywind.Thewatercurrentsgeneratedbyavarietyofmechanismsaresuperimposedatthe
projectarea.Tidalcurrentsareobservedovertheentiredepth.Thesevarywithpredominateperiod
being a half day. The maximum tidal current velocities are between 215 cm/s in the northsouth
directionand25cm/sintheeastwestdirection.
Wind generated currents too prevail at the project area. The magnitude of the wind induced
currentsvariesfrom210cm/s.Thepredominantdirectionofthecurrentisnorth.Isolatedpatches
ofstronglongshorecurrentsareobservedattheprojectarea.Thisphenomenonmightbedueto
the overtopping on the sand reef. Enhance river discharge by the Kelani and Dandugan Oya River
resultsinstrongnearsurfacecurrents.Thestudieshaveshowncurrentinexcessof10cm/s.

3.1.9Descriptionofexistingnaturalandmanmadedrainageoutfallsdischargingintoprojectarea
3.1.9.1 BeiraLakeOutfall
Beira Lake is a manmade shallow body of water 65.4 hectares in extent. It is connected to the
ColomboHarbourviatheMcCallumlockgates,totheKelaniRiverviatheSt.SebastianCanalandto
theIndianOceanbyasemicircularspillway,identifiedastheBeiraLakeOutfallinthisreport.The
BeiraLakeislocatedintheheartofthecityofColombowithinahighlyurbanizedcatchmentof432
ha,maintainedatasurfacewaterlevelof+6.00feetaboveLWOST(Datum:LWOSTis1.43feet[430
mm]belowtheChartDatum).
One of the prominent features of the Beira Lake is the colour of the water. Periodically it has a
greenish discoloration, which is primarily due to the high algae concentration. Illegal City sewer
connectionstothestormwaterdrainagesystemendingupatBeiraLakeandduetonegligenceof
maintenanceofthelakevergestogetherwithinappropriatepumpingofseawater,turnedthefresh
waterlakeintoapollutedwaterbodyovertheyears.Overthepastyearsseveralstudieshavebeen
carried out (a.o. MEIP 1996) and the quality has improved since a restoration programme was
carriedouttill2005,especiallythequalityoftheSouthWesternLakewhichisnowofbetterquality

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page29

thantheEasternLake.Afterthat,situationhasprobablyfurtherimprovedaslowincomecommunity
areas close to the Beira Lake have been removed in recent years, reducing the number of
householdsdischargingtothelake.Butallsewerconnectionstostormwatersystemsendingupat
Beirahadnotbeingtracedasyet.
TheBeiraLakeOutfallistheonlydrainageoutletofitsexcesswaterabovethemaintainedsurface
level,dischargingthewaterintotheseaatGalleFace.Thereisafairflowoflakewatersduringthe
rainy season, which carry the water including the pollutants entrapped within the Lake that gets
dispersedinthenearshorewatersjustnorthoftheGalleFaceseafront.
TheBeiraLakeis,andhasalwaysbeen,aniconandaculturalheritageofSriLanka.Inthepastthe
water quality was very poor, but this has already improved after the Beira Lake Restoring
programme. Water quality was affected due to sewer lines (illegally) connected to the Lake. It is
expected that the water quality will improve further as Colombo is further developing, especially
alsoaroundBeiraLakeandplansbeingpreparedfortheimprovementoftheseweragesystem.
However,atthismomentintimetheanticipatedenvironmentalimpactsofthePortCityProjectfor
theBeiraLakeOutletareasfollows:
The(poorquality)wateroftheoutlethavinganegativeimpactonthewaterinPortCityand
/ortheseaalongGalleFace;
Impeding/siltingupoftheoutletlocation,obstructingthedischargefromtheBeiraLake.
Theimpactwaterwithpoorqualitydischargedtotheseadependsstronglyonthedischargevolume
of the outlet and the water quality. During the dry period the water quality is poorest, but the
discharge quantity is also very low. When the discharge is higher due to (heavy) rain, the water
quality is better as the concentrations of the pollutants are lower as the upper layer of the water
columnflowsovertheweir,whichmainlyconsistsoftherainwater.
Alongthecoastline,longshoreandcrossshoresedimenttransporttakesplace.Constructionofthe
PortCitywillhaveanimpactonthesephenomenaandwillbeassessedfurther.
The following studies have been carried out / reports have been prepared in the recent past and
havebeenusedforthepresentstudy:
1. ColomboSouthHarbour,EnvironmentalImpactAssessment,ScottWilson,2005
2. Summary Environmental Impact Assessment Project Number: 39431 Sri Lanka: Proposed
ColomboPortSouthHarborDevelopmentProject,SLPA,July2006
3. EnvironmentalImpactAssessmentStudy,ProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProject
GalleFace,Colombo(UniversityofMoratuwa,April2011)
4. Development of Modern City at Southern Border of the Colombo Port, Lank Hydraulic
Institute,March2011
5. AnalysisofCoastalEvolutionandSiltation,Doc.No.13A062GKSY1004REV.:A(TIWTE22
082014)
6. AnalysisofWaterExchange,Doc.No.13A062GKSY1005REV.:A(TIWTE5092014)
7. ColomboPortCityMarinaStudyFinalReport(ATKINS,05092014)
8. AnalysisofWaterExchangeSupplementaryReportontheEffectofBeiraLakeoutfallonPort
City(13A062GKSY100502REVA;TIWTE,16032015)
9. WaterQualityDeskStudy,1210640000ZKS0004,3august2015,DELTARES.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page30

Inthedifferentreports,differentvalueshavebeenusedforthedischargeoftheBeiraOutlet.The
dischargeoftheoutletcanbeestimatedwiththefollowingformula:

Q=1.7*m*L*Hs3/2


Figure3.32:DischargeofBeiraLakeoutletcalculatedbasedonweirformula

ForthetypeofweiroftheBeiraoutlet,avalueofweircoefficientm=1.15istakenandlengthL=75
m.Theheightabovethecrestlevelisinnormalconditionslessthanabout1cm(0.1m3/s).

Afterheavyrainfall,theleveloftheBeiraLakecanrise,butduetotheoutflowincreasingthelevel
increase is limited. A realistic value during higher discharge is assumed to be about 3 5 cm (max.
about2m3/s)orworstcaseassumedas515cm(29m3/s).

TheBeiraLakeis65haandacatchmentareaof432ha.Extremerainfalleventscanbedescribedas
veryintensiverainfallinashortperiodoralargerdailyamountwithlessintensity.IntheFigure3.33
below,valuesaregivenfordifferentreturnperiods.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page31


Extremerainfallhourly[RDA/SLLRDC] Extremerainfalldaily[Statistical
ModellingofDailyExtremeRainfallin
Colombo,ICSBE2010,Kandy]
Figure3.33:Extremerainfall(hourlyanddaily)

Assuminganaveragerunoffof75%forthetotalcatchmentareaandadailyrainfallof175mm(T=5
year)andabout50mmperhour,theinflow,waterlevelincreaseandsubsequentdischargecanbe
calculated, see Figure 3.34 below. Hourly rainfall can be even more, but because of the runoff
delaysandthelargerarea,forBeiraLakeamaximumof50mmperhourisassumed.

Waterlevelincrease&DischargeBeiraLake
0,3 20,0

18,0
increase175mm/day

0,25
increase50mm/hour 16,0

discharge175mm/day 14,0
0,2
Waterlevelincrease[cm]

discharge50mm/hour
12,0
Discharge[m3/s]

0,15 10,0

8,0

0,1
6,0

4,0
0,05

2,0

0 0,0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Time[hours]

Figure3.34:WaterlevelincreaseanddischargeofBeiraLake

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page32

Basedonaboveextremerainfallevents,itcanbeseenthatforashortperiodthewaterlevelcould
increasetomax.15cmor(veryshort)25cmresultinginpeakdischargedof8m3/supto(veryshort)
about15m3/s.
In general during the raining period a discharge of less than 1 2 m3/s occurs, which means that
waterlevelwouldfallwithabout1to2cmperhouror2030cmperday,whichisarealisticvalue
compared to the catchment area of 432 ha. Assuming a quite common rainfall for the area of
average50to100mmperdayad75%runoff,thiswouldresultin1.53.5m3/s.

AccordingtoarecentstudyofDeltares[7],theyearlyaverageoutflowisintherangeof0.3m3/s.In
EIAColomboSouthHarboravalueof0.23m3/hasbeenused.
By using observations of the eroded outlet channel through the beach, also an indication of
discharges can be derived. See below the Google Earth aerial photos and situation photo of
September2015.Basedonthese,fortheBeiraOutletchannelthroughthesandawidthof1015m
isthemaximum,awaterdepthof0.1max.0.5mcanbeassumedandavelocityof0.10.3m/s.
Thisresultsinadischargeofmaximumabout12m3/s.(seetable3.7bellow).
Conclusion:innormalsituationsthedischargewillbe0.1to0.3m3/sandduringtherainingperiod
thiscouldincreaseto1to2m3/sormax.510m3/sduringshorterperiods.

Table3.7:DischargeofBeiraLakeoutletcalculatedbasedonoutletchannelsinbeach
width waterdepth velocity discharge[m3/s]
[m] [m] [m/s] [m3/s]

10 0,1 0,1 0,1


10 0,3 0,3 0,9
15 0,1 0,1 0,15
15 0,5 0,3 2,25

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page33


Figure3.35:Outletchannelsinbeachon12112011



Figure3.36:Outletchannelsinbeachon1822012

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page34



Figure3.37:Outletchannelsinbeachon2112014



Figure3.38:Outletchannel(3092015)dischargeerodedthesand,width1015mandwater
depthhasbeenmax.about0.5m

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page35



Figure3.39:BeiraWeir(3092015)waterlevel12cmaboveweir,dischargehasbeenhigher
duringheavyrainfall

Water quality data extracted from Water Quality Desk Study, 1210640000ZKS0004, 3rd August
2015,DELTARESandalsoreferredtoGreentech(2011),areincludedinTable3.8.

Table 3.8: Water quality parameters in Beira Lake, just behind Pettah Private Bus Stand (after
Greentech2011)
Parameter Unit Waterquality(19972009)
pH 5.67.3
Conductivity mS/m 0.173.3
Turbidity NTU 27
Ammonia mg/L 0.84.2
Nitrates mg/L 0.33.1
Phosphates mg/L 0.43.4
DO mg/L 1.24.5
BOD mg/L 1038
COD mg/L 2375

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page36

3.1.9.2 OtherDrains
AdetailedidentificationoftheDrainageOutletsfallingonthelandboundaryofthereclamation
area,identifiedunderPhase1ofColomboPortCityProject,iscompiledbytheprojectproponentin
February 2015. Almost all the drainage outlets, with their positions by the Sri Lanka National Grid
coordinates, the detailed site layout plan, and photographs of each and every outfall, giving the
conditionsasexistedinFebruary2015wererecorded.Thelocationsoftheoutfallsareasshownin
Figure3.40.

Itisaknownfact,thatthelocaldrainsrunningacrossChaithyaRoadatthelandsideboundaryofthe
proposed development are storm water drains, however also some of them seem to be not just
stormwateroutletsbutcarryfoulwaterprobablydueto(illegal)connectionoffoulwaterorkitchen
outlets,asobservedinthepreliminarysurveybythestudyteam.

Thepipesthatcarryfoulwaterarerelativelylarge(>0.5m:2#,3#)andsomeappeartobeveryold
outlets (7# and 16#). So these are meant to be storm water drains as these cannot be major
sewerageoutlets,butcarrysomefoulwater.

Asurveyhadbeencarriedouttorecordtheexistingdrainageoutfallsinthevicinityoftheproject
site.Accordingtothesurvey,therearetotal19drainageoutfallsalongtheChaithyaroadfromthe
LightHousetotheroundabout.ThedetailsoftheoutfallsarelistedintheTable3.9.
Table3.9:FeaturesofExistingDrainageOutfalls
Dia. Elevation
No. Coordinates Condition
(m) (m)
Nopipevisible.Sewerwaterflowingsmoothlywithdark
1# 192908.05596893.590 3.765 colour and decomposed odour. The water permeates
intothesoilwithfoamandgarbagefloatingonit.
Sewer water flowing smoothly with dark color and
2# 192829.65796916.0960.553.720 decomposed odour. The water permeates into the soil
withfoamandgarbagefloatingonit.
Sewer water flowing smoothly with dark color and
decomposed odour. The water permeates into the soil
3# 192745.37996924.7200.533.544
withfoamfloatingonit.Therearealotofshrubsnearby
growingonpreexistingconstructiondebris.
Nowaterflowing.Nopipescanbeseeandthereisthick
sandlyingonthebottomoftheoutletasfaraswecan
4# 192656.12296940.3030.543.753
see.Alotofoldpreexistingrocksare lyingadjacentto
theoutlet.
No water flowing. There is some sand lying on the
5# 192594.98196960.0640.283.820 bottom of the outlet. A lot of old rocks and debris are
lyingadjacenttotheoutlet.

6# 192564.03996973.7270.294.102 No water flowing. Pipe end slightly damaged. There is


somesandlyingonthebottomoftheoutlet.Alotofold

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page37

rocks and vegetation (grasses) are lying adjacent to the


outlet.
Sewer water flowing smoothly with dark colour. Some
old rocks and construction debris lying adjacent to the
7# 192461.74497017.3991.233.798 outlet. A lot of garbage hanging on the grate of the
outlet.Waterrunningconstantlyandpermeatingunder
reclamationstockpile(rock).
8# 192455.43297018.8520.773.676 Sewer water flowing smoothly with dark colour and
decomposed odour. Some old rocks and debris lying
9# 192453.92997018.9890.283.490 adjacent to the outlet. A lot of garbage hanging on the
grateoftheoutlet.
10#A1192441.27197022.2050.204.167 Nowaterflowing.Nopipecanbeseen.Onlydrillholes
10#A2192441.28697022.0840.303.725 andsignsofrunoffvisible.

No water flowing. There is some sand lying on the


11# 192430.95097024.5860.284.287
bottomoftheoutlet.
No water flowing. Pipe widely exposed. There is some
12# 192422.14797026.6730.563.852 sandlyingonthebottomoftheoutlet.Rocksadjacentto
outlet.
No water flowing. Seawall face badly deteriorating
13# 192404.78397030.5550.274.116
aroundtheoutlet.Walldebrisadjacenttotheoutlet.
Nowaterflowing.Thereissignsofrunoffonthebottom
14# 192377.46597037.8940.333.914
oftheoutlet.
No water flowing. Pipe widely exposed at seawall face.
15# 192334.57797059.4410.263.498
Signsofwaterrunoffatthesandsurface.
Sewer water flowing smoothly with dark colour and
decomposed odour. Some old rocks and debris lying
16# 192316.52897065.5231.002.786 nearby. A lot of garbage hanging on the grate of the
outlet.Waterrunningconstantlyandpermeatingunder
reclamationstockpile(rock).
Nowaterflowing.Thereissignsof discharge/runoffat
17# 192306.61397071.1180.363.567
sandsurface.
No water flowing. There is signs of run off at sand
18# 192277.57797080.5340.283.588
surface.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page38


Figure3.40:Otherdrains

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page39

3.1.9.3DetailsofDrainageOutlets

DrainageOutletNo.1(FromSLPApremises)
A Storm water drainage outlet bringing in foul water at the northern boundary of the proposed
developmentcollectsinaditchwithintheSriLankaPortsAuthority(SLPA)land,andsoaksintothe
groundwithintherockfillofthetemporaryaccessroutedevelopedfortheprojectsite.Althougha
fairvolumeofuntreatedfoulwaterappearstoflowintheditchcurrently,thereisnocollectionof
foulwateroranysmellemanatingasthewaterinfiltratesandthereseemsnoenvironmentalhazard
inthevicinity.

DrainageOutletNo.2(PoliceMessArea)
ApermanentstormwateroutletlaidacrosstheChaithyaRoadinPoliceMessAreabringinginfoul
watersouthoftheColomboLighthouse.

DrainageOutletNo.3(PoliceFlatsArea)
This drainage outlet south of the Colombo Light House carries foul water, as seen in the photo;
presumablyanillegalconstructionaftertheconstructionoftheChaithyaRoad.

DrainageOutletNos.6,7,8&9
Thesearesomestormwateroutlets,butsomecarryingfoulwaterprobablyfromillegalconnections
directingdomesticfoulwater&kitchenwastewaterdirecttotheshorelinepresumablyfromsome
leadingpublicorprivateestablishments.

DrainageOutletNos.10to15
TherearesomesmalldiameterpipeoutletsmeanttodischargesurfacewaterfromtheChithyaRoad
pavement.Foraconsiderabledistance,theseasideoftheChithyaRoadpromenadeiscoveredwith
largerockdumpedasseadefenceworks&someareasarecoveredwithweed.

DrainageOuletNo.16(StormWaterOutletfromFortAreaofthecity)
Thisstormwateroutletisamasonryconstructionofrectangularshape1.0Mx0.6M.Theoutletis
oppositetheoldparliamentpremises,appearstobeanoldconstruction.Twopreviousopeningsof
similar size in the same location are now bricked up. Presumably due to illegal sewer connections
done to the main storm water drainage line, this drainage outlet is active at all times; with a fair
quantityoffoulwaterbeingreleasedtothebeachareainfront.
Drainageoutletsofsufficientlylargesizeendingupatthebeach;wereprovidedwithirongratingsto
restrictaccess.Somesolidwasteentrappedatthegratings,likeplasticbags,restrictquickreleaseof
drainagewaterstothebeacharea,asseeninthephotos.
Thedrainageoutletsmeanttobedischargingintotheopenseapriortothedevelopmentworksof
thePortCityproject,arenowpartiallyrestrainedwithinrock&sandfilledareaprovidingaccessto
thesandreclamationarea.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page40

SomedrainageoutletsacrossthelandboundaryoftheColomboPortCityProjectsiteappeartobe
done for improper disposal of untreated foul water into the open sea, with no compliance to any
nationalstandards.
WiththereclamationoftheseaareaforthepurposeofmakingtheColomboPortCityallsuchfoul
wateratthe drainageoutletstrapped between thereclamation andthesea defenceworksofthe
beachthatexistedbeforethesandfillatpresentinfiltratesintothegroundthroughthecavitiesof
rock&sand.
Fromthestudy,somedetailsoftheoutletsareknown.Thedischargecapacityofthepipescanbe
estimated by hydraulic calculations like the Manning formula. The slope of the pipes is estimated
basedongenerallyusedslopesforthistypeofpipes/drains.Assumingthatinworstcaseconditions
thepipeswillrunhalffull,thedischargeiscalculated.Thetotalsquareareaofallthedrainstogether
equalstoabout3.8m2.(seetable3.10)

Table3.10:DischargeofoutletscalculatedbasedonManningformula(runninghalffull)
wetted Qua nti ty
total fl ow
Di a. Ra di us depthoffl ow wa tera rea peri meter R n S [m3/s ] No.ofoutl ets
[m] [m] [m] [m2] [m] [m] [m3/s ] l /s
0,2 0,1 0,1 0,02 0,31 0,050 0,013 0,0058 0,01 2 25
0,3 0,15 0,15 0,04 0,47 0,075 0,013 0,0033 0,03 9 250
0,5 0,25 0,25 0,10 0,79 0,125 0,013 0,0017 0,08 4 311
0,75 0,375 0,375 0,22 1,18 0,188 0,013 0,001 0,18 1 176
1,0 0,5 0,5 0,39 1,57 0,250 0,013 0,001 0,38 1 379
1,2 0,6 0,6 0,57 1,88 0,300 0,013 0,001 0,62 1 616
Tota l 18 1.757

Someoutlets(mostlythesmallerones)arethedirectoutletsofthestormwaterofportionofthe
roadalongthecoast.Thebiggerdiameteroutlets(0.75m;1.0mand1.2m)aresomemainstorm
waterdrainsandnotjustwaterfromtheGalleroadorChaithyaRoad.Theserunforalongerperiod,
notjustduringrainfall,butalsoafterrainisfinishedandthereforeitisassumedthatsome(illegal)
seweroutletsmaybeconnectedtothese.Assumingthatamaximumareaofabout250mx500m
wouldrunofftothesedrainsandadailyrainfallof50mm100mm,thiswouldresultin0.070.14
m3/sforallthedrainstogether.
However, as most of these outlets will respond almost directly to the rainfall (because these are
drainsofthepavedareasandroofsinshortdistance)theintensityoftherainfallismoreimportant
forthesedrainsthanthedailyrain.Assumingarainfallof50100mminonehourduringextreme
showers,thisresultsin1.7to3.5m3/s.Thisfigureisclosetothecalculationofthedrainsrunning
halffulltofull.
By using observations of the eroded outlet channel through the beach, also an indication of
dischargescanbederived.SeeFigures3.353.38oftheGoogleEarthaerialphotos,wherechannels
canbenoticedforthelargerstormwaterdrain7#,8#and16#.Takingthewidthof24masthe
maximum,awaterdepthof0.1max.0.3mcanbeassumedandavelocityof0.10.3m/s.This
results in a discharge of maximum about 0.02 0.6 m3/s (see table 3.11). These figures do match
withrunningofthepipeshalffull.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page41

Table3.11:Dischargeofoutletscalculatedbasedonoutletchannelsinbeach
width waterdepth velocity discharge
[m3/s]
[m] [m] [m/s]

2 0,1 0,1 0,02
2 0,3 0,3 0,18
4 0,1 0,1 0,04
4 0,5 0,3 0,6

Based on above, we assume that during extreme events, the pipes will run half full or for a very
shorttime(say1030minutes)mayrunfull.

Thedrains2#,3#,7#,8#,9#and16#aremarkedascarryingfoulwater.Itshallbeunderstoodthat
thefoulwaterdischargeisfarlowerthantheaboveestimateddischargesduetorainwaterrunoff.
Based on observations, the water depth not related to rainfall is about 50 75 mm. Using the
Manningformula,thisresultsin49l/sperdrainandatotalof25l/sorupto813l/sandatotal
of50l/s(seetables3.12and3.13).

Table 3.12: Discharge of SEWER outlets calculated based on Manning formula (running water
depth50mm)
wetted Qua nti ty
total fl ow
Di a. Ra di us depthoffl ow wa tera rea peri meter R n S [m3/s ] No.ofoutl ets
[m] [m] [m] [m2] [m] [m] [m3/s ] l /s
0,2 0,1 0,05 0,0061 0,2094 0,029 0,013 0,003 0,00 0 0
0,3 0,15 0,05 0,0077 0,2523 0,031 0,013 0,004 0,00 1 4
0,5 0,25 0,05 0,0102 0,3218 0,032 0,013 0,001 0,00 2 5
0,75 0,375 0,05 0,0126 0,3917 0,032 0,013 0,001 0,00 1 3
1,2 0,6 0,05 0,0161 0,4934 0,033 0,013 0,001 0,00 1 4
1.0x0.6 0,05 0,03 0,7 0,043 0,013 0,001 0,01 1 9
Tota l 6 25

Table 3.13: Discharge of SEWER outlets calculated based on Manning formula (running water
depth75mm)
wetted Qua nti ty
total fl ow
Di a. Ra di us depthoffl ow wa tera rea peri meter R n S [m3/s ] No.ofoutl ets
[m] [m] [m] [m2] [m] [m] [m3/s ] l /s
0,2 0,1 0,075 0,0108 0,2636 0,041 0,013 0,003 0,01 0 0
0,3 0,15 0,075 0,0138 0,3142 0,044 0,013 0,004 0,01 1 8
0,5 0,25 0,075 0,0185 0,3977 0,047 0,013 0,001 0,01 2 12
0,75 0,375 0,075 0,023 0,4826 0,048 0,013 0,001 0,01 1 7
1,0 0,5 0,075 0,0294 0,6064 0,048 0,013 0,001 0,01 1 10
1,2 0,6 0,075 0,038 0,75 0,051 0,013 0,001 0,01 1 13
Tota l 6 50
Asneitherthesandnorthegroundwaterinthereclaimedarea,isofpotentialuseforagricultureor
potablewaterrespectivelyduetohighsaltconcentrations,anyinfiltrationthatmayoccurduringthe
construction phase of Colombo Port City project is not anticipated to be a problem. But for the

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page42

operationalphaseoftheColomboPortCityprojectapropersolutionshastobefound.Therefore
somemeasureshavetobetakenonalongtermbasistoeliminate,reduceormitigate:
thenegativeeffectscausedbytheinflowofsewerpipesortheinflowofamixoffoulwater
flowingfromthestormwaterdrainageoutletsatthelandboundaryoftheproject;
the blockage of storm water outlets to avoid any disruption of the storm water drainage
system;
the blockage of storm water outlets that carry foul water to avoid problems with the
neighbourhood, however if sewer outlets are illegally connected to these drains, the
relevant authorities of the Government of Sri Lanka have to take action to find a proper
solutionforthese.

3.2 BiologicalEnvironment
3.2.1Descriptionandassessmentofpresentdistribution,biodiversityandhealthofcoralreefs.
ReclamationArea
Inthereclamationarea,asubmergedreefnamelythePalagalareefispresentabout500800mwest
ofthecoastline.ThisisasandstonereefextendinginaNorthSouthdirectionparalleltothecoast
atadepthof911mfromColombotoMt.Lavinia.Thereefcrestisflatwithamaximumreliefof
about2m.Inmostplaces,thisreefiscoveredwithfinesediments.Thelivecoralcoverofthisreef
wasfoundtorangefrom3%to30%.Theextentofsandstonereefcoveredwithsoftcoralsinthe
Palagalareefinthereclamationareaisaround11%.Themeanvalueforlivehardcoralcoverwas
about 0.4% while that for sponges was 0.6% (Table 3.14). Of these live corals, the majority was
gorgonian soft corals. The hard coral species were found to be scarce on the reef habitat. Large
coral colonies were rare and only 4 species of hard corals were recorded (Table 3.15). The most
abundantorganismsonthereefweregorgoniancoralsfollowedbydendronephthyancorals.These
coralspeciesarenotconfinedtotheproposeddevelopmentalarea.Theyarefoundonotherreefs
aroundColombosuchasVatiyareef(NARA2000).Noneofthecoralspeciesrecordedinthestudy
areaisendemicorincludedintheNationalthreatenedlist(MOE2012)orrestrictedexportcategory
(GazettesNos.1036//3ofJuly1998and1098/3ofSeptember1999)

Manyspeciesofreeffishwererecordedinthestudyarea.ThesearelistedinTable3.16.Themost
abundantspeciesweredamselfish(Family:Pomacentridae).Further,largegroupsofCaesiocuning
(Family: Caesionidae) and Pomadasys sp. (Family: Haemulidae) were also observed. Abundance of
reefdwellingbutterflyfishes(Family:Chaetodontidae)waslow,probablyduetolackoflivecorals.
Some of the species of reef fish are commercially important either as food fishes or ornamental
fishes. The commercially important food fishes include snappers (Family: Lutjanidae), trevallies
(Family: Carangidae), emperors (Family: Lethrinidae), groupers (Family: Serranidae), barracudas
(Family: Sphyraenidae) and sweet lips (Family: Haemulidae). The commercially important
ornamental fishes that inhabit the reefs in the study area include angelfishes (Family:
Pomacanthidae),gobies(Family:Gobiidae)blenmies(Family:Blennidae),wrasses(Family:Labridae),
Damselfishes(Family:Pomacentridae)andbutterflyfishes(Family:Chaetodontidae).Onespeciesof
damselfishrecordedinthepresentstudy,namelyPomacentrusproteusisendemic.Noneofthefish
speciesrecordedarelistedasthreatenedspecies(MOE2012).

VatiyaandMadigalareefaretwomorereefsthatexistexistnearthestudyarea.Vatiyareefisinthe
30mdepthcontour.ItextendsfromPanaduratoColombo.Madigalareefisinashallowercontour,

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page43

i.e., in the 20 m depth contour and is an extension of Degalmeda reef, a reef found along the
offshore waters off Wellawatte and Bambalapitiya. Both these reefs are found to be similar in
structuretotheotherreefsintheregionwithaflatreefcrestwithcracksandledgesonthesides.
Thesetworeefsarelocatedbeyond1kmfromtheoutermarginofthereclamationarea.

Table 3.14: The percentage cover of live reef organisms of the Palagala reef in the reclamation
area(Quadrate1wasclosertotheshoreandQuadrate5wastowardsthesea).
QuadrateNo. Mean%
1 2 3 4 5
Softcorals
Gorgonians 30 5 2 10 1 9.6
Sinularians 0 0 0 1 2 0.6
Dendronephthyans 0 1 3 0 0 0.8
Hardcorals
Favitessp. 0 0 1 0 0 0.2
Faviasp. 0 1 0 0 0 0.2
Sponges 0 3 0 0 0 0.6
Areadevoidofreeforganisms 70 90 94 89 97 88

Table3:15:HardCoralspeciesrecordedonPalagalareef.
Family/Scientificname
Dendrophylliasp.
Faviteschinensus
Favitescomplanata
Pavonavarians

Table3.16:ThereeffishesrecordedinthePalagalaReefinthereefinthereclamationarea
Family/Scientificname Commonname
Acanthuridae
Acanthurusmata Elongatesurgeonfish
Acanthurusblochii Ringtailsurgeonfish
Ctenochaetusstriatus Stripedbristletooth
Ctenochaetusstrigosus Goldringbristletooth
Balistidae
Sufflamenfraenatus Bridledtriggerfish

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page44

Family/Scientificname Commonname

Caesionidae
Caesiocuning yellowtailfusilier
Pterocaesiotile Darkbandfusilier
Carangidae
Carangoidesfulvoguttatus Yellowspottedtrevally

Chaetodontidae
Chaetodoncitrinellus Speckledbutterflyfish
Chaetodondecussatus Indianvagabondbutterflyfish
Heniochussingularis Singularbannerfish
Haemulidae
Plectorhinchusceylonensis SriLankasweetlips
Plectorhinchusschotaf Minstrelsweetlips
Plectorhinchusvittatus Orientalsweetlips
Pomadasysfurcatus Bandedgrunter
UnidentifiedPomadasyssp. Grunter
Labridae
Bodianusaxillaris Axilspothogfish
Halicherioustimorensis Timorwrasse
Labroidesdimidiatus Cleanerwrasse
Thalassoma.lunare Crescentwrasse

Lutjanidae
Lutjanusbiguttatus Twospotbandedsnapper
Lutjanusfulvus Blackmailsnapper
UnidentifiedLutjanussp. Snapper
Mullidae
Parupeneusindicus Indiangoatfish

Nemipteridae
Scolopsisbimaculatus Thumbprintspinecheek
Family/Scientificname Commonname

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page45

Pempheridae
Pempherisvanicolensis Vanicorosweeper
Pomacanthidae
Apolemichthysxanthurus Indianyellowtailangelfish
Centropygemultispinis Manyspinedangelfish
Pomacanthusannularis Blueringangelfish
Pomacanthussemicirculatus Koranangelfish
Pomacanthusimperator Emperorangelfish
Pomacentridae
Chromiscinerascens Greenchromis
Neopomacentrusasyzron Yellowtaildemoiselle
Pomacentrusphilippinus Philippinedamselfish
Pomacentrussimilis Similardamselfish
Pomacentrusproteus* Colombodamselfish

Serranidae
Cephalopholisformosa Bluelinedhind
Epinepheluslongispinis Longspinedgrouper
Siganidae
Siganuslineatus Linedrabbitfish
Sphyraenidae
Sphyraenasp. Barracuda
Tetraodontidae
Arothronmeleagris Guineafowlpuffer
Zanclidae
Zancluscornutus MoorishIdol

*Endemic
Table 3.17: macrozoobenthos other than corals organisms present in the reclamation area.
Crustaceans
Spinylobsters
Panulirussp.
Caprellasp.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page46

Crabs
Corophilumvolutator
Anadraantiquata
Macomasp.
Isopods
Hermitcrabs
Polychaetes
Nereisdiversicolor
Arenicolasp.
Serpulids
Spionids
Sabellids
Caprellacapitata
Nemertineans
Nematodes
Mollusks
Afrocarduimlatum
Anadramaculosa
Anadrapilula
Anadrasatowi
Anadratroscheli
Arcaboucardi
Architechtonicalaevigata
Barbatiabicolorata
Carditavariegata
Chamadunkeri
Decatopectenstriatus
Erroneaerrones
Fulviaasiatica
Hydatinaphysis
Murexternispina
Neohaustatorcolumnaris
Oliviaispidula
Pitarstriata

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page47

Peribolusdepressus
Trochuscallicoccus
T.Radiatus
Turritelladuplicata
Varicardiumlacunosum
Virroconusebraeus
Echinoderms
Brittlestars
Seacucumbers
Seaurchins
Sanddollars
Starfishes
SandDredgingArea:
The coastal reefs in the study area can be categorized into two broad types; nearshore reefs and
offshore reefs. Nearshore reefs are found bordering the seaward edge of the low tide or the surf
breakingline.Offshorereefsarelocatedbeyondthebreakinglineinthecoastalwaters.
Nearshorereefs:Theshorelinefacestheopenseaandisconstantlysubjecttooceanswellandmore
stronglyduringsouthwestmonsoonalperiod;MaytoSeptember.Thetidalsea(foreshore)isnarrow,
lowgradientinmostplacesandcontainsdifferenttypesofhabitatsbothnaturalandmanmade;a
few low elevated rock outcrops forming tide pools, shallow gullies, more extended areas of fine
sand,groynes,andbreakwaters.

Figure3.41:Nearshorereefs
Sandstone reef flats and rock outcrops as shown in Figure 3.41 stand at the edge or below the
waterline of the low tide, generally of variable extent and size and is more continuous along the
shore,exposedtothefullforceofbreakingwavesontheseawardside.Thebaseofthesereefflats
androcksarewithinthewaterandatlowtideupperpartgetlittleexposedtoairandsometimes
possibletoseetheverticaldistributionofthebiodiversity.Organismsliveonthebasearerarelybe
exposedtoair.Reefflatsandrockoutcropssupportadiversemixofplantsandanimalswhichhave

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page48

adapted to survive the environmental condition. This shore reef runs parallel to the shore and is
calledGodaGalaandliesabout0.2kmto1kmfromtheshoreandabout1to1.5kmlandwardof
thedredgingsite.Theshallowflatreefisdiscontinuedinsomeplaceswhereintheshoreareafrom
SarakkuwatoDungalpitiyamaycoverwithsand.

Plants,foundoninshorereefslocatedinvicinityofthedredgingsiteareseaweedsespeciallybrown
and green algae. Many of them grow forming velvet covering the rocks where they are not fully
exposedtoairduringlowtide.Greenalgaefoundmoreonflatreefwhilebrownalgaegrowinrock
pools or in shallow gullies. A limited number of algal species are reported on exposed surface of
rocksandreefflats.Lichensofvariedcolour;black,orange,yelloworgreygrowonsuchareas.The
faunal species commonly reported in this region are oysters, tube worms and barnacles. Oysters
found consisted mainly of old shell. Mussels, sea urchins, sea anemones, snails, limpets and top
shellsarefoundattachedtorocksmoreconfinedtosubmergedareas.Mobilespeciesreportedare
shore crabs and shrimps, found in shallow pools while fish are found in deep pools of shallow
submergedrocks.

Offshore reefs: In the offshore a few submerged rocky reefs are found. Kalapu Gala is the
shallowest offshore reef lying at the depth of 57 m, parallel to Goda Gala, develops off
Uswetakeiyaw/Pamunugam and extends towards north. This reef is highly discontinuous in both
ends.Extensivesanddepositsarefoundinthewindwardsideoftheshallowreefs.Thereefforms
northoftheColomboharbourandextentsfurthernorthfaruptoPamunugamaiscalledUnaGala
or Ona Gala reef. It lies relatively in deeper depth; 710 m, at an angle position, about 34
kilometres from the coast. It is also a rocky reef, extremely variable both in structure and
topography,rangingfrombrokenverticalrock,boulderfieldstohorizontalledges,slopingorflatbed
rock.Atbothends,thisrockyreefissomewhatdiscontinuousandfragmented.OffHendala,thereef
liesmoreclosetotheshore,formsintotwoparallelreefsorridges,about100200metersapartand
getsalignedagainclosetoDickowita.OnagalaorUnaGalaisahighelevatedpartofthisrocky
reef and located off Uswetakeyawa. Rough sketch of the reef location in the vicinity area of the
dredgingsiteisgiveninFigure3.42.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page49


Figure3.42:Reeflocationinthevicinityareaofdredgingsite
The soft bottom area of the leeward side of Ona Gala forms sand/mud passage between Ona
Gala, Kalapu Gala and Goda Gala is considered as high productive and spawning area of
paeneid shrimps. The reef in deeper depths are generally called Gabure Gala exists off
Uswetakeiya, about 7 kilometers from the shore. This reef is also a boulder field, highly
discontinuousandexpansionislimited.Theisolatedrockyfieldsofthisreefarelyingquitescatted
butrarelyextendedtowardssandextractionsite.
3.2.2Healthofthereefs
Bothnearshoreandoffshorereefsareimportantinenhancingproductivity,stabilityandprotection
ofshorelineinthearea.Thenotablefeatureobservedduringthestudywasthattherearenocoral
reefsinthearea.
Speciesrichnessoffshoreisolatedreef
Inadditiontoafewreefoutcropsoflimitedextent,slightlyelevatedfromsanddepositarereported
especially in site 2. These reef outcrops are consisting of big reef boulders, mostly buried in sand
excepttheboldercrests.Theassociateenvironmentisgenerallyturbidanddark,fullycoveredwith

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page50

patches of encrusted coralline algae, silt and sand. Sparsely distributed isolated soft corals were
evident

Figure3.43:MarinespongesandGorgoniaspeciescollectedfromdeepreefs

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page51










Figure3.44:Molluscs(bivalves)reportedfromoffshorereefs
Reefassociatedfish
Atotalnumberof67speciesbelongingto29familieswereencounteredduringthetransectsurvey.
Of which reef dwelling species which are closely associated or resident of the reef structure
(categoryA)represented46speciesbelongsto17families.Thesecondcategoryisthespeciesfound
intheimmediatevicinity,butnotcomingintodirectcontactwiththereef(B).Theyrepresented18
species belongs to 9 families. The third category (C) included more transient species that did not
demonstrate any site attachment to the reef but were observed to move through the reef area.
Transientspeciesrepresentedonly3speciesof3families(Table3.18).
Table3.18:Reefassociatedfishspeciesrecordedduringthesurveys
Category Family Species No. encountered
in 20*50
transects
Reef dwelling Serranidae Cephalopholisformosa 7
species(A) Cephalopholissexmaculata 4
Epinepheluscoeruleopunctatus 1
Epinephelusquoyanus 2
Epinephelusmicroprion 3
Acanthuridae Acanthurusbariene 3
Acanthurusmata 1
Acanthurusxanthopterus 4
Acnthurustriostegus 2
Nasobrachycentron 1
Blenniide Cirripectessp. 2
Ecseniusbicolor 2
Aspidontustaeniatus 1
Chaetodontidae Chaetodoncollare 2
Chaetodondecussatus 3
Heniochussingularis 1
Labridae Bodianusneilli 1
Halichoerestimorensis 2
Labroidesdimidiatus 2
Thalassomalunare 3
Thalassomaamblycephalum 1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page52

Pomacanthidae Apolemichthysxanthurus 3
Pomacanthusannularis 9
Pomacentridae Abudefdufseptemfasciatus 2
Abudefdufvaigiensis 4
Neopomacentrusazysron 2
Neopomacentruscyanomos 3
Pomacentruscoelestis 1
Chromiscinerascens 1
Scaridae Scarusrubroviolaceus 2
Bolbometoponmuricatum 1
Scarusghobban 1
Unidentifiedsp 1
Tetraodontidae Arthronhispidus 2
Zanclidae Zancluscornutus 2
Holocentridae Myripristiskuntee 2

Pempheridae Pempherisanalis 7
Pempherisoualensis 5
Cirrhitidae Oxycirrhitestypus 2
Haemulidae Plectorhinchusschotaf 4
Plectorhinchusgibbosus 1
Muraenidae Gymnothoraxmelanospilus 2
Nemipteridae Scolopsisvosmeri 5
Scolopsistaeniopterus 3
Subtotal 17 46 118
Reefassociated Carangidae Caranxsexfasciatus 12
species(B) Parastromateusniger 3
Caesionidae Caesiocuning 27
Caesioxanthonota 31
Mullidae Parupeneusindicus 2
Lutjanidae Lutjanusfulvus 14
Lutjanuslunulatus 19
Lutjanusrivulatus 3
Lutjanusfulviflamma 39
Lutjanuslutjanus 19
Lutjanusmonostigma 5
Haemulidae Plectorhinchusschotaf 3
Monodactylidae Monodactylusargenteus 31
Siganidae Siganusjavus 25
Siganuslineatus 36
Leiognathidae Leiognathusdaura >600
Leiognathussp. >250
Mugiloididae Parapercisclathrate 19
Subtotal 9 18 >1138
Transit species Carangidae Selarsp. >300
(C) Sphyraenidae Sphyraenajello >500
Belonidae Tylosurussp. >100
Subtotal 3 3 >900
Total 29 67

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page53

Speciesrichnesssanddeposits
The benthic and demersal macrofauna were not reported during underwater studies in the
proposed sand dredging sites. Bivalves and gastropods collected were all dead. Paucity of benthic
and demersal faunal biomass in the area may associate with abiotic factors such as substrate,
current speed, sediment type, disturbances etc. Biota only reported is sporadic occurrence of
gorgonians(Figure3.45).


Figure3.45:occurrenceofgorgonians

3.2.3Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentdistributionandlivingstateofseagrassbeds.
ReclamationArea
There are few small patches of sea grasses in the reclamation area. These consist of Halodule
pinifolia.Theseagrasscoverthereclamationareaislessthan5%.Theleafbladesoftheseplantsare
covered with a thin layer of silt. Abundance and diversity of sea grasses are low probably due to
siltedconditionsofthereclamationarea.
SandDredgingArea:
Beside the substrate characters, sand and mud the factors controlling growth and distribution of
seagrassintheshallowcoastalenvironment,light,temperatureandnutrientsareconsideredcrucial
(DumbaaldandWyllie,2003).However,underwatervisualsurveyconductedinseveraloccasionsat
mostpotentialsiteswherefavourableenvironmentconditionsareexisted,didnotcomeacrossany
formofseagrassbedsintheproposeddredgingsitesorintheadjacentseaareas(studyarea).Ithas
beenstudiedthatseagrass,beingplantsoccupyingsubtidalhabitats,haveshowntobesensitiveto
turbidityandsiltation(Gametal.,2003).Therefore,highturbidity,lesslightpenetration,andhigh
waterturbulenceinmostmonthsoftheyearduetohighdischargeofriverwatermayinhibitingthe
growthofseagrass.Useofdestructivefishingmethodsinshallowdepthsmayalsocausedeclineof
growthofseagrassonsandmudbottomareas.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page54

3.2.4Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentdistribution,speciescompositionandrichnessof
seabottommacrozoobenthos.
Reclamationarea
Macrozoobenthos present in the reclamation area include crustaceans such as spiny lobsters,
crabs, isopods, caprellids and hermit crabs, polychaetes such as sabellids, nereids, capitellids and
spionids,echinodermssuchasseacucumbers,sanddollars,starfishes,seaurchinsandbrittlestars,
andmolluskssuchasbivalvesandgastropods(Table3.17).Theseorganismsarealsonotconfinedto
thereclamationareabutarefoundinotherreefsaroundColomboaswellasinthewesterncoastal
watersofSriLanka.NoneofthesespeciesisincludedintheIUCNlistofthreatenedspecies(MOE
2012)orintherestrictedexportcategory.
SandDredgingArea:
Macrozoobenthos are a food resource for a large number of predators; benthic fish and some
aquatic insects. They can have a significant influence on nutrient cycles, primary productivity,
decomposition, and translocation of materials. Macrozoobenthos are important primary material
exchangersacrosssedimentwaterinterface.
ThesamplinglocationsofseabottommacrozoobenthosanalysisareshowninFigure3.46.Atotalof
40macrozoobenthosorganismswereidentifiedamongtheanalysedbenthicsamples(Table3.19).
They mainly represent five major phyla of Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Retaria and Chordata
(lower Chordata). The sandy substrate was mainly characterized with a high density of bivalves
belongingtofamiliesofVeneridae,CardiidaeMactridae,ArcidaeandTellinidae.Mudbottomswere
mainlyconsistedwithfewnumbersofbivalvesandgastropodspecies.However,mostofthebivalves
andgastropodshellsobservedweredead,possiblyindicatingthatshellsaredepositedatthesiteby
thecoastalcurrents.Polycheatesandlowerchordatesaremainassemblageoftheotherspeciesin
thesandysubstrate.Themudsandysubstratemainlycomprisedofforaminiferashells,Nereisspp.,
Amphioxus spp. and Penaeus spp. The relative abundance of species identified at the different
locationsislistedinTable3.19.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page55


Figure3.46:Thesamplinglocationsofseabottommacrozoobenthosanalysis

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page56

Table 3.19: : Relative abundance of macrozoo benthic organisms found in different sampling locations/ substrates in the proposed sand dredging
areas(perm2)
Phylum Class Family Species Samplinglocationandsubstrate
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
S S S M/S S M/S S S M M S S
Mollusca Bivalvia Veneridae Antigonasp. + + ++ +

+
Veneridae Lioconchasp.1 +

+
Veneridae Lioconchasp.2 +++ +
Veneridae Periglyptasp. +
Veneridae Tapessp. +
Cardiidae Fulviasp. +++ + ++ +
+++ +
Cardiidae Acrosterigmasp. + +
Mactridae Mactrasp. + +++ ++ + +++
Mactridae Oxyperassp.1 + + +
Mactridae Oxyperassp.2 +++ + + +++
Mactridae Oxyperassp.3 +++
Arcidae Arcasp. +++ ++ +++

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page57

Tellinidae Macomasp. + + +
+++
Tellinidae Tellinasp.1 +++ ++ +++ +++ ++

Tellinidae Tellinasp.2 ++
Tellinidae Tellinasp.3 +++
+
Tellinidae Tellinasp.4 +
Donacidae Donaxsp. ++
Spondylidae Spondylussp. +
Pharidae Siliquaradiate +
Terebridae Terebrasp. +
++
Gastropoda Calyptraeida Crucibulumextinctorum + +
e

UNGastropod1 +
UNGastropod2 +++ ++ +++
Gastropoda Olivoidae Olivasp.1 + + ++
Olivoidae Olivasp.2 + +
Olivoidae Olivasp.3 + +
Olivoidae Olivasp.4 +

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page58

Scaphopoda Dentallidae Dentaliumsp. + +


Annelida Polychaeta Tubewormsp. ++++ ++
Nereidae Nereissp.1 +++ +++ ++++ ++ +
Nereidae Nereissp.2 +
Arthropoda Malacostrac Gammaridae Gamarussp. +++ +
a
Penaeidae Penaeussp. + +
UNCrustaceansp. + +
Echinodermat Amphuridae ArmsofBrittlestars +++
a
Retaria +
Foraminiferashells ++++
Chordata Leptocardii Amphioxussp. +++ +++ +
SpeciesRichness 13 2 6 10 7 12 8 1 7 17 5
2 2 2 2 2
+low(<50perm )++moderate(50100perm )+++high(100500perm )++++veryhigh(>500m perm )
SSandysubstrateMMuddysubstrateM/SMuddySandysubstrate

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page59

Mactrasp. Lioconchasp.

Tellinasp. Arcasp.


Olivasp.
Oxyperassp.



Crucibulumextinctorum Antigonasp.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page60




Dentaliumsp. Penaeussp.

Amphioxussp. Nereissp.

Tubewormcolonies
Foraminiferanshells

Figure3.47:Macrozoobenthosorganismsidentifiedintheproposedsandextractingareas

3.2.5Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentoccurrenceofendangeredspeciesorextra
ordinarynaturalresources
Reclamationarea
As per the Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka none of the species recorded in the reclamation area is
endangered(MOE2012).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page61

SandDredgingArea
SriLankasterritorialwatersarerichinmarinemammalfaunawithhighspeciesrichnessandyear
roundabundance.However,presentknowledgeaboutthisdiversesegmentofmammalianfaunais
very limited in the west coast due to a lack of dedicated research on the subject. Information
gatheredfrominterviewsdisclosedthatthereisnoresidentpopulationofanykindofdolphinor
whalesin thestudyarea;rather,they wouldbetemporaryinhabitants,orwouldbe transiting the
areaduringseasonalmigrations.Thestudyconductedondolphinencounteredintheoffshorelarge
pelagicfishcatchesinthewestcoastrevealed that spinnerdolphinwasencounteredin gillnets in
the area (Dayaratne and Joseph, 1993). However, dolphins are cited in the study area as visitors
whilewhalesarereportedasrarevisitorsandthustheirsightingoroccurrenceisunpredictableas
theyshowwiderangeofmigration.
InSriLanka,fiveofthemostthreatenedspeciesofseaturtles;loggerhead(Carettacaretta),green
turtle (Cheloniamydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), olive ridley (Lepidochelysolivacea), and
leatherback(Dermochelyscoriacea)arereported.Itisreportedthatsomeoccurrenceofoliveridley
andgreenturtlesareencounteredoffwestcoast.
The results of the study conducted in the coastal waters from Hendala to Negombo including
proposedsanddredgingsitestoassesstheimpactofcoastalfisheriesonthesurvivalofseaturtles
duringAugust2001January2014aresummarizedintable3.20.

Table3.20:Theimpactofcoastalfisheriesonthesurvivalofseaturtles
Fishery No. of Loggerhead Greenturtle Hawksbill Oliveridley Leather
boats back
sampled
Bottom trawling 56 8
Hendala
Smallmeshgillnet 178 1 23
Negombo
Bottom longline 13
Pamunugama

TherecordsoftheonboardobservationmadeduringSeptember/October2015aresummarizedin
Table3.21

Table3.21:Recordsoftheseaturtlesduringthesurvey
Area No. of Loggerhead Green Hawksbill Oliveridley Leatherback
days turtle
study
SanddraggingSiteI 10 2
Sand dragging Site 6 1
II
Adjacent shallow 6 3
areas

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page62

The behaviour of Olive Ridley generally spends most of its time within 15 km of shore, preferring
shallow seas for feeding and sunbathing. However, they are common in the open ocean as well.
OliveRidleyischieflyacarnivorousspeciesfeedingoninvertebratesuchasjellyfish,snails,shrimp
andcrabs.Thismaybethereasonthattheyaremorecommoninnearshoreareawheretheirprey
speciesareabundant.
The possible nesting beaches identified during the past and at present surveys are given in Table
3.22.
Table3.22:StatusofseaturtlenestingbeachesofGampahadistrict
Place Nature of the Speciesvisited Last nesting Description
beach visit
Porutota Sandy(2km) Green, Olive Jan.1996 Nesting very rare.
ridley Twenty years before
there were plenty of
nesting
Eththukala Sandy Mid1993 Do
WellaWeediya Do Noinformation No nesting were
reported
PitipanaSouth Reef Nil Do
Thalahena Do Nil 1991 Nesting very rare.
Twentyyearsbefore
Dungalpitiya Do Noinformation Do Do
Seththappaduwa Do Nil Do Do
Wellawatta Do Nil Do Do
Epamulla Do Ni Do Do
Uswetakeyawa Do Noinformation May1995 Nesting very rare.
Twentyyearsbefore
Dikovita,Hendala Do Oliveridley April1995 Occasionallynested
Preethipura Do Nil Erodedbeach,nonesting
werereportedduringthe
lasttwentyyears.
Palliyawatta Do Noinformation 1992 Do
Lansiyawatta Do Nil Erodedbeach,nonesting
werereportedduringthe
lasttwentyyears
Source:AmarasooriyaandDayaratne(1997)

AccordingtothisstudyitisclearthatthebeachstretchofGampahaDistricthasnotbeenaturtle
nesting area for long years. Information gathered from fishermen during this study period also
confirmedthisresult.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page63

3.2.6Descriptionofthepresentconditionsconcerningnutrientdynamic,algaebloomsandwater
turbidity.
Reclamationarea
There is no special hindrance to nutrient dynamics in the study area. The area is getting some
nutrients from land based activities from the Beira Lake outlet. However, no algal blooms are
recordedinthereclamationareaasthewaterthatcomesintotheseafromtheBeiraLakeisreadily
dispersed. The nutrients in the area are absorbed by the primary producers, namely the
phytoplanktonandtheseagrassesandpassedalongthedifferenttrophiclevelsoftheecosystem.
Thereisnohindrancetonutrientdynamicsintheareaasorganismsofalltrophiclevelsarepresent
inthearea.Duetosparsenatureofseagrassesthemajorprimaryproducersinthereclamationarea
is phytoplankton. Carbon fixed by this trophic level is passed along the food chains and the dead
bodies are decomposed by microorganisms in the area releasing the nutrients back into the
environment.
Turbidity in the reclamation area is high mainly due to the water currents that bring silt that are
washedintothecoastalmarineenvironmentbytheriversflowingin.TheseabottomandofPalagala
reefinthereclamationareaisalreadyheavilysiltedandtheunderwatervisibilityisalsoverylow.
SandDredgingArea:
Phytoplantonisakeycomponentofmarineecosystemsandactasapotentialbioindicatorofwater
qualityalterationsinresponsetolocalandglobalimpacts.PhosphorusandNitrogenaremoreoften
considered as the principal limiting nutrients for the growth of marine phytoplankton.
Eutrophicationofcoastalecosystemsiscausedbyexcessivenutrientssuchasphosphateandnitrate
andnitrogen.Theincreaseinputofnutrientfromriverineoutflowanddomesticsewageeffluentinto
coastalwatershasseveralecologicalconsequencesviz.algalblooms,formationofhypoxia,oranoxia
inthebottomwater duetothesedimentationofunusedorganic matterasstratificationdevelops
andachangeinthephytoplanktonspeciescompositionduetoalterationinambientnutrientratios
and quantities (Jickells 1988). Coastal nutrients may supply nitrogen, Silicon and prosperous for
phytoplanktongrowthat proportions verydifferent RedfieldRatio (16:16:1) (Berdaletet al.1996).
However,sometimesnutrientenrichmentmaycauseasignificantroleonphytoplanktoncommunity
composition and diversity (Justic et al. 1995). Dredging and dumping may also affect the nutrient
levelsandin turn phytoplankton communityassemblage.Phytoplankton is the baseof the marine
foodchainthusaffectshighertrophiclevelssuchasshellfishandfinfishpopulation.
Water quality parameters of sampling locations are illustrated in Table 3.23, 3.24 and sampling
locationsaregivenFigure3.48.
Table3.23:Descriptivestatisticsofwaterqualityparameters(n=8)atSite1
Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Parametr

NO3N(mg/l) 0.174 0.404 0.26 0.07

NO2N(mg/l) 0.091 0.193 0.12 0.04

PO43P(mg/l) 0.042 0.067 0.05 0.01

SiO44Si(mg/l) 3.460 10.520 5.39 2.67

TSS(mg/l) 4.100 5.800 4.53 0.54

Turbidity(NTU) 0.190 0.920 0.50 0.30

Chlorophylla(g/l) 0.990 3.170 1.94 0.79

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page64

Table3.24:Descriptivestatisticsofwaterqualityparameters(n=10)atSite2

Parameter Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation

NO3N(mg/l) 0.130 0.551 0.30 0.12

NO2N(mg/l) 0.023 0.242 0.12 0.06

PO43P(mg/l) 0.033 0.081 0.06 0.02

SiO44Si(mg/l) 16.410 38.120 22.84 8.35

TSS(mg/l) 4.60 6.80 5.40 0.71

Chlorophylla(g/l) 0.920 2.540 1.80 0.59


Figure3.48:ThemapshowingsamplingsitesofsandextractionSite1&2
Nutrientvariation

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page65

Watersampleswereanalysedfornutrientssuchasnitrate,nitrite,phosphateandsilicate.Ingeneral
highernitrate,phosphateandsilicateconcentrationswerereportedinSite2thanSite1.MeanNO3
NconcentrationofSite1andSite2were0.260.04and0.300.12mg/lrespectively(Figure3.49).


Figure3.49:MeanSDNO3NconcentrationofSite1andSite2
MaximumNo3NconcentrationinSite1(0.404mg/l)wasreportedatlocation7atSite1while2
(0.551mg/l) at Site 2. Minimum NO3N concentration in Site 1 (0.174 mg/l ) was reported at
location11atSite1while7(0.130mg/l)atSite2asshowninFigure3.50andFigure3.51.NitrateN
levelarehigherthanthetriggervaluesofAustralianwaters(Table3.25).


Figure3.50:NitrateNvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1


Figure3.51:NitrateNvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page66

MeanNO2NconcentrationofSite1andSite2were0.12mg/lrespectively(Figure3.52).Maximum
andminimumNO2Nconcentrationswerereportedat11A,5Aand6AofSite1while2B,9Band3B
inSite2asgiveninFigure3.53andFigure3.54.


Figure3.52:MeanSDNO2NconcentrationofSite1andSite2


Figure3.53:NitriteNvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1


Figure3.54:NitriteNvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page67

MeanPO43PofSite1andSite2were0.050.01mg/land0.060.02mg/lrespectively.Highestand
lowestconcentrationsofPO43PinSite1werereportedatlocations11Aand5Arespectivelywhile
2Band3BinSite2asillustratedinFigure3.55,3.56and3.57


Figure3.55:MeanSDPO43NconcentrationofSite1andSite2


Figure3.56:PO43PvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1


Figure3.57:PO43PvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page68

MeanSiO44concentrationsofSite1(5.392.67mg/l)issignificantlyhigherthanSite2(22.848.35
mg/l).HighsilicatecontentinSite2mightbeduetotheriverdischargeofKelaniriver.Minimum
andmaximumSiO44concentrationsofSite1werereportedat9Aand8Arespectivelywhile4Band
2BinSite2(Figure3.58,3.59andFigure3.60).


4
Figure3.58:MeanSDSi4 SiconcentrationofSite1andSite2


Figure3.59:SilicateSivariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1


Figure3.60:SilicateSivariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page69

Totalsuspendedsolidsandturbidity
MeanconcentrationofTSSatSite2ishigherthantheSite1(Figure3.61).HighestandlowestTSS
levelswerereportedatlocation5and8respectivelyinSite1while10Band4BinSite2(Figure3.62
and Figure 3.63). TSS values are below the trigger value (10 mg/l) for of southeast region of
Australia(Table3.25).


Figure3.61:TSSvariationinSite1andB


Figure3.62:TSSvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page70


Figure3.63:TSSvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

Mean turbidity of the Site 1 was 0.500.30 NTU. Maximum and minimum turbidity levels were
reportedat11Aand9Arespectively(Figure3.64).Presentturbiditylevelsofthestudiedareasare
belowthetriggervaluesofAustralianwaters(Table3.25)


Figure3.64:TurbidityvariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1

Chlorophyllandalgalbiomass
Mean chlorophyllconcentrations of Site 1 and B were 1.940.79 and 1.800.59 g/l respectively
(Figure3.65)andtherewerenosignificantdifferenceamongthestudysites.Thehighestandlowest
concentrations of chlorophylla of Site 1 were reported at 8A and 12 A respectively (Figure 3.66).
The highest and lowest concentrations of chlorophylla of Site 2 were reported at 6B and 4B
respectively(Figure3.67).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page71


Figure3.65:ChlorophyllaSDconcentrationsofSite1andB


Figure3.66:ChlorophyllavariationatdifferentlocationsinSite1


Figure3.67:ChlorophyllavariationatdifferentlocationsinSite2

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page72

AsthereisnoChlorophyllvaluesspecifiedinNationalAmbientWaterQualityStandardsforCoastal
Waters of Sri Lanka proposed by CEA (2001), the results were compared with Australian Marine
WaterQualityStandards(2000).Itisfoundthatthepresentchlorophyllacontentwashigherthan
thetriggervaluesofAustralianmarinewaterqualitystandard,(Table3.25)thepresentchlorophyll
levelisanindicationofhighalgalbloomoftheareas.Chlorophyllconcentrationsofmorethan1g/l
areanindicationofhighalgalbiomassinseawater.Itmightbeduetothemixingprocessesofthe
areaduetothesouthwestmonsoonandalsohighnutrientsupplythroughtheKelaniRiverwithhigh
river discharge during the monsoon. However, phytoplankton analysis is required to confirm the
highalgalbiomassofthestudysites.

Table 3.25: Default trigger values of chemical and biological stressors for Australian marine
waters.
Triggervalues
Parameter South east South central Southwest TropicalAustralia
Australia Australia Australia
Chlorophylla 1 1 0.3offshore 0.50.9Offshore
(g/l)
0.7inshore 0.71.4inshore
NOx oxides 0.015 0.050 0.005
of nitrogen
(mg/l)
Turbidity 0.510 12 120
(NTU)
TSS(mg/l) 10
(Source: National water quality management strategy; no.4 (2000), Australian and New Zealand
EnvironmentandConservationCouncil,GPOBox787CANBERRA)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page73

3.2.7Descriptionofbreedinggrounds/spawninggroundsandmigratoryroutsforcommercialand
ecologicallyimportantmarineorganisms
Reclamationarea
There are no sea grass meadows in the sea bottom of the reclamation area. The available sea
grassesareinsmallthinpatches.Therefore,animalspeciessuchasDugongarenotrecordedinthis
area.
Seagrassesareconsideredasidealbreedingplacesofmarinefishwhichareimportantinfisheries
also.However,fishesneedunsiltedclearareasforbreeding.Althoughsomeseagrassesarepresent
this area is heavily silted. Although sea turtles use some sandy beaches around Sri Lanka for egg
laying,thebeachesinthereclamationarenotusedbyseaturtlesforegglaying(Amarasooriyaand
Gunawardene1997).Hencethemarineenvironmentofthereclamationareaisnotafavorablearea
forspawningofcommerciallyandecologicallyimportantorganisms.
Thereclamationareaisalsonotamigratorypathofimportantmarineorganismssuchastunaasitis
locatedveryclosetothecoastline.HowevermigrationofIndianOceanTunaspeciessuchasYellow
fintunaandSkipJacktakesplaceinthecoastalwatersofSriLankabeyondthereclamationarea.
Sanddredgingarea:
Fisheryresourcesarethemostcommerciallyandecologicallyimportantresourcesinthestudyarea.
Theycanbedividedintotwomaincategories,pelagicanddemersal.Pelagicresourcesarethosethat
liveinthewatercolumn,ofteninshoals,suchassardines,anchovy,herring,mackerelandsquids.
Demersal resources are those that live at or close to the bottom. Some, such as the skate, rays,
shrimps, crabs, cuttlefish etc. are more associated with the seabed while others such as the
emperors, snappers, groupers, sweetlips etc. fishes forage in a layer that can be several meters
abovetheseabed.
Althoughalargenumberofspeciesarerecordedinthecatchesonlyafewarecontributedinlarge
volumesandalsoafewarecommerciallyimportant.Themostimportantsmallpelagicfishspecies
belongstofamilyClupeidaeandEngraulidae.Theyarecaughtbysmallmeshgillnetsandinbeach
seineoperatedatadepthrangeof57meters.
Sincethereisnowelldevelopedreefsystemandtheseabed comprisesmainlyofextendedsandy
habitats,commerciallyimportantdemersalfisheryresourcesinthestudyareaisscarce.Therefore,
pelagicresourcesarecomparativelyimportantthanbottomdwellingorganisms.
PelagicfishspeciesreportedinthefishcatchobtainedfromstudyareaisgiveninTable3.26

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page74

Table 3.26: Catch composition of the pelagic fisheries conducted within the proposed sand
dredgingsitesandborderingareas.
Family ScientificName EnglishName

Clupeidae Amblygastersirm Spottedsardinella


Amblygasterclupeoides Bleekerssmoothbellysardinella
Dussumieriaacuta Rainbowsardine
Escualosathoracata Whilesardine
Hilsakelee Keleeshad
Sadinellalongiceps Indianoilsardine
Sardinellaalbella Whitesardinella
Sardinellagibbosa Goldstripesardine
Carangidae Decopterusrusselli Indianscad
Scomberoidescommersonianus Talangqueenfish
Caranxsp. Yellowtailscad
Atulemate Bigeyescad
Selarcrumenophthalmus Yellowstripescad
Selarroidesleptosis
Engraulididae Encrasicholinaheteroloba Shortheadanchovy
Stolephorusinsularis Hardenbergsanchovy
Stolephoruscommersonii Commersonsanchovy
Stelephorusindicus Indiananchovy
Thryssadussumieri Dussumiersthryssa
Thryssamystax Moustachedanchovy
Thryssasetirostris Langjawthryssa
Scombridae Rastrelligerkanagurta Indianmackerel
Scomberomorusguttatus IndoPacifickingmackerel
Scomberomorussp
Leiognathidae Secutorruconius Deeppunoseponyfish
Leiognathusdussumieri Dussumiersponyfish
Gazzaminuta Toothpony
Pteriidae Pterocaesiosp
Sphyraenidae Sphyraenajello Pickhandlebarracuda
Sphyraenaobtusata Obtusebarracuda
Pristigasteridae Opisthopterustardoore Tardoore
Pellonaditchela Indianpellona
Pellonadayi Dayspellona
Trichiuridae Eupleurogrammusglossodon Longtoothhairtail

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page75

Breedinggrounds/Spawninggrounds
There are numerous modes of reproduction in finfishes. Pelagic finfishes are broadcast spawners
(Table3.27),whichinvolvessheddingtheeggsandspermintothewatercolumn,isoneofthemore
frequent strategies (Balon, 1984). Such species may have more extensive spawning grounds than
thosespecieswhichdepositeggsontheseafloororonbiogenicstructuresasdemersalfinfishand
nonfinfish(Table3.28).
Table3.27:.Keyfinfishspeciesinhabitinthestudyarea
Species Habitat Distributio Migrati Spawnin Locationinwatercolumn
n on g
Adult Eggs/lar Juvenil
ground
vae e
Amblygaster Pelagic Widespre No >50 m Pelagic Pelagic Pelagic
sirm ad depths
Coastal
Sadinella Pelagic Widespre No > 50 m Pelagic Pelagic Pelagic
longiceps ad depths
Coastal
Eupleurogramm Benthopela Widespre No Beyoun Benthopela Pelagic Softbot
usglossodon gic ad dfishing gic tom
zone demers
Muddy/sa
>100 m al
ndy
depths
bottom
area
Rastrelligerkana Pelagic Widespre Yes Beyoun Pelagic Pelagic pelagic
gurta ad dfishing
zone
Coastal
Offshor
and
ewaters
offshore
Sphyraenajello Pelagic/reef Widespre No > 50 m Pelagic/ree pelagic Soft
associated ad depths f bottom

associated demers
Coastal
al
Croakers Soft bottom Muddy/sa Yes > 50 m Sandy/mud Soft Soft
demersal ndy depths bottom bottom bottom
Lagoon
bottom demersal demers demers
area al al

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page76

Table3.28:Keyshellfishandothernonfinfishspeciesinhabitinthestudyarea
Species Habitat Distribution Migratio Spawnin Locationinwatercolumn
n g
Adult Eggs/lar Juveni
ground
vae le
Cuttlefish Demersal Widespread No Demers Demersal Demers
al al
Coastalsand
mudbottom
Squids Pelagic Widespread Unknow pelagic Demersal Pelagic
n
Coastal and
offshore
Metapenaeus Yes Soft Soft Soft Soft
dobsoni bottom bottom bottom botto
Lagoon/
demers demersal demers m
sea
al alsea demer
sal
Lagoo
n
Metapenaeus Yes Soft Soft Soft Soft
dobsoni bottom bottom bottom botto
Lgoon/s
demers demersal demers m
ea
al alsea demer
sal
Lagoo
n
Portunnus No
sanguinolentus

Thepresenceofeggsandlarvaeofbroadcastspawnerscanbeindicativeofspawninggrounds,but
the larval stages may have been drift away from the spawning site. Lack of time series data on
ichthyoplanktonthepresentstudyuseddataonmaturefishwithrunningeggsorspermtoidentify
spawning grounds in the study area. It was noted that the key representative species selected;
Amblygstersirm(hurulla)inthewestcoast,spawninmonsoonalseason,MaytoJuly.Sincetheyare
broadcastspawnersthewholeoffshorewatersofwestcoastisconsideredastheirspawningarea.
Study on the spawning behaviour of Amblygester sirm by Jayasooriya (1989) reported spawning
migrationmayoccurinAugust/Septemberatthelatterpartofthemonsoon.Itisalsoevidentthat
fishermen in the whole west coast use to fish at night in October to December in deeper waters
generally>50mdepth(>20kmfromshore)targetingmatureorspawningfishofAmblygestersirm.
ThisisatraditionalseasonalfisheryiscalledSekkal.Itisclearthatthemainspawninggroundsare
beyond the conventional fishing zone. Adults move away from the near shore water to deeper
waters for spawning during southwest monsoon, when salinity and temperature of the inshore
water fall and these to a larger extent, act as favourable factors to trigger spawning migration.
RecruitmenttothefisheryorthepresenceofsmallsizeimmaturefishinthecatchappearedinJuly
and January (Jayasooriya, 1989). This indicates that spawning grounds and nursery grounds of
Amblygestersirmareareinoffshorewatersandfeedinggroundsareinshallowdepths.
The existing reefs in the study area are less productive and limited extent. Thus demersal finfish,
dwellingorassociatedwithreefsarelacking.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page77

However, analysis of the shrimp catch and the bycatch in shallow muddy bottom area where in
adjacent to sand dredging site 1, enables to gather information on spawning grounds and nursery
grounds of shrimp, crabs, cuttlefish, croaker etc (Figure 3.68). Presence of buried shrimps of M.
BobsoniistheshallowinshoreareawhileburiedshrimpsofP.Indicusreportedfromdeeperdepths
were observed (Figure 3.69). As in most other penaeids, the life cycle of these two species are
completedintwoenvironments,thebrackishwaterofestuary(Negombolagoon)andKelaniRiver
estuaryandthesea.Matureshrimpsmigrateintoseaforbreedingandspawningtakesplaceatsea.
The entire course of initial larval development completes in the sea and postlarvae migrate back
into the brackish waters. Breeding takes place only in the sea and the cycle is repeated after
breeding.


Figure3.68:larvalformsofcrabsandcuttlefishcollectedfromshallowbuddybottomarea
(nurserygrounds)











Figure3.69:Buriedfemaleshrimpscollectedfromshallowmuddybottomarea(breedinggrounds)

3.2.8Descriptionofbiodiversityprofilewithinthesandborrowsites
The proposed sand dredging sites are located between two high nutrient inflows; mouth of the
KelaniRiverandNegombolagoon.Alsothesiteissurroundedwithbolderreefs,sandstonereefsand
rocks. These features may result higher the bio diversity and potential breeding grounds
characterizedwithlowertohighertropicsinthearea.
Pelagicandsemipelagicfishfamilies:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page78

Scombridae,Belonidae,Clupeidae,Carangidae,Lethrinidae,Lutjanidae,Ephippidae,Serranidae,
Scaridae,Haemulidae,Caesionidae,Chanidae,Coryphaenidae,Cynoglossidae,Exocoetidae,Leio
gnathidae,Muraenesocidae,Mugilidae,Siganidae,Engraulididae,Fistulariidae,Pomacentridae,
Balistidae,Chirocentridae,Sphyraenidae,Teraponidae,Carcharhinidae,Sphyrnidae,Loliginidae,
Sepiidae
Maindemersalfamilies:
Holothuriidae, Dasyatididae, Myliobatididae, Turbinellidae, Penaeoidea, Palinuridae,
Octopodidae,Portunidae,Congridae
Sea turtles: Survey area may serves as a migration route or feeding ground for only olive
ridely,Lepidochelisolivacea.
Seabirds:AfewnumberofSeabirds;slenderbilledGullsareseldomseeninthestudyarea,
dredgingsite1.
Other Aquatic living resources Aquatic mammals such as whales and dolphins rarely
reported and their presence insignificant. Biodiversity with less immediate economic
interest but with sound ecological importance, such as benthic organisms (polychaete
worms,ribbonworms,amphipods,bivalves,gastropodsetc.),soft,(sponges,gorgonian,sea
whips,efans),seaweeds(mainlygreenandbrownalgae)aredistributed.
Macrozoobenthic organinsms are representing five major phyla; Mollusca, Annelida,
Arthropoda,Chordata(lowerchordata),Retaria,Echinodermatawerefoundinthedredging
sites.

3.2.9Identificationandmappingoffishinggrounds.
Fisheries and fishing communities in the study area (for sand dredging) are supported by the
adjacent coastal sea. Consequently, the wellbeing and future of the fishery sector is inextricably
linkedtothehealthofthecoastalecosystem.Thestudyareasupportsavarietyoffisheryresources
mainlypelagicspeciesbothfinfishandnonfinfish.Allfisheriesconductedintheareaaresmallscale.
Different technologies used by the fishermen exhibit different labour demand, capital investment
andfuelusageandalsotheirdynamicnature.Methodusedtocatchfishmainlyincludesmallmesh
gillnets of different mesh sizes. Fishing activities are diversified especially fisheries operating with
outboard motor boats (FRPOBM), so that they can shift from one target species to the other,
dependingontheavailabilityoftheresources,season,weatheretc.Theactivitiesofnonmotorized
traditionalcraftsandbeachseineareconfinedtocalmseason,OctobertoMay.

Itisinterestingthataseconomicagentswithprofitmaximizationobjective,fishermenshiftedtheir
operationawayfromtheirlocalseafronttomoredistancewatersofbothnorth(Wenpappuwa)and
south (Mount Levinia) directions or more towards offshore areas. The artisanal fishers are not
continuing to fish in the same inshore waters, using the same gears. Based on the information
gatheredduringthestudy,fishinggroundsareillustratedontheFigure3.70.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page79


Figure3.70:Amapofthefishinggrounds

Theppams were fishing in a shallow area outside or buffer zone of leeward side of the proposed
dredging site 1 within a zone of less than 3 km from the shore. Boats engaged in shrimp fishing
operatedinmuddybottomareafromUswetakeiyawatoPamunigamaquiteclosetotheshoreand
also outside the dredging sites. OFRPs were operating in a wider area targeting a wide range of
species. The wide range of gear usage having different mesh sizes and hook sizes would be an
evidenceforthespeciesdiversity.
Itisnotedthatduetochangingbehaviouroffishtargetthespecialandtemporaldistributionofthe
fishing fleet should be monitored for longer period probably for a period of one year in order to
understandthebehaviourofthefishingfleet

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page80

3.3AmbientAirQualityoftheReclamationArea
3.3.1AmbientAirQualityStandards

Table 3.29: Ambient Air Quality Standards stipulated under the Extraordinary Gazette, No.
1562/22,August,15,2008bytheMinistryofEnvironmentalandNaturalResourcesofSriLanka

POLLUTANT TIME CONCENTRATION
AVERAGE (g/m3)
NOz 1hr 250
24hours 100
SOz 1hr 200
24hours 80
10,000
CO 08hours

100
PM10 24hours



3.3.2AirQualityMeasurements
AmbientairqualityisroutinelymonitoredinColombobyCEAwhooperateanetworkofambientair
monitoringstations.AirQualitymeasurementshavebeencarriedoutatthevicinityofthePortCity
onOctober2014andFebruary2015bytheNationalBuildingResearchOrganization(NBRO).Six
sensitivelocationswereselectedaroundthePortCityfortheairsampling.Thelocationdescription
isgiveninTable3.30andtheresultsaregiveninTable3.31andTable3.32.Measuredambientair
qualitylevelsatthesaidlocationswerewithintheAmbientAirQualityStandardsstipulatedbythe
CentralEnvironmentalAuthorityofSriLanka.

Table3.30:Locationdescriptionofsixsitesforambientairqualitymonitoring
Location Description
No.
L1 Infrontofthefortrailwaystation

L2 Withinthepremisesoftheoldparliamentbuilding

L3 SLPAOffice,Galleface

L4 Museum&ChaithyaofSLPA

L5 SiteOffice,ChinaHarbourEngineeringCompanyLtd

L6 2000roundabout,insidetheColomboport

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page81

Table3.31:Maximumconcentrationofeachparameterateachsamplinglocation(October,2014)

Location SamplingDate& Time Concentration(g/m3)
StartTime average
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6

SO2 13/10/2014: 1hrs 51 53 47 50 57 50


07:00
NO2 1hrs 74 63 52 54 68 52
to
CO 1hrs 4200 4600 4800 4400 4600 5000
14/10/2014,
PM10 07:00 24hrs 52 73 57 39 50 57



Table3.32:Maximumconcentrationofeachparameterateachsamplinglocation(February,2015)
Concentration(g/m3)
SamplingDate& Time
Location
StartTime average L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6

SO2 1hrs 54 62 50 68 50 57

NO2 24/02/2015: 1hrs 78 72 58 71 54 58


08:30
CO 1hrs 4800 4800 4500 5100 4400 4500
to
24/02/2015:
PM10 08:30 24hrs 62 43 44 11 52 30






















CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page82

3.4SocioCulturalConditions
3.4.1Descriptionandassessmentofresourcesintheprojectarea
Recoursesintheprojectareasuchasecologicalassets,beachesandhistoricallyimportantplacesare
describedinrespectivesectionsofthisSEIAreport.

3.4.2Descriptionandassessmentofthepresentfisheryandaquacultureresourcesinthe
studyarea

3.4.2.1Numberoffishers(FishingPopulation)
ReclamationArea:
Therearenofishinggroundintheprojectlocationandnofishingboatsareoperatinginthisarea.
However, two fishing grounds exist in the coastal waters north and south of project location (e.g.
ModeraandDehiwala).Bothofthesefishlandingcentersarelocatedmorethan8kmawayfromthe
projectsite.Theyuseseveraltypesoffishinggear(Table3.33).Thesearegillnets,driftingtrammel
nets and mechanized trawls. The gill nets are either bottom set gill nets or drifting gill nets. The
driftinggillnetsareeithermonofilamentnetsormultifilamentnets.Thegillnetsandtrammelnets
areoperatedfromfiberreinforcedplasticcraftsmanufacturedintheshapeoftraditionallografts.
Mechanized trawls are operated from 3.5 wooden boats powered by 2040 HP inboard diesel
engines.Thetrawlistowedfromtwothickbamboopoleswhichextendasboomsfromeitherside
ofthecraft.

Table 3.33: Fishing fleet and fish production in fish landing sites at Dehiwala and Mattakkuliya
2014
Fishingfleet&production Modara/Mattakkuliya DehiwalaWellawatta

MultidayBoat(Over50)1MuL 00 01
MultidayBoats(2834)1MuL 06 15
DayBoat 17 01
OutboardEngineFRP 83 74
HighSea
MotorizedTraditionalBoats(MTRB) 00 01
NonMotorizedTraditionalBoatsMTRB 42 11
Totalnumberoffishingfleet 148 103
TotalnumberoffishproductionMTS 1526.8 1869.6
Source:StatisticalunitoftheMinistryofFisheriesandAquaticResources

Theoperationoflograftsiscarriedoutduringthe calmmonthsoftheyear, i.e.fromFebruaryto


AprilandfromSeptembertoDecember.However,trawlingiscarriedoutthroughouttheyear.The
drifting multifilament gill nets are mainly operated in November and from February to April while
thebottomsetgillnetsaremainlyusedfromSeptembertoFebruary.Thetrammelnetsareusually
operatedinMarch.MultidayboatsengageinhighseafishingfromJunetoSeptember.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page83

Sanddredgingarea:
The proximity of proposed sand extraction area falls within the jurisdiction of Negombo Fisheries
District (NFD), which is comprised of 13 coastal fisheries inspector divisions (FI) from Wattala to
Kammalthurai.ThedemographiccharacteristicsofthefishingcommunityintheNFDareillustrated
inTable3.34.ThetotalfishingpopulationintheNFDis33,604andofthem9,249areactivefishers.
However,accordingtotheofficialinformationofthedepartmentoffisheriesandaquaticresources
(DFAR), fishermen in Jaela FI divisions are not engaging in marine fisheries but lagoon fisheries.
Therefore, totally 8,976 fishermen are directly involved in marine fisheries in the proposed sand
miningareayearroundastheirmainlivelihood.
Table3.34:FishingpopulationintheNegomboFisheriesDistrict(NFD)in2014
No FIDivision No. of GN No.offishing Active Fishing
divisions families fishers population
1 Kammalthurai 5 520 650 1600
2 Eththukala 4 398 460 1690
3 Kudapaduwa 3 750 851 3095
4 City1 4 914 1154 3971
5 City2 4 592 706 2253
6 City3 3 1532 1118 2246
7 Duwa 1 591 662 2965
8 Pitipana 4 596 1024 4510
9 Aluthkuruwa 2 542 470 2401
10 Kapungoda 3 742 700 2975
11 JaEla 11 351 273 1715
12 Uswetakeiyawa 8 451 590 1410
13 Wattala 6 605 591 2773
Total 58 8,584 9,249 33,604
Source:DFAR2014
In accordance with the age distribution of the active fishers (Table 3.35), a majority of them falls
undertheagegroupof5059yearsandthatof36.9%tothetotal.Theagegroupof60andabove
alsorepresentsaconsiderableproportion(13.8%)oftheactivefishers.Intheagegroups4059isthe
most affected age categories by the project because they represent over 70 percent of the total
activefishersinthearea.Resultsfurtherrevealedthatchildrenandteenagerswerenotinvolvingin
activefishinginthearea.Accordingtotheresultsofagedistributionitcanbefurtherassumedthat
mostofactivefishersarehavingtheirownfamilyunits.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page84

Table3.35:Agedistributionofactivefishers2014
Cumulative Percent
Agegroup(Years) Percent(%) ValidPercent(%) (%)
Valid 2029 1.5 1.5 1.5
3039 18.5 18.5 20.0
4049 29.2 29.2 49.2
5059 36.9 36.9 86.2
60+ 13.8 13.8 100.0
Total 100.0 100.0
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA
The Table 3.36 depicts the status of levels of education of the active fishers in the area. Results
clearedthatallactivefishersintheareahadattendedschooleducation:primaryorsecondarybut
territory education. A majority of fishers (86.1%) had attended grade 611 levels of education. In
general,97percentofactivefishersintheareahadobtainedgrade111levelsofschooleducation.

Table3.36:Statusofeducationofactivefishers2014
Percent Valid Percent
(%) (%) CumulativePercent(%)
Valid grade15 10.8 10.8 10.8
grade611 86.1 86.1 96.9
A/L 3.1 3.1 100
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA

3.4.2.2Numberandtypesoffishingcraftsoperatedandtheirsizes
Avastarrayoffishingcraftsandgears,traditionaltomodern,arebeingoperatedindifferenttypes
of fisheries in the NFD as shown in Table 3.37. There are 465,1937,103,1753 and 32 numbers of
IDAY, OFRP, MTRB, NTRB and NSBS crafts irrespective of FI divisions being operated in marine
fisheries in NFD respectively. Although, these all categories of crafts being operated in marine
fisheries the fishing areas covered, targeted species and gear used and operational aspects are
totallydifferaccordingtothecraftcategory.Craftsbeingoperatedbothwithintheproposedsand
miningareaandoutsideareaofinnerboundaryofsandminingareaandcoastlineatthebeachare
mostprobablybeaffectedduetosandminingactivities,therefore,craftsrepresentIDAYcategory
that are being operated and harvesting fish beyond the outer boundary of proposed sand mining
areaarenotaffectedandomittedfromtheconsiderationofthisstudy.Accordingly,threecategories
offishingcraftsarebeingoperatedinthearea,namelyFiberReinforcedPlasticBoats(OFRP),Non
MechanizedTraditionalBoat(NTRB)andBeachSeineBoat(NBSB).Theapproximatelengthofthese
craftsare19,12and18feetforOFRP,NTRBandNBSBrespectively.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page85

Table3.37:NumberofCraftsoperatedinNFDin2014
No FIDivision IDAY IDAY OFRP MTRB NTRB NSBS Lading
sites
1 Kammalthurai 216 58 2 9
2 Eththukala 175 12 3
3 Kudapaduwa 375 7 10 2
4 City1 8 2 425 42 150 2
5 City2 66 162 4
6 City3 40 49 142 3
7 Duwa 94 118 67 3
8 Pitipana 192 17 179 5 80 7
9 Aluthkuruwa 35 285 2 5
10 Kapungoda 38 460 28 6
11 Uswetakeiyawa 8 95 152 10
12 Wattala 114 30 175 169 7
Total 416 49 1,937 103 1,753 32 61
Source:DFAR2014

FibberReinforcedPlasticBoats(OFRP)
An OFRP is powered by an outboard engine and operates in and outside the proximity of project
area.ThetotalnumberofOFRPboatsbeingoperatedintheNFDis1937in2014.Thiscraftgenerally
beingusedawidearrayoffishinggearsseparatelyorsimultaneouslyinthefishingoperationsuchas
smallmeshedgillnets,mediummeshedgillnets,bottomsetnets,handlinesandbottomlonglines.
Generally from 2 to 3 number of crew members, including skipper, are on board in the OFRP.
Operationalcostofthesecraftsmainlycomprisedoffuelexpenses.Arageof1540litersoffuelis
usedperdayandonanaverageabout31kgoffishbeingharvestedperday.Incomesharingsystem
ofcrewmembersofthesecraftsishalftohalf.


Figure3.71:Fiberreinforcedplasticboat(OFRP)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page86

NonMechanizedTraditionalBoat(NTRB)
The NTRB(lograft/teppama)isatraditionalfishingcraftand hastraditionallydesignedwith three
logsorfiberglassandpaddledbyoars.In2014therewere1753numbersofNTRBbeingoperatedin
andoutsideofproposedsandminingarea.Thesecraftsaremainlyusedforsmallmeshedgillnetting
and hand line fisheries and therefore only about 2 to 4 miles being sailed. Generally one crew
memberormostofthetimecraftownerengagedinfishingoperation.Anoperationalcostcannot
beidentifiedandarageof286kgoffishbeingharvestedperday.


Figure3.72:Teppama(Log/Fiberraft)(NTRB)

Beachseineboat(NBSB)
Generally these nonmechanized crafts are used for the beach seine fishery. This fishery has been
existedforcenturiesandtheoperatorshavingcustomarypropertyrightstooperateintheparticular
area.However,atraditionalbeachseinecraftandthecoirmadenetwerereplacedrecentlybyan
OFRPboatandthenylonnetinthestudyarea.Therewere32beachseinesbeingoperatedinthe
proximity of the proposed project area. Although beach seines are operated very closely to the
beachsuccessfulnessoftheoperationdependentonthestatusoftheseacondition.Generallyabout
5060membersofcrew,includingskipper,areinvolvinginonebeachseineoperationatatime.Ata
timeonebeachseineislandedarangeof155173kgoffishwithmixedspecies.Theoperational
costofoneoperationisminimalandcomprisedmainlyfromrefreshmentforcrewmembers.

Figure3.73:HaulingofaBeachseine Figure3.74:OFRPboatusedforBeachseine

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page87

3.4.2.3Numberandtypeoffishinggearsused
An array of different fishing gear is used by OFRP and NTRB crafts operators separately and/or
simultaneouslydependingonthefishingseason:weatherconditionattheseaandtheavailabilityof
fishvarieties:catchability.TheTable3.38describesthefishinggearusedinfishingoperationsinthe
area.

Table3.38:Fishinggearusedaccordingtocraftcategory2014
Fishinggear Craft Total
OFRP NTRB NBSB
Indianmackerelnet(kumbaladel) 33.3% 66.7% 0.0% 100.0%
Anchovynet(halmessadel) 38.5% 61.5% 0.0% 100.0%
Lobsternet(pokirissadel) 16.7% 83.3% 0.0% 100.0%
Seabassnet(Modadel) 75.0% 25.0% 0.0% 100.0%
Small pelagic net (suda/sala/hurulla 35.7% 64.3% 0.0% 100.0%
del)
Seernet(thoradel) 75.0% 25.0% 0.0% 100.0%
Bottomlongline(batalone) 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
Beachseine(madel) 100.0% 100.0%
Othernet 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA

3.4.2.4NumberofBeachseine
Totally 32 numbers of registered beach seines are in operated in coastal fisheries along the shore
from Wattala FI division to Kammalthurai FI division in NFD in 2014. See Table 3.37 for more
information.

3.4.2.5Seasonsoffishingoperations
The approximate seasonal calendar for fishing operations of different craft categories is vary and
governedbytwomonsoonpatternsandisillustratedinTables3.39,3.40and3.41below.TheOFRP
boats are operated year round without having any sever impacts on operations due to monsoons
andNTRBcraftsareoperatedonly0608monthsofayearduetoseasonaleffects.Thebeachseine
(NBSB)craftsarealsooperated0608monthsonlyofayearduetomonsooneffects.Somefishers
usedtomigrateintosomeotherpartsofthecountryandothersusedtoshifttolagoonfisheriesasa
remedytofaceseasonaleffect.FishersinNFDmigratetonorthernandeasternprovincestooperate
beachseinesduringtheoffseason(MaytoSeptember).TheTeppam(NTRB)fishersshifttolagoon
fisheriesinthesouthwestmonsoonperiodofMaytoSeptember.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page88

Table3.39:SeasonalcalendarforOFRPcraftsoperations
SeasonalitypatternoffishinggearusageinOFRP
Fishinggear J F M AP M JN JL AU S O N D
Lobster 67 0 83 67 17 17 17 17 17 0 100 83
Smallpelagic 60 60 60 40 20 0 0 0 0 0 60 60
Mediumpelagic 91 91 100 75 27 18 9 0 18 27 55 55
Galmalu 50 50 50 50 50 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Halmassa 67 17 17 0 0 0 0 17 17 17 83 100
Ulawa 20 20 60 60 80 80 40 40 20 40 20 0
Parawlone 0 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA

Table3.40:SeasonalcalendarforNTRBcraftsoperations
SeasonalitypatternoffishinggearusageinNTRB
Fishinggear J F M AP M JN JL AU S O N D
Lobster 75 0 88 75 25 25 19 13 0 0 100 69
Smallpelagic 91 100 91 55 18 18 9 0 0 9 91 91
Medium
pelagic 89 89 78 33 11 11 11 22 22 33 89 89
Halmassa 83 50 33 17 0 0 0 0 0 17 83 100
Murali 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 100
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA

Table3.41:SeasonalcalendarforNBSBcraftsoperations
SeasonalitypatternoffishinggearusageinNBSBcraft
Fishinggear J F M AP M JN JL AU S O N D
Beach seine
net 100 100 100 75 63 0 0 0 38 38 88 100
Source:SocioeconomicSurvey2014/SED/NARA

Legend
>75% 75%50% <25%

3.4.2.6Speciesdiversityandquantityoffishcaptured
Themostcommonfishinggearbeingusedbyfishersinfishingoperationsintheareaissmallsized
meshed gillnet which is targeted in small pelagic fish species that are living in near surface of the

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page89

water column. The mesh size used in gillnet varies as 2.0, 2.25, 2.5, 2.96, 3.12, 3.28, 3.75 and
4.37cm. Species composition of gillnet fishery is widen and of them Amblygaster sirmspecies is
contributed the highest percentage (69%) to the total catch while Sardinela gibbosa (19%) and
Sardinela longiceps (05%) are followed in sequence. Species composition of the total fish catch of
gillnetfisheryisgiveninTable3.42.

Table3.42:Fishspeciescompositioninsmallmeshedgillnetfishery
Fishspecies Percentagespecies
composition(%)
Pterocaesiosp 0.35
Decapterusrusselli 0.06
Selarcrumenophthalmus 0.94
Selaroidesleptolepis 0.01
Amblygasterclupeoides 0.06
Amblygastersirm 69.08
Dussumieriaacuta 0.01
Escualosathoracata 1.26
Hilsakelee 0.05
Sardinelalongiceps 5.23
Sardinellaalbella 2.10
Sardinellagibbosa 18.88
Secutorsp 0.06
Rastrelligerkanagurta 0.47
Scomberomorusspp 0.12
Sphyraenajello 0.42
Sphyraenaobtusata 0.49
Otherrockfishes 0.01
Othersmallpelagicfishes 0.42

On the other hand shrimp bottom trawling being operated targeting shrimp species in the area.
Operation licensed was banned for the trawling but it was observed that fishers are operated
trawlerstodate.Penaeidshimpwasdominatedandthemaintargetshrimpspeciesintrawlfishery
in the area. The other shrimp species abandoned and caught in trawl fisheries in the area are,
Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus
canaliculatus, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus elegans, Matapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis
coromandelica,ParapenaeopsisunctaandParapenaeopsiscornuta.
Asnontargetedspecies,otherfaunafoundintrawlcatchesareAtulemate,Cynoglossussp,Gerres
filamentosus, Hilsa kelee, Esculasoa thoracata, Lactarius lactarius, Leiognathus brevirostris,
Leiognathus dussumieri, Leiognathus splendens, Secutor insidiator, Secutor ruconius, Upeneus
bensasi, Upeneus taeniopterus, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Sillago sihama, Johnius oelangerii,
Johnius carouna, Nibea maculate, Otolithes ruber, Terapon jarbua, Terapon puta, Opisthopterus

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page90

tardoore, Scatophagus argus , Dasyatis kuhlii , Himantura bleekeri , Exhippolysmata ensirostris,


Exopalaemom stylifera, Portunus pelagicus, Portunus sanguinolentus, Sepia aculeate, Sepia
latimanusandSepiapharaonis.
Species recorded in the beach seine catches are Decapterus russelli, Selar crumenophthalmus,
Selaroides leptolepis, Amblygaster clupeoidesm Amblygaster sirm, Dussumieria acuta, Escualosa
thoracata, Sardinela longiceps, Sardinella albella, Sardinella gibbosa, Secutor sp, Rastrelliger
kanagurta, Sillago sihama, Portunus pelagicus, Portunus sanguinolentus, Sepia aculeate, Sepia
latimanusandSepiapharaonis.
Fish species identified in the commercial fish landings are Acanthurus sp, Sufflamen fraenatus,
Caesio caerulaurea, Caesio cuningi, Caranx sp, Scomberoides commersonianus, Platax teira,
Plectorhinchus sp, Plectorhinchus vittatus, Sargocentron sp, Sargocentron spiniferum, Lethrinus
nebulosus,Lethrinussp,Monotaxisgrandoculis,Aphareusfurca,Lutjanusargentimaculatus,Lutjanus
kasmira, Lutjanus rivulatus, Lutjanus sp, Parupeneus cyclostomus, Parupeneus sp, Scolopsis sp,
Scolopsis vosmeri, Pomacanthus annularis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, Stegastes sp, Epinephelus
longispinis,EpinephelusmalabaricusandEpinephelusmerra.

3.4.2.7Incomelevelofthefishers
Monthly gross and net incomes of fishers who engaged in fishing operations according to the
differentcraftcategoriesisshowninTable3.43below.Thehighestmonthlynetincome(Rs367,559)
wasearnedbytheNBSBcraftfollowedbyOFRPandNTRBcrafts(Rs84,022and82,250)insequence.
Thepresentprevailingincomedistributionratioamongownerandcrewmemberis3:1.Accordingly
the lowest share of net income is earned by NBSB fishers due to nature of large number of crew
membersinaunit.

Table:3.43:Monthlynetincomeandincomeshareoffishersin2014
Type of Monthly Monthly Monthly Net Monthly Monthly a
craft production revenue operational income owner crew member
(kg) (LKR) cost(LKR) (LKR) Income Income(LKR)
(LKR)
OFRP 629 164,022 80,000 84,022 63,016 21,005
NTRB 359 89,750 7,200 82,250 61,913 20,638
NBSB 2,295 573,809 206,250 367,559 121,294 4,478
Source:MFARD2014

3.4.2.8Numberofdependents
Information regarding the number of fishing families, family members and active fishers in
accordance with FI divisions is given in Table 3.44, in addition to that the total number of family
membersinafamilyofanactivefisherwhoengagedindifferentcraftoperationsvariesfrom2to7,
2 to 9 and 3 to 6 members for OFRP, NTRB and NBSB craft categories respectively. This numbers
indicated that a large number of persons are dependent on fisheries and of them NTRB fishers
showedmoreresponsibilityinsupportinglivelihoodsoftheirdependents.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page91

Table3.44:Numberoffamilymembersaccordingtocraftcategory
Numberoffamily OFRP(%) NTRB(%) NBSB(%)
members
2 15.8 5.3 0
3 26.3 15.8 12.5
4 21.1 34.2 25.0
5 15.8 31.6 37.5
6 15.8 7.9 25.0
7 5.3 0 0
8 0 2.6 0
9 0 2.6 0
Total 100 100 100
Source:Socioeconomicsurvey2014,SED/NARA

3.4.2.9Seasonalmigration/Movement
Seasonalmigrationormovementforfishingactivitiesisexistedintheareasincemanydecades.Due
tomonsoonpatternsfishersusedtomigrateand/orshiftintootherpartsofthecountryorlagoon
fisheries from marine fisheries for their livelihood support. Beach seine operates used to migrate
into identified areas of Northern and Eastern provinces during the period of May to September
because of rough weather condition of the sea due to South West monsoon. It was revealed that
fishers who engaged in Teppam (NTRB) operations shift to lagoon fisheries in adjacent Negombo
lagoon in the south west monsoon period of May to September for their livelihood support.
Evidence has found that some OFRP craft operators used to migrate into northern and eastern
provinces during the south west monsoon period: May to September. Due to lack of reliable
informationonmigrationandmovementoffishersintootherfishinggroundsandareaitisdifficult
toestimatetheexactnumbersinaparticularperiod.

3.4.3Descriptionandassessmentofthefishery
ThetotalfishproductionoftheNFDin2014was35,251mt(2014,DFAR).Itwasthefourthhighest
annualdistrictfishproductionofthecountryinthesameyear.Thehighestcontributiontothetotal
fish production came from Pitipana FI Division where many multiday boats are landed.
Kudapaduwa, Kapungoda, Uswetakeiyyawa and Watttala FI divisions are also contributed higher
proportiontothetotalfishproductionoftheNFD.Itisclearlyindicatethatannualfishproductionof
NFD has been increasing year by year except in 2013. In parallel to the proposed sand mining
coordinates there are four FI divisions terrestrially, Aluthkuruwa, Kapungoda, JaEla and
Uswetakeiyawa,wheretheannualfishproductionisabout3,000mtorabout08%ofthetotalannual
fishproductionoftheNFD.TheannualtotalfishproductionofNFDbyFIDivisionsisgiveninTable
3.45.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page92

Table3.45:AnnualfishproductionofNFDbyFIDivision,20082014
No FIDivision AnnualFishproduction(mt)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1 Kammalthurai 538 704 739 905 2107 1761 1655
2 Eththukala 631 664 822 866 915 883 1871
3 Kudapaduwa 244 1011 3515 6364 6604 5722 6403
4 City1 67 981 2129 2732 3787 4917 5417
5 City2 921 838 463 356 2012 1407 2335
6 City3 332 926 509 737 2614 1510 1482
7 Duwa 543 653 703 775 827 1080 3359
8 Pitipana 1186 6112 11913 11573 14480 8927 7119
9 Aluthkuruwa 215 303 215 237 453 549 1052
10 Kapungoda 408 535 320 633 893 793 1056
11 JaEla 152 492 165 94 196 146 157
12 Uswetakeiyawa 657 748 609 568 774 884 892
13 Wattala 75 81 722 928 976 2770 2453
Total 5969 14047 22826 26768 36638 31349 35251
Source:MFARD2014

Othercommunities/institutionsaffected
PopulationoftheNFDismixedwithracialandreligionmakingdifferentlivelihoodsandlifestyles.
The majority is Catholics, but Buddhist and Islamic are also significant in numbers. Coastal area of
NFDishighlydenseinpopulationwheremostofeconomicactivitiesaretakingplace.Thissituation
hasstrengthduetoforeigntouristwherealargenumberofluxuryhotelsarelocated.Anumberof
fisheriesrelatedactivitiessuchasdriedfishmaking,waterandfuelsupplyingandfishmarketingand
distributionoraffiliatedindustriessuchascraftsmanufacturing,netmendingandiceproducingare
takingplaceandinvolvingaconsiderableamountofpeopleinthearea.
Proposedsandminingactivitiesmayhavesomenegativeimpactsonfishproductionoftheareathat
paw the way to negatively affect to the livelihoods of who directly involve in fisheries related
activities and affiliated industries through reduction of incomes. There are some fish processing
factories and exporters located in the area. Reduction of fish catch of fishers due to disturbance
occurringagainstharvestingfishattheseamayhaveimpactsonthesepeopleandtheirindustries.

3.5Archaeologicalandculturalaspects
Colombohasitsownuniquecolonialhistory.AsshowninPanditharathne(1976),theFortandthe
PettaharetwodistinctareasinColombocity.Today,theFortareafunctionsasthebusinessareaof
thecitywhilethePettahareafunctionedoriginally,andcontinuestoday,asthebazaarfocusofthe
indigenoustown.
The principal recreation facility near the project site is the Gall Face Ground (GFG), (about 0.5 km
southeastofthedevelopment),whichispopularwithlocalsforinformalandpassiverecreation.The
promenadewasinitiallylaidoutin1859bytheBritishGovernorofCeylon,SirHenryWard,andwas

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page93

alsousedforhorseracingandasagolfcourse,althoughtheoriginalGalleFaceGreenextendedover
amuchlargerareathanisseentoday.TheGFGiscurrentlya5hectareribbonstripoflandbetween
Galle Road and Indian Ocean which is now the largest open space in Colombo. This is a popular
destination for children, vendors, teenagers, kite flyers, merrymakers and all those who want to
indulge in their favorite pastimes next to the sea under the open sky. On Saturday and Sunday
evenings,thelandisbusywithdaytrippers,picnickersandfoodvendors.Therearetwolargehotels
thatborderthestrip;theKingsburyHotelandattheotherbythequaintGalleFaceHotel,oneofSri
Lanka's oldest and most popular hotels, with a variety of old world charm including old furniture,
handcarveddoors,balconiesandhighceilings.
The oldest port structures of cultural heritage in the vicinity of CPCD dates back to the arrival of
foreign powers, including the Portuguese in 1505, the Dutch in 1640, and the British in 1796. A
principal structure include remnants of the Battenburg Battery built under the Portuguese in the
16thcentury,andaDutchwarehousedatingtothe17thcenturyandhasbeenconvertedintothe
SLPA Maritime Museum and the Harbour Masters Building. These structures are within the
boundary of the Port of Colombo or in the restricted area surrounding the Presidents mansion.
Other places of cultural or religious significance in the northeastern end of the CPCD are the
Chaitya,GovernorsbathandthenewlighthouseonMarineDrive.Ofthosefeaturesremainingfrom
thecolonialtimes,manyhavebeengazettedforprotectionundertheAntiquitiesOrdinance(no.9of
1940) whilst other have been recognized as being of interest within the City of Colombo
Development Plan. The historic Old Parliament Building is yet another important place of
archaeologicalandculturalvalue.
Colombo Fort has been declared a special area because of the many historic buildings that come
under the UDA. The project will not directly affect buildings of heritage interest in Colombo City
and will likely have indirect benefits. The project will also allow realignment of proposed port
boundarywallsuchthatexistingkeystructuresofculturalheritageinterestwithintheportboundary
(including the Harbour Masters Building and Battenburg Battery) will be outside the project site.
Thesestructuresareproposedtobeconservedanddevelopedaspartofaheritageareatopromote
Colombos nautical history. The proposed project will not be a constraint on proposed heritage
developmentworkbytheDepartmentofArchaeology.Nosignificantimpactsuponculturalheritage
areanticipated.
SurveyevidenceofArcheologicalImpactAssessmentcarriedoutfortheproposedColomboPortCity
Development Project by the Underwater Archaeology Unit (UAU) of Exploration and Development
Branch of Department of Archaeology (UAU, 2012Appendix 2) reported six major localities in
reclamationareaalongwiththeirculturalvaluesasfollows:

Table3.46:Archeologicallocalitiesintheproject(reclamation)area.
CodeNo.(SiteID) SiteName CulturalValue
CPC001 Bunker C
CPC002 GovernorsBath C
CPC003 Barge01 C
CPC004 Barge02 D
CPC005 Cannon B
CPC006 Astoriashipwreck D

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page94

Notes:
B=Importantarchaeologicalsite,cannotbedestroyed,butcanbereplacedinasecondarycontext
afterrecording/documentingtheprimarycontext;
C=hasmeagerarchaeologicalvalue,andcanberemovedordisregardedafteradetailedrecording/
documentingbyarchaeologists;
D=Noarchaeologicalvalue.
Source:UAU,2012
Among these six locations, the cannon (CPC 005) needs to be salvaged to perform the required
chemical conservation actions and the estimated cost is around Rs. 1.2 million (UAU, 2012 p.75).
Theotherlocations(Codes001to003)canberemovedordisregardedafterdetaileddocumentation
by archeologists. The other two locations (Codes 004 and 006) categorized under D has no
archeologicalvalue.
Hence,potentialdamageisminimalintermsofarchaeologicalandculturalactivitiesoftheproject
siteanditsimmediateneighborhood.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter3Page95

CHAPTER4
ASSESSMENTOFANTICIPATEDENVIRONMENTALIMPACTS

4.1Physical/Chemicalconditions

4.1.1 HydraulicCirculation
ThecurrentfieldsbeforecommencementofthePortCityprojectareshowninFigure4.1andFigure
4.2below.ThecurrentfieldsaftercompletionofthePortCityprojectareshowninFigure4.3and
Figure4below.


Figure4.1:CurrentFieldinNorthDirectionbeforeCommencementofProject






CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page1


Figure4.2:CurrentFieldinNorthDirectionafterCompletionofProject

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page2


Figure4.3:CurrentFieldinSouthDirectionbeforeCommencementofProject

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page3


Figure4.4:CurrentFieldinSouthDirectionafterCompletionofProject


Current speed comparison was done at several points along the southern side of the proposed
development(includingGalleFace)forexistingenvironmentversusproposeddevelopment.Current
speedswereextractedatselectedpointswithintheproposedportcityareaandsouthernsideofthe
proposedcityandthosearegiveninFigure4.5below.
Themaximumandaveragedvelocity fordifferentpointslocatinginprojectareaisshowninTable
4.1.Thosemaximumandaveragecurrentspeedsarecalculatedfrommodelsimulationscoversthe
completeoneyearperiodinordertorepresenttheallpossibleenvironmentalconditionsincluding
seasonalvariations.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page4


Figure4.5:ExtractionLocationsforCurrentSpeedComparison

Table4.1:CurrentVelocityStatisticsatDifferentPoints

MaximumVelocity(m/s) AverageVelocity(m/s)
Location PointNumber
Existing Proposed Existing Proposed
1 0.60 0.06 0.12 0.01
Waterareabehind
2 0.53 0.07 0.11 0.02
innerbreakwater
3 0.46 0.11 0.09 0.03
4 0.37 0.24 0.07 0.05
5 0.33 0.19 0.06 0.04
Lagoon
6 0.31 0.21 0.05 0.04
7 0.29 0.36 0.06 0.07
8 0.27 0.10 0.07 0.02
Marina 9 0.25 0.14 0.05 0.02
10 0.24 0.18 0.05 0.02

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page5

11 0.25 0.36 0.06 0.06


12 0.45 0.35 0.05 0.06
Canal 13 0.18 0.34 0.03 0.06
14 0.25 0.32 0.04 0.06
15 0.32 0.31 0.06 0.06
In front of North Sand
16 0.63 0.24 0.12 0.06
Barrier
In front of South Sand
17 0.29 0.24 0.06 0.04
Barrier
In front of Galle Face GF5 0.38 0.40 0.07 0.10
Hotel GF12 0.28 0.30 0.07 0.05
Between Marina & M5 0.55 0.48 0.12 0.09
SubmergedBreakwater M12 0.26 0.22 0.07 0.04
In front of Kollupitya K5 0.57 0.60 0.10 0.11
Area K12 0.48 0.48 0.07 0.05

From the results it can be seen that slightly increased current velocities compared to existing
condition at the lagoon entrance and some points along the canal area. Other than that all the
observed points within the Port City area shows the lower current velocity than the existing
condition. At point GF5 and K5, which locates the southern side of proposed port city shows
slightly higher current speeds than the existing condition but the increase is not that much
significant.
The velocity of the current near the existing shoreline, including the Galle Face Green, decreases
afterconstructionofthePortCity.ThisisduetotheconstructionofPortCityitselfandtheproposed
(submerged)groyneatthesouth.

4.1.2 Waveconditions
TheprevailingwaveconditionbeforetheconstructionofthePortCityisdescribedinsection3.1.4.
ThewaveheightsadoptedinthedesignofPortCityisasshowninTable4.2below:
Table4.2:ThewaveheightsadoptedinthedesignofPortCity

Returnperiod(year) Waveheightsbefore
constructionofPortCity(m)
200 6.4
100 5.8
50 5.3
10 4.2
2 3.7

AfterconstructionofthePortCity,thewaveconditionwithintheprojectsitewillbealteredbythe
presence of marine structures. The following paragraphs describe the wave conditions at the
followinglocations:

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page6

(a) WaterareabetweentheGalleFaceGreenandthemarina
(b) Waterareawithinthemarina
(c) Waterareawithinthelagoon
(d) Waterareawithinthechannel

WaveconditionbetweentheGalleFaceGreenandtheMarina
Inthewaterareabetweenthesubmergedgroyneandthesouthmarinarevetment,therearemany
differenttypesofhydraulicstructures.Thesouthmarinarevetmentisconnectedtothecoastatan
angleandthebathymetryinthisareavaries.Withinthisarea,thewavestransforminshallowwater,
andundergoshoaling,refraction,diffraction,reflection,andbreaking(Figure4.6refers).Thewave
fieldinthiswaterareaisverycomplicated.Therefore,a3Dphysicalmodeltestswascarriedoutto
study the wave condition between the Galle Face Green and the revetment of the marina. The
modelsbuiltweretestedfor1in100yearreturnperiodwavesapproachingfromthemostcritical
southwestdirection.Themodelgivesthedesignwaveconditionsforthemarinarevetmentandalso
overtopping was considered. Overtopping is the volume of water that gets splashed on shore per
unitlengthalongtheshorelineperunittime.Itisusuallymeasuredinl/m/s.

Figure4.6:Shoaling,Refraction,Diffraction,Reflection,andBreakingofWaves

Ascanbeobservedfromthetwophotographstakeninthe3Dphysicalmodeltestsforconditions
beforeandafterconstructionofthePortCity,thewaveheightandthewaveovertoppingrateover
therevetmentoftheGalleFaceGreengenerallydecrease.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page7

Figure4.7:WaveFieldinfrontofGalleFaceGreenbeforeDevelopmentofPortCity

AscanbeobservedfromFigure4.7,beforeconstructionofPortCity,wavesfromsouthwestrefract
andimpactdirectlyontheshoreline


Figure4.8:WaveFieldinfrontofGalleFaceGreenafterDevelopmentofPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page8

After construction of Port City, waves from the southwest get trapped between the submerged
groyne and the revetment of the marina (Figure 4.8 refers). As a result, some of the wave energy
getsabsorbed.Thewavesgetdiffracted,theremainingwaveenergygetsdispersed,andthewaves
approachthenorthernendofGalleFaceGreeninamuchmoreobliquedirection.
Inthe3Dphysicalmodeltestscarriedout,thewaveheightatthetriangularwaterareaformedby
therevetmentforthesouthmarinaandtheexistingGalleFaceGreendecreasesafterconstruction
ofthePortCityduetotheshieldingeffectoftherevetmentforthesouthmarinaandthesubmerged
groyne.ThisisespeciallytrueforthewavesinfrontofthenorthernendofGalleFaceGreen.Wave
probes(Figure4.9refers)wereinstalledinthephysicalmodelteststomeasurewaveheights.The
measuredwaveheightsarepresentedandcomparedinTable4.3.Therateofovertoppingmeasured
along Galle Face Green generally decreased from 8.6 l/m/s to 7.0 l/m/s at the north and from
10.3l/m/sto9.4l/m/stothesouthin1in100yearwavereturnperiodevents.


Figure4.9:Arrangementofthewaveprobesin3Dphysicalmodeltests

Table4.3:ComparisonofwaveheightsinfrontofGalleFaceGreenbeforeandafterbuildingthe
PortCityProject(225(SW))

Waterlevel+1.2m
Testcases Points 1in1yearreturn 1in100year 1in100year
period returnperiod returnperiod
Hs=3.1m,Tp=11s Hs=5.8m,Tp=13s Hs=5.8m,Tp=16s
Hs(m) Hs(m) Hs(m)
Before Construction of Port A13 2.51 2.97 3.20
City A14 2.65 3.58 4.28
A21 2.43 2.87 3.10
AfterConstructionof A13 1.50 2.11 2.26
PortCity A14 2.65 2.90 2.94
A21 2.30 2.79 2.97

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page9

WaveconditionwithintheMarina

Oneofthedesigncriteriaofthemarinaisthatthewaveconditionwithinthemarinashouldprovide
arelativelycalmenvironmentfortheberthingofleisurevesselsin1in50yearwaveevent.Astudy
wasspecificallycarriedouttostudythewaveconditionofthemarina,sincetherequiredaccuracy
for measuring such small waves within the marina would be difficult to achieve in physical model
tests. The study involves the building of a MIKE21BW numerical model. In the numerical wave
model, MIKE21BW module was used to simulate the condition when 1 in 50 year return period
waves approach Port City from the southwest direction. The results show that, within the marina,
thesignificantwaveheightwillbesmallerthan0.4m.Thepredictedwaveheightpatternisasshown
in Figure 4.10. There is a significant reduction in wave height when compared with the situation
withoutthePortCityproject.

Fromtheresultsofthenumericalsimulation,asshowninFigure4.10,itisconcludedthatthelayout
ofthemarinasatisfiestherequirementsforberthstability.


Figure4.10:WaveheightpatternwithinMarina

Waterareawithinthelagoonandthecanal

The assessment of wave condition within the lagoon and the canal is necessary to provide
parameters for the design of revetments, and breakwaters. The design waves need to cater for a
spectrum of return period events. Assessment of waves within the lagoon and the marina was

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page10

thereforecarriedoutfor1in2years,1in10years,1in50years,1in100yearand1in200years
returnperiodevents.
Forthewaveconditionwithinthelagoonandthechannel,3Dphysicalwavemodelswerebuiltto
measure wave heights. The effect of overtopping and the generation of secondary waves had
rendered the use of numerical modelling insufficient, since these are discontinuous effects and
cannot be modelled numerically. In order to achieve high accuracy in the model the scale of the
model was greater than 1 in 60. Due to the large model scale, the 3D physical model had to be
separatedintotwopartssouthpartandnorthpart.
ThewavemeasurementstationsinthephysicalmodelsareshowninFigure4.11andFigure4.12.


Figure4.11:Wavemeasurementstationsinthe3DphysicalmodeltestSouthPart


Figure4.12:Wavemeasurementpointsinthe3DphysicalmodeltestNorthPart

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page11


Figure4.13:1:200yearreturnperiodwavesapproachthesouthernpartoftheprojectsiteinthe
SW(225)direction


Figure4.14:1:200yearreturnperiodwavesapproachthenorthernpartoftheprojectsiteinthe
WNW(285)direction

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page12

The wave heights measured in the physical model tests are summarized in Table 4.4. These
measurements are for waves approaching the southern part of the project site in the SW (225)
direction,andapproachingthenorthernpartoftheprojectsiteintheWNW(285)direction.Since
thewaterareawithinthelagoonandthecanalarewellprotectedbytheoffshorebreakwaterand
othermarinestructures,theheightofwavesaremuchreducedwhencomparedwiththesituation
withouttheproject.
Table4.4:Measuredwaveheights
Measurement Hs(m) Hs(m) Hs(m) Hs(m) Hs(m)
point 1in2yr 1in10yr 1in50yr 1in100yr 1in200yr
Incidentwave Hs=3.7m Hs=4.2m Hs=5.3m Hs=5.8m Hs=6.4m
Tp=14s Tp=14s Tp=15s Tp=16s Tp=16s
A1 0.80 0.88 1.09 1.24 1.43
A2 0.98 1.08 1.22 1.32 1.48
B1 0.58 0.62 1.07 1.09 1.23
B2 0.58 0.63 0.96 1.08 1.24
C0 0.96 1.05 1.20 1.54 1.65
C1 0.61 0.63 0.88 1.24 1.27
C2 0.42 0.44 0.93 1.32 1.38
C3 0.46 0.51 0.94 1.11 1.28
C4 0.33 0.38 0.96 1.27 1.30
C5 0.30 0.42 0.92 1.67 1.71
C6 0.41 0.56 1.38 1.86 2.01
C7 0.57 0.58 1.50 1.95 2.03
C16 0.48 0.65 1.20 1.62 1.96
C16 0.54 0.66 1.22 1.69 1.99
C17 0.59 0.79 1.28 1.72 2.00
C18 0.61 0.71 1.02 1.47 1.81
C19 0.66 0.81 1.25 1.58 1.94
C21 0.73 1.15 1.52 2.01 2.11
C23 0.81 1.44 1.87 2.44 2.87
C25 0.58 0.80 1.09 1.26 1.40
C26 1.22 1.67 2.32 2.96 3.24
C27 0.30 0.35 0.61 0.82 0.89
C28 0.41 0.49 1.06 1.26 1.30
C29 0.84 1.02 1.22 1.59 1.94
N1 2.02 2.29 3.12 3.65 4.02
N2 2.95 3.96 4.76 5.13 5.55
N3 4.00 5.13 6.21 6.49 6.62
D1 0.58 0.72 0.98 1.33 1.62
D2 0.55 0.65 0.87 1.16 1.57

Further, wave height comparison was done at several points along the southern side of the
proposed development (including Galle Face) for existing environment versus proposed
development. MIKE 21 SW model simulation was carried out for a complete one year period with
appropriateforcingparameters.Extractedlocationsforcomparisonofnormalwaveconditionsare
showninFigure4.15below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page13

Separate modelling was done for 100year return wave conditions for existing and proposed
conditions while considering the impact of proposed submerge groyne at the Galle Face area.
Several modelling scenarios were done to observe the impact of the development with 100 year
returnperiodeventasfollows;
Hs=5.8m,Tp=16s(1in100yearevent)fromSWdirection,with350msubmergedgroyne
Hs=5.8m,Tp=16s(1in100yearevent)fromSWdirection,butwithnosubmergedgroyne.
Hs=5.8m,Tp=16s(1in100yearevent)fromSWdirection,withexistingenvironment.

Extracted locations for comparison of 100 year return wave conditions are shown in Figure 4.16
below.


Figure4.15:ExtractionLocationsatSouthernsideofDevelopmentforCurrentSpeedComparison

Wave height, wave period and wave direction for selected locations were extracted from existing
condition and with the port city development. Comparison against existing versus proposed
conditionsfornormalwaveconditionsisgiveninTable4.5below.

From the results it was clearly observed that wave heights get reduces significantly in the area
behind the marina and the northern part of the Galle Face area with the proposed port city
development.AtlocationK5andK12alsoslightreductionofwaveheightisobservedaftertheport
cityconstruction.Henceitcanbeconcludethatwaveheightsgetreducesinthesouthernpartofthe
marinatowardstheSouthoftheproposeddevelopment.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page14

Table4.5:Comparisonofnormalwaveconditionsforexistingandproposedconditions

SignificantWaveHeight,Hs(m) PeakWavePeriod,Tp(sec) MeanWaveDirection(deg)


Condition Location
Min Max Average Tprange Average Directionrange Average

M5 0.24 3.22 1.09 420.7 10.0 212287 250

M12 0.23 4.09 1.06 420.8 10.1 201300 250

Existing GF5 0.25 2.64 0.97 3.819.6 9.8 221284 251


Environment GF12 0.22 4.10 1.05 420.4 10.1 202299 249

K5 0.22 2.92 0.96 3.819.5 9.8 217290 253

K12 0.21 4.01 1.02 420.4 10.1 207301 250

M5 0.04 2.91 0.85 1.219.7 9.6 46355 240

M12 0.04 3.52 0.76 1.020.0 9.6 8358 234


WithProposed GF5 0.09 2.53 0.87 3.820.7 9.8 221286 250
PortCity
Development GF12 0.08 4.11 0.96 2.121.6 10.2 6305 246

K5 0.19 2.85 0.92 3.819.8 9.7 216277 248

K12 0.20 4.06 1.01 420.4 10.1 204298 248

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page15


Figure4.16:ExtractionLocationsatSouthernsideofDevelopmentforCurrentSpeedComparison

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page16

Comparison was made for 100year return period wave condition for the proposed development
versustheexistingconditionandextractedwaveconditionsforselectedlocationsaregiveninTable
4.6 below. From the results, it was clearly seen that with the proposed development wave
conditionsattheextractedlocationsgetreducedconsiderably.

Table 4.6: Comparison of 100 year return period wave condition for existing and the wave
conditionswithandwithouttheproposedsubmergedgroyne
WaveHeight(m) WavePeriod(s) MeanWaveDirection(deg)

Location with without with without with without


Existing proposed submerged Existing proposed submerged Existing proposed submerged
groyne groyne groyne groyne groyne groyne
A1 3.02 1.32 1.11 12.4 12.3 12.2 244 217 215
A2 2.71 1.53 1.91 12.0 12.3 12.3 247 225 225
A3 3.88 2.24 2.33 12.6 12.5 12.6 244 221 222
A4 4.46 2.95 2.82 12.8 12.8 12.7 241 216 214
A5 4.35 3.88 3.83 12.8 12.8 12.8 239 226 227
A6 5.26 4.93 4.83 13.1 13.0 13.0 236 230 229
A7 5.47 4.96 4.79 13.2 13.1 13.1 234 228 227
A8 1.53 1.59 11.2 12.1 246 228
A9 2.41 12.0 247
A10
A11 1.83 1.75 1.92 12.0 12.0 12.1 243 235 238
A12 1.30 1.76 11.5 12.0 239 239
A13 5.45 5.38 5.31 13.2 13.2 13.2 233 230 231
A14 5.31 5.03 5.03 13.1 13.1 13.0 234 231 233
A15 4.31 4.31 4.19 12.8 12.9 12.8 236 233 236
A16 5.46 5.19 5.17 13.2 13.1 13.1 233 229 229
A17 5.27 5.14 4.96 13.1 13.1 13.0 235 231 232
A18 3.99 4.24 4.07 12.6 12.7 12.7 237 234 236
A19 3.94 4.34 3.85 12.6 12.8 12.7 239 233 234
A20 2.17 1.95 2.66 12.1 11.9 12.3 242 237 238
A21 2.49 2.45 12.2 12.3 242 236
A22 3.45 2.86 2.91 12.5 12.5 12.6 241 228 228
A23 3.16 1.98 2.27 12.4 12.2 12.3 244 232 232
B1 5.38 1.81 1.80 13.3 12.3 12.2 237 173 174
B2 5.62 1.99 1.91 13.4 12.6 12.5 235 167 169
B3 5.63 0.39 0.34 13.5 5.9 5.1 233 161 161
B4 5.59 4.22 4.51 13.4 13.3 13.3 233 213 212
M5 3.37 3.68 3.37 11.2 11.9 11.2 212 222 210
M12 5.32 5.12 5.00 13.1 13.1 13.0 235 229 230
GF5 3.42 3.51 3.13 10.5 11.2 9.7 194 209 179
GF12 5.26 5.38 5.14 13.2 13.2 13.1 234 234 234
K5 3.85 3.78 3.90 12.0 11.8 12.2 225 216 225
K12 5.11 5.18 4.80 13.2 13.2 13.2 236 235 236

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page17

4.1.3 CoastalMorphology
ThemainfactorsthatmayaffectcoastalmorphologyoftheshorelinenearPortCityare:
(a) Wavedirectionwithrespecttotheorientationofthecoastline
(b) Waveheight
(c) Littoraldrift
(d) Compartmentalization such as the presence of bays, lagoons, breakwaters, groynes, and
harbours
(e) Naturalsandsupply
(f) Lithologyandgeologicalformation
(g) Topographyofcontinentalshelf
(h) Changesinsealevel
(i) Coralmining
(j) Sandmining
(k) Destructionofbeachrock
(l) Destructionofvegetation
(m) Presenceofmanmadestructures

In the Initial Technical Feasibility Study of the project carried out by the government for the
reclamationareaof133ha,LankaHydraulicInstitutehadcarriedoutdetailednumericalmodelling
to study the sediment behaviour in the vicinity of proposed Port City area. MIKE21 ST model had
been used for hydrodynamic modelling. Modelling had been carried out for number of scenarios
covering Spring/Neap Tidal conditions, Average/High wind conditions, Southwest, Sea & Swell
conditionsandNorthwestSeawaveconditions.Figure4.17givesatypicaloutputfromtheSediment
TransportModelling.

(a) ExistingCondition (b)ModelLayoutA


Figure4.17:ComparisonofSedimentTransportRatesDuringMaximumVelocity,SpringTide
FloodCondition,WindSpeed=10m/s,WindDirection=2250,WaveCondition=SWSwell

Accordingtothemodellingresults,asignificantchangeofsedimenttransportpatternhasnotbeen
observed in the vicinity of the development due to the introduction of new breakwater and
proposedreclamation.Clearsediment transportpatternsarepresentinthesurfzoneandshallow
areas. Areas where the depth exceeds 1618 m do not show the existence of any sediment
transport,especiallyunderseawaveconditions.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page18

In order to assess the coastal morphology after construction of the 269ha reclamation, useful
conclusions had been made in the technical study report, Analysis of Coastal Evolution and
Siltation, based on the empirical and analytical assessments, using the available and actual
measureddataonwaves,current,sedimentsizedistribution,andsatelliteimageofthestudyarea.
Theapproachofthetechnicalinvestigationcarriedoutinthestudyincludes:
(a) Analysisofhistoricalshorelineevolutionbasedonsitereconnaissance,satelliteimage,and
thetopographicsurveycarriedoutwithinthefootprintofPortCity
(b) AnalysisoflongshoresedimenttransportpotentialusingKamphuisformula
(c) Buildingandcalibration(usingasbenchmarkthemeasuredexistingsedimentconcentration
withintheprojectsite)ofaMIKE21numericalmodelthatcoverstheprojectarea,anduse
the model to predict the change in sediment movement pattern after construction of the
PortCity.

The satellite remote sensing images of the project area obtained in 2002 and 2013 were digitally
enhanced and compared (refer Figure 4.18). Although there have been minor fluctuations of the
shoreline, there has not been any significant change of the shoreline during these 11 years, even
afterconstructionoftheColomboSouthPort.TheconstructionoftheColomboSouthPortdoesnot
seemtohaveanysignificantimpactontheevolutionoftheshoreline,whichhadremainedstable.It
should be noted that the development of the Port City could, from the perspective of
hydrodynamics,beconsideredasanextensionofColomboSouthPort.Assuch,thedevelopmentof
thePortCityisnotexpectedtocauseanysignificantchangeoftheshoreline.


Figure4.18:CoverageofRemoteSensingImagesnearColomboHarbour


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page19

According to previous studies (from Colombo Port Efficiency & Expansion Project Colombo South
HarborDetailedEngineeringReport,ScottWilson),sedimenttransportrateisabout2.5105m3/a.
This is close to the results of the numerical modeling of LHI (Development of Modern City at
SouthernBorderoftheColomboPortMathematicalModeling,LankaHydraulicInstitute).
NumericalmodelingwascarriedoutusingMIKE21computerprogramtosimulatetheimpactofthe
development of Port City on the coastal evolution and the siltation intensity around the Port City
afterconstruction.Theinputofthemodelisbasedonthefollowing:
(a) Currentflux:Thecurrentfieldboundaryconditioniscomputedbycalibrationusingmeasured
current velocity and current direction for the 15 days in the SW monsoon (1430 August
2013)andthe15daysintheNEmonsoon(115January2014.Theboundaryconditionsfor
thetwoperiods(each15days)areextrapolatedtogeneratetheboundaryconditionforone
year,andareusedasinputtothenumericalmodel.
(b) Wave field: The wave field boundary condition is generated from the relatively complete
record of both wave height and wave direction measured for year 2004 and 2009.
Representative wave parameters were generated and input as boundary conditions in the
Mike21HDmodule.
Themeasureddataisclosetothesimulateddata.Itindicatesthatthemodelcanprovideasound
basis to analyze siltation and erosion pattern after construction of Port City. The coverage of the
MIKE21numericalmodelisasshowninFigure4.19.


Figure4.19:ComputationDomainofMike21Model

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page20

Thecriteriachosenformeasuringerosionandsiltationinthemodelissiltationintensity,whichisthe
changeintheleveloftheseabedorreclamationperyear.Positivesiltationintensityindicatesarise
ofseabedlevel,whereasnegativesiltationintensityindicatesaloweringoftheseabedlevel.
In order to analyze the influence of Port City on shoreline evolution near the project, change of
siltationintensityisshowninFigure4.20andFigure4.21.Itisobtainedbycomparingtheannualnet
siltationintensitybeforeandaftertheproject(InFigure4.20andFigure4.21),bluecolorindicatesa
reductioninsiltationintensityafterconstructionofPortCity,andanincreaseinsiltationintensityis
highlightedinorange.ItcanbeobservedfromFigure4.20that,becausethesouthembankmentof
ColomboSouthPorthasalreadyblockedthenetlongshoresedimenttransportfromsouthtonorth,
andbecausethiswillnotbechangedbytheconstructionofthePortCity,thereisnochangeinthe
siltation / erosion intensity north of the Colombo South Port before and after construction of the
PortCity.ItimpliesthePortCityprojectwillnotaffecttheshorelineevolutionnorthoftheColombo
SouthPort.SouthofthePortCity,theprojectmainlycauseschangeinsiltationintensitywithinthe
water of Port City (in the lagoon and at the entrance of Port City). There is very little impact on
shorelineevolutioninwaterareawithin0km~4kmsouthofPortCity,andtheorderofmagnitude
ofthechangeinsiltationintensityissmallerthan0.02m/year.Intheseaareafurthertothesouth,
thesiltationintensityremainsbasicallyunchanged.


Figure4.20:SiltationIntensitywithproject(m/a) Figure 4.21: Change of Siltation Intensity after
theproject(m/a)

Siltation intensity within the Port City is studied using the calibrated numerical model, with
consideration for both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast Monsoon. Annual siltation
intensitydistributionisshowninFigure4.22.
Thelocationofmeasurementstations#1to#10areasshowninFigure4.22.Thesiltationintensity
ofeachmeasurementstationispresentedinTable4.7.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page21

Table4.7:SiltationIntensityinFeaturepoints

CalculatedPoint AnnualSiltationIntensity(m/a)
#1 0.018
#2 0.036
#3 0.039
#4 0.037
#5 0.035
#6 0.034
#7 0.033
#8 0.032
#9 0.021
#10 0.038
Averaged 0.03
4 3
TotalSiltationVolume(x10 m /a) 6.0


Figure4.22:SiltationIntensityintheProjectArea(m/a)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page22

Further details of the above work can be referred to in the technical study report, Analysis of
CoastalEvolutionandSiltation.Theconclusionsreachedinsectionsbelowarebasedonthefindings
ofthisstudyreport,thenumericalmodelingworkofLHI,andexperiencegainedinsitemonitoringof
theshorelineadjacenttothePortCityprojectsite.

4.1.3.1Erosionofadjacentshorelineduetochangeofcurrent,waveheightregimesattributedto
thecoastalstructureswithreclamationarea
Impactsonsiltationandintheportentrancechannel
AsshowninFigure4.23,thenavigationchanneloftheColomboSouthPortislocatedtothenorth
westoftheport.WhencomparedwithFigure4.22,itcanbeobservedthataftertheconstructionof
the Port City, there will not be any significant impact on the siltation intensity at the navigation
channel.

Figure4.23:ThenavigationchanneloftheColomboSouthPort

InthedesignoftheColomboSouthPort,thewidthoftheportentranceisabalancebetweenthe
needtoreducetheentrancewidthtoachieveminimumwavedisturbancewithintheharbourandto
make it sufficiently wide to ensure safe clearance for navigation of vessels. The width of the
entrance is one of several aspects of the design that affects the hydrodynamics in the basin and
therefore sediment transport. The layout of the basin is based on wave penetration and vessel
navigation. It is recognized that the reduction of siltation is only one of the aims, considered an
importantone,oftheoveralldesignprocess.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page23

Aprogrammeofmaintenancedredgingisrequiredtomaintainthedepthsandreducesiltationinthe
ColomboSouthPort.Modelingindicatesthattheannualrateofdepositionintheouterchannelis
only 24 mm. Dredging the channel to 20.5 m would mean that no maintenance dredging was
requiredforaround20yearsaftertheinitialcapitaldredging.
During the dredging works for construction of the Port City, the release of sediments during
placementofdredgedmaterialisconsideredtobelow.Giventherelativelylowratesofsediment
release and the tendency for sediments to settle close to the release point, it is considered that
there will be a negligible effect from construction dredging activities on sedimentation of the
entrancechanneloftheColomboSouthPort.
ImpactonColomboHarbourandKelaniriveroutfallandnorthwardcoastalarea
The Colombo South Port is an enclosed water area connected to open water by the navigation
channel.Sincetherewillnotbeanychangetothesiltationintensityatthenavigationchannel,itis
notanticipatedthattherewillbeanychangeinsiltationintensitywithintheHarbour.
As can be seen in Figure 4.24, the mouth of the Kelani River is located about 4.5 km north of the
ColomboSouthPort,anditiswithinthecomputationdomainoftheMIKE21numericalmodel.From
thechangeinthesiltationintensitycomputedfromthemodel,theconstructionofPortCitywillnot
haveanyimpactonthesiltationrateattheKelaniRivermouth.



Figure4.24:RelativelocationofKelaniGanga

Thenetlongshoresedimenttransportispredominantlydirectedtowardsthenorthasaresultofthe
waveclimate.ConstructionofColomboSouthPort,havinga2kmlongsouthernmain breakwater
arm,hadeffectivelyestablishedaverylonggroyneatthenorthernendofthesoutherncoast.The
seawardendofthebreakwaterisinabout18mdepthofwater,whichisfardeeperthanthelimitof

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page24

significant longshore transport. It is concluded that a significant proportion of longshore transport


hasbecapturedbythis"groyne".
An important geomorphological feature with respect to the stability of the coastline is the beach
rockwhichfrontsthecoastlineforlongstretchesbetweenColomboandNegombo.Theexistenceof
beachrockisanindicationofastablecoastlineoveralongperiod.
AftercompletionofthebreakwaterofColomboSouthPort,acalmareahasbeenestablishednorth
ofColomboSouthPortandinfrontoftheKelaniRivermouth.Thegreatestchanges,comparedto
thepreColomboSouthPortsituation,willbeduringtheSWmonsoonperiod,wheretheColombo
SouthPortlayoutwillprovideawaveshadowforthisarea.Asaresult,ahighpercentageofthesus
pendedsedimentbroughtinbytheKelaniRiverwouldsettleinthevicinityoftherivermouth.The
constructionofPortCityonthesouthernsideoftheColomboSouthPortwillnotcauseanychanges
thehydrodynamicsandsedimenttransportoftheColomboHarbour,theKelaniriveroutfallandthe
northerncoastalarea.Theimpactisconsideredaslow.
The sediment process to the north of the port are highly complex due to inflow from the Kelani
River, the shadow from the harbour and the presence of several shoreparallel beach rock
structures.
ItshouldbenotedthatthePortCitywouldbeconstructedseveralyearsaftertheconstructionofthe
Colombo South Port. The impact of the Colombo South Port on the Kenai River outfall and the
coastline north and south of the Harbour has been monitored. There have been no significant
impactsontheKelaniRiverOutfallandthecoastlinenorthoftheoutfall.SincethePortCityistobe
constructedonthesouthernsideandintheshadowofthemainbreakwateroftheColomboSouth
Port,itwillinnowayaffectcoastalerosionnorthoftheHarbour.
ImpactsonBeiraLakeoutfallsandsouthwardcoastalareatotheproposedproject
ThecoastalstretchsouthofColomboisstablewithverylittleseasonalchanges.Thenetlongshore
sedimenttransportalongthewestcoastofSriLankaispredominantlydirectedtowardsthenorthas
aresultofthewaveclimate(SWmonsoonseawavesandswell).
A (submerged) groyne may be constructed south of the Beira lake outfall, specifically to stop any
sedimenttransporttowardsthecornerthatmayblocktheoutfall.TheoutputoftheMIKE21model,
asshowninFigures4.26and4.27,demonstratesthebedlevelchanges.Somesiltationalsooccursin
theareaoftheoutlet.Indetaileddesignphase,theexactlocationanddimensionsofthegroynewill
befinalizedtokeeptheBeiraOutletopen.
AscanbeobservedfromFigure4.25,theconstructionofPortCityhasverylittleimpactonshoreline
evolutioninareawithin0km~4kmsouthofPortCity,andtheorderofmagnitudeforanychange
insiltationintensityissmallerthan0.02m/year.Inthewaterareafurthertothesouth,thesiltation
intensityremainsbasicallyunchanged.

4.1.3.2Erosioneffectsineithersidesofthecoastalstretchbeforeandafterconstructionaswell
asinlongterm
Coastalerosion/accretionandBathymetricchanges(oneithersidesoftheproposedproject)in
thecoastalzone
Therearetwosetsofbathymetricsurveyrecordoftheprojectsitein2008(beforeconstructionof
theColomboSouthPort)and2012(afterconstructionoftheColomboSouthPort).Thecomparison
ofthepositionofthe10m,15mand20misobathsisshowninFigure4.25.Thegreenlinesandblue
linesrepresentthetwosetsofisobathsin2008and2012,respectively.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page25



Figure4.25:Comparisonofisobaths

Thecomparisonoftheseabedprofilebetween2008and2012indicatesthattheseabedclosetothe
shoreline is stable over the fouryear period. According to the results of the survey, there is no
obviousdepositionclosetotheshoreaftertheconstructionoftheColomboSouthPort.Itindicates
thattheinfluenceofthebreakwateronlongshoresedimenttransportationisnotveryobvious.
The reclamation work and the construction of the breakwater of Port City are likely to result in
similar insignificant bathymetric change and the impact is negligible compared to the already
constructedtheSouthPort.
Inordertofindoutmorphologicalchangeswithnewdevelopment,setsofnumericalmodelswere
simulatedcoveringabout25kmcoastalstretchinwestcoast.Sedimenttransportstudywascarried
out using the results from hydrodynamic and wave transformation models. Representative
environmental scenarios were formulated based on the analysis of the annual wave climate and
currentpattern.Thesedimentdataforthestudywasbasedontheanalysisofthesamplecollected
from the seabed. MIKE 21 Sediment Transport (ST1) model was used to assess the wave/current
inducedsedimenttransportandtheassociatedmorphologicalevolutioninthestudyarea.
Themodelwasrunforafulloneyearofmeasuredwaveconditions(May2013toMay2014).Wind
condition and tidal variation were also applied appropriately. Bathymetry and existing coastal
structures were incorporated according to the recent surveys. The results of recently performed
(MIKE21ST)aregivenbelow.

1
MIKE 21 ST is a Sediment Transport module which is capable of calculating the rates of noncohesive sediment (sand) transport and
simulatingriver/seabedchangeswithtimeforbothpurecurrentandcombinedwavesandcurrentsituations.Itssimulationessentially
requiresanoutputfilefromaMIKE21HDsimulationasinputinallcases.Inaddition,adatafilecontainingwaveparametersascalculated
byMIKE21SWisneededifthesedimenttransport ratesincombined wavesandcurrentaretobe calculated.Thesedimenttransport
simulationisperformedonthebasisofthehydrodynamicconditionsthatcorrespondtoagivenbathymetry.Sincethebedlevelchangeis
computedbythemodel,erosionanddepositioncanbeobtainedbyextractingtheresults.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page26


(a) ExistingCondition (b)ProposedCondition
Figure4.26:MorphologicalChangesafteroneyear

Fromtheresultsofmorphologicalchangesofexistingcondition(withColombosouthportonly)after
oneyearperioditcanbeclearlyseenthatdepositionofsedimentsinthesouthernsideofColombo
south port breakwater since its acts as a barrier to the northward sediment transport. Here blue
colourshowstheareawhereerosioncanhappenwhileyellowcolourshowstheaccretion/siltation.
NorthtotheColombosouthportthereisnomajoraccretionorerosionoccurs.Fewareasbetween
protection structures show local erosion & deposition mainly based on the local effect of those
structures.
Itcanbeobservedsmallincreaseinsedimentdepositioninthesouthernsideoftheportcitybutitis
almost the same quantity with compared to the south port alone condition (exiting condition).
Furtheritisobservedthatbedlevelchangeinsidetheexistingportaswellasthenavigationchannel
isnegligibleevenwiththenewproposedportcity.
According to the results, it cannot be seen significant morphological changes in seabed with new
development.Howeverasmallaccretionisobservedatsouthernsideofsite,butthisaccretionrate

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page27

is less than 0.2m/year. This main accretion can be seen southward to the proposed groyne. The
other area except south side of this groyne, the accretion rate is less than 0.1m/year. Hence
significantshorelinechangealsocannotbeseenaccordingtotheresults.
In order to analyze the bed level change in different locations, the results plots of morphological
changes for different area are given in Figure 4.27 to Figure 4.28. The selected profiles for
comparisoninthesouthernsideoftheportcityareasfollows;
S1Justsouthwardtoproposedgroyne(nearviewplatformofGalleFaceGreen)
S22.5kmsouthwardtoproposedgroyne(near5thlaneatKollupitiya)
S33.5kmsouthwardtoproposedgroyne(nearBambalapitiyarailwaystation)

S1

S2

S3



Figure4.27:MorphologicalChangesatSouthwardtoPortCity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page28


Figure4.28:MorphologicalChangesatProposedPortCity


As mentioned earlier, a small accretion can be seen at southward of proposed structure (Figure
4.27).Therefore,inordertoidentifythebedlevelchangedinthisareaselectedtwoseabedprofiles
were obtained from the model. The selected profile lines are marked in Figure 4.27 and bed level
changeswithinayeararegiveninFigure4.29toFigure4.30A.

0 Initial Final
Elevation (m MSL)

5
120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Longitudinal Length (m)

Figure4.29:BedLevelChangesatProfileS1

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page29

0 Initial Final
1
Elevation (m MSL)

8
300 250 200 150 100 50 0
Longitudinal Length (m)

Figure4.30:BedLevelChangesatProfileS2

0 Initial Final
Elevation (m MSL)

6
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0

Longitudinal Length (m)




Figure4.30A:BedLevelChangesatProfileS3


CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page30

Accordingtothemodelresults,bedlevelchangeisverymarginalatnorthsideoftheproject.The
coastal stretch northward to Colombo Port is full with various coast protection structures. Within
thesestructuresitcanbeobservedmarginalaccretionorerosion,butthesemarginalchangescan
alsobehappenedinnaturalprocessitself.Itisdifficulttoseeanysignificantbedlevelchangedueto
proposed structures and the impact is negligible compared to the already constructed the South
Port.

4.1.3.3Changesinsedimenttransportpatternonbothperiods(Shorttermsandlongterms)
ThecoastlinenorthofthePortCityisalreadyshieldedbythebreakwateroftheColomboSouthPort,
whichhaspreventedanytransportationofsedimentbetweenthesouthandthenorth.Assuch,the
constructionofthePortCitywillnotchangethepatternoflittoraldriftattheshorelinetothenorth.
The impact of Port City construction on siltation intensity along the coastline has been shown in
Figure4.28.Ithasbeenobtainedbysubtractingthesiltationintensitybeforetheprojectfromthe
siltation intensity after completion of the project. The development of the Port City will result in
slightchangeinshorelineevolutionwithin0km~4kmsouthofthePortCity.Therewillbeaslight
increase of siltation and the change is smaller than 0.02 m/year. In the water area beyond 4 km
southoftheprojectsite,thesiltationintensityremainsunchanged.
4.1.4 Suspendedsediments
The key activities of Colombo Port City Development Project are land reclamation and the
construction of sand beach, canal, breakwater, sand barrier, submerged groyne, revetment and
ground improvement. Due to the fine sediment content of the seabed material, the dredging
process has the potential to mobilise fine seabed sediments into suspension. High levels of fine
suspended sediment over long periods may have an adverse environmental impact therefore a
comprehensivesedimentdispersionstudywascommissionedtoinvestigatethesepotentialimpacts
indetail.
Dredging has the potential problem of increasing turbidity as a result of sediment excavation,
loading, overflow, transit and placement. Possible shortterm environmental impacts due to
turbidityinclude:
Themigrationofsedimentfromthedredgingarea;
Areductionofwatertransparency;
Theexchangeofcontaminantsbetweenthesediment(broughtintosuspension)andwater;
Thephysicalandchemicalchangesinthelocalenvironment;and
Theexcessiveavailabilityofnutrients.
When evaluating the impact of turbidity increases due to dredging operations, it is necessary to
consider prevailing background turbidity levels. During the monsoon rains, the Kelani River
dischargesasedimentplume(withhighturbiditylevels),whichextendssouthwardswellbeyondthe
existingColomboSouthPort.
Turbidityresultingfromhopperloadingandtransporttositecanbeduetothefollowing:
Overflowing of the hopper: here fines are discharged with the overflow through the keel.
When the flow reaches the propeller stream of the vessel, suspended sediment may be
furtherdistributed;
Lean mixture overboard: if the suction flow is of a very low density, it may be pumped
overboardinordernottodilutetheload.Thiswillincreaseturbidityinthetopwaterlayer;
and

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page31

Spill during transit: during transit to the location of placement there is a possibility of
overboardspillduetomovementoftheload.
Turbidity resulting from placement depends upon the method adopted. Load discharge through
dredger bottom doors or by split hull vessels will increase turbidity in the water column due to
mixing of the falling mass and the resulting impact on the seabed. This operation releases some
fines,butthematerialdescendsquicklyandmostistrappedwithinthemassanddoesnotescape.
Placement by rainbowing involves the pumping of a soil/water mixture at high velocity out of a
discharge pipe in the bow of the vessel. The mixture is directed upwards at an angle. During this
processsomefinesescape.Ifthedischargeispumpedashoreviaapipeline,finescanbecontained
withinsettlingbasinssothattherunoffwaterhasalowfinecontent.Itisexpectedthatmostofthe
sandmaterialwillbeplacedbybottomdumpingmethodandverylittlefinematerialwillescape.
AdetailedstudyondispersalofdredgedsedimentmovementwasundertakenthroughLHIin2015
toexplorethetransportanddispersionofsuspendedsedimentsreleasefromtheborrowareaand
reclamationareaduetodredgingandreclamationprocesses.TheParticleTrackingmoduleofMIKE
21FlowModelFM,MIKE21HD/PT2,isusedtosimulatethetransportandtrackofthesuspended
substances discharged during dredging and dumping process for the proposed port city
development.
Hydrodynamic model was used to provide a description of tidal current flows and water level
variations based upon an unstructured triangular mesh. This model was combined with particle
trackingmodelwhichextendsthemodelcapabilitiestoconsiderthetransport,deposition,erosion
andresuspensionoffinesedimentsandusedtosimulatetheoperationalcycleofthedredgerbased
onthedredgingworkplanandsedimentreleaserates.
ThedatausedforthestudyispresentedinTable4.8belowandthestudyareaisshowninFigure
4.31below.

2
MIKE21PTisaParticleTrackingmodule,whichsimulatesthetransportandfateofdissolvedandsuspendedsubstancesdischargedor
accidentallyspilledinlakes,estuaries,coastalareasorintheopensea.Thepollutantisconsideredasparticlesbeingadvectedwiththe
surroundingwaterbodyanddispersedasaresultofrandomprocessesintwodimensions.Eachparticleisassignedacorrespondingmass,
whichcanchangeduringthesimulationduetodecayordeposition.Theparticlesmaysettlewithaconstantsettlingvelocityandsettled
particles may be resuspended. A corresponding mass is attached to each particle which may be reduced during the simulation due to
decay..
(ParticleTracking)PTmodelssuchprocessesassettling,deposition,resuspensionandparticlebedinteractionstosimulatethetransport
ofbothfineandcoarsesediment.PTrequirestheinputofhydrodynamics(i.e.watersurfaceelevationandvelocity),meshandbathymetry
information,andsedimentcharacterizationofboththenativeorbedsedimentandthesedimentsources.Thesesourcesmayinitiatefrom
sedimentresuspendedduringdredgingand/orplacement.Insteadofundertakingtheimpossibletaskofmodelingeverygrainofsand,PT
insteaddiscretizesthesedimentintoparcels.Eachparcelisrepresentativeofaspecificmassofsediment.Theseparcelspreservethe
overallsizedistributionofthesedimentsource.Themodelthenstepsthroughtimetrackingthepositionofeachparcel.PToutputstime
accuratehorizontalandverticalpositionsofsedimentparcels.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page32

Table4.8:DetailsofDataUsedinDispersionStudy
No. Item Source
1 BathymetryData BritishAdmiraltyMaps
2 Local Bathymetry and NaraSurveydata2014
Topography CHECSurveydataatreclamationsite
3 WindandWaveData LHIwavedatameasurements(19982014)
WindBeaufortscale
4 Measuredwaterleveldata FromCHEC15Aug30Aug2013&1Jan16Jan2014
5 MeasuredCurrentData FromCHEC15Aug30Aug2013&1Jan16Jan2014
6 SedimentData FrompreviousIEEstudies(NaraInvestigations)
7 SeaWaterQualityData CarriedoutbyNaraduringConstructionofColomboSouth
Port
Previousstudiesrelevanttointerestarea
8 SatelliteImages GoogleEarthWebSite
9 DredgingDetails FromCHEC

Figure4.31:BathymetryoftheStudyAreawithComputationalMesh

Trailersuctionhopperdredger(TSHD)withhoppercapacity10000m3isproposedtobedeployedfor
dredging and dumping operations in a continuous manner. A TSHD trails its suction pipe when
working,andloadsthedredgedspoilintohoppersinthevessel.Whenthehoppersarefull,theTSHD
sailstoadisposalareaandpumpsthematerialoutofthehoppers.
Itislikelythatduringoperations,mostsedimentwillbereleasedintothemarineenvironmentdue
to overspill at the dredge location and pumping of dredged slurry in to reclamation area. When
dredge material is pumped onto the vessel the fines are partially separated from sand sized

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page33

sediments. A proportion of the fines are return to the water column due to overspilling, and the
sand sized sediments are retained. This technique allows the most efficient use of dredging
operationsandresultsinahigherqualitymaterialforfillandreclamation.Thereforeitisproposedto
utilize7500m3ofsandthroughtheoverflowingprocess.
Each dredge produces specific types of losses during dredging and placement that result in
suspendedsedimententeringthewatercolumn.Tosimulatethesourcesofadredgingoperation,PT
modelwouldneedtousethefollowingdata;
Positionsofsedimentintroducedintothewatercolumn
Rateofsedimentintroduction(sedimentloss)
Sizedistributionofsuspendedsediment
Native sediment data was provided in the form of grain size distribution for surface sediment
samplesatthesite.Thedispersionofsuspendedparticlesduringdredginganddumpingoperations
was specified as moving point sources. The mass flux of each source was specified in kg/s with
horizontal and vertical position. With specifying source, it is possible to specify the number of
particlesreleasedpertimesteptomaketheconcentrationfieldsmore"smooth".
Modelsimulationsweredoneconsideringseveraldredgingcyclesincontinuousoperation(including
bothdredgingandbottomdumping)usingtwodredgersinsimultaneousoperationtoobservethe
impactifany.Rainbowdumpingsimulationsweredoneconsidering10completecyclesincludingthe
offshorebreakwaterconstructionatdifferentstageswhilebottomdumpinganddredgingweredone
for 50 cycles. The total duration of each cycle is 305 min for bottom dumping and 355 min for
rainbowdumping.
Severallocationsindredgingsiteaswellasreclamationsitewereselectedtorepresentthedifferent
stages of dredging & dumping operations and different combinations of those were considered
duringsimulations.
Process of reclamation is proposed through bottom dumping as well as rainbow dumping. Initial
fillingisgoingtobedoneusingbottomdumpingupto8mdepthsandoncetheareafilledupto8m
levelrainbowdumpingstarted.Thereforeseparatemodelbathymetrieswereusedduringmodelling
processtoincorporatethedifferentstagesoftherainbowdumpingoperations.
An assessment of the potential for dispersion of dredged fine sediments in proposed Port City
development is carried out using MIKE 21 PT model with the combination of selected dredging
locations, dumping locations & different stages of dredging process. Total dredging & reclamation
process is scheduled to be carried out continuously throughout the year and hence all possible
seasons were considered during the modelling simulations. Months of July 2013, Jan 2014 & Nov
2013 were selected to represent the wind & wave conditions in SW, NE & nonmonsoon periods,
respectively.
Modelsimulationwascarriedoutfortheperiodoftwoweeksineachselectedmonthbyallowing
extratimeforcompletesedimentationofdispersionmaterialandalsotoincorporatetheeffectof
bothspring&neaptide.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page34

4.1.4.1 TheDredgingProcess
Under dredging operations releasing of fine sediments at the suction head are considered at
correspondingdredgelevelsandthereleasingofthesedimentthroughoverflowisconsideredatthe
watersurface.Fiftycontinuousdredgingcycleswereconsideredinonemodelsimulationwithuseof
twodredgerssimultaneouslyinselecteddredginglocations(C1,C2,C3,C4,C5andC6)torepresent
entiredredgingactivityoftheproposeddevelopment(seeTable4.9andFigure4.32).


Figure4.32:SelectedAreasinDredgingSiteforModelling

Sediment loss rate during overflow is taken as 1% and then total sediments in overflow are
estimatedas195m3.Percentageofveryfineparticlesintheoverflowisconsideredas5%andthose
arementionedasFloatersinthesimulations.Therestoftheoverflowsedimentismentionedas
Divers in the simulations, and these coarse particles will settle down on the seabed within
relatively short distance from the point of discharge. As such, they are not counted as suspended
sediment. Overflow starts after 55 min of dredging operation and the total overflow volume is
19500m3 of mixture. Further 0.2% of sediment loss rate is taken into account at the suction head
whiledredging.
Total dredging time is estimated as 170 min and approximately 24.5 km is assumed as travelling
distancetothedumpingsite.Travellingtimeisestimatedas65minutes.Thetotaldurationofeach
dredging cycle with bottom dumping is 305 min (approximately 5 hrs) while that for rainbow
dumpingis355min(approximately6hrs).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page35

Table4.9:DetailsofSedimentSourceforDredgingOperations

Areaofoperation C1,C2,C3,C4,C5andC6
0.2%Fromsuctionhead
Percentageoffinesedimentlossduringdredging
1%duringoverflow
Sedimentlossrateatbottom 10.5kg/s

Sedimentlossrateduetooverflow(floaters) 2.9kg/s

Depthofsedimentsourceforbottomrelease Varieswiththebedlevel

Depthofsedimentsourceforoverflow 0m

Durationofdredgingforonecycle 170min

The results of spreading plume concentration are obtained as spatial distribution of suspended
floaters.Foreachsimulation,50dredgingcycleswereconsideredandsimulationswerecarriedout
for the period of 12 days to incorporate the spring & neap tide variation. Suspended sediment
concentrationformodelsimulation1(withtwodredgersatoperationsatlocationC2andC4during
SW monsoon) for selected time steps are given in Figure 4.33. Further suspended sediment
concentrationfordredgingwiththreedredgersatlocationsC1,C2,C3aregiveninFigure4.34.
After several hours of commencement of dredging all the suspended particles gets deposited and
sedimentdepositionpatternoftheplumerelevanttosimulation1isgiveninFigure4.35.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page36


Figure4.33:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationat
DredgingLocationC2&C4duringSWMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page37

Figure4.34:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationat
DredgingLocationC1,C2&C3duringSWMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page38


Figure4.35:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SedimentedFloaters)Concentration
atDredgingLocationC2&C4

MovementofSuspendedParticles(Floaters)whileDredging
Resultsfromallmodelsimulationswereanalysedbasedonavailablestandardsandambientvalues.
Spreadingplume(suspendedsediments)concentrationofsuspendedfloatersispresentedbelow.
According to the colour legend concentration higher than 1.5 mg/l shows in colours yellow to red
whilegreenshowsthevaluelessthan1.5mg/l.Itwasobservedfromtheresults,concentrationof
suspendedsedimentslevelislessthan1.5x106g/m3(1.5mg/l)foralmostallcases.
Measurements of suspended sediments of the study area shows, the TSS range of 225 mg/l for
different locations and different periods. Although spreading is occurring up to certain extent,
concentration of the suspended sediment is less than 2 mg/l, which is almost equal to ambient
concentration.Thereforedispersionoffinesedimentduetodredgingoperationsdoesntshowany
impacttothesurroundingenvironment.

4.1.4.2 DumpingProcess
Basedonthedredgingmethodologyandworkschedule,alongwithrelevantscientificandtechnical
literature on the likely associated losses (in relation to the specific dredge material types and
properties in the area), quantities of fines generated within the study area (during dredging and
bargeloading)andatthereclamationsite(duringdisposal)forthevariousphasesofthedredging
programweredetermined.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page39

Dumping process was considered to operate continuously over the period, with the barge
considered as a moving point source within the disposal area. Both bottom dumping and rainbow
dumpingoperationsareproposedtocarryouttofilltheentirearea.
Thedredgedmaterialwillbedirectlydumpedintothereclamationareaviabottomdumpingprocess
untilitreacheselevationof7mor8mLWOST.Thenrainboworpumpingashoremethodwillbe
adoptedtoformthelandtothedesignedlevelat+3.5mLWOST.Inordertopreventmigrationof
fines, the offshore breakwater, the marina revetment together with the south sand barrier will
progressivelybuiltinadvanceofthedifferentstagesofthesandreclamation.
Theconceptualconstructionsequenceofthebreakwaterandlandreclamationisillustratedinthe
snapshotprogrampresentedbelow.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page40


(a) RainbowDumpingStage1


(b) RainbowDumpingStage2


(c) RainbowDumpingStage3

Figure4.36:ConstructionSequenceofReclamation(RainbowDumping)andtheBreakwater

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page41

For bottom disposal, releasing of sediments are considered at 8 m depth at each location while
rainbowdumpingconsideredasinsurfaceadjacenttothenewlyfilledlandboundary.Sedimentloss
rateof2%isconsideredtorepresentthefinesedimentlossduringthebottomdumpingoperations.
Sincethematerialwillpumpdirectlytothefilledlandareadispersionofsedimentsintothewateris
very limited. Only possibility is flowing alone the land and seeping to the sea at the sealand
boundaryandhencelosspercentageisextremelylow.
Thereforesedimentlossrateof0.25%isconsideredformodelingofrainbowdumpingprocessand
the release of the particles are considered along the sealand boundary. Details of the sediment
sourceforbothbottom&rainbowdumpingoperationsaregivenTablesbelow.
Table4.10:DetailsofSedimentSourceforBottomDumpingOperations

Areaofoperation A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8
Percentageoffinesedimentloss 2%forbottomdumping
FineSedimentlossrate 482.5kg/s
Depthofdisposal 7mforbottomdumping
Durationofdumpingforonecycle 10minforbottomdumping

Table4.11:DetailsofSedimentSourceforRainbowDumpingOperations

Areaofoperation Edgeofthelandboundary
Percentageoffinesedimentloss 0.25%forrainbowdumping
FineSedimentlossrate 10.1kg/s
Depthofdisposal 0mforrainbowdumping
Durationofdumpingforonecycle 60mforrainbowdumping

Reclamation procedure is proposed through bottom dumping as well as rainbow dumping. Initial
fillingisgoingtobedoneusingbottomdumpingupto8mdepthsandoncetheareafilledupto8m
levelrainbowdumpingstarted.Inordertorepresenttheactualreclamationprocess,threestagesof
construction was considered during model simulations. Consequently three model bathymetries
wereused(seeFigure4.37&Figure4.38)torepresentthedifferentphasesofthereclamationfor
bothbottomdumpingandrainbowdumping

BottomDumping
Tencontinuousdumpingcycleswereconsideredinonemodelsimulationwithuseoftwodredgers
simultaneously in selected locations to represent the bottom dumping process of the proposed
development. Selected locations for model simulations and the bathymetry are given in Figure
below. Locations A1 to A8 were considered to represent the reclamation of entire area with
differentcombinationswithtwodredgesinoperationandselectedscenariosformodelingisgivenin
Table4.12.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page42


(a) DumpingLocations (b)BottomDumpingStage1


(c)BottomDumpingStage2 (d)BottomDumpingStage3
Figure4.37:SelectedLocationsandModelBathymetryforBottomDumpingOperations

Table4.12:MIKE21PTModelScenariosBottomDumpingProcess

DumpingSite Methodof
Simulation Bathymetry Time
Dumping
Dredger1 Dredger2
SimulationBD1 SW 13Jul
A1 A2 BDStage1
SimulationBD2 NE 14Jan
SimulationBD3 SW 13Jul
A3 A4 Bottom BDStage2
SimulationBD4 NE 14Jan
SimulationBD5 SW 13Jul
A7 A8 BDStage3
SimulationBD6 NE 14Jan

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page43

RainbowDumping
In order to represent the actual reclamation process, three stages of construction was considered
during model simulations. Simulations were carried out considering 10 complete dredging cycles
with two dredgers in operation and pumping is assumed directly to the edge of the filled land.
ModelbathymetriesareshowninFigure4.38andselectedmodelscenariosaregiveninTable4.13
below.
Table4.13:MIKE21PTModelScenariosRainbowDumpingProcess

DumpingSite Methodof
Simulation Bathymetry Time
Dredger1 Dredger2 Dumping
SimulationRD1 SW 13Jul
RDStage1
SimulationRD2 NE 14Jan
SimulationRD3 edgeof edgeof SW 13Jul
thefilled thefilled Rainbow RDStage2
SimulationRD4 area area NE 14Jan
SimulationRD5 SW 13Jul
RDStage3
SimulationRD6 NE 14Jan

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page44


(a)RainbowDumpingStage1


(b)RainbowDumpingStage2


(c)RainbowDumpingStage3
Figure4.38:ModelBathymetriesforRainbowDumpingOperations

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page45

Suspended sediment concentration during dumping process results in a plume of fine sediment
enteringthevicinityofthedumpingpoint.Thisplumeisdispersedoverasignificantdistancebythe
strong tidal currents at the point of dumping. The results of spreading plume concentration are
obtained as spatial distribution of suspended floaters for both bottom dumping and rainbow
dumpingoperationsseparately.
Suspended sediment concentration along the project boundary and above the limits of it was
extractedandcomparedagainsttheavailableambientmeasurements.Extractedpointsaroundthe
studyareaareshowninFigure4.39below.
Further maps of excess suspended sediment concentration and sedimentation fields are obtained
fromeachsimulatedconditions.


Figure4.39:ExtractedPointsforSuspendedSedimentConcentrationduringDumpingProcess

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page46

DuringBottomDumping
Suspended sediment concentration during bottom dumping for model simulation BD 1 (with two
dredgersatoperationsatlocationA1andA2duringSWmonsoon)forselectedtimestepsaregiven
inFigure.4.40.ResultscorrespondtosimulationBD4andsimulationBD6aregiveninFigure4.41&
Figure.4.42,respectively.


(a) After10hoursofDumping (b)After13.5hrsofDumping


(c) After1day&3hoursofDumping (d)After2days&9hoursofDumping
Figure4.40:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationat
DumpingLocationA1&A2duringSWMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page47


(a) After12hoursofDumping (b)After1dayofDumping


(c)After1day&17hoursofDumping (d)After2days&6hoursofDumping

Figure4.41:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationat
DumpingLocationA3&A4duringNEMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page48


(b) After8hoursofDumping (b)After1day&2hrsofDumping


(d) After1day&17hoursofDumping (d)After2days&8hoursofDumping
Figure4.42:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationat
DumpingLocationA7&A8duringNEMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page49

Table4.14:ConcentrationofSuspendedFloatersaroundtheReclamationAreaDuringBottomDumping

ConcentrationofSuspendedFloaters(mg/l)AwayfromBoundary
Simulation Outsidethesite WithinSite Outsidethesite
A B C D E F G H I J K
SimulationBD1 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.80 40.71 4.10 2.01 1.32 0.97 1.47 0.60
SimulationBD2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationBD3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.04 0.23
SimulationBD4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationBD5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationBD6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

ConcentrationofSuspendedFloaters(mg/l)AlongtheBoundary
Simulation
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.40 0.00 0.00 22.72 15.66
BD1
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.60 1.48 4.26
BD2
Simulation
2.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 4.49 8.24 12.07 6.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
BD3
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.87 2.91 1.70 7.41 8.63 5.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
BD4
Simulation
22.16 3.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
BD5
Simulation
0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
BD6

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page50

DuringRainbowDumping
The results of spreading plume concentration are obtained as spatial distribution of suspended
floaters for rainbow dumping process. Suspended sediment concentration for selected model
simulationsforselectedtimestepsaregiveninFigure4.43toFigure4.44.


(a) After 8 hours of Dumping (b) After 18 hours of Dumping

.
(b) After1day&9hoursofDumping (d)After2days&8hoursofDumping
Figure4.43:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentration
duringRainbowDumpingStage1duringSWMonsoon

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page51


(a) After9hoursofDumping (b)After1day&2hrsofDumping


(b) After2days&7hoursofDumping (d)After2days&9hoursofDumping
Figure4.44:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentration
duringRainbowDumpingStage2duringSWMonsoon
After several hours of commencement of dredging all the suspended particles gets deposited and
the twodimensional plots for spreading sediment (Suspended floaters) concentration of rainbow
dumpingprocessaregiveninFigure4.45below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page52


(a) Stage1_SWMonsoon (b)Stage1_NEMonsoon


(c) Stage2_SWMonsoon (d)Stage2_NEMonsoon
Figure4.45:TwoDimensionalPlotsforSpreadingSediment(SuspendedFloaters)Concentrationof
RainbowDumping

Suspended sediment concentration during rainbow dumping process is extracted and compared
against the available ambient measurements. Extracted sediment concentration of the selected
pointsisgiveninTable4.15below.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page53

Table4.15:ConcentrationofSuspendedFloatersaroundtheReclamationAreaDuringRainbowDumping

ConcentrationofSuspendedFloaters(mg/l)AwayfromBoundary
Simulation Outsidethesite WithinSite Outsidethesite
A B C D E F G H I J K
SimulationRD1 0.00 0.29 2.26 2.62 3.16 0.24 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00
SimulationRD2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationRD3 0.00 0.00 0.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationRD4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationRD5 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
SimulationRD6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

ConcentrationofSuspendedFloaters(mg/l)AlongtheBoundary
Simulation
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21
Simulation
7.73 3.02 0.41 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.85
RD1
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
RD2
Simulation
3.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.13 0.39 0.10 0.15 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00
RD3
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
RD4
Simulation
0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
RD5
Simulation
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
RD6

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page54


Movementofsedimentsduringdredging&dumpingprocesswasexaminedthroughthismodelling
tofinditsimpactonthesurroundingarea.Theobjectiveofthestudywastoconsiderthefateoffine
sediment (mentioned as floaters) released during the dredging & dumping process. Modelling
studiesconsideredaconservativeambientbackgroundsuspendedsedimentconcentrationofzero,
andthereforeallresultsarepresentedrelativetothislevel.Thereforeinterpretationoftheseresults
should consider the significance of this assumption, relative to any measurements of background
suspendedsedimentobtainedatthesite.
Available water quality data was collected over recent years (19952014) in the study area from
different studies was used to assess the reasonable suspended sediment concentration in the
ambient condition to use as a guideline for the results comparison. Following studies were
considered to obtain representative value of total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration in the
studyareawhileconsideringthemeasuredTSSlevelsduringSouthPortExpansionproject.
ColomboPortExpansionProject(JICA,19951999):
ColomboPortExpansionProject(ADB,20032005):ScottWilson(UK)andLHI
AssessingColomboMunicipalityWastewaterSystem(ADB,2009)
Baseline Water Quality Survey under Greater Colombo Wastewater Management Project
(ADB,20132014)
Basedontheresultsofthosepreviousinvestigations,ambientsuspendedsedimentconcentrationis
rangingfrom5mg/lto25mg/landtheaverageTSSvalueisobservedas1015mg/l.
From the results maximum concentration of 22.72 mg/l is obtained at point P20 during bottom
dumpingforstage1constructionphaseduringSWmonsoonperiod.ForthesamelocationduringNE
monsoonTSSlevelisobtainedas15.66mg/l.ForallotherconditionsTSSlevelisbelow12mg/lfor
both monsoonal periods. Based on the available measured data around study area TSS level of
22.72mg/lisnotahighvalueanditalmostequaltotheambientlevel.Althoughthereisatendency
ofspreadingtheplumeinsouthernandnortherndirectionsawayfromthesiteboundaryduringthe
SW and NE monsoon period, sediment concentration is below the value of 4 mg/l. Increase in
suspendedsedimentlevelduringbottomdumpingoperationsisnegligibleandthereforenosevere
impactoccursduetobottomdumpingoperations.
Maximumsuspendedsedimentconcentrationforrainbowdumpingisobtainedas7.73mg/lforthe
simulation of rainbow dumping of stage 1 during SW monsoon. Spreading of suspended sediment
plume away from the site boundary during rainbow dumping process is negligible. Since the
suspendedsedimentconcentrationduetorainbowdumpingoperationsarewithintheambientTSS
level, impact to the environment is negligible. Further deposition of the floated material is also
observed within the site periphery and hence there is not impact to the surrounding area due to
rainbowdumping.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page55

4.1.5 Waterquality
4.1.5.1BeiraLake
BeiraLakeisaniconandaculturalheritageofSriLanka.Withtheplanneddevelopmentsforthecity,
it is understood that any illegal discharge of pollutant into Beira Lake will be stopped and proper
sewerage network will be in place to achieve this. This has been the principle laid down in the
Project Agreement between the GOSL and the Project Company. With the removal of illegal
discharge of pollutant into the lake, any residual pollution can be dispersed and removed by a
combinationofdiffusionandwaterexchange.
A MIKE21 numerical model has been built specifically for assessing the impact of Port City on the
dischargefromtheBeiraLakeoutfall.Inthemodel,thetracepollutantconcentrationisassumedto
be0.07kg/m3.ThetracepollutantconcentrationisbasedontheFinalReportfortheEnvironmental
Screening Report for Construction of bank protection walls of Beira Lake and Rehabilitation of
McCallumlockgates,byUniConsultancyServices,UniversityofMoratuwa,2011.
Figure4.46toFigure4.51andFigure4.52toFigure4.57showthepollutantconcentrationfieldat
T=0day,2day,4day,6day,8dayand10dayduringsouthwestmonsoonandnortheastmonsoon
respectively.
It is noted that there remains a relatively high concentration of pollutant in a small water area
immediatelynorthoftheBeiraLakeoutfall.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page56


Figure4.46:Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.47: Concentrationfieldduring
southwestmonsoon(T=0day) southwestmonsoon(T=2day)


Figure4.48: Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.49: Concentrationfieldduring
southwestmonsoon(T=4day) southwestmonsoon(T=6day)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page57


Figure4.50: Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.51:Concentrationfieldduring
southwestmonsoon(T=8day) southwestmonsoon(T=10day)

Figure4.52: Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.53:Concentrationfieldduring


northeastmonsoon(T=0day) northeastmonsoon(T=2day)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page58


Figure4.54: Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.55: Concentrationfieldduring
northeastmonsoon(T=4day) northeastmonsoon(T=6day)


Figure4.56:Concentrationfieldduring Figure4.57:Concentrationfieldduring
northeastmonsoon(T=8day) northeastmonsoon(T=10day)

3DimensionalNumericalFlowdispersionModel

Modeldescription

A3DmodelhasbeensetupwiththeFINEL3Dmodelsoftware,a3Dimensonalflowmodelincluding
concentrationdispersion,themodelincludesanareaofaround1kmaroundtheBeiraLakeoutlet.
(Source:WaterQualityColomboCityBay,InfluenceoftheBeiraLakeoutletofSvasekHydraulics,
andannexofthemainreportofCDRInternationalofNetherlands).

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page59

ThecomputationalflowmodelFINEL3DhasbeendevelopedinhousebySvaekHydraulics.FINEL3D
is a fully threedimensional, parallel, nonhydrostatic NavierStokes solver based on the Finite
Element Method (FEM). This model was developed with a 3D NavierStokes solver based on the
novel Galerkin Interface Stabilization (GIS) approach within the Finite Element Method. FINEL3D
employsanunstructuredtriangular(ortetrahedral)mesh,whichenablestheusertofitboundaries
accuratelywithinthemodelandtoincreaseresolutionintheregionofinterestinaveryflexibleway,
withouttheneedforthenestingofgrids.

FINEL3Dincludesthefollowingmodelfeatures:
Freesurfacefloworrigidlidflow(fixedsurface);
Movingmeshinverticaldirection,sothattheFEMdiscretisationfollowsthewaterlevelchanges;
Forcing by barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradient, where the local density is a function of
salinityandtemperature(equationofstate);
Bottomfrictionparameterization(Chzy,WhiteColebrook,Nikuradse,Manning);
Windstressandairpressure;
Corioliseffect;
Vertical turbulence models (constant eddy viscosity, Bakhmetev model, kL model, kepsilon
model,LES);
Horizontalturbulencemodels(Eldermodel,constanteddyviscosity,2DSmagorinskymodel);
Transport(advection/diffusion)ofpassiveandactivescalars(salinity,temperature,silt);
Boundaryconditiontypes:waterlevel,Riemann,velocity,discharge,linearwaves;
Pointsources;
Adrying/wettingalgorithm.

Modelsimulations

The 3D computational mesh was built up by means of an initial 2D triangular mesh, which was
expanded in vertical direction using layers of tetrahedral elements. Figure 4.58 and Figure 4.59
showthemodelbathymetryandthecomputationalgridusedforthesimulationsincludingtheland
reclamation,respectively.
Turbulent mixing in vertical and horizontal direction is accounted for by means of eddy viscosity
models.Forthedeterminationoftheverticalviscositythewellknownstandardkepsilonturbulence
modelisused,includingtheassociatedbuoyancyterms.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page60

Figure4.58:Bathymetryofthemodelareawithlandreclamation


Figure4.59:Computationalgridusedformodelsimulations

Thefollowingdifferentlayoutshavebeenconsideredintheflowstudy:
Originalsituation,i.e.withoutlandreclamation;
Situationwithlandreclamation(latestdesignincludingsubmergedgroyne);
Sincethetidalrangeintheareaisverylimited,tidalcurrentswillnotbetakenintoaccount;whichis
apracticalandconservativeapproach,especiallyastidalcurrentsarenegligibleinthefunnelledarea
infrontoftheBeiraLakeoutlet.TheBeiraLakedischargeisaccountedforbymeansofadischarge
attheoutfall,consideredconstantduringthedryperiodandincludingapeakdischargecurveforan
extremeeventduringrainingperiod,andrepresentativemonsoonwindandwaveconditions.With
theBeiraLakewaterbeingfresh(rainwater)andthewaterinthesea/ColomboPortCitybeingsalt,
thiseffectwillbetakenintoaccountaswell.
Inthemodeladissolvedsubstanceisusedwithinitialconcentrationof100,whichthuscanbeused
asrelativewaterqualityparameter.Therelativespatialdecreaseinconcentrationcanbelinkedto
various(measured)waterqualityparametersfrom theBeiraLake(suchasCOD,E.Coli,Suspended
Solids, etc.) and for different locations along the coast or in the Port City Development Area the

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page61

water quality can be assessed and related to or verified with (international and Sri Lankan) water
levelcriteria.
Fortheenvironmentalconditions,theconditionsduringthetwomonsoonshavebeenapplied,being
averagednortheasterlyandsouthwesterlywinds.TheBeiraLakedischargehasbeenbasedonthe
initialanalysis(referFigure4.60andFigure4.61).Thedischargehasbeenvariedfrom0.1m3/sto0.3
m3/s for normal situation and peak event of 5 m3/s to 10 m3/s. However based on the discharge
calculationsasshowninthepresentreportadischargeof1to2m3/stomax.5m3/sisamorelikely
eventduringheavyrainfallas10m3/sisanunrealistictoohighdischarge.

Figure4.60:FINEL3DModel,pollutionconcentrationforpresentsituation(SWwind/NEwind
condition,BeiraLake0.3m3/s)


Figure4.61:FINEL3DModel,pollutionconcentrationfornewsituation(SWwind/NEwind
condition,BeiraLake0.3m3/s)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page62

Becauseofthelandreclamation,theseaareathatthedischargedwatercanbedirectlydiluteinis
significantly smaller than in the original situation, leading to higher concentrations as well. During
averagedischargesituationsof0.3m3/s,concentrationsclosetotheoutletareintheorderof5%to
10% of the original concentrations (very locally near the outlet, concentrations are up to 20%).
Furtherawayfromtheoutlet,thedischargehashardlyanyinfluenceonthewaterquality.
Duringextremeevents(shorttime,say0.51day),theinfluenceonthewaterqualityoftheareais
significantly larger during extreme discharges. Immediately after that, the concentrations reduce.
Basedonacalculationwithapeakdischargefor10m3/s,theseresultsinastretchof500mwhere
highconcentrationlevelsoccur,seefigures(Figure4.62andFigure4.63)below.

Figure4.62:FINEL3DModel,presentsituation(SWwindcondition,BeiraLake0.3m3/s,afterpeak
event10m3/s)

Figure4.63:FINEL3DModel,newsituation(SWwindcondition,BeiraLake0.3m3/s,afterpeak
event10m3/s)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page63

However, the concentrations drop significantly as soon as the average discharge of 0.3 m3/s is
reachedagain,toapproximately30%inthefirst500m.Closetotheoutlettheconcentrationlevelis
40%, showing that concentrations have been halved in six hours time. Mixing within the sea is
clearly visible; concentrations have reached values of 10%. After one full day of the average
discharge, the concentration amounts 15% of the original concentration level close to the outlet.
Further at sea, the concentration is between 5% and 10%. In the following days, both the
concentrationlevelsclosetotheoutletandatseaisfurtherdecreasingslightlyandismostlybelow
5%.
Theaboveworstcasesituationishypotheticalbecausethedischargewillbecloserto2to5m3/sin
extreme event and in reality, further to the south the waves will cause more mixing and actual
situation will be better as the waves and tidal currents will further improve the dispersion and
exchange.
Based on the model calculations for the different layouts and different monsoon conditions, the
conclusionsareasfollows:
TheimpactofPortCityonthewaterqualityofthecoastalareaisverylimitedandinmost
areas negligible, only in the corner between the marina and coastline the dispersion is
reduced.
MostofthetimethedischargeoftheBeiraOutletislowandinsuchsituations,evencloser
to the outlet, the concentrations will be limited. Only during higher discharges,
concentrationsincreaseforashorttime,butlimitedtoabout500msouthoftheoutletand
limited to about 0.5 1 day after the peak discharge. Note that the 3D model dispersion
patterns assume a 100% concentration during the high discharge as well. In reality during
heavyrainasignificantdilutionofpollutantswilloccurinsideBeiraLakealready.Thetidal
currentsthatarenotincludedinthe3Dmodelwillinrealityallowforabettermixtureand
exchangeneartheoutlet.
TokeeptheBeiraLakeoutletopen,willrequiretheconstructionofagroyntostreamlinethe
continuity of the discharge from the outlet, and to bring the water further to the sea,
therebyimprovingdispersionandallowingfortheformationofabeachclosetoGalleFace
Greenwithoutobstructingtheoutlet.

4.1.5.2DredgingandReclamation
The manner in which impacts may arise from the physical aspects of dredging and reclamation
activities are discussed below. Most of the impacts arising from dredging and the resulting
reclamation are anticipated to be shortterm and confined to the areas of work. Dredging and
reclamationwouldruninparallelwiththeconstructionofrevetmentsandtheoffshorebreakwater
thatformstheportcitylayout.

DredgingTechnology

Ofthevarioustechnologiesavailable,TrailingSuctionHopperDredger(TSHD)isconsideredtobethe
mostappropriateforthePortCityDevelopment.TheprimaryenvironmentalimpactofTSHDsisan
increaseinsuspendedsedimentlevelsintheenvironmentoftheloadingzonewiththeresultantloss
offinematerial.Thelossoffinesimpliesthatalargervolumeofmaterialneedstobedredgedthan
isneededforreclamationpurposes.However,thegoodqualityofthedischargedmaterial(freefrom
fines)compensatesforthisincrease.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page64

IncreasedWaterTurbidity

Thisisdiscussedundersection4.1.4

Resuspension,SettlementofSedimentsandBlanketCover

Blanket coverage of the seabed may occur as a result of the concentrated discharge of dredged
materialandbythesettlementofsuspendedsedimentsmobilizedduringthedredgingprocessand
transported into neighboring areas by currents. Current velocity rates are low and as discussed
above, modeling has shown that during placement sediments will settle quickly and are not
anticipated to be transported into adjacent areas. Blanket cover would not extend far beyond the
workingareasandtheoverallpotentialimpactsareconsideredtobelow.
Suspendedsedimentlevelshavebeenmeasuredatthreemobilestationsandonereferencestation
during the Colombo South Port construction period. The Reference Station was positioned just
seawardsofthemouthoftheKelaniRiver.Theotherthreemobilestationswerepositionedonthe
up and down drift of side of the dredging site and on the down drift side of the reclamation site.
SamplinglocationsaregivenbelowinTable4:16.
Table4.16:SamplingLocations
LocationNumber Northing Easting Stations
1 0700024.94 7904849.62 Updrift(Mobile_1)
2 0605937.62 7904841.74 Downdrift(Mobile_2)
3 0605615.68 7905003.61 Mobile_3
4 0605835.15 7905103.72 Reference

Figure4.64(a)and(b)givetheDailyAverageValuesofTotalSuspendedSolids(TSS)inmg/lforthe
months of January 2010 and July 2010. It is clear from the figure that during the periods daily
average TSS values of the mobile stations are always less than the reference station. Similar
measurements have been carried out from November, 2008 and continued up to the end of the
Colombo South Port Project. In all measurements recorded values at mobile stations are always
belowthevaluesofthereferencestation,indicatingthelowimpacttotheenvironment.

TSS(mg/l)

January,2010

Figure4.64(a):DailyAverageValuesofTotalSuspendedSolids(TSS)inmg/l

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page65

TSS(mg/l)

July,2010

Figure4.64(b):DailyAverageValuesofTotalSuspendedSolids(TSS)inmg/l

4.1.6 Drainage
A perimeter drainage system will be constructed along the landside edge of the reclamation for
dischargeoftheexistingstormwateroutfalls.
Preliminarybackwatersimulationhascarriedoutforanundergroundboxculverttocheckwhether
thedrainageoutfallswillstillbeinafreeflowconditioninextremeevents.Itisassumedthata2.2m
wideboxculvertwillbeconstructedwithagradientof2in1000.Theinvertleveloftheboxculvert
attheedgeofthereclamationwillbe0.34m.Accordingtotheresultsofthesimulation,thelevelof
thebackwatercurveinrelationtotheinvertlevelsoftheexistingdrainageoutfallsisshowninFigure
4.63.Itcanbeconcludedthatalltheexistingdrainageoutfallswillremaininfreeflowconditionand
willnotbeaffectedbythereclamation.


Figure4.65:Thelevelofthebackwatercurveinrelationtotheinvertlevelsoftheexisting
drainageoutfalls

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page66

4.1.7ColomboSouthPort
WhiletheimpactofPortCityontheoperationofColomboSouthPorthasbeendescribedin
section4.1.3.1and 4.3.9,this sectionpresentsthefindingsofspecificassessmentsonthe
impactofPortCityonthestructures,waveheightandmorphologicalchangesatandaround
ColomboSouthPort.

4.1.7.1ImpactsofPortCityonthePortStructures
To check the impacts of wave structure interaction and the effect of the reflected waves
from Port City, wave height comparisons were carried out for existing condition vs.
proposed conditions. Several points along the navigation channel of the south port and
somepointsalongthesouthportbreakwaterwereextractedandincreasesofwaveheight
ofthoselocationswereobservedasshownbelow.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page67

WaveHeight WavePeriod WaveDirection IncreaseinWaveClimate


Hs(m) Tp(sec) (Deg) %
Location Condition

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Hs Tp Dir

BW1 4.39 4.37 9.0 9.0 245.5 246.2 0.4% 0.0% 0.3%

BW2 4.37 4.40 9.0 9.0 245.4 245.3 0.7% 0.0% 0.0%

BW3 4.38 4.40 9.0 9.0 245.4 245.4 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%

BW4 Maximum 4.41 4.43 8.9 8.9 246.6 246.0 0.5% 0.0% 0.2%

BW5 4.32 4.32 8.9 8.9 246.9 246.9 0.2% 0.0% 0.0%

BW6 4.25 4.24 8.8 8.8 247.4 246.9 0.4% 0.0% 0.2%

BW7 4.09 4.11 8.7 8.7 250.1 250.0 0.6% 0.0% 0.0%

BW1 1.01 0.99 10.3 10.4 245.6 244.5 1.9% 1.3% 0.4%

BW2 1.01 1.01 9.4 9.9 256.1 262.1 0.2% 5.4% 2.3%

BW3 1.01 1.01 9.8 10.5 249.4 240.8 0.0% 6.6% 3.4%

BW4 Average 1.02 1.02 10.0 10.7 244.8 262.8 0.1% 6.7% 7.4%

BW5 0.98 0.98 10.3 10.4 235.8 237.8 0.1% 1.2% 0.8%

BW6 0.96 0.96 12.0 11.0 235.8 252.9 0.1% 8.4% 7.3%

BW7 0.94 0.94 10.2 11.1 286.1 280.3 0.5% 5.7% 2.0%

Accordingtothewaveheightextractedalongthebreakwaterforbothconditions,itclearly
shows that the increase in wave height is less than 0.7% for almost all cases. Hence the
increaseofwaveheightduetoportcitydevelopmentisinsignificant.Thewaveperiodalso
shows a similar pattern and the increase in wave period is limited to 6.7%, which is not
significant when compared with the entire annual wave distribution. Further difference in
wave direction is observed and found to be a maximum of 7.3% when comparing annual
wavedistribution.Inviewoftheabove,theincreaseinwaveclimateclosetothesouthport
breakwater is not significant and hence the impact due to port city on south port
breakwaterisnegligible.

4.1.7.2ImpactsofPortCityontheWaveatNavigationChannel
Special attention was taken to check whether there were any impacts on ship navigation
intoandoutofColomboPortduetothePortCitydevelopment.Sincenavigationofvessels
mainlydependonthewaveconditionofthesurroundingareas,wavecomparisoniscarried
out in navigation channel to observe the impacts if any. Both existing and the proposed

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page68

developmentwerecomparedforwaveclimateforaoneyearperiodandfewpointsalong
thechannelwasextractedandobserved.


ExtractionPointsalongNavigationChannel

WaveHeightComparison

WaveHeight,Hs(m)
Location
Condition Existing Proposed increaseinHs%

NC1 4.32 4.32 0.06%

NC2 4.32 4.32 0.03%

NC3 Maximum 4.24 4.25 0.32%

NC4 3.75 3.77 0.57%

NC5 1.95 1.95 0.15%

NC1 1.00 1.00 0.14%

NC2 1.00 0.99 0.17%

NC3 Average 0.97 0.97 0.07%

NC4 0.86 0.87 0.41%

NC5 0.42 0.42 0.08%

According to the wave height extracted in navigation channel, it is clearly shown that the
difference between existing and proposed conditions are negligible. Hence there is no
significantimpactduetoPortCitydevelopmentonvesselnavigation.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page69

4.1.7.3ImpactsofPortCityontheMorphologynearthePort
Fromtheresultsofmorphologicalchangesofexistingcondition(withColomboSouthPort
only) after a one year period it can be clearly seen that deposition of sediments in the
southernsideofColomboSouthPortbreakwatersinceitactsasabarriertothenorthward
sedimenttransportation.Herebluecolourshowstheareawhereerosioncanhappenwhile
yellow colour shows the accretion/siltation. North of the Colombo South Port there is no
majoraccretionorerosion.Fewareasbetweenprotectionstructuresshowlocalerosionand
depositionmainlybasedonthelocaleffectofthosestructures.


(b) ExistingCondition (b)ProposedCondition
MorphologicalChangesafterOneYearPeriod

Itcanbeobservedthattherearesmallincreasesinsedimentdepositioninthesouthernside
of Port City; however, it is almost the same quantity when compared to the South Port
alone condition (exiting condition). Therefore, with regards to coastal impacts, it is
importanttonotethatPortCityisinshadowoftheSouthPortandthereforedoesnotcause
significantcoastalimpact.

4.1.8AirQuality
Mainpartoftheconstructionofthisprojectinvolvesdredgingandreclamation.Theseactivitieswill
notcauseanydustemissions.Eventheplacementbyrainbowingwillnotinvolveanydustemissions
as the pumping is carried out as a soil/water mixture. However, Quarry materials transport by

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page70

trucks, unloading, levelling of the reclamation and the completed sandy surface can cause dust
emissionsifpropermitigatorymeasuresarenotadoptedtoreducetheimpacts.
Six sensitive locations have been selected around the Port City for the air sampling. Baseline
measurements and the measurements during the initial construction have been carried out.
Measured ambient air quality levels at the said locations were within the Ambient Air Quality
Standards stipulated by the Central Environmental Authority of Sri Lanka [The National
Environmental (Ambient Air Quality) Regulations published in gazette extraordinary No. 850/4 of
December 1994 amended by gazette extra ordinary No. 1562/22 August 15/2008]. Quarterly Air
Quality measurements that had been carried out during Colombo South Port construction also
satisfiedthelegalrequirementsthroughouttheprojectperiod.

4.2BiologicalEcologicalConditions

4.2.1 CoralReefs
Reclamationarea

Filling of the sea for reclamation area can result in loss of some extent of reef habitat of Palagala
reef. Therefore, available surfaces for attachment for some species of marine algae and many
species of benthic fauna including sponges, corals and echinoderms could be lost. Further, the
habitatsforreefdwellingfishwillalsobereduced.
However,thepresentsurveyindicatedthatthepercentageoflivecoralcoverandthecoverofother
organisms in the reef in this area is very low. Most of the reef surface is exposed without any
attachedplantsoranimals.Further,nodamagewillbecausedbythePortCityprojecttoVatiyaand
Madigalareefs,andmostregionsofPalagalareef.Therefore,thelossofhabitatstofaunaandflora
will be insignificant at the reclamation site when the extent of similar habitats in the area is
considered.
Dumpingoffillingmaterialwillresultinresuspensionoffineparticles.Inadditiontoreducingthe
penetration of light due to increased turbidity, these suspended fine particles will have some
adverseimpactsonreeffaunalivingclosetothereclamationarea.Theseresuspendedparticlescan
clog the gills of reef dwelling fish and mechanically injure them. However, many individuals will
moveawayfromtheaffectedareaandtheirnumbersintheaffectedareawouldbedecreased.
Earlierstudieshaveshownthatfillingnearthereefshaveresultedinreductioninthenumberoffish
thatliveinthosehabitatsduetoincreasedsedimentation(Anesbury1981).Resuspendedparticles
may settle down on the coral organisms too. Studies have shown that settling down of re
suspendedmaterialduetodredginghasresultedindegradationofreefconditionsandincreasein
mortalityofcoralorganismsinCaribbeanandU.S.reefs(Foster1980,Rogersetal1984).Further,
such sedimentations will have adverse impacts on the growth and recruitment of coral organisms
and morphology of the coral colonies (Foster 1979, 1980; Rogers 1990, Rogers et al 1984). The
recruitment, species diversity and growth rate of coral organisms will be reduced due to settling
down of resuspended particles and the invasion of opportunistic species will be increased as
reported elsewhere in the world (Rogers et al 1984). Further, if sedimentation is heavy,
regenerationofcoralswillalsobereduced.
However, as stated in Section 3.2.5, even at present, the turbidity in the reef area is very high.
Therefore, the sessile animals including corals that inhabit this area appear to be capable of
tolerating such conditions. Further, the Vatiya and Madigala reefs and most parts of the Palagala
reef are more than 1 km away from the proposed construction site. Therefore, increase in the

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page71

amount of suspended particles due to filling of the reclamation area would not have significant
adverseimpactsevenonthesessileandslowmovinganimalsinthenearbyareaofthereef.
Largecoloniesofcoralsarenotpresentinthenearbyreefs.Thelargecoloniesofcoralsarefoundto
bemoresusceptibletothesettlingdownofsuspendedparticlesthansmallcolonies.Thisisbecause
inlargecolonies,sedimentremovalofcolonysurfacebytheactionoftentaclesandciliaisdonein
anuncoordinatedmanner.Therefore,theparticleswouldremainonthesurfacesoflargercolonies
thanonthesmallercolonies(DodgeandVaisnys1977).Thepresentstudyindicatedthatthecoral
colonies on the Palagala reef close to the reclamation area are small. Therefore, these may be
capableofeffectivelyremovingtheparticlesthatmaysettleonthem.
Coral species such as Montastreacavernosa are efficient removers of particles that settle on them
(Lasker1980).CoralspeciessimilartoMontastreacavernosaarerecordedonthenearbyreefsofthe
project area. These include Favitescomplanata and Faviteschinensis. Therefore, there is a high
possibilitythatthesespeciesmayefficientlyremovethesedimentsthataredepositedonthem.
Hence the impact on the reef close to reclamation area due to siltation would be not significant
mainlybecausetheareaisalreadyheavilysiltedandremainingreeforganismsareadaptedtosilty
conditions.
Therewillbesomebeneficialeffectsofusinggranitebouldersasthesewillserveassuitablehabitats
for attached fauna and flora. Further, these will provide shelter for benthic animals that inhabit
reefs such as lobsters and some fish. In addition these boulders will serve as habitats for coral
organisms as observed in the newly constructed breakwaters of the Hambantota port. Therefore,
the populations of such animal may increase. Such an increase will have beneficial effects on the
fisheriestoo.

SandDredgingarea
Large boulderlike reef systems in the area are mostly lying leeward of the sand dredging sites.
Withinthesanddeposits,therearefewisolatedreefpatchesoflimitedextend.Allthesereefsare
characterized by the absence of living hard coral cover but soft corals especially gorgonians, and
encrusted algae have formed a sparse distribution. The existing reefs in the study area are less
productiveandthusfisheriesconductedtargetingdemersalfinfish,dwellingorassociatedwithreefs
are limited. However, they provide home to fish and invertebrate animals including anemones,
crabs, shellfish, molluscs and burrowing worms. It also provides a place for many species to seek
refugefrompredators.
Sand mining can increase the suspended sediment in the water column, increasing turbidity can
adversely affect marine organisms, particularly less mobile organisms such as shellfish, tunicates,
and sponges. Thereby, sedimentation is identified as the primary effect of the sand dredging with
respecttoreefs.Dredgingnearreefsandacceleratedrunoffoferodedsoilsincreasewaterturbidity,
cuttingdownlightavailableforphotosynthesisofalgae,aswellasincreasingsedimentloadonreefs.
Thedurationoftheturbidityplumeinthewatercolumndependsuponthecurrentspeedandthe
sizerangeofthesuspendedparticles(ICES1992).Sedimentssettleonsessilesoftbodiedorganism
on reefs or which cause high turbidity while suspended in the water column have sublethal and
lethaleffectsonreefcommunities.
Species that, as a result of sand extraction, are moved, intentionally or unintentionally, into areas
wheretheydonotoccurnaturallyarecalled"introducedspecies"or"alienspecies".Insomecases
where natural controls such as predators or parasites of an introduced species are lacking, the
species may multiply rapidly, taking over its new environment, often drastically altering the
ecosystemandoutcompetinglocalorganisms.
Thesummaryofpotentialimpactofreefistabulatedintable4.17below

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page72

Table4:17:Summaryofpotentialimpactsonreefbiodiversity

Effect Activity Impact Direct/ Duration/ Impactarea


Indirect Extent
Increase Dredging/ Absorb light and cause Direct Temporary/ Dredging and
turbidity Transportation backscattering High surrounding
Reducewaterquality area/transport
Destabilizereefhabitat route
Increase Dredging/ Suspension feeders, such as Direct Temporary/ Dredging and
suspended Transportation sponges, hydrozoans and High surrounding
sediments molluscs, may become area/transport
clogged by the suspended route
sediment or stressed by the
effects of sediment passing
through the feeding and
respiratorysystems.
Shading Dredging/ Cuttingdownphotosynthesis Indirect Temporary/ Dredging and
Transportation Reduce productivity and Moderate surrounding
affecttothefoodweb Low area/transport
route

However, the reefs in the area are somewhat naturally conditioned to tolerate variation in
sedimentation from natural processes especially of river plume. It is considered that the relative
effectofshorttermincreasesinsedimentationwillbesmall,andlocalized,duetothenatureofthe
substrate.

4.2.2 Seagrassbeds
Reclamationarea

Small area of the sea bottom where sea grasses are present would be lost due to reclamation.
Howeversincetheseagrassesinthisareadonotformdensebedsandaresparselydistributedas
smallpatches,theextentofseagrassesthatwouldbelostwouldbeverysmall.Hencetheimpacton
ecologicalserviceprovidedbyseagasseswouldbeinsignificant.Theimpactonthefaunaassociated
with sea grasses would also be insignificant as these species can move away to nearby sea grass
areas.

SandDredgingarea

Since the absence of sea grass beds or coral reefs in the proposed sand extraction site or close
vicinityoftheinterestedarea,nodirectimpactontheecologicalstabilityofthesehabitatsdueto
thesandminingactivities.

4.2.3 Softbottommacrozoobenthos
Reclamationarea

Fillingwillalsoresultinanincreaseintheturbidityofwaterinthearea.Duetoincreasedturbidity,
penetrationoflightwillbereducedresultinginadecreaseinprimaryproductivityinthearea.When
primary productivity in an ecosystem is reduced, it will adversely affect all other trophic levels
resultinginareductioninthesecondaryproductivity.However,sincetheareawheretheturbidity

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page73

wouldbeincreasedduetofillingwillbeverysmallcomparedtovastlessturbidareaavailable,the
impact due to reduced primary productivity would be insignificant (mathematical model studies
carried out by LHI shows that the Turbidity level along the boundary of the filling area will not
exceedbeyondnaturallevel)
Inadditiontoreducingthepenetrationoflightduetoincreasedturbidity,suspendedfineparticles
will have some adverse impacts on fauna too. These resuspended particles will clog the gills of
some fish, crustaceans and mollusks and will mechanically injure them. However, some fish and
shrimps will move away from the affected area and their numbers in the affected area would be
decreased.Earlierstudieshaveshownthatdredgingandfillingnearthereefshaveresultedinsevere
reductioninthenumberoffishthatliveinthosehabitatsduetoincreasedsedimentation(Anesbury
1981). However, since the area affected would be very small compared to vast area of similar
habitatsavailable,theimpactonsoftbottommacrozoobenthoswouldbeinsignificant.
Constructionofasandbankwillhavesomepositiveimpactsonthefaunathatliveonsoftbottom
macrozoobenthossuchasthoseliveonsandyhabitats.Theseincludesomespeciesofcrustaceans,
mollusks, holothurians and fishes. Due to the construction of the sand bank, the extent of habitat
availableforsuchspecieswillincrease.

SandDredgingarea

Thebenthiccommunitiesplayasignificantroleinthetransferofmaterialsfromprimaryproduction
throughthedetritalpoolintohighertrophiclevelinthemarinefoodweb.Thebenthiccommunity
will be immediately affected in the sand mining location. Most studies have shown that dredging
itselfisusuallyaccompaniedbyasignificantfallinspeciesnumbers,populationdensityandbiomass
ofbenthicorganisms.Thelossofthelocalbenthicfaunacanhaveaffectfurtherdownfoodchains.
However, the extraction activity could inadvertently create an abundance of food in the form of
damagedanimalslikebivalvesorcrustaceans.Allthesenegativeandpositiveimpactsaretemporal
andlocalizedwhenconsideredthelimitedextentoftheproposedsanddredgingarea.

4.2.4 Endangeredspecies
Reclamationarea

Therearenoendangeredspeciesinthereclamationarea.Thereforefillingwillnothaveanyadverse
impactsonendangeredspecies.

SandDredgingarea

AccordingtotheNationalRedList2012,onlymarinemammalsandseaturtlesareconsideredtobe
rare, threaten or endangered reported dwelling or associated in the study area. Olive Ridley that
occurs in the study area may get affected due to the dredging; however, the impact is low and
temporal due to their migratory nature (see Table 4.18). No significant effects on turtles are
expectedfromturbidity,anoxia,ornoise.
Occasional visitors of dolphin and whales on the shelf are unlikely to be adversely affected by
dredging due to their agility. Dredging vessels produce noise when dredging and moving. It is
expectedthatairbornenoiseisnotaproblematsea,butunderwaternoisecanhaveaneffectonthe
ecosystem,especiallyonmarinemammalsandpossiblyfishes.Dependingonfrequencyandsource
levels,marinemammalscanavoidanarea.Noisemayinduceanimalstoabandonareasortodeviate
fromtheirusualmigrationroutes.However,thereisnoresidentialstockorregularlyoccurrenceof
whalesordolphins,impactofsanddredgingwillbeinsignificantonmarinemammals.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page74

Table4.18:Summaryofpotentialimpactsonendangeredspecies
Effect Activity Impact Direct/ Duration/ Impactarea
Indirect Intensity
Marine Dredging Avoidance Direct Temporary/ Dredging and
noise Low surroundingarea
(operation)
Entailment/ Dredging/ Crash/accident Direct Temporary/ Dredging and
Collisionrisk vessel Low surrounding
movement area/transport
route
Increased Dredging/Tra Disruption to Indirect Temporary/ Dredging and
suspended nsportation prey base Low surrounding
sediment of dredged Reduce area/transport
material visibility Low route
visiontofeed

4.2.5Impactoffishinggrounds/breedinggrounds/spawninggrounds
Reclamationarea

Therewillbenoreductionintheextentoffishinggroundsduetotheproject.Further,thereisno
fishinggroundinclosevicinityoftheproposedprojectsite.Assuch,therewillbenoimpactofthe
projectonfishinggrounds.
Seagrassbedsandcoralreefsserveasbreedinggroundandnurserygroundsforfish.However,the
extentofseabrassandreefhabitatsthatwouldbelostduetoreclamationisverysmall.Hencethe
impactonbreedingoffishandothermarineorganismswouldbeinsignificant.Further,forfishto
usethemasbreedinggrounds,thosehabitatsshouldnotbesilted.Theseagrassesandreefhabitats
in the area are heavily silted already and therefore are not used as breeding grounds by many
species of fish. Hence the impact of reclamation on breeding of marine organisms would be
insignificant.

SandDredgingarea;Impactofbreedinggrounds/spawninggrounds

Potential effects to breeding and spawning grounds of both finfish and nonfinfish could occur
throughentrainment,smotheringandturbidity.Thereisnowelldefinedspawningorbreedingarea
identifiedontheseabedofthedredgingsites.Squideggsarelaidinlargeclustersontheseafloor
andcouldberemovedordestroyduetosedimentation.Sincepelagicfisharebroadcastspawners,
theirspawninghappenoverextendedareaandthus,dredging isnotmakingasignificantproblem
for breeding or spawning activities. The mobility of the pelagic fish species at each of their life
history stages enables them to avoid potentially harmful effects. However, fish larve
(Ichthyoplanktons) could be affected by entrainment and turbidity. Considering the high
reproductive capacity of broadcast spawners along with the relatively small area of the dredge
suction field and the volume of water entrained compared to the overall volume of surrounding
waters,itisunlikelythatentrainmentorturbiditywouldgreatlyaffectichthyoplanktonpopulations
orassemblagesinthearea.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page75

The clouds of turbidity impair planktonic life in the water column itself, e.g., by reducing, light
penetration,loweringtheavailableoxygenlevelduetooxidationofstirredupparticles,obstructing
therespiratorypassagesofmarineorganisms,andpossiblyevenpoisoningthemwithtracemetals.
Smothering of spawning habitat of finfish and shellfish habitat could occur within the immediate
vicinity of the seabed works, as the coarser fraction of the sediment disturbed is likely to be re
deposited on the seabed within some distance of the works. This impact is only expected to be
temporary, as excess material deposited will be resuspended and distributed by natural
hydrodynamic processes. The spawning and nursery areas of finfish and nonfinfish species are
highlysensitivetosmotheringimpacts(Table4.19).

Table4.19:Summaryofpotentialimpactsonspawningandbreedinggrounds

Effect Activity Impact Direct/ Duration/ Impactarea


Indirect intensity
Entailment Dredging Total Direct Temporary Dredgingsite
removal of Moderate
biomass High
Smothering Dredging Spawning Direct Temporary/ Dredging site
beds and egg High and immediate
hatching surrounding
Larval
survival
Delay in
recruitment
Sediment Dredging/transporta Spawning Indirect Temporary/ Dredging site
alternation tion beds and egg Moderate and immediate
hatching surrounding
Larval
survival

SandDredgingarea;Impactsonfishinggroundsandfishingroutes

Fishingintheproposedareaismoreimportantpelagicfisheriesthandemersalfisheriesduelackof
habitatsandlowproductivityoftheextensivesandyseabed.Directlongtermimpactsareunlikelyto
occur on pelagic fisheries as pelagic fish are mobile and therefore will avoid any area affected by
increased sediment loading or any other adverse impacts and are able to return once dredging
activityhasceased.Shorttermimpactsonpelagicfishspeciesmayoccur.Forexample,theabilityto
findpreybyvisualfeedersmaybereducedunderturbidwaterconditionsorreductionofplankton
bloom due to high turbidity. Species that normally inhabit turbid waters e.g. skates use their
olfactory senses for feeding will be less disturbed by any increase in suspended solids than other
species. Thus, adverse impacts to potential harvestable yield of pelagic fish will be negligible. Fish
canhearmarinenoise.Studieshavefoundthatshippingactivitygeneratesgeneralnoisesuchasor
dredgingcancauseanavoidancereactioninfish(Thomsen,2006).
Sanddredgingmayaffectfisheriesinsand/mudbottomareasintheshallowseaalthoughdredging
will take place some distance away from these areas. Shrimp fishing is conducted in sand/mud.
Bottom trawling is currently designated as a destructive method and is not permitted. However
theseareasareimportantastheyofferspawningareas,nurseryareaandmarinelifeontheseabed
which are both intimately connected to the health of commercial fish stocks and the livelihood of
fishermen. Marine life abounds in these areas, whilst the sand and shingle provides the essential

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page76

physical habitat for a vast range of marine animals and plants, including fish, which not only feed
here but also use these habitats to spawn and support their juveniles. This manifests a decline in
newrecruitmentoffish,asspawninggroundsaredestroyedoraffected,andinchangesinspecies
composition,resultingdecliningoffishcatches.Sinceshrimparemigratoryandundergospawning
migration from lagoon to sea, and larval migration from sea to lagoon, any adverse impact to the
spawningbiomassorthelarvalbiomasswouldaffecttheshrimpfisheriesinthelagoon.
The most adverse impacts of offshore sand dredging on fisheries will be that fishing could not be
madeintheimmediatedredgingarea,lossoffishingduetohabitatremovalandincreasedlevelsof
maritime traffic may reduce access to their conventional fishing areas. Therefore, fishermen may
havetotravelfurtherafarortoalternativeareasinsearchofnewfishinggroundsspendingtimeand
fuel.Anydelayinfishlandingwouldaffectthequalityoffishandtherebymaydeclineinvalue.
ThepotentialimpactsonfishinggroundsandfishingroutesaresummarizedinTable4.20below

Table4.20:Summaryofpotentialimpactsonfishinggroundsandfishingroutes
Effect Activity Impact Direct/ Duration/ Impactarea
Indirect intensity
Destruction of Dredging Loss of Direct TemporaryLow Dredgingarea
spawning and fishing tomoderate
nurserygrounds grounds
Delay in Dredging Reduce fish Direct Temporary Dredgingarea
recruitments catch Moderate

Send more time Dredging Reach new Direct Temporary Dredgingarea
in searching new fishing Low to
fishinggrounds grounds moderate
Fishing cost Dredging Long Indirect Temporary Dredgingarea
increase distance to Low to
travel moderate
Unable to fish in Dredging Hindrance Direct Temporary/ Dredgingarea
convention fishing Low
fishinggrounds operation
Fish quality Dredging Loss of Indirect Temporary/ Dredgingarea
deterioration value Low
Accident/collision Dredging Loss of life Direct Temporary/ Dredgingarea
risk and Low
property

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page77

4.3 Socioculturalimpacts
4.3.1 Aestheticandrecreationalvalue
4.3.1.1AerialViewsofColomboPortCityinRelationtoImportantLandmarks

TheaerialviewofPortCityfromtheEastinlinewiththePresidentialSecretariatBuildingisshownin
Figure4.66below:


Figure4.66:AerialViewfromPresidentialSecretariatBuilding

The orientation of the Master Plan of Colombo Port City is based on the Presidential Secretariat
commandingthemostprominentviewstoandfromColomboPortCity.ThefrontoftheSecretariat
buildingwillhaveanuninterruptedviewoftheGrandCeremonialBoulevardofColomboPortCity.
Also either side of the Secretariat building will be enhanced with an extended public green space
(Northofthelotussculpture)anduninterruptedviewsoftheMarinaandwatertotheSouth.The
PresidentialSecretariat(anditsimmediatevicinity)willthereforebecomeanaestheticcentrepiece
oftheColomboCBDandafocalpointwheretheoldcitymeetsthenewseamlessly
ItshouldalsobepointedoutthatpriortotheinvestmentproposalbeingsubmittedbyCCCCforthe
Port City project, the UDA presented a conceptually similar plan in their October 2010 report
submitted to the SLPA. As shown in the master plan visual submitted by the UDA to SLPA, similar
planning principles to showcase the Presidential Secretariat building have been incorporated. (See
Figure4.67below).Notethatintheirconceptplanof2010,theUDAhasalsoproposedthecentral
roadaxisofthereclamationareawouldbeinlinewiththePresidentialSecretariatbuilding.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page78


Figure4.67:ConceptPlanProposedbyUDAtoSLPAin2010

AgroundlevellocalizedmasterplanofthevicinityofthePresidentialSecretariatbuildingisshownin
Figure4.68below(extractedfromtheColomboPortCityconceptualmasterplansubmittedtoUDA)


Figure4.68:LocalizedMasterPlanofthePresidentialSecretariatArea

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page79

TheaboveshowsthelocationoftheparkareatotheNorth,thetreelinedmainboulevardfacingthe
Secretariat building and the Marina to the southwest. The area surrounding the Secretariat
therefore contains pocket parks, many with water features. The Lotus square located beside the
LotusroundaboutisanopenandwelcomingspacethatcreatesalinkbetweenGalleFaceandPort
City. The Lighthouse Cultural Park is also an important connection between the old and new CBD
areas.
The northern part of the CBD contains the CBD plaza, which will be an active square. The Marina
Park and sunken plaza connects the southern CBD physically and visually to the Marina. All park
areasshownwillbeaccessibletothepublic.

4.3.1.2GeneralPrinciplesofMassingAesthetics
TheTallerbuildingsaretobelocatedalongtheBoulevardsanddecreasestowardsthewaterareas
ofPortCityandtowardstheoldCBDandincreasetowardsthePort.
Therefore, no development will block significant views to the waterfront and Presidential
Secretariat. Design and location of taller buildings will maximise the views without blocking the
existingbuildingsinFort.SeeFigure4.69below


MassingStudyModelling
Figure4.69:TransitionofBuildingHeights

4.3.1.3HeightofPortCityBreakwateranditsVisualImpact
The breakwater for the reclamation and the marina, which is visible from Galle Face, has been
designedkeepinginmindsafetyandaesthetics.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page80

The design of the breakwater is done in a manner to have good views of the ocean from the
reclamationandotherareassuchastheGalleFacebeach.Iftheoffshoreislandbreakwaterisnot
adopted, the landfill has to be protected by a massive seawall with a high crest wall thereby not
providing any ocean view from the ground level of the landfill. This is not acceptable for a
developmentofthisnatureaimedatpreservingColombosnaturalbeauty.
With the offshore island breakwater approach, persons standing at ground level on the outer
portionofthelandfillwillnotonlyhaveagoodviewoftheoceanwavesbreakingovertheoffshore
breakwater, but also have a pool of relative calm water of around 300m length between the
breakwaterandthebeachareaofthelandfill.Thiswaterbodywouldfacilitateswimmingandwater
sportsactivities,whicharecurrentlynotpossibleintheColomboarea.Asshownbelow,thebeach
areatobecreatedwillhaveabreathof3080m(SeeFigure4.70).


Figure4.70:ThePublicBeachAreaofColomboPortCity

4.3.1.4TheOpenSpaceConceptofPortCity
The open space concept at Port City is a network of public parks and open water, large scale and
smallscale streets, public squares and small plazas. Open space provision is based on land use,
demographics and maximum walking distances to various facilities creating a hierarchy of open
spacesthathasthebenefitsof:
Reinforcinglocalidentityandcivicpride
Enhancingthephysicalcharacterofanarea
Improvingphysicalandsocialinclusion,includingaccessibility
Providing connected routes between places for walking and cycling, and safer routes to
schools
Contributingtophysicalandmentalhealth
AsshowninFigure4.71below,PortCitybringswithitthe creationofatotallynewareaofgreen
landscapetoColombo,encompassingaparklandareaofapproximately45haallaccessibletothe
general public. The green structure is comprised of a hierarchy of public and private landscape
typologiesofferinghabitatprovision,urbancoolingandhelpingColombotoproactivelypreparefor
climatechange.Thelandscapehierarchyisdescribedbelow:
1. Primary green structure Linear parks supporting wildlife corridors and the 22 ha Central
Park.(SeeFigure4.71)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page81

2. Secondarygreenstructuretreelinedstreetsthathelpbirdmovementthoughthecity.
3. Tertiarygreenstructureprivategreenareasthatmitigateurbanheatislandeffectsandact
assteppingstonesforwildlife


Figure4.71:TheGreenOpenSpaceConceptofPortCity

Theparkstrategyistoprovidedifferenttypesofparksandplacesforrecreationsforpeoplelivingin
Port city and visitors. Meeting places and destinations are placed at strategic places along the
waterfront.Notably:
(a) The large Central Park (see Figure 4.72) works as a community park with a wide range of
activeandpassiverecreationfacilities.Forexampleareasforsport,informallawnarea,play
area, ornamental garden, woodland and naturalistic area for relaxation and study. The
Central park will be characterized by open spaces delineated by trees. There will be close
proximitytowaterviajettiesaswellasraisedviewsovertheparkfromadjacentbridgesand
the organically formed boardwalks that transverse the water for all public to enjoy. Other
featuresincludeBotanicalcentreandShadowgardensetoutintheparkforexhibitionsand
diningandanornamentalgarden,showcasingexoticplantspecies
(b) Thelocalparksprovidedinthelinearparksandothergreenareasshouldofferawiderange
offacilitiesforplayandrelax
(c) Pocketparksareprovidedonprivatelands
Accordingly,inthemediumtermwiththeadditionoftheCentralParkandotherparkareasadjacent
totheCBDarea,publicrecreationalspaceavailablewillincreasetoalmost5timesthecurrent5ha
areaoccupiedbytheGalleFaceGreen.OverthelifeofthePortCityprojecttheapproximately45ha
ofgreenspaceswillbe9timesthesizeofGallFaceGreen.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page82


Figure4.72:The22haCentralPark

4.3.1.5TheCanal
ThecanalareaofPortCityhasadocklandcharacterwithquays.Thequayareaswillhavevarying
elementssuchasbridgesandwoodendecks.Buildingswithactivefrontagefacethequays.Several
parksarealsolocatedalongthequays.Alongthecanalthequaysoffernicewalksthroughthearea
andbridgesenhanceaccessibilitytowardsthecanal.Touristboatswillbeabletopassthroughthe
canalassistinginaccessingvariouspointsofinterestalongtheway(Figure4.73).


Figure4.73:VisualRenderingofCanalArea

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page83

4.3.1.6Aestheticsoflandfill
The Project Company will take required action to maintain good visual appearance of the
undeveloped land portion till such time developments commence upon the land plots being
sold/leasedtothirdpartydevelopers.
As mentioned earlier, upon completion of the reclamation and ground improvement of the bare
land,allroads(includingmainringroads),landscaping,theCentralParkandothergreenareasand
utilitiesrequiredfortheinitialstageofmarketingwillbecompleted.
There will be Development Control Regulations established collaboratively with the UDA for all
investors who intend to undertake developments within CPC. This would include guidelines on
maintenance of undevelopedland pending the commencement of development. Also, pending
construction,theundevelopedareasofPortCitymaybemaintainedasgreenbeltswithlandscaping,
trees,greenwalls,hoardingortemporarystructuresandfacilitiesappropriatelyinordertomaintain
visualaesthetic,publicappealandadaptability.

4.3.2 FisheryandAquaculture
4.3.2.1Areasoffishinggroundsandaquaculturedirectlyimpactedbytheprojectduringdredging
andreclamationandtheirimportancetothelocalandregionalsocioeconomy.
Thereisnofishingactivityinthereclamationareacoveringtheseaareaof2kmdistance.Asnoted
earlier the closest fish landing areas are 810km away from the project site. Thus, development
activities of CPC will not have any negative impact on fishing communities living in Modara/
Mattakkuliya(distanceof8kms)orDehiwalaMountLavinia(distanceof10km)fishlandingcentres.
Thefisherslivinginbothlocationsmostly(about64%)usemechanizedcraftsforfishingandhence
theCPCwouldnotrestricttheirfishingactivities.
Theproposedsanddredgingmayexertanimpact onfishinggrounds,leadingtolossofincome to
fishersandinturntoareductionintheirlivelihoodstatus.Thepotentialdecreaseinfishcatchand
landingscouldresultinnegativeimpactonlocalmarketandalliedfisheriesindustry.Aquacultureis
not practiced at the proposed site or associated waters, thus not considered for the impact
assessment.

4.3.2.2 Areas of fishing ground and aquaculture indirectly impacted by the project during
constructionduetoincreasednoiselevelsinthewatercolumnsorthroughthereleaseof
suspendedsediments,increasedlevelofpollutantsorchangedcurrentpatterns.
The release of suspended sediments and noise level is comparatively low under the proposed
dredging technology. The impact on the current pattern is negligible. The dredging may release
nutrientsandpollutantsfromtheoceanbottomresultinginalgalbloom.Thus,theproductivityof
thefishinggroundmaydecrease,ifthesuspendedsedimentandpollutantlevelexceedtheaccepted
level.Aquacultureisnotpracticedatthesiteorassociatedwaters,thusimpactonaquacultureisnot
assessed.

4.3.2.3Valueoffisheryandaquacultureimpactedbytheproject.
Thevalueofthefisheryatthestudysiteisnotdirectlyestimated.However,thecurrentproduction
and the Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) or catch rates are estimated and proposed to be assessed
during the operation and post operation. Currently aquaculture or mariculture is not practiced at
thesiteandassociatedwaters.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page84

4.3.2.4Employmentinfisheryandaquacultureimpactedbytheproject.
Direct employment loss is not anticipated. However net income of fishers could be impacted
temporarily,duetotraveltime.Aquacultureisnotpracticedatthesiteorassociatedwaters.

4.3.2.5Impactsonfoodfishandornamentalfishcatches(quantityanddiversity),fishingseasons,
economicgainstofishercommunities
Impact for the food fish varieties would be minimum as the fishermen are allowed to fishing in
dredging area. However, quantity of the fish catch may reduce temporarily in areas dredged
includingshrimp.Marineornamentalfishcollectionexistsinthenearbyareaoutsidethedredging
sites in associate with reefs in Thalhena, Basiyawatta, Morawala area. Short term impact can be
expectedforthemalso.

4.3.2.6 SocioeconomicimpactsonfishingCommunity
TheNegomboFisheriesDistrictisthefourthimportantdistrictintermsoftheannualfishproduction
ofthecountryin2014,whichcontributed35,251tons(6.5%)tothetotalfishproduction.Thereare
13FisheriesInspectorDivisions(FI)and9,692numbersofactivefishersengagedindifferenttypeof
fisheriesusingdifferenttypeofcrafts.Thereare1,937numberofregisteredOutboardmotorFibre
Reinforced Plastic boats (OFRP), 1,753 of Non motorized Traditional Boat (NTRB) and 32 Non
motorizedBeachSeineBoats(NBSB)withintheimpactarea.
Since, fishing is the main and the sole income source and the livelihood of the community, a
temporary impact on income from fishing can result from dredging in the identified sand borrow
areas. In order to address this issue, an income support and benefits programme for potential
Incomelostisnecessary.
UndertheProjectAgreement,providingaccesstotheProjectCompanydredgerstodredgesandand
obtain required permits and consents for same and providing the necessary funds to mitigate
incomelossoffishermenisanobligationoftheGOSL/SLPA.Itisthereforeproposedthatthefunds
required for the income Support and benefits program for the impacted fisher community be
allocated to the Ministry of Megapolis & Western Development (the Project Proponent) and
disbursedthroughaFisheriesFund.ThisisdiscussedingreaterdetailinChapter5.
Theincomesupportandbenefitsprogramwillbebasedonseveralkeyassumptions:
(a) Fishers are allowed to engage in fishing activities during sand dredging and provided
advancednoticeofoffshoredredgingactivities
(b) Dredgingwillbefocused onareasavoidingfishing groundsasidentifiedintheSEIAreport
withamajorportionofsandobtainedfromSLPAborrowarea2,whichisfartherawayfrom
thecoastline.
(c) InordertomitigateimpactonfisheriesfromdredgingintheSLPAborrowsite1closertothe
shoreline,theProjectProponent/MinistryofMegapolis&WesternDevelopmenthasalready
directed the SLLRDC to secure required permits from the CEA to dredge sand for the Port
Cityprojectfromtheborrowareaof100sq.kmalreadyallocatedtoSLLRDCandforwhich
an EIA has already been approved to dredge sand for purposes of extracting sand for the
constructionindustry.Subjecttofurtherexplorationstudies,thisborrowareaisestimated
tohaveadredgeablesandquantityof264mncu.m,wellinexcessofthequantityrequired
forPortCityreclamation.SeeFigure4.74wherelocationsofallborrowareasisshown.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page85


Figure4.74:TheThreeBorrowAreasforSand

(d) Dredgingwillbecarriedoutatadistanceof3kmfromtheshorelineandatdepthsinexcess
of 15 m, with dredgers traveling at least 20 km from the project site typically. This would
ensure that impact on fisheries would be minimized and that there will be no impact on
erosiononcoastalareas
The above aspects will be dealt with in greater detail in the Chapter 5, which covers mitigation
measures.

4.3.3 Employment
4.3.3.1Descriptionandassessmentoftheeffectsoftheprojectontheemploymentopportunities.
TheCPChasthepotentialforcreatingemploymentopportunitiesfor,professional,technical,skilled
and unskilled labour. Based on some conservative estimates, the project has the capacity to
generate employment for professional, technical, skilled and unskilled workers during the
reclamation stage of the project. This would be even higher during the construction stage of the
project. During the construction stage, some more jobs will arise from quarrying and associated
works,andsowillbenefitsfromincreasedinvestmentandotherrelatedinitiativesoutsidethescope
of the immediate project, such as the development of service facilities for CPC. With the
commencementofconstructionactivities,theCPCwouldprovidejobopportunitiesforawiderange
of occupational groups. The target beneficiaries would include the communities living in Fort and
adjoiningGNdivisionsandCMCarea.
Based on existing cost estimates and some proxy measures, the direct and indirect employment
potential of the project during the reclamation stage would be around 6400 jobs representing
skilled,unskilled,technicalandmanagerialcategories.Thisincludesaround1700directjobs.Thisis
basedonestimatesduringthe6monthsofconstructionundertakenbyCPCpriortothesuspension
notice. More than 80% of these employment opportunities are estimated to have been lost as a
consequenceofthesuspension.
Based on some tentative estimates, the employment potential during initial stages of the post
reclamation operations would be around 18,700 covering a wide range of occupational groups.
GiventheserviceorientedeconomicprofileofColomboFort,mostoftheemploymentopportunities
createdinthisstagewouldbeintheservicessectorcoveringfinance,wholesaleandretailtrade,and

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page86

telecommunication sector activities. The direct and indirect benefits of these employment
opportunitiespostreclamationwouldrequirefurtherinvestigationduringthephase2EIA.
TheCPCwouldnotresultininfluxoflargenumberofconstructionworkersintotheprojectaffected
areas during the construction stage. According to latest Census Statistics, Colombo has already
becomethemaindistrictforbothinmigrationandoutmigration(DepartmentofCensus&Statistics
2012).ThecoreoftheCPCistobuildanenvironmentallyfriendlyurbancityspacethatadaptsto
local climate, creates a comfortable microclimate and make efficient use of reclaimed land. It is
designedtoincluderesidentialfacilities,spaceforsmallbusinessactivities,andcommunityservice
centres.

4.3.3.2Socioculturalandsocioeconomicbenefits(otherthanemployments)tothelocalpeople.
Allthebenefitsoftheprojectaredescribedinchapter1

4.3.4Transportationofquarrymaterial
MajorportionofthetransportroutesofquarrymaterialtothePortCityprojectsitefromrespective
quarrysiteswillbeonAorBgraderoadsadministeredbytheRDAandColomboMunicipalCouncil
(CMC). Only very few roads which belongs to the local authorities are used to transport quarry
materials. These roads have sufficient capacities and they are maintained by the respective
organisationingoodquality.
Interior road sections of most of the quarries are administered by the Local Authorities. Hence,
approvalofrespectiveLocalAuthoritieswillhavetobeobtainedbythequarryownertotransport
quarrymaterialloadedtrucksalongtheroadsadministeredbytheLocalAuthorities.
(i). Traffic related impacts during transportation of quarry materials along the roads leading to
thePortCityprojectsite.
Fortransportationofquarrymaterial300sixwheelertrucksand38tenwheelertruckswillbe
used.Totalgeneratedtripsfromtransportationofquarrymaterialare1352trips/day(Inbound
andOutbound)includingthereturntrips.Amongthem1200tripsaredonebythe6wheeler(3
cube)trucksandrest152isdoneby10wheeler(4.5cube)trucks.
Ifquarrymaterialistransportedduringpeakhoursoftheday,itwillleadtotrafficcongestion.
Henceitisproposedtoseparatethetransporthoursintotwosessionsduringtheday(Formore
detailpleasereferSection5.4.2.2inChapter5).Sincetheportaccessgate(GateNo.4A)opens
for the trucks at 7.00am, traffic congestion may occur near the gate area due to the
accumulationoftrucksatgateandunavailabilityofparking.
(ii). Dustgeneration,increasingnoiselevelsduetounloadingquarrymaterialsatthestockpiling
sites
Dust may generate during loading, unloading and uncovered transportation of the quarry
material if proper mitigatory measures are not taken. In addition, when unloading quarry
material,excessivenoisealsomaygenerate.
(iii). Dustgenerationwhenmovingtrucksalongtheinternalroadsofprojectsite
When moving trucks along the internal roads of the project site, there will be a possibility of
generatingdustduetoexposedsurfaces.
(iv). Spreading of mud along the road surfaces outside the project site when empty trucks are
moving.
When empty trucks are moving out of the project site, surfaces of surrounding roads may
polluteduetospreadingofmudfromthetrucktires.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page87

4.3.5Demandforquarrymaterial
Inordertostudytheexpectedimpactsduetodemandforquarrymaterials,alltheexistingIndustrial
MiningLicense(IML)A,B&CcategoryquarrydetailsofColombo,GampahaandKalutaraDistricts
wereobtainedfromthe)GSMBTechnicalServices(GSMBTS)

Following table (Table 4.21) describe the total number of existing quarries in each of the three
Districts and total number of quarries studied in each of the three Districts. (All IMLA,B and C
category quarries sited within Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara districts are presented in Fig
2.30,2.31and2.32respectivelyinChapter2).

Table4.21:DetailsofExistingQuarriesandStudiedQuarriesinColombo,GampahaandKalutara
Districts
Quarry ColomboDistrict GampahaDistrict KalutaraDistrict
Category
Total Studied TotalExisting Studied Total Studied
Existing Quarries in Quarries Quarries in Existing Quarries in
Quarries Nos. & Nos. & Quarries Nos. &
Overall% Overall% Overall%
IMLA 07 05(71.4%) 05 01(20.0%) 15 00(00.0%)
IMLB 87 04(04.6%) 79 01(01.2%) 23 00(00.0%)
IMLC 33 00(00.0%) 01 00(00.0%) 00 00(00.0%)
Total 127 09(07.0%) 85 02(02.3%) 38 00(00.0%)
Quarries

Supplyof2.83millioncubicmetresofquarrymaterialsrequiredtocompletethereclamationworks
envisagedunderthisSEIAwouldnotcauseanysignificant impactontheotherrunningprojects in
thevicinityoftheWesternProvince.PortCityisexpectedtohaveacontinuoussupplyof5735metre
cubes of quarry materials per day on average during the reclamation phase. This quarry material
demandcanbeeasilyobtainedfromanumberofselectedIMLAandIMLBgradequarries.Pricesof
quarrymaterialwillnotbeinfluenced,asthereisanexcesssupplywithintheWesternProvince.(It
wasrevealedduringthestudythatmostoftheIMLAcategoryquarriesarenotoperatingduetolack
ofdemand).
WhenconsideringthetotalexistinglicensedquarriesinallthreeDistrictsofColombo,Gampahaand
Kalutara, the volume of rock to be obtained from the above identified quarries works out to only
7.0%, 2.3% of quarry capacity of quarries in Colombo and Gampaha respectively and 0% from
Kalutaraastheprojectdoesnotexpecttosourcequarrymaterialfromthisdistrict.Therefore,when
consideringthequarrymaterialrequirementofPortCityinrelationtothetotalquarryproduction
capacityintheidentifiedexistingquarriesinallthreeDistricts,therequiredquantumisnegligible.
Hence increase in prices of quarry material prices for the construction industry in general is not
expected.
ReferringtheexistingquarrydistributionmapofColomboandGampahaDistricts,itisclearthat11
quarriesstudiedbyGSMBTSarelocatedwithintheareaofadditionalexistingquarries(SeeFigure
2.39, Figure 2.40 and Figure 2.41 in Chapter 2). Hence, if any additional quarry material supply
requirements are encountered, it would be possible to fulfil the requirement by using the other
available existing quarries in surrounding areas of Colombo and Gampaha Districts, without any
disruptiontosupply,pricesorimpacttotheconstructionindustry.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page88

4.3.6 Handlingandstockpilingofmaterial
Initially, the stockpiling site was placed near the Kingsbury hotel and other nearby buildings. It is
reportedthat,thesebuildingswereaffectedduetonoisedisturbancescausedbyprojectoperations.
Consequently, it is expected to stockpile different size of quarry materials of about 4m height at
newlyidentifiedstockpilingsites.Moreover,5735cubicmetresofrockmaterialsareexpectedtobe
transported to the site daily for construction and stockpiling purposes. Dust generation from the
unloadedquarrymaterialatthestockpilescanbeexpected.Moreover,whenthequarrymaterials
andloaded/unloadedtrucksmovealongtheroadwithintheprojectarea,thedustgenerationcan
occur.
Inordertocontroltheseexpectedimpacts,thenewstockpileareaisselectedfurtherawaytowards
theseaandawayfromthehotels,ascomparedwiththeexistingstockpile.

4.3.7 Culturalandarchaeologicalissues
Colombo Fort has been declared a special area because of the many historic buildings that come
under the UDA. The project will not directly affect buildings of heritage interest in Colombo City
and will likely have indirect benefits. The project will also allow realignment of proposed port
boundarywallsuchthatexistingkeystructuresofculturalheritageinterestwithintheportboundary
(including the Harbour Masters Building and Battenburg Battery) will be outside the project site.
These structures are to be conserved and developed as part of a heritage area to promote
Colombos nautical history. The proposed project will not be a constraint on proposed heritage
developmentworkbytheDepartmentofArchaeology.Nosignificantimpactsuponculturalheritage
areanticipated.
Archaeologically important sites within the reclamation area (six in numbers) as identified by the
Underwater Archaeology Unit (UAU) of Exploration and Development Branch of Department of
ArchaeologyandtheproposedmitigationmeasuresarepresentedinSection3.5ofChapter3.

4.3.8 Noiseandvibration
NoiseLevelMeasurements

Five sensitive locations have been selected around the Port City area for the monitoring of noise
levels for present development work. The location description is given in Table 4.22. Short term
(Fourhour)backgroundnoisemeasurementshavebeencarriedoutattheselectedfivelocationson
25th September & 16th October 2014 and 30th January & 25th February 2015. The periods of
measurementsaregivenbelow
DaytimeTwohourateachlocationbetween0600hto1800h
EveningOnehourateachlocationbetween1800hto2200h
NightOnehourateachlocationbetween2200hto2400h
TheresultsofthemeasurementsaregiveninTable4.24andTable4.25.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page89

Table4.22:NoiseMonitoringLocationDescription

Location DescriptionofLocations(NearCICTterminal)
N1 Roundabout
N2 KingsburyHotel
N3 OldParliament
N4 BoundaryofGallefacegreen
N5 EndpointofGallefacegreen

Table4.23:NoiseLevelMeasurements(25thSeptember&16thOctober2014)

Location Day Evening Night


RBLdB(A) ENLdB(A) RBLdB(A) ENLdB(A) RBLdB(A) ENLdB(A)
N1 62 66 61 65 59 62
N2 64 67 61 65 61 64
N3 63 67 63 65 61 63
N4 68 70 63 67 62 65
N5 61 65 57 61 56 60
RBLRatingbackgroundlevel(LA90,15min)
ENLExistingnoiselevel(LAeq.h)hhour

Table4.24:NoiseLevelMeasurements(30thJanuary&25thFebruary2015)

Location Day Evening Night


(LAeqT)dB(A) (LAeqT)dB(A) (LAeqT)dB(A)
N1 67 65 63
N2 66 62 61
N3 65 64 64
N4 73 72 71
N5 63 63 58

Themeasurednoiselevelsatalllocationwerewithinthedaytimemaximumpermissiblelevelsfor
the construction activities stipulated by the Central Environmental Authority. However, in some
occasions, measured nighttime noise levels exceeded the maximum permissible levels due to the
contribution of other sources such as vehicular noise etc. The measured noise levels has to be
corrected in accordance to the BS 4142; 1990 with the residual noise levels to estimate the
correctednoiselevels,sincetheresidualnoiseintheareawouldbehighduetothecontributionof
sourcessuchasSeaBreeze,VehicleMovements,PortandSAGTactivitiesetc.
Overall potential noise impacts associated with construction phase activities of Port City
Developmentarelikelytobelow,althoughbestpracticemeasuresarerecommendedtoretainnoise
emissionstoapracticableminimum.

VibrationMonitoring

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page90

FivesensitivelocationshavebeenselectedaroundthePortCityareaforthevibrationmonitoringfor
presentdevelopmentwork.ThelocationdescriptionisgiveninTable4.25.Thebackgroundvibration
level measurements were carried out 24 hours continuously at those five locations including, day,
eveningandnight.Theperiodforadaywheretheassessmentsaremadeisgivenbelow.
Daytime0600hto1800h
Evening1800hto2200h
Night2200hto0600h

Table4.25:VibrationMonitoringLocationDescription

Location DescriptionofLocations
V1 CICTBuilding
V2 MaritimeMuseum
V3 KingsburyHotel
V4 BOCHeadOffice
V5 OldParliamentBuilding

Continuous 15 minutes vibration levels (peak particulate velocity levels) were recorded for the
period of 24 hours. Majority of measurements are less than 0.3 mm/s and the values recorded
beyond0.3mm/saregiveninTables4.26.Measuredvibrationlevelsatalllocationswerewellbelow
the levels stipulated for the type 4 structures in the interim vibration standard stipulated by the
CentralEnvironmentalAuthorityofSriLanka[1.0mm/secforfrequencybandof1050Hz].
Overall potential vibration impacts associated with the construction phase activities of Port City
Developmentarelikelytobelow.
Table4.26:GroundVibrationlevelsatPortCity,SeptemberNovember2014
Start Run PeakParticulateVelocityinmm/satEachLocation
Time Time V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
(min) th th
16 /17 Oct 30 Sept/01 23rd/24thOct
th st
04th/05thNov 13th/14thOct
Oct
07:00 15 0.32
07:45 15 0.34
08:00 15 0.43
08:30 15 0.37
11:00 15 0.31
12:30 15 0.44
12:45 15 0.39
13:00 15 0.35 0.44
13:15 15 0.31
14:00 15 0.31
16:00 15 0.45
16:15 15 0.38
16:45 15 0.34
17:15 15 0.32
17:45 15 0.31
18:30 15 0.55
22:30 15 0.86
22:45 15 0.79
4.3.9 Navigation

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page91

The art and science of ocean navigation, remains mostly the same from its inception. The art of
Navigation will apply more to the ships that use the sail and wind for propulsion. Navigation was
revolutionizedbytheuseoftheMagneticCompass.Thecompasshasbeeninexistenceforoverone
thousandyearsandwasinventedbytheChinese.Modernshipstoousethecompassinadditionto
theGyroCompass.TheGyroCompassisanelectronicdevicetofindtheTrueNorthwithouthaving
todoanycorrection.
It is possible to navigate safely along the coastal waters of Sri Lanka by ageold methods, even
withouttheuseofmodernfacilitiessuchasSatelliteNavigation(GPS).Theageoldmethodsinclude:
CompassbearingsoftwoormoreprominentobjectsmarkedontheAdmiraltyChart,correctedfor
Variationwillgiveacommonintersectingpoint,whichwillbethepositionoftheship.Variationis
theangulardifferencebetweenTrueNorthandMagneticNorth
The Vertical angle of a lighthouse or hilltop is measured by a sextant. The height of the
lighthouseorthehilltop,isgiveninthechart.Theverticalanglesubtendedbythelighthouseorhill
topwillgivethedistanceofthevessel.Thepositionofthevesselcanbeobtainedbythedistance
andthebearing.
Whenthevisibilityispoorandthecoastisnotinview,swingingthehandleadisthemethodused
forascertainingsafedepths.Acoilofropemarkedinfathomsistiedtoaweight(lead)andisswung
intotheseainthedirectionofthemovingship.Astheshipmoves,theslackontheropeisdrawnin
and when the rope comes vertical, the depth is read out from the marked line. The reading thus
obtainedcanbecomparedtothedepthmarkedonthechart,andtheshipcanbemaintainedinsafe
depthswhilesailing,thoughtheactualpositioncannotbeknownuntilthevisibilityclears.
SpecialattentionisdonetocheckwhetheranyimpactsonshipnavigationintoandoutofColombo
South Port due to port city development. Since navigation of vessels mainly depend on the wave
conditionsofthesurrounding,wavecomparisoniscarriedoutinnavigationchanneltoobservethe
impacts if any due to this port city development. Both existing and proposed development was
comparedforwaveclimateforoneyearperiodandfewpointsalongthechannelwasextractedand
observed.


Figure4.75:ExtractionPointsalongNavigationChannel
Table4.27:WaveHeightComparison

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page92

WaveHeight,Hs(m)
Location
Condition Existing Proposed increaseinHs%
NC1 4.32 4.32 0.06%
NC2 4.32 4.32 0.03%
NC3 Maximum 4.24 4.25 0.32%
NC4 3.75 3.77 0.57%
NC5 1.95 1.95 0.15%
NC1 1.00 1.00 0.14%
NC2 1.00 0.99 0.17%
NC3 Average 0.97 0.97 0.07%
NC4 0.86 0.87 0.41%
NC5 0.42 0.42 0.08%

According to the wave height extracted in navigation channel, it clearly shows that
difference between existing and proposed condition is negligible. Hence there is no
significantimpactduetoPortCitydevelopmentonvesselnavigation.

OceanNavigation

Beforetheintroductionofsatellitesupportedsystem(GPS)theonlymethodoffixingthepositionof
theshipaccuratelyinthehighseaswasbytheuseofasextantandchronometer.Bymeasuringthe
angleofthecelestialobjectsverticallyfromthehorizonandnotingtheGreenwichMeanTime,the
positionlinesofthevessel,canbecalculatedandplottedonthechart.Thepointwheretwoormore
linesintersectisthepositionoftheship.Thesextantwasinventedintheyear1731byaBritishand
anAmericanindependently.
NowadaysshipsdocarryGPSsystemfornavigationastheresultsareveryaccurateandtheposition
isreceivedcontinuouslyunlessthereisbreakdown,whichisrare.InventingGPSisagreatleapinto
the world of Ocean and Air Navigation, where an accurate position of the ship or an aircraft is
obtained.

RADARSystem

Radarisusedeffectivelyinthecoastalwatersinanyweatherforsafenavigation.Inthehighseas
the radar is used in bad visibility for prevention of collision. The first practical Radar System was
producedin1935.

PilotingandBerthingofShip

Bymaintainingthecharteredcoursebytheabovemethods,theshiponthehighseasreachesthe
pilotboardingareaoutsidethePortofColombo.TheshipstopsinthisareaandthePilotboardsthe
shipusingaverticalropeladder.APilotisalsoaqualifiedcaptainwhoknowsthelocalconditionsof
the sea and attendant dangers. He pilots the ship through the dredged channel and enters the
Harbour.Theshipisstoppedinthemiddleoftheharbourbasinandwiththeassistanceofberthing
tugs;itismanoeuvredtotheallocatedberth.TheCaptainoftheshipdoesnotpossesstheskilland
expertise to handle the ship inside the harbour like the pilot who is specially trained and
experienced.Thecaptainfollowsthemanoeuvresmadebythepilotandifhesensesadangerous
situation, he is required to countermand the pilot's action at that Instance and avoid an accident.
Thelogbookentryontheship,willbeenteredas"Pilot'sadviceandCaptain'sorders"whiletheship

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page93

ismanoeuvredbythePilot.Thelegalpositionisexactlythesame.TheCaptainoftheshipisalways
responsibleforhisship.
Different types of ships call at the Port of Colombo. They include container, passenger vessels,
generalcargoships,tankerscarryingoil,gas,andvesselscallingforship'sservicessuchasbunkering,
wateretc.Thedesignedsizeanddepthofthebertharethedecidingfactorsforallocationofberths
for ships calling at the Port of Colombo. For example, very recently, a 16120TEU container vessel
berthedattheColomboSouthPort.(TEUTwentyfootEquivalentContainer)Thiswasthelargest
containervesseltoberthattheColomboSouthPort.An18,000TEUvesselisplanned.Thisvessel
toocanbeaccommodatedattheSouthPortasthiscontainerquayisdesignedforsuchsizedvessels
ThePilotattheColomboPortislicensedtopilotanyvesselofanysize.Thesize,typeorthenumber
of vessels calling at Colombo, have no bearing to the navigation of vessels in the outer Harbour.
PilotingandberthingofavesselinsidethePortwouldbesubjecttoberthrestrictionsasindicated.

Table4.28:TotalNoofVesselsArrivedatColomboHarbour
Year TotalNo
2010 3910
2011 4124
2012 3870
2013 3667
2014 3742
Source:AnnualReportCentralBankofSriLanka

Figure 4.76: Plan of the Proposed Port City Development incorporated with Colombo South
Harbour

4.3.9.1Safetyrequirementduringconstruction
All vessels working for the project during the construction/reclamation phase, should have the
approval of the Harbour Master as the common practice for ships operating in Sri Lankan waters.
Theconductofallvesselsengagedintheprojectwork,shallbesubjecttothestandingordersofthe
Harbour Master and instructions issued by him, from time to time. All vessels shall be registered

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page94

underreputedClassificationSocietiesandincompliancewithSOLASrequirements.SOLASstandsfor
Safety of Life At Sea. International Maritime Organization (IMO) is the United Nations specialized
agency responsible for improving Maritime safety, preventing pollution from ships and making
internationalrulesandregulationsinthisaspect.
AllvesselsshouldbeinpossessionofavalidHullInsurance.Allselfpropelledvesselsshouldbefitted
with AIS (Automated Indicator System). Any exemption on account international regulations or
otherwise should be obtained from DGMS. The officers in charge of navigation of these vessels,
shouldbefluentinEnglishtobeabletocommunicatewithPortControl.Thevesselswhileobligedto
observetheInternationalRegulationsforPreventionofCollision,shallnothamperthenavigationof
othermerchantvessels,enteringorleavingthedemarcatedchannelsshownintheAdmiraltyChart.
Inthisrespect,theinstructionsfromPortControlshallbeadheredto,strictly.Thus,therewillbeno
disruption to the existing navigation channels or anchorages during the construction period, with
necessaryprecautionsandproceduresundertaken
FishingVessels

Small fishing vessels may occasionally enter the buoyed deep water channel at the entrance,
creatingadangeroussituation.Theylaynetsinthepathofthecontainervessels.Thecaptainsofthe
shipsinsuchasituationarehelplessastheycannotmovetheirshipsoutofthechanneluntilsuch
vesselsaremovedvoluntarilyorotherwise.Intheconstructionsite,thissamesituationcouldarise.
The site could be brightly lit by the operational crafts In which case demarcation may not be
necessary. The contractor for Port City could also have a couple of light buoys to separate the
operationalarea.

SandDredgingArea

Onedayfishingvessels,willbemostlyfishingofftheNorthandSouthcoastofNegombo.Allthese
fishingvesselsareregisteredwiththeDepartmentofFisheries.Theskippersofthesevesselsarealso
licensedbythem.Awarenessprogrammesforfishingvesselssailinginthesewaters,couldbeheld
withtheassistanceoftheSriLankanNavyorDepartmentofFisheries.
Intheinterestofthesafetyofthedredgersandfishingvessels,theMinistryofFisheriesandAquatic
Resources should be informed of the dredging work that is to be carried out and its location. The
Fisheries Ministry should call for a meeting with the proponents, the contractors of the project,
representatives of the fishing societies and potentially the Navy. The Ministry should arrange an
awarenessprogrammeifneeded,withthehelpoftheSriLankaNavy.Suchprogrammescannotbe
completedinashorttimeduetothefactthefishermenmaynotbeavailableatthesametime.In
additiontosuchprogrammesnoticesshouldbepreparedwithdiagramsoflightsandshapesthatare
carriedbythedredgersaccordingtotheInternationalRegulations.
The Field Officers of the Fisheries Department should distribute these notices to the fishermen at
everyopportunity.

4.3.9.2Safetyrequirementspostconstruction
ThisisanareatobecoveredingreaterdetailinthePhase2EIA,thoughoutlinedinthissectionfor
information.
Safetyrequirementsforpostconstructionwillapplytobothentrancesofthe PortCity,wherethe
entrance lights should be provided according to IALA guidelines. (IALA stands for International
AssociationofLighthousesAuthority,whichisanonprofitorganizationfoundedin1957toprovide
nauticalexpertiseandadvice).TheBreakwatertoohastobelitinsuchawaythatthemarinersare
warnedofthisobstruction.AnyvesselenteringorleavingtheMarinaHarbourofthePortCityshall

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page95

be under the control of the Harbour Master when entering the administrative boundaries of the
ColomboPort.
TheMarinaHarbourlieswithintheportslimitsofColomboasshownintheAdmiraltychart.Yachts
shouldreporttheETA(estimatedtimeofarrival)onV.H.Fatmaximumrange.
The Harbour Master has statutory powers for all administrative and operational functions of the
port.WhenthetraffictotheMarinaHarbourinthePortCityincreases,hewouldfinditprudentto
establishaseparatePortControl,giveguidanceorformulaterulesforhiscontrolofvesselsusingthe
MarinaHarbour.Nauticalinformationofurgentnatureorotherwiseonnauticalmatters,willbesent
by the Harbour Master to The British Hydrographic Department in London, which will in turn be
broadcasttomariners.Inaddition,"Notice"tomarinersisissuedonadailybasisandsummarized
annually.
4.3.9.3Postconstructionmodificationstoshippinglanesandanchorageareas
It'simportanttopointoutthattheplannedlocationofthePortCitydoesnotlieanywherecloseto
theshippingroute.Anchoragetoocannotbeestablishedinthisarea,duetothecloseproximityof
thecoastline,whereashipanchoredcouldrunagroundinbadweather.AsaresultofthePortCity
comingintooperation,therewillbenonecessityformodificationsofshippinglanesandanchorages,
evenwhenshippingtrafficescalates.

4.3.9.4Safetyrequirementsforsubmergedcablesandpipelinesduringconstruction
Therearenopipelineswithinoraroundtheconstructionsite.However,therearethreesubmarine
cableslocatedadjacenttoColomboPortCityconstructionsitenamelyDhiraaguLankacable(cable
1),SEAMEWE4(cable2)andFalconColombo(cable3).

Followingarethepotentialhazardsduringconstructionworksadjacenttosubmarinecable(s).
(a) Submarinecablescouldbeimpactedbydroppingofbargeanchorsorentangle
whilemooring.
(b) Submarine cable could be impacted due to fall of rock materials during
construction.

Howeverthelikelihoodofsuchhazardsarerareduetothefollowingreasons:
(a) On the seabed, the cable is located at higher elevation in comparison to construction
foundationthusalooserockwillhavedifficultytoascendingforwardtocable.
(b) Eventhebottomdumpingmethodused,arockwillhaverelativelyslowspeedofdescent
duetotheresistanceofabout20mdepthofwater.

SafetyMeasuresforProtectingtheSubmarineCables
Inordertoensurethatnodamagecausedtosubmarinecablesduringconstruction,itisproposedto
declarenoentry/nomooringzoneofabout30mawayfromthesubmarinecables.Theprohibited
entry area will be marked with marker buoys forming an active safety line and marker buoys will
coverbothsideoftherestrictedarea.Buoyswillbeplacedatintervalsof100metersapartandwill
betieddownbytheconcreteblockthatisplacedattheseabed.
Thesizeoftheconcreteblockswillbe60*60*60cmandtheweightofeachblockis0.5tons.The
totallengthofthesteelcableconnectedtotheconcreteblocktothebuoyis0.5meterslongerthan
the water depth. This will compensate the height difference during LW and HW. Colour of the
markerbuoyswillbewhiteandfittedwithsolarflashersfornightillumination.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page96

Thiswillmakeclearvisibilitytobargeoperativestoidentifynoentry/nomooringzone.Inorderto
ensure that no anchorage permitted within the safety line and thus eliminate the risk of anchors
droppedorentangledwithsubmarinecablethatcouldresultindamages.
Inaddition,about3Chinesepodeswillbeplacedbetweenprojectconstructionzoneandsafetyline.
TheseChinesepodesareintendedtobeusedasbargeanchors.TheweightofChinesepodeisabout
18tons(whichisenoughtokeepthebargeinstablepositionwithloadwhenmoored)andwillbe
placedinseabedbymonitoringtheGPScoordinate.Theyareconnectedtosteelringequippedwith
floaterwithasteelcable.Nearsideofthebargetocableswillbemooredtothefloater,whichistied
downbytheheavyChinesepodes,andfarsideofthebargeusesanchors.Thiswillfurtherminimize
theriskofplacinganchorsadjacenttosubmarinecable.
The schematic diagram of ship mooring by using the Chinesepodes is illustrated as follows. When
anchored,GPSisusedtomonitorthewholeprocess,theanchorwillnotcrossthesafetylineand
theanchorpositionrecordedasasafetymeasure

Figure4.77:TheschematicdiagramofmooringofBargesusingChinesepodes

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015 Chapter4Page97

CHAPTER5
PROPOSEDMITIGATIONMEASURES
5.1IntroductiontoMitigatoryMeasures
The previous chapter of the SEIA report identified the potential environmental impacts associated
with the construction of the Colombo Port City Project (CPC). This chapter refers to mitigation
measuresthatshouldbedevelopedinordertoavoidorminimizeanysuchadverseimpacts.
Therearethreeimportantareasconsideredwithrespecttomitigationmeasuresanditsapplications,
namely:
(1) Toreviewandreportspecificdesignfeatures,havingidentifiedpotentialenvironmentalissues
at the planning and preliminary stages, that have been or should be incorporated in to the
projectsdesign.ThisaspectiscoveredinSection5.2below.
(2) Toidentifymitigationandbestpracticemeasuresthatshouldbedevelopedinordertoavoidor
minimizeanysuchadverseimpactsduringconstructionandoperationalstages(Thisiscovered
insection5.3,5.4and5.5).Indoingsoattentionhastobefocusedonthemechanismrequired
toensuretheimplementationofthemitigatorymeasures.ThisformspartoftheEnvironmental
ManagementPlan,whichwillbepresentedundertheMonitoringProgramme.
(3) Torecognizethatsomeimpactsmaybeofseveremagnitudeandeffectiveoverashortperiod
oftimeleadingtodisastersituationsandthereforetoreviewthemunderRiskManagementand
Disaster Mitigation. Performance and potential failure of protective structures under extreme
environmental conditions are typical examples of this category. (This is addressed in Section
5.6).
5.2 MitigatoryMeasuresAdoptedintheDesignPhase(MitigationbyDesign)
TheapproachtotheEIAandtheassociatedengineeringprocessincludesMitigationbyPlanningand
Design. Therefore some of the potential environmental impacts have been reduced to an extent
withinpracticallimitsthroughiterativeplanninganddesignprocesses.Thisapproachwillreducethe
needtoapplyspecificmitigationmeasures.
The principal elements of the present project covered under this SEIA are the dredging,
transportation, reclamation, construction of breakwaters and protective structures, which creates
thelandmassandprotectivestructurestobelaterdevelopedthroughanintegratedapproach.
Thepreferredapproachofanintegrateddesignhasresultedinanumberofpositivefeatureswith
respecttoMitigationbyPlanningandDesign.
Siteselection,thegeographicalpositioningofthereclamationanditslayoutandproposed
protection has been carried out to minimize the impact on environment and minimum
exposuretohazards.
It achieves the necessary functional criteria of a safe and stable design for sustainable
developmenttherebylimitinganysecondaryenvironmentalimpactsassociatedwithfailure.
The northern boundary of the project is the existing breakwater of the Colombo Port
Expansion Project and the design will influence only the southern coastline side, which is
anyway expected to naturally accumulate with sand over time as a result of the Colombo
SouthPortbreakwater.Theselectedlocationforreclamationthereforemitigatesanumber
ofpotentialimpacts,whichmayhavearisenifsuchreclamationwastobeundertakenona
separatesite.
The use of rock has been minimized by the use of an offshore breakwater, based on sand
andarmouredwithconcretearmourblock.Therequiredrockwillbeobtainedfrommultiple

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page1

quarriesownedandrunbyindependententrepreneursasopposedtoalargesinglequarry
thusminimizingundesiredimpactsatonelocation,andtherebyprovidinglivelihoodovera
greater geographic spread and reducing traffic related problems also at a single or a few
locations.Theoperationoflargequarriesgeneratestrafficandairqualityissuesduetothe
massivescaleofsuchoperations.
By adopting modern, safe dredging practices, it is possible to minimize the impact of
dredging and reclamation. Sand will be dredged, transported and discharged by adopting
methods that would have the least impact on the environment. The efficiency of such
methodshasbeenprovedveryeffectiveintheColomboSouthPortExpansionProjectand
coast conservation projects, which used offshore sand for artificial nourishment. The
Colombo South Port had to adhere to environmental standards imposed by the Asian
DevelopmentBankaswellasadheringtotheconditionsoftheEIA.Moreover,thedredging
willbecarriedoutbyChinaHarbourEngineeringCompany,theEPCcontractortotheProject
Company, and the largest dredging company in the world having undertaken among the
worldslargestlandreclamationprojectssuchastheHongKongandMacauairports.
The relevant State Departments shall identify and disconnect any sewer connections from
the storm water drains that discharge at into the sea along Port City. During land
reclamationworks,thewaterfromtheoutletscaninfiltratedintotheground.Afinaldesign
willbepreparedduringthedetailleddesignphase.Preferenceisforinfiltrationasthisseems
to be most environmentally friendly solution, provided that the water is storm water and
sufficientinfiltrationcapacitycanbegenerated.Alternativelyorinaddition,theoutletscan
beconnectedwith(perforated)pipestothenewsystemoraseparate(perforated)drainto
divertthewatertotheseaorcanal(refersection5.5.1.3).

5.3 MitigationMeasuresPhysicalResources
5.3.1DredgingSite
5.3.1.1 DredgingofSandandTransportation
NearShoreCoastalProcessesandCoastalErosion
Withreferencetothemethodologyofoperationitisimportanttoensurethattheextractionofsand
is carried out within the identified region, at least 23 km offshore from the shoreline at depths
equalorexceeding15mwithdredginglimitedto2mbelowtheexistingseabedlevel.Thisway,the
extractionwillinnowayaffectthenearshorecoastalprocessesorthenearshoresedimentbudget,
whichgovernscoastalerosion.
Sandextractionundersuchconditionswouldnotgeneratehydraulicandgeotechnicalproblems.The
methodologyoftheoperationshouldbesuchthatthedredgingwouldbecarriedoutintheformof
uniformlinearchannelsalongtheseabedwithintherectangularboundariesoftheborrowregionas
opposedtotheextractionbycreatingscattereddeepholesontheseabed.
Dredgingofsandforreclamationshouldbecarriedoutatdepthsintheorderof15mto30mata
distance exceeding 3 km from the shoreline and the physical process of dredging being limited to
liner channels of depths of the order of no greater than 2.0 m within the SLPA site 1 (nearer to
shoreline) and from site 2 dredging may occur at greater depths provided 0.5 m of sediment is
preservedafterextraction
These conservative limits will ensure safety with respects to the minimum influence the dredging
would have on the dynamic coastal zone and the seabed stability against sliding and collapse of
nearshore profiles. Within these broader limits there are permissible variations and dredging
beyond15mdepthhasprovedtobesafebutontheconditionsthatdredgingprocessislimitedto

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page2

linearchannelsnotexceeding1.5to2.0metersandawayfromthedynamiccoastalzonewhichcan
be judged by computing the sea bed velocity profile (particle horizontal bed velocity) for the
expectedwaveandcurrentregime.
Dredging at the proposed levels of depth, the waves will have no influence on the movement of
materialattheseabed.Bydoingthiscomputationalprocedurethelimitsofdredgingdepthscanbe
determined prior to the commencement of project. Moreover, the calculations on closure depth
indicate that sand movement will not happen beyond 9m water depth [Depth of Closure,
Hallermeier(1978;16thInternationalConferenceonCoastalEngineering)].
Turbidity
Turbidity is a reasonably quantifiable phenomenon, which may be important in certain situations.
Theeffectofturbidityinduceddredgingontheenvironmentisnotalwaysdetrimental.Itisdirectly
linkedtotheproductionrateofthedredger.Theturbiditygeneratedbythedredgermustbeseenin
relationtotheturbidity,whichresultsfromnaturalcausesincludingextremeevents.
The proposed methodology of the use of trailing suction hopper dredgers limits the impact of
turbidity. Turbidity reduction or prevention can be achieved further by eliminating some of the
reasonsforthegenerationofturbidity.Thefollowingarerecommendedprocedures:
(a) Prevent overflowing: prevent overflowing as much as possible by using high transport
densities.
(b) Noleanmixtureoverboardpumping:thesameconsiderationsapplyasabove.
(c) Safelevelfilling;inordertopreventspillagewhilesailingloaded,thehopperorbargemust
notbecompletelyfilledtothemaximumfillinglevel.
(d) Splashscreenorhoses:techniques,whichwillpermitthedredgedmaterial tofallintothe
bargewithoutcausingasplashoverofmixture.
5.3.2ReclamationSite
5.3.2.1 MitigationontheCoastalEnvironment
Itisstronglyrecommendedtocommencebeachmonitoringassoonastheconstructioncommences
toassesswhethertherewillbeasignificantchangeoccurring(eventhoughitisveryunlikely)dueto
theconstructionactivitiesrelatingtoreclamationandbreakwaterconstruction.
It is recommended that baseline measurements of beach profiles be undertaken prior to project
commencement (this has been done) and thereafter monitoring be carried out at prescribed time
intervals. The structural stability of the breakwaters has to be monitored during construction. In
eventofanysignificantmovementofprimaryarmourarisingfromregularorextremewaveattack,
and which may endanger the overall stability of the breakwater, immediate measure should be
undertakentorepairthefailure.
5.3.2.2 MitigationforTransportbySeaofDredgedSandintheDredger
The route of the dredgers should be such that it will have minimum impact on those engaged in
fishing in the locality and away from traditional routes and areas used by fishermen and general
navigation.
Thefishermenhavetobewelleducatedonthesaidroutetobeusedbythedredgers.Thisshouldbe
donewiththeassistanceoftheFisheriesDepartmentcoveringtheareaofdredgingtothePortCity
site. The dredgers should be well lit in the night so as to be observed by fishermen. Where
necessary, closer to the shoreline marker buoys have to be used to indicate the path used by the
dredgers. See also Section 5.6.2 on Collisions of Vessels under Risk Management and Disaster
Mitigation.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page3

5.4 MitigationMeasures:BiologicalandSocioCulturalResourcesincludingFisheries
5.4.1 MitigationofImpactsonBiologicalandSocioCulturalResourcesatDredgingSites
On account of the anticipated environmental impacts for the biological and sociological
environmentbytheproposedsandextractionactivities,severalmitigationmeasuresaresuggested
in this chapter. Suggested mitigation measures should be implemented in order to reduce and
avoidimpactsduringtheoperationalphases.

5.4.1.1 Impactforthesensitivehabitats(ReefsandSeagrassbeds)
Thefollowingmitigationmeasuresaresuggestedinthisrespect:
(a) Modern dredging methods should be applied to minimize amount of suspended sediment
releasetotheenvironmentespeciallywherethereefsorhardbottomareas,locatedinthe
vicinityofthedredgingsites.ThisaspectisalreadycoveredintheSEIAreport
(b) Dredging activities should be completed within the shortest possible time period: An
average total of 4 modern Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers will be used throughout the
year, with some curtailment during monsoon periods to complete the dredging in the
shortestperiodoftime.

5.4.1.2 Impactofbreedinggrounds/spawninggrounds
The proposed sand extraction site 1 allocated to SLPA is lying somewhat close to breeding and
spawning ground and also a nursery grounds for shrimps, crabs, cuttlefish and some fish species.
Whilstdredgingactivitiesmaytakeplaceinthisextractionsite,ifmitigationmeasuresarenottaken,
itmayleadtodepletingtherespectivestocksmainlyduetohighsedimentation,smoothingofbed
featuresordepositionofsedimentsuponeggslaidonthebottom.Therefore,followingmitigation
measuresshouldbeputinplacetominimizetheimpact:
(a) Avoidingsandexplorationactivitiestotheareaswhereithasbeenidentified
somewhere closer to reef habitat, spawning area, breeding area and more
sensitive and high productive areas. Thereby avoid sand extraction in areas where
locatedwithincoordinatesof7o2.753N,79o50.023Eand77.420'N,7947.151'E.
(b) Limiting 30% of the total sand requirement (30% of 65 million m3) from the proposed
site1andrestcanbeobtainedfromtheproposedsite2.

Inrespectof(b)above,akeymitigationmeasurethatwilllimitsandextractionfromsite1allocatedto
SLPAwouldbetoextractsandfromtheborrowareaallocatedtoSLLRDC,whichcoversanareaof100
km2withanestimateddredgeablesandquantityof264millionm3beingavailable(thoughsubjectto
confirmation via explorations studies). As mentioned in Chapter 4, Independent of this SEIA, as a
mitigation measure, the Project Proponent, Ministry of Megapolis & Western Area Development, has
directedtheSLLRDCtoenterintoanarrangementwiththeProjectCompanytosupplysandfromthe
adjacent 100 km2 borrow area assigned to SLLRDC for which environmental approvals have already
obtained from the CEA for dredging sand in limited quantities to meet the requirements of the
constructionindustry.
It is recommended as a mitigation measure that once SLLRDC obtains required environmental
clearances to dredge its site, dredging activities in Site 1 would be reduced even further from levels
mentionedaboveorcurtailedaltogether.
TheProjectProponenthasinstructedtheSLLRDCtoobtainthenecessarypermitsfromtheCEAfor
this purpose and to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding or Agreement with the Project
Companywithaviewtosecuringsandfromthisborrowarea.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page4

On19thNovember2015,SLLRDChassecuredconcurrencefromtheCEAtodredge4mncumofsand
based on the approved EIA of November 2007. SLLRDC intends to make this quantity available for
purposesofPortCityreclamation,pendingcarryingoutfurtherexplorationtosecureclearancesfrom
theCEAforextractionofupto70mncumforusebyPortCityandSLLRDCsownuseinthefuture.

5.4.1.3 Impacttothesoftbottommacrozoobenthosandendangeredspecies.
Thefollowingmitigationmeasuresaresuggestedinthisrespect:
(a) Avoiding sites having unique habitat or other value, including habitat of threatened or
endangeredspecies.
(b) Dredging to occur 3km beyond the shoreline and at water depths of 15m or more. The
dredgingat15mdepthswillensurethattherewillbenoimpactoncoastalerosionbasedon
nearshoreactivityandthe3kmdistanceswillminimizeimpactsonfishingroutes
(c) Dredgingdepthtobelimitedto2mfromthesurfaceofsedimentonSite1andfromsite2
dredging may occur at greater depths provided 0.5 m of sediment is preserved during
extraction
(d) Maintain proper extraction methods and technology to prevent or minimize any potential
damage.
(e) Extend support to carry out research in relation to fishing impacts/ biological impacts etc.
duetosandextraction(e.g.:impactstobenthiccommunitiesanddemersalfishproduction
andrecoverytimeetc.)
(f) Dredgingcontractortostrictlyadheretosanddredgingguidelines


5.4.1.4 Suspendedsedimenteffectsonsessile,slowmovinginvertebratesandfish
Generation of suspended sediment plumes during the dredging periods potentially may have sub
lethal or lethal impacts on sessile and slowmoving invertebrates. Potential effects of the sand
dredgingactivitywouldlastforcoupleofmonths.Sinceproposeddredgingareaisgenerallyahigh
turbidityconditionandthusexistingorganismsmaybeadaptedtothoselocalhighturbiditylevels.
However increase of suspended sediments and turbidity during dredging is of low or moderate
significanceduetotheshort/mediumduration.Thefollowingmitigationmeasureswouldbeputin
placetominimizetheimpactofsuspendedsedimentsonsessileandslowmovinginvertebrates.
The dominant fish resources in the area are pelagic. They are mobile and will move out of the
affectedarea.Assuchdirectlongtermimpactsareunlikelytooccurforfishastheyaremobileand
thereforewillavoidanyareaaffected byincreased sedimentloadingsandareabletoreturnonce
constructionactivityhasceased.Shorttermimpactsmayoccurbyreducingtheabilitytofindprey
byvisualfeeders.Thesignificanceoftheseimpactsislowduetoshortdurationandlowintensityof
dredginginagivenareaandthereforemitigationmaynotbenecessaryinandbyitself.However,for
reductionsintheamountofsuspendedsedimentfollowingmeasuresarerecommended:
(a) Maintain turbidity level at the boundary of the study area below the standard level. Use silt
screens wherever required, if turbidity levels at the boundary of the study area exceed the
standard levels. (The contractor must have sufficient silt curtain ready or should be able to
mobilizesuchmeasureswithin24hourifanunforeseenplumeofsedimentsdevelop).
(b) Loading process should be made precautionary by reducing the pumping flow during the final
stagesoftheloadingprocessorbyreducingthetotalloadingtime
(c) Applyingmoderntechnologyandmakeuseimprovedmachineryindredging.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page5

5.4.1.5 Suspendedsediment(turbidity)effectonphytoplanktonandotheraquaticplants
Generation of suspended sediment plumes in the dredging areas may reduce the productivity of
phytoplankton and other aquatic plants. The potential effects are expected to extend over the
duration of the dredging activity. Due to high concentration of organic matter in the sediments
nutrient concentrations in the waters are likely to be moderate to high and therefore risks of
eutrophication due to introductions of nutrients to the water column is considered to be
low/moderate.Thefollowingmitigatorymeasuresarerecommended:
(a) Maintainturbiditylevelattheboundaryofthestudyareabelowthestandardlevel.Usesilt
screenswhereverrequired,ifturbiditylevelsattheboundaryofthestudyareaexceedthe
standardlevels.(Thecontractormusthavesufficientsiltcurtainreadyorshouldbeableto
mobilizesuchmeasureswithin24hourifanunforeseenplumeofsedimentsdevelop).
(b) Loading process should be made precautionary by reducing the pumping flow during the
finalstagesoftheloadingprocessorbyreducingthetotalloadingtime
(c) Applyingmoderntechnologyandmakeuseimprovedmachineryindredging

5.4.1.6 ImpactforWaterquality
Thefollowingmitigationmeasuresaresuggestedinthisrespect:
(a) Avoidoverflowandothercontaminantsfrommachineryandvessels
(b) Routine biological monitoring before during and after sand dredging, and reclamation
marinehabitatsshouldbeundertaken
(c) Minimizeoverflowlosses
(d) Maintainturbiditylevelattheboundaryofthestudyareabelowthestandardlevel.Usesilt
screenswhereverrequired,ifturbiditylevelsattheboundaryofthestudyareaexceedthe
standardlevels.(Thecontractormusthavesufficientsiltcurtainreadyorshouldbeableto
mobilizesuchmeasureswithin24hourifanunforeseenplumeofsedimentsdevelop).

5.4.1.7 MitigationofImpactsonfisheries
Disturbances to the fishing ground can occur due to dredger movements. Therefore extra fishing
costmayhavetobeincurredbythefisherman.Thefollowingmitigationmeasuresshouldbeputin
placetominimisetheimpactofdisruptionoffishingactivities
(a) Dredgingcanbecarriedoutasareawiseindifferentphases.Inthisrespect,dredgingshould
commencefromSLPASite2(locatedfurtherawayfromshore)first.
(b) Allowfishermentoengageinfishingwithintheallocateddredgingsitesbygivingpropernotice
inadvanceandtherebyafterdredgingworkisdone,fishermencanrecommencefishing.
(c) Fishermenshouldbeempoweredtoaccessalternativefishinggrounds
(d) Implementanincomesupportandbenefitsprogramtofishermen(outlinedindetailinbelow)
Accidentsandvesseltrafficcanalsooccurwithinthefishingground.Thereforeitissuggestingto:
(a) Employonlytrainedandauthorizedpersonstooperatemachinery.
(b) Useappropriatesignalstoindicatevesselmovementsanddredgingactivitybothdayandnight
(c) Thenumberofdredgersnotto4duringthedredgingperiodatanygivensite.
(d) Enforcement and adherence to safety procedures and preparation of contingency plan for
accidentresponse

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page6

(e) Conduct awareness for all stakeholders prior to project commencement to maintain
transparencyofprojectoperations.
(f) Awarenessmustbeexecutedforthefishingcommunityonvesseloperationbeforecommence
theworkandduringthework.
(g) Compensationtobepaidtofishermeninthecaseofaccidentsthroughasuitablemechanism
tobeestablishedtoimplementcompensationprocedurewithoutanyconflict

5.4.1.8 MitigationthroughaccesstoSLLRDCborrowarea
Availability of the SLLRDC borrow area for the extraction of sand for Port City project would have
addedmitigationbenefitsasoutlinedbelow:
(a) The total sand requirement for Port City Project is around 65 mn cu. m. which is
approximately50%orthedredgeablesandestimatedtobeavailableinSLPAborrowsites1
and2.However,AssumingthesandavailableintheSLLRDCborrowpitisaddedasplanned,
thesandrequirementforPortCityisonly17%ofthedredgeablesandavailablewithinthe3
designatedborrowareas.Consideringanaveragedredgingdepthof2meters,theareatobe
dredgedwillbearound3040sq.kmoutofatotalareaofaround100sqkmallocatedfor
SLPAsites1and2(oraround3040%ofarea).Assumingthattheborrowareaallocatedto
SLLRDCisadded,therebyincreasingthedredgingareato200sqkms,thedredgingareawill
reduce to only 1525% of the total allocated area. Accordingly, the mitigation measures
suggestedduringsandextractionsuchasavoidingfishinggroundsandroutesarefeasible.
(b) It is also suggested that the Project Company solicits the assistance of SLLRDC in the
dredgingprocesstoensurerequiredcoordinationwithotherMinistriesandrequiredsafety
measures are implemented to ensure fishing and dredging activity can coexist during the
reclamationperiodofupto36months.
(a) RoutestobetakenbythedredgerscanthenbefinetunedinconsultationwiththeFisheries
Authoritiessothatroutesselectedcauseminimumdisruptiontofishing.

5.4.1.9 Methodology for assessing proposed Income Support & Benefits Programme for
PotentialIncomeLostbyfishermen
This SEIA concludes that sand dredging is expected cause local and temporary impacts on the
biologicalenvironmentduetotheremovalofbenthicfaunaandincreasingturbidityasaresultofan
increaseinsuspendedparticlesinwatercolumns.Henceitisproposedthattheincomesupportand
benefits programme will be worked out in detail by the relevant Ministries and organizations /
departments involved, with the inputs of community based organizations (CBOs) such as the
fishermenssocieties,churches,etc.AsmentionedinthisSEIAstudy,undertheProjectAgreement
enteredintobetweentheGOSLandtheProjectCompany,formulationofsuchaprogrammeandthe
disbursementoffundsistheresponsibilityoftheGOSLandnottheProjectCompany.
Accordingly,itisproposedthatasumofRs500millionbeallocatedtotheMinistryofFisheriesand
AquaticResourcesDevelopmentviatheMinistryofMegapolisandWestern Developmenttomeet
the requirements of the proposed fisher community income support and benefits program, with
supplementaryfundsallocatedasneeded,basedontheevaluationoftheeffectivenessandactual
impact of dredging on fishery and aquaculture after a one year period. The Rs 500 million will be
depositedinadesignatedaccountininstalmentsforfundstobedisbursednolessthanonamonthly
basis. The Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources will finalize the overall budgets and
guidelines for the income support and community benefits program prior to commencement of
dredgingandinformthefishercommunityandcivicsocietyatlarge.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page7

The Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development together with the Department of
FisheriesandAquaticResourceswillaccordinglyberesponsibleforformulatingandimplementingan
acceptable community income support and benefits program for the affected fishermen. The key
objectiveoftheincomesupportandcommunitybenefitsprogrammewillbetoupliftofthesocial
economicconditionsofthefishingcommunitiesinareassuchas:
(a) Communitydevelopmentprogrammes
(b) Research&development
(c) Projectstoupliftthesocialstandardsoftherelevantfishingcommunities
(d) Programs to enhance the marine ecology and fish breeding grounds and other related
programmes
(e) Incomesupporttofishermenwheredirectimpactscanbeestablished
(f) CapacitydevelopmentofFisheriesInspectorstoimprovefisheriesmonitoring
(g) EstablishmentofafisheriesmuseuminNegombo
Somespecificprogrammesthatcanbeimplementedunder(a)(d)abovewouldinclude:
Exploringthepossibilityofenhancingthebiologicalproductivityandfisheryresourcesinthe
inshore water through the creation of new fish habitats such as fish aggregating devices
(FADs)artificialreefs(ARs),etc.
Encouraging different aquaculture systems including those for seaweeds, mollucs, cage
cultureoffishandcrabs,pondcultureoffishandshrimps;
Formulating projects which would facilitate the generating of opportunities for alternative
employmentfortheaffectedfishingcommunities;
Development or improvement of physical infrastructure such as fish landing sites,
anchorages,fishauctionhalls,communitycentres,etc.
Human resource development through training of youth of the affected families for job
opportunitiesindifferentfields,suchastourism(includingwaterrecreationalactivitiesand
boating), hotel trade. Such programs are intended to enhance employability of family
members of the fishing community in opportunities that will be created during the
developmentstageofthePortCityProjectaswell.
The impact of the dredging and the implementation of the income support and benefits program
should be effectively and adequately monitored by the Ministry of Fisheries with continuous
feedbacktofinetunethebenefitsprogramduringthecourseofthedredgingperiod.

5.4.2 ReclamationSite

5.4.2.1 MitigationofAccidentsduringTransportofSandforReclamation
With respect to transport of sand, collisions with other vessels remain a threat. This aspect is
discussedunderSection4.3.10andSection5.6.2.

5.4.2.2 MitigationofImpactsonRoadSurfaceduetoTransportationofMaterial(QuarryMaterial,
ArmourRocketc.)forProtectionWorks
With respect to transportation of rock armour for protection, lessons could be drawn from the
ColomboPortExpansionProject(CPEP)whichwassuccessfullycompletedandadoptedbothmarine
andlandtransport.The originalplan ofCPEPenvisagedahigherratioofmarinetransporttoroad
transport.However,duetoheavymonsoonalconditiontheroadtransportincreased.Thisincrease
didnotcausedmajorimpactsleadingtonegativeimpactsorformalcomplaints.
However, it is recognised that the heavy loads may cause considerable damage to road surface if
theyarenotproperlymanaged.Ontheotherhand,theimpactsduetotheadditionalloadsonthe

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page8

roadsurfacefromheavytruckscannotbeeasilyestimatedinviewoftheexistingvehiculartraffic.
Hence,itisproposedtouseonlythevehicles,whichareauthorizedtotransportgoodsonSriLankan
roadsandnottoexceedtherecommendedaxleloads.(Ref.Section4.3.5(i)Fortransportationof
quarrymaterialonlysixwheelertrucksandtenwheelertruckswillbeused.)
Asanadditionalprecautionarymeasure,theContractorshallcarryoutanaxelloadsurveyofallthe
vehiclesdeployedfortheprojectactivitiesandanoverloadcontrollingsystemshallbeimplemented
atsite.

(i) Traffic related impacts during transportation of quarry materials along the roads leading to
thePortCityprojectsite
To reduce the perceived traffic congestion along the quarry material transportation routes and to
avoidthepeakhours,itisproposedtohavetwoseparatesessionsinadayasfollows:
Session1
Theloading ofthetruckshastobe completed by6pm previousdayandovernightparkingatthe
quarrysite.Firstbatchofloadedtruckswillstarttheirjourneyat4amfromtherespectivequarry
sitesandreachthePortgatebefore7am.Thereisfacilityforparkingforabout75trucksaroundthe
portgatewithoutdisturbingmovingvehiclesalongtheroad.Asthegateopenat7am,truckswill
enterthestockpilingsitethroughroadinsidetheport.ThisbatchoftruckswillleavethePortCity
siteatabout10amafterunloading.
They will reach the respective quarry sites around 12 noon. Then again loading and starting their
journeyaround2pmandreachtheportcitysitearound4pm.Thenafterunloadingthesevehicles
again go to respective quarry sites and loading and stayed at the quarry site until their journey
startednextdaymorningat4am.
To mitigate the congestion near the port access (gate no. 4A), it is proposed to park the trucks in
near vicinity until the gate is opened and manage them to reach the gate without obstructing the
gate.

Session2
Theloadingofthetruckswillbedonearound8amandwillstarttheirjourneyat9.00amfromthe
respectivequarrysitesandreachthePortgatearound11.00am.Afterunloadingquarrymaterials
these trucks will go back to respective quarry sites around 1.00pm and again loading and starting
theirjourneyaround2.00pmfromtherespectivequarrysitesandreachthePortCitysitearound
4.00pm.Thenafterunloadingthesevehiclestheystoppedtheworkfortheday.
This will not cause any significant inconvenience as earlier during the Colombo Port Expansion
Project(CPEP),3.85millionm3(70%oftotalof5.5millionm3)ofquarrymaterialsweretransported
alongtheroadswithoutcausingmuchproblem.AtthattimePortareaanditssurroundingareawas
declaredasahighsecurityzoneandstillitmanagedtotransport3.85millionm3ofquarrymaterials
alongtheroadswithoutfacingmuchdifficulty.Nowthatthereisnohighsecurityzoneoutsidethe
port area, the balance amount of required quarry materials (i.e. 2.83 million m3) could be
transportedalongtheroadswithoutanysignificantproblem.

(ii) Mitigationofdustgenerationandnoiseimpactsduetounloadingquarrymaterialsatthe
stockpilingsites
When quarry materials are unloaded in the stockpiling sites, dust generation would be expected
fromthequarrymaterials.Inordertocontrolgenerationofdust,itisproposedtohaveasystemto

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page9

sprinkle water to wash quarry materials loaded in trucks before unloading in the stockpiling site
(Figure5.1).Toavoidthedustgenerationwhentransportingquarrymaterial,thetrucksshouldbe
covered.


Figure5.1:Sprinklingwatertowashquarrymaterialsloadedintrucks

(iii) Dustgenerationwhenmovingtrucksalongtheinternalroadsofprojectsite
When the quarry materials loaded / unloaded trucks are moving along the road leading to the
stockpilingsiteswithintheprojectarea,dustmaygenerate.Inordertocontrolthedustgeneration,
itisproposedtosprinklewateratregularintervals(Figure5.2).


Figure5.2:Sprinklingwatertocontroldustgenerationwithintheprojectareaalongtheroad
leadingtothestockpilingsites

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page10

(iv) Spreadingofmudalongtheroadsurfacesoutsidetheprojectsitewhenemptytrucksare
moving
When empty trucks are moving out of the project site, after quarry materials are unloaded, the
roadsimmediateoutsidetheprojectsitemaygetpollutedduetospreadingofmudalongtheroad
surfacefromthetiresofthetrucks.Inordertocontrolthisimpact,existingarrangementtowashthe
tiresofthetrucksshallbeutilised,beforetheyaremovingoutoftheprojectsite(Figure5.3).


Figure5.3:Tirewashingbay

5.4.2.3 MitigatoryMeasuresforImpactsduetoHandlingandStockpilingofQuarryMaterials
It is noted that, some nuisance was caused (during the construction period, prior to temporary
termination of the project in March 2015), to the nearby buildings, which are located around the
stockpilingsites,duetodustandnoise(Figure5.4formerstockpilingsites).Inordertominimise
thisimpact,thestockpilingsiteswereshiftedtowardsfurthernorthdirectionbyabout200m(Figure
5.5(a)andFigure5.5(b)locationofproposedstockpilingareas).



Figure5.4:Formerstockpilingsite.

Figure5.5:Newstockpilingsitelocatedawayfromthebuildings.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page11

Figure 5.4: Former stockpiling site located near to the Kingsbury Hotel and other buildings
locatedclosetotheKingsburyHotel

Kingsbury




New Stockpiling

Former Stockpiling

Figure5.5(a):NewstockpilingsitelocatedfewhundredmetresawayfromtheKingsburyHotel
andotherbuildingslocatedclosetotheKingsburyHotel


Figure5.5(b):Stockpiledquarrymaterialswithinthenewstockpilingsite

5.4.2.4Noiseandvibrationcontrolmeasures
NoiselevelsattheboundariesoftheProjectsitewillbemaintainedduringconstructionphasetothe
levelsstipulatedinScheduleIIIoftheNationalEnvironmental(NoiseControl)RegulationsNo.1of
1996 by applying appropriate mitigatory measures. Most common mitigatory measure in noise
controlistheconstructionofnoisebarriers.Inplaceswheresensitivereceptorsarepresentinclose
proximitytoconstructionsites,temporarynoisebarriers/screenswillbeplaced.
Forthecontrolofnoisegeneratedduetomachineandequipmentoperationthefollowingmeasures
willbeimplemented.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page12

Allconstructionworkswillbecarriedoutduringdaytime(duetooccupational,healthand
safetyreasonstoo)asmuchaspossible.
Workers involved in high noise generating activities and handling high noise generating
machineryandequipmentwillbeprovidedwithearplugsormufflers.
To the extent possible, attempts will be made to use equipment and machinery that
produces low noise levels. Also proper and regular maintenance and/or servicing of
equipmentandmachinerywillbecarriedout.
Machines and plant that may be in intermittent use should be shut down during non
workingperiodsorshouldbethrottleddowntoaminimum.
To minimise the noise and vibration impacts on sensitive receptors (such as occupants of
buildings)Increasedistancebetweennoisesourcesandsensitivereceivers.(e.g.Stockpiling
siteofrockmaterialshallbeplacedreasonablyawayfromhotelsandbuildingsofthearea).
Inordertocontrolvibrationimpactsduetoprojectactivities(e.g.compaction),itisrecommended
thatallsuchworkswillbecarriedoutincontrolledmanner.
Interim standards on vibration for blasting activities and Interim standards on vibration for the
Operation of Machinery, Construction Activities and Vehicle Movement proposed by the Central
Environmental Authority will be strictly adhered to during Project construction and operation
phases.

5.5 MitigationMeasuresBiologicalEcologicalResources
5.5.1 ReclamationArea:
Thereisnonecessitytohavesiltcurtainsaroundthedredgingareaandtheareawherebreakwaters
are constructed as there are no sensitive habitats in close proximity to the construction area, the
option may be kept open to minimize excessive turbidity if it occurs. The contractor must have
sufficient silt curtain ready or should be able to mobilize such measures within 24 hour if an
unforeseenplumeofsedimentsdevelop.Thesameisapplicabletoreclamationsite.

5.5.1.1Proposedsewageandwastewatertreatmentsystems,solidwastedisposalmethods
It is necessary to provide adequate facilities for the collection and disposal of waste produced in
workersquarters,canteensetc.Thesewastesshouldnotbedisposedintothemarineenvironment.
Adequate sanitary facilities to the workforce should also be provided. The coastal environment
shouldnotbepollutedwithsewage.
The Contractor shall manage all solid wastes including general refuse from site workers and
constructionwastegeneratedduringconstruction.
Mitigatorymeasureinclude,
Generalrefusegeneratedonsiteshouldbestoredinenclosedbinsandprovisionsbemade
withthelocalauthorityorthroughotherreliablemeanstoremovetherefusefromthesite.
A waste management programme should be implemented to include the collection of
floatingrefuseandlitteralongtheshorelinecoveredbytheprojectsite.
Trainingshouldbeprovidedtoworkersontheneedforsitecleanlinessandonappropriate
wastemanagementproceduresatthecommencementofconstruction.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page13

5.5.1.2MitigationoftheImpactsonBeiraLake
AsdescribedinSection4.1.5.1,therearetwomainissueswiththeBeiraOutlet:
ThePortCityDevelopmentwillreducemixinganddilutionoftheBeiraLakeoutflowswith
thecoastalwaterandmaylocallycausesomeaccumulationofdischargedpollutantscloseto
theoutlet.
ThePortCityDevelopmentwillprobablycauseimpeding/siltingupoftheoutletlocation,
obstructingthedischargefromtheBeiraLake.

Tokeeptheoutletopenwillrequirethefollowingmitigationmeasures:
Blocking of sediment with a submerged groyne (south east of Port City) as shown in the
currentdesign;and/or
Constructing a small groyne parallel to the Marina Revetment directly along the outlet,
separatingthebeachfromtheoutletchannel.

ThefinalengineeringdesignadpotedwillstreamlinethecontonuityofthedischargefromtheBeira
Lakeoutletandbringwaterfurthertothesea,imporvingdispersion,andpreventinganyobstruction
totheBeiraoutlet.Theapporachassuggestedabovehastheadditionaladvantageasitallowsfor
theformationofabeachclosetoGalleFaceGreenwithoutobstructingtheoutlet.
In order to establish the above principle and assist in determining the exact design, location and
alignmentoftheproposedgroynetoachievetheabove,apreliminarysimulationstudywascarried
out with a 200 m long groyne placed just south of the Beira outlet in parallel to the Marina
Revetmenttocreatea50mwideoutletchannelbetweennewlydevelopingbeachandthemarina
revetmentwastested(seefigure5.6below).

Figure5.6:Groyneof200malongoutletandformingofabeach
Basedonthemodeltestresults(seefigures5.7,5.8,5.9below),thefollowingpositiveimpactscan
be achieved by construction of a groyne (subject to final design) to separate the outlet from the
beach:
Less negative influence on water quality along the beach of Galle Face, as water of poor
quality is diverted further towards the sea, increasing the dispersion before reaching the
beachalongGalleFace.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page14

Nostagnantwaterofpoorqualityinthecorner,becausetheareaischangedintoabeach
andtheoutletchannelbringsthewatertothedeeperareawhereitcanmixanddisperse
moreeasily.Thisappliesbothduringthewestmonsoonandnortheasternmonsoon.
ThebeachattheendofGalleFacecanbeusedforrecreationandthewaterinthissheltered
seaisprobablyalsosuitableforswimmingandbathing,especiallyduringlowdischargesof
the Beira Outlet, depending on the actual water quality. The actual water quality can be
monitoredinthefuture.

Figure5.7:FINEL3DModel,pollutionconcentrationforsituationaandb(SWwindcondition,Beira
Lake0.3m3/s)

Figure5.8:FINEL3DModel,pollutionconcentrationforsituationaandb(NEwindcondition,Beira
Lake0.3m3/s)

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page15

Figure5.9:FINEL3DModel,pollutionconcentrationforsituationaandb(SWwind,3daysafter
extremeevent10m3/s)

Abovesimulatedfiguresshowthatingeneral,duringsouthwestmonsoonandnortheastmonsoon,
allowingabeachwithanoutletchannelcanreducetheimpactonwaterquality.Theconcentrations
alongthebeachwillnormallybeabout24%oftheBeiraOutletinsteadofabout410%.Thelast
figureshowshigherconcentrationsafteranextremeeventof10m3/sdischarge.Butthisisaworst
caseexampleasthedischargeinrealitywillmostlynotbehigherthan25m3/s.Inanycase,the
water quality of discharged from the Beira Lake is expected to have lower concentrations of
pollutantsduetothehighrainfall.

5.5.1.3PossiblemitigationmeasurestominimizeblockageofStormwaterOutlets.
The following cost effective and practical measures are suggested for improvement of quality of
drainagesystemsfallingwithinthelandboundaryoftheproposeddevelopmentworks.
Stateauthoritiesshallhaveeffectiveadministrativecontrolsforpreventingillegalconnectionof
domesticsewerintostormwateroutletsinthefutureanddisconnecttheexistingsewage/foul
waterconnectionsandconnectsuchwatertotheColomboseweragesystem.
Thesewage/foulwaterthatisalreadyconnectedtothestormwaterdrainagesystemhastobe
identified and separated out, to reduce or eliminate any significant potential for inflow of
pollutantstotheseaorinfiltrationofpollutantsintothegroundwater.
Measures shall be taken to ensure that the outflow of the storm water outlets will not be
blockedbythePortCitylandreclamation.
Alldrainshaveanelevationofabout+3.5mto4m;onlydrain16#(Figure3.39)hasanelevationof
+2.7 m. The ground water level is expected to be about 0.5m to 1.0m MSL depending on the
distancefromtheseaorcanalandtherainfall.

Differentoptionsformitigationmeasurestominimizeenvironmentalimpact
Basedonabove,thefollowing3optionsareidentifiedtomitigatetheimpactontheoutlets:
A. Infiltratethedischargeoftheoutletsasmuchaspossibleintotheground.
B. ConnecttheoutletsinthefuturetothenewstormwatersystemofPortCity.
C. Divertthedischargeoftheoutletsthroughadraintotheseaorcanal.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page16

A) Infiltratethedischargeoftheoutletsasmuchaspossibleintotheground

Infiltrationofstormwaterrunoffisacommonsolutionandmoreandmorepracticed.Ithasbeen
proven during the first construction period that the water of the outlets can infiltrate in the soil
withoutsignificantissues.Therefore,foratemporarysituationthisisaprovensolution,forthefinal
situationsuitabledesignofinfiltrationfacilitiesshallbeprovided.Astheoutletlevelsarewellabove
groundwaterlevelandthereclamationwillbeofsand,designofsuchfacilitiesseemstobefeasible.
Besides this, the Port City is expected to have certain green areas, and integrating the infiltration
facilitieswithsuchareaswillbebeneficialforthevegetation,seefigurebelow.


Figure5.10:GreenzonesinPortCity(indicativeurbanplanning)
Different design options and materials for infiltration facilities are available, which also can be
combined: infiltration trench or areas (for example rock with geotextile around), infiltration basin
(whichcanalsobeusedforoverflowofinfiltrationtrench),infiltrationpipes,etc.Suchfacilitiescan
bewellcombinedwithgreenzones,likeareasfortreesorgrassedareas.

Figure5.11:Infiltrationpipesandinfiltrationtrench

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page17


Figure5.12:Infiltrationtrenchandbasin

Figure5.13:SubsurfaceInfiltrationbedwithvegetationontop

B) ConnecttheoutletsinthefuturetothenewstormwatersystemofPortCity.

In the figure below, in indicative drainage layout of Port City is shown. Assuming that the outlet
levelswillnotbelowerthanthelevelofthenewsystem,itispossibletoconnecttheoutletsintothe
newsystem.Thenewstormwatersystemalsodivertsthewaterintotheseaandthecanal.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page18


Figure5.14:ExampleofconnectingoutlettostormwaterPortCity(indicativestormwater
drainagedesign)
C) Divertthedischargeoftheoutletsthroughadraintotheseaorcanal

Asshowninthefigurebelow,theoutletscanbeconnectedtoanewdrain,divertingthedischarge
totheseaorcanal.Assumingasimilarcapacityasalltheoutletstogetheradrainofabout3.8m2
would be required, however as indicated in the previous chapter, most probably a lower capacity
couldbesufficient.Asindication,aboxculvertof2.5mwideand1.5mheightwouldbesufficient.

To reduce the discharge into the sea or canal and to restore fresh groundwater, the drain can be
perforated,whichmaybebeneficialforvegetationintheseareas.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page19


Figure5.15:Designofamaindrainfortheexistingoutlets,connectingto(a)seaor(b)canal
Basedonabove,themitigationrecommendationsareasfollows.
The relevant State Departments shall identify and disconnect any sewer connections from
thestormwaterdrainsthatdischargeintotheseaalongPortCity.
Duringlandreclamationworks,thewaterfromtheoutletscaninfiltrateintotheground.A
final design will be prepared, using one of the options explained above. Preference is for
infiltration, as this seems to be most environmental friendly solution, provided that the
waterisstormwaterandsufficientinfiltrationcapacitycanbegenerated.Alternativelyorin
addition, the outlets can be connected with (perforated) pipes to the new system or a
separate(perforated)draintodivertthewatertotheseaorcanal.
AccordingtotheProjectAgreement,theProjectCompanyshallproperlydiverttheexisting
stormwateroutletsalongthebreakwateroftheColomboSouthPortProjectandChaithya
RoadthatareaffectedduetothePortCityProjecttothesea
The Project Company will also take necessary measures, including construction of a short
groyne(s) for natural circulation or installation of a pump system for forced circulation to
prevent any accumulation of discharged pollutants. Monitoring will be carried out during
constructionandoperationofPortCityonthewaterqualitynearBeiraLakeoutfall.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page20

5.6 RiskManagementandDisasterMitigation
In accordance with the National Policy on Disaster Management, it has been identified that all
Environmental Impact Assessment Reports should cover relevant issues on disaster mitigation and
managementpertainingtotheproject.Apartfromenvironmentalimpacts,minimizingtheimpacts
of disasters is a fundamental feature of the design process. Any such incident can seriously affect
smoothoperationandthedesignshouldincludecomprehensivestateoftheartmethodstostudy,
assessandminimizetheimpactsarisingfromsuchevent.
Potentialareasofdisastersrelevanttothesiteinclude,
OilSpillagearisingfromaccidents
Collisionsofvessels
Sealevelrelatedhazards
Transportofsand,quarrymaterialandstockpiling

5.6.1MarinePollutionandOilSpillagearisingfromaccidents
The Marine Pollution Prevention Authority Act requires that harbour and marine developments
shouldincludesufficientfacilitiesforpollutionabatementofmarinewatersaswellascontingency
measuresintheeventofthefailureofsuchsystems.Thecontingencymeasuresarealsousefulto
preventpollutionofthecoastlinefromoilspillsoriginatingfromaccidents.Inordertominimizethe
risksposedbyoperationaloilspillages,thecontractorshouldadoptgoodoperatingpractice,ensure
theadoptionofprinciplesofsafetyfortheoperationofthebargesbetweenloadingoutpointand
the South Harbour site and operate an Oil Spill Contingency Management Plan (OSCMP). It is
recommended that Client/Contractor prepare an Oil Spill Contingency Management Plan in
accordance to the guidelines provided by Marine Environmental Protection Authority (MEPA). The
priorapprovalforthesaidplanhastobeobtainedfromMEPA.
AspartofassessingtheriskofoilspillsalongtheSriLankancoastlineimpactsofpotentialoilsspills
whichmaytakeplacealongtheinternationalshippinglanesoutsidehavebeenmodelledpreviously
based on historical data. The relevant pre computed databases for the areas of concern provides
valuable information on the order of the magnitude of the problem, its spread with time and the
potential areas subjected to impact. This enables the identification and selection of suitable
mitigationsystemstocontrolpotentialimpactsofoilsspills.Thesystemathandshouldbeableto
controlpotentialoilsspills,whicharemostlikelytotakeplace.Thisaspecthasalsobeenconsidered
indetailfortheColomboPortExpansionProjectsiteanditseemslogicalthatthecontractormakes
useofthisapproachandinformation.
Withtheadoptionofthemeasuresdescribedintheabovetwoparagraphsofthissubsection,the
potentialforimpactsrelatedtooilspillscanbeeffectivelymanagedtoasuitablelevelofsafety.
In connection with dredging process, equipment and dredging material transportation, potential
impactswouldbeaddressedthroughthefollowingmeasures:
(a) Only equipment specially designed and manufactured by reputed companies with builtin
environmentalprotectionmechanismswillformarineconstructionworks.Allequipmentwill
be periodically checked and maintained by the contractor as per the safety and quality
proceduresstipulatedinthecontractdocuments.Thiswillalsominimizetheriskofsiltand
other contaminants being released into the water column or deposited in locations other
thandesignatedlocation
(b) Although10,000cumcapacitytrailersuctionhopperdredgersareused,only7,500cumof
dredged material is transported to the site during each trip. Since loading and offloading
barges are not used, this will ensure elimination of splashing of dredged material to the
surroundingwater

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page21

(c) Thedredgersusedwillnotdredgemarinemud.AlsotheoutdatedLeanMixtureOverboard
SystemtechnologywillnotbeusedforthePortCityreclamationworks.Overflowfromthe
dredgerswillbedisposedfrompipeslocatedatthebottomofthedredger.Theanalysisof
sediment spreading plume concentration conservatively assumes that the overflow is
discharged at the water surface. Even with this conservative assumption, as shown in the
numerical modelling carried out for this study, the concentration of suspended sediments
levelislessthan1.5mg/lforalmostallcases.Althoughspreadingisoccurringuptocertain
extent,concentrationofthesuspendedsedimentislessthan2mg/l,whichisalmostequal
toambientconcentration.Thereforedispersionoffinesedimentduetodredgingoperations
doesntshowanyimpacttothesurroundingenvironment.
(d) Material overflow during dredging will help to increase the efficiency of the dredging
processandimprovethe qualityofthedredgedmaterial.Overflowingmethodareusedin
dredgingoperationsthroughouttheworldforimprovingthesandqualityandefficiencyof
dredging.
(e) Beforemovingdredgers,excessmaterialfromthedecksandexposedfittingsofvesselsshall
not be dumped to sea except at approved locations. Note that according to the Project
Agreement, it is the responsibility of the SLPA to provide an atsea area for dumping
unsatisfactorymaterial.
(f) Adequatefreeboardshallbemaintainedondredgerstoensurethatdecksarenotwashed
bywaveaction
(g) Allbottomdumpingvesselsshallbefittedwithtightfittingsealstotheirbottomopeningsto
preventleakagesofmaterialandperiodicallychecked.
(h) DredgersthatwillbeusedinSriLankanwatersshallobtainthenecessarycertificationfrom
country of origin and will be free of hullfouling contaminated ballast water. A certificate
fromtheDirectorGeneralofMerchantShippingofSriLankawillbeobtainedtomakesure
theBarge/Vesselisfreeofanyimpurities.(Thisconditionwasfulfilledduringthedredging
periodoftheproject)
(i) DredgersshoulddisposeofallshipgeneratedwasteinaccordancewithMEPAguidelines.
(j) Refuellingwilloccurwithinreclamationareaonlyusingfuelsupplierswithrequiredpermits
andlicensesforbunkeringinSriLanka.
5.6.2Collisionsofvessels
Collisionofthedredgerandfishingvesselsisapotentialproblem.Itisextremelyimportantthatthe
fishermenaredulyeducatedontheroute,frequencyofoperationofthedredgers.Healthandsafety
measures have to adopt at the highest level. Warning lights have to be used in the dredgers and
floatingmarkerstobeutilizedtoclearlydemarcatetheroutofthedredgers.Specialcareshouldbe
undertaken when the dredgers are manoeuvring in near shore areas where fishermen operate.
Theremaybeperiodsofhightrafficintheoperationofthedredgersduringwhichtheriskishighin
view of increased hazards. The contractor should focus special attention during periods of high
frequency of dredger movement, which increases potential hazards. By adopting measures
describedaboveandbeingalertbymonitoringthepotentialforanincidentleadingtomajordamage
ofavesselisconsideredverylow.
5.6.3Sealevelrelatedhazards
The western coastline of Sri Lanka is subjected to considerable stress during the southwest
monsoon. High waves arising from storm surges could be experienced. The contractor should
monitorthepotentialdevelopmentofsuchsituationsandhaveinpreparationacontingencyplanfor
immediatemonitoringandrepairofthebreakwaterandedgeprotectionforthereclamationduring
construction. With the recommended measures undertaken it is possible to undertake urgent
remedialworksarisingfrompotentialsealevelrelatedhazards.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page22

5.6.4PortAccessChannel
ThoughithasbeenpointedoutinthisSEIAreport(section4.1.7)thatprospectsofsiltationofthe
navigation channel is negligible, the Project Company and SLPA will jointly carry out a monitoring
programbysoundingsurvey.ThismonitoringprogramwillalsoincludeTSSattheboundaryofthe
Port City site to evaluate whether any fine material has escaped from the Port City site into the
navigationchannel,orwhetheranychangeinbedlevelhadbeencausedbysedimentcomingfrom
theKelaniRiver.
5.7 MechanismforimplementationoftheMitigatoryMeasures
The implementation of the mitigatory measures and the management of potential environmental
impacts during the construction phase is largely the responsibility of the contractor under the
supervisionoftheresponsiblebodies.TherecommendationsonMitigatoryMeasuressetoutinthis
chapterwillbeincorporatedtoformanEnvironmentalManagementPlan(EMP).
Withrespecttothecomponentonmitigatorymeasures,itisnotedthatanEMPissimilarinnature
to a quality plan and provides details of the means by which the Contractor (and any Sub
Contractors)willimplementtherecommendedmitigationmeasuresandachievetheenvironmental
performance standards defined and recommended in Sri Lankan environmental legislation, in the
EIA and in the Contract. The primary reason for adopting the EMP approach is to make the
Contractor aware of his environmental responsibilities and to be proactive in his commitment to
achievethestandardsspecified.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter5Page23

CHAPTER6
EXTENDEDCOSTBENEFITANALYSIS

6.1Introduction
The development of Port City plays an important role in promoting growth in the relatively small
economyofSriLanka.ThebenefitsandobjectivesofreclaiminglandtoextendtheColomboCentral
BusinessDistricthas beenelaborated elsewhereinthisreport. ThemainpurposeofColomboPort
City (CPC) is to create a regional business hub, a city with a distinct brand with high quality public
spacesandinfrastructurefacilities,attractivetolocalandinternationaldevelopersandinvestors.
The structural changes of the economy over the past ten years indicate the dominance of service
sector economic activities, particularly in the areas of tourism, ICT, ports and shipping, retail,
transport and financial services. The CPC has the capacity to contribute towards service sector
orientedgrowthanddevelopmentbyattractinghighprofileFDIsandgeneratingwiderangeofdirect
andindirectbenefitstothenationaleconomy.
TheCPCprojectistobeimplementedovera25yearperiod.Largescalelandreclamationinvolves
numerous complex social, environmental and economic effects. These social and environmental
costsaredifficulttomeasureandtovalue.Theproposaltocreatelandreclaimedfromtheseaat
this location was made technically feasible due to construction of breakwater (around 1.5km in
lengthperpendiculartotheshoreline)oftheColomboSouthPortexpansion.
TheCPCdoesnotinvolvereplacinganyeconomicactivitiesintheprojectlocationoritsimmediate
neighborhood.Thus,thebenefitgeneratedbytheentirereclaimedlandbecomesanadditionalasset
to Sri Lanka as a result of a Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) project. In summary, the qualitative
benefitsofCPCcanbesummarizedasfollows:
(a) ThecreationofadditionaloceanfrontlanddesignedtoexpandtheCBDofColombothatwill
enableanintegratedmasterplantobedeveloped.Thisisexpectedtoestablishthecityasa
centre for finance, tourism, shopping and entertainment, attracting new investments and
newbuyersofrealestateandtouristswhowillspendmoremoneyandentrepreneurswho
willinvestinnewbusinessesinSriLanka
(b) The GOSL is able to attain some of the vision and objectives stated in the CESMA plan of
2004, though without the burden of spending state resources on the development or
relocating the Jaye Container Terminals port related activities as envisaged in the CESMA
Plan
(c) Colombo becoming a destination for tourism will smoothen out the cyclicality of current
tourist arrival patterns and have a beneficial impact on resort hotels around major tourist
attractionsinSriLankasuchastheCulturalTriangle.
(d) OceanfrontlandwithinCBDsofemergingbusinesscitiesencouragesfinance,commerceand
residentiallivingwithincloseproximitytoeachother.ColombosCBDhasonlyfragmented
undevelopedlandparcelsremainingwithlimitedviewsoftheoceanonallfronts.

TheCPCprojectthereforecreatesnewlandthatwillgenerateeconomicreturnstotheGovernment,
theinvestor,thecityandthecountryasawhole.

6.2.IdentificationofPotentialImpacts

Although reclamation projects are generally regarded as an incremental asset to a nation, the
extendedeconomicimpactofaprojectsuchasCPCthatintendstopositionColomboasaregional

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter6Page1

business and tourism hub needs to be assessed in terms of social, economic and environmental
factors.
The negative impacts of the project cover several physical impacts e.g. construction work related
activities,andactivitiesattheprojectlocationhavingimpactsonitsimmediateneighborhoodsand
the environment. The positive impacts of the project include employment creation, enhanced
foreigninvestment,positiverevenuegenerationtothegovernment,transferoftechnologyandvalue
addedcontributiontothenationaleconomy.Oncethephysical,socioeconomicandenvironmental
impacts of the CPC are identified and quantified, the next step of analysis is to monetize these
impactswitheconomicprices.
The application of shadow prices to reflect the true economic values of costs and benefits of the
project was carried out using economic conversion factors. Ideally, conversion factors should be
frequently updated to take into account changes that might occur through time. Unfortunately,
thoseforSriLankawerecalculatedalmost30yearsagoandtheyarenotappropriatetobeusedfor
CostBenefitAnalysis valuations in 2015 because significant changes have taken place in the
economic structure of Sri Lanka over the past 30 years. Thus, the conversion factors developed by
theNationalPlanningDepartmentinthe1980swereadjustedtoreflectchangesintheeconomyand
theimpactoftaxesandsubsides.Severalconversionfactorswereusedtoconvertthemarketprices
toeconomicpricesandconversionfactorsappliedformaterial,labour,technical,andexecutivelevel
occupationswere1.000,0.755,0.722and0.776respectively.
Incarryingoutthecostbenefitanalysis,thestandardmethodologyofcomparingwithanalternative
projectlocationwasnotconsideredasCPCisconstructedsouthoftheeastwestbreakwaterofthe
ColomboSouthHarbour(CSH).Itisalocationwheretherewillbeanaturalaccumulationofsand.It
is for that reason that this location had been identified for this type of development by all
developmentplansincludingtheCESMAPlancommissionedin200304,developedaround7years
priortocommencementofconstructionofCSH.Thisapart,thereisnofeasiblealternative(technical
and financial) to creating oceanfront lands, with all the related benefits pointed out earlier, within
theColomboCentralBusinessDistrict.
ThedevelopmentofthePortCitywillnotcreatealittoralbarrier.Thebarrieritselfisalreadypresent
via the eastwest breakwater of the CSH. Undertaking reclamation in an area where sand will
naturallyaccumulatewithtimeisaverycommonpracticeincoastalengineeringandnottechnically
challenging. In view of these unique characteristics of the proposed project site, and site having
already been identified for the purpose of reclamation for extension of the Colombo CBD, the
standardmethodologyofusinganalternativeprojectlocationwillnotbeconsideredincarryingout
theextendedcostbenefitanalysis.

6.3.MultipliereffectsandLongtermoutcomes
TheproposedCPChasthecapacitytocontributesignificantlytotheeconomicwellbeingofthecity
of Colombo and the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR). The longterm employment figures
includejobsattheCPC,jobsgeneratedbymultinationalfirms,jobssupportinglocalpurchasesmade
bylocalandforeignemployeesatCPCatgrocerystores,retailoutlets,restaurants,localgovernment
services,schools,hospitals,etc.andfirmsthatprovideservicestotheCPCcompaniessuchasoffice
suppliesandequipment,utilities,communicationsandprofessionalservices.
Theprojecthasthepotentialforgeneratingwiderangeofindirectsocioeconomicbenefitssuchas
attracting high profile FDI and thereby creating direct employment mainly for professional and
technicaloccupationsinareassuchasInformationCommunicationTechnology(ICT),banking,fund
management, investment banking, real estate, retail and tourism subsectors. The employees of
these occupational groups are expected to be well paid and have the capacity to create indirect

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter6Page2

employmentinthenationaleconomyduetohighdisposableincome.Theproposedprojectalsohas
the capacity to attract high profile FDI particularly for high value added service sector investments
and headquarters of export manufacturing establishments. The immediate impact of such
investmentswouldbeanincreaseinGDPandalsoanincreaseinforeignexchangeearnings.
In addition to job creation, other longterm outcomes include fostering modern management
practices in various fields that will upgrade the living standards of Colombo. The project will also
providesocioeconomicbenefitsthroughtheutilizationofworldclassresidentialspaces.Additional
economic benefits could also be realized through an increase in higher paying jobs related to
international trade and the movement of greater amounts of imports and exports through the
Colomboport.
As revealed in a recent study (World Bank, 2015), if managed well, urbanization can lead to
sustainable growth by increasing productivity, allowing innovation and new ideas to emerge. It
further states that better cities can help reduce vulnerability to poverty, improve living conditions,
and create environment for more and better paying jobs. Income generation is comprised of
investment and expenditure by the CPC, the total employee payroll and benefits of business
establishments. However, these factors alone do not represent the total economic contribution of
theprojecttothenationaleconomy. Economicstudiesfind thatmanyadditionaljobsarecreated
indirectly as a result of the financial transactions of a business, its suppliers, customers and
employees. For example, Job creation during the construction of the reclamation and protective
works of CPC would be more than 1700 direct jobs per annum while its impact on indirect
employmentwouldbearound4500.Inaddition,afurther4500wouldbeindirectlyemployedatthe
quarrysitesandquarrysupplychainduringthereclamation.

The predicted new job creation would be around 15000 per annum during the 1st 10 years of
business operations (i.e. with the commencement of real estate developments on the reclaimed
land).Itsimpactonindirectemploymentwouldbearound22500perannuminthefirst10yearsof
business operations based on 1.0:01.5 ratio of indirect employment. At the end of 20 years of
businessoperationsthetotaldirectemployedwillbeassumedtoabout62,000andindirectabout
30,000(ratiodirecttoindirectis1:00.5)

6.4.ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysis(CBA)

CPC(thereclamationstageonly)isaFDIprojectwithoutlocalcapital.Localcapitalwouldbeincurred
for the provision of infrastructure, which will be priced at market rates giving a return to utility
providers.ThisaspectwillbecoveredingreaterdetailinthePhase2EIA.

Notwithstanding,itsimpactonthenationaleconomywastakenintoaccountbywayofvaluingcost
of factor services both at market prices and at shadow prices. In carrying out the extended CBA,
firstly, all quantifiable major costs and benefits of the project were valued at market prices. The
directbenefitsoftheCPCtotheGOSLwasdefinedtoincludelease/saleincomefrom63hectaresof
landallocatedtotheGOSLtodevelopers,directandindirectemploymentinconstructionworkand
quarry sites, income from municipal service taxes, direct and indirect employment, consumption
effectofforeignemploymentandbackwardlinkageeffectofforeignfirms(e.g.purchaseofmaterial
and other service inputs). The key cost items considered in the CBA for the reclamation project
envisaged under this SEIA study include construction costs, opportunity cost of material (e.g. sea
sand),lossofroyaltyincometothegovernmentinprovidingseasandandenvironmentalcosts.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter6Page3

6.4.1.ExtendedCostBenefitAnalysisforthereclamationstage
ThereclamationstageofCPCDPinvolvesreclaimingseasandfromtheIndianOceaninproximityto
theGalleFaceGreen.Reclaimedlandamountingtoabout173hectareswillbesold/leasedtolocal
and foreign real estate developers for a variety of activities such as office, residential, retail, and
leisureactivities.Thereclamationstageisexpectedtotakeapproximatelythreeyearstocomplete.
TheExtendedCostBenefitAnalysishasbeenbasedonthefinancialanalysisofoverallproject,while
takingintoaccounttheenvironmentalandsocialcostsandbenefitsasaresultoftheimplementation
oftheproject.
Thekeyparametersadoptedandkeyassumptionsoncostsandbenefitsmadeinthecalculationfor
the CostBenefitAnalysis are presented in Appendix 3, and the details of the calculation are
presented in Appendix 4. Appendix 3 describes how the anticipated environmental impacts
identified in Chapter 4, the mitigation measures suggested in Chapter 5, and the monitoring
measures recommended in Chapter 7 have been taken into consideration in the calculation
presentedinAppendix4.
Abroadsummaryoffinancial,economicandenvironmentalCostsandBenefitsispresentedbelow.
Table6.1:DescriptionsofFinancial,EconomicandEnvironmentalCostsandBenefits.
Reclamationstageonly Financial Financial+ Financial+Economic+
Economic Environmental
InternalRateofReturnIRR % 8.66% 8.9489% 8.861%
NetPresentValueNPV USDm 350 3871 3770
BenefitstoCostRatio 1.17 1.198 1.18

Theunderlyinganalysisbehindtheabovenumbersarepresentedinparagraphsbelow

6.4.1.1.Benefitstreams
a)Financialbenefitstreams
Landsales
Afterreclamation,thetotallandavailableforsaleisapproximately173hectares.Itisestimatedthat
land sales will generate about USD 6.0 billion over 20 years, considering a conservative base land
priceofUSD2,300persquaremetre(Rs.8millionperperch)andalowlandpriceinflationof3%per
annum.Landwillbeavailableforsalefromthefourthyear.

b)Economicbenefitstreams
Employmentcreation
OneofthekeybenefitsoftheCPCisitsabilitytocreatedirectandindirectemployment.Thiswould
leadtofurthereconomicgrowthinSriLankaasemployeewageswilldriveconsumptionandcapital
expenditure,thusbenefittingarangeofindustries.
Duringthereclamationstage,itisestimatedthatapproximately1,800directjobswillbecreated,of
which about 80% will be sourced from Sri Lanka. A conversion ratio of 0.776 has been used when
consideringunskilledlabour.

CECBSEIAReportProposedColomboPortCityDevelopmentProjectDecember2015Chapter6Page4

Construction of the CPC and the creation of direct employment will also lead to the generation of
many indirect jobs. CPC requires about 2.8 million m3 of granite for the construction of the
breakwater and protection work. This is estimated to generate about 3,000 skilled and 1,500
unskilledjobsattheindependentlyownedquarrysitesinthecountry.Henceindirectjobsviaquarry
sitesareestimatedatabout4,500.

Consumptioneffectofforeignemployment
Asmentionedabove,duringreclamationabout20%ofthelabourforceisslatedtocompriseforeign
nationals. They are expected to spend at least a third of the wages (likely to be higher than local
wages)inSriLankaandconsumeavarietyofproductsandservices,whichislikelytodrivegrowthin
domesticindustries.

c)Environmentalbenefitstreams
In the long term, the construction of the breakwater of CPC will benefit the fishing industry in Sri
Lanka.Accordingtoresearch,fishtemporaryavoidtheimmediatevicinityofconstructionactivities.
However,oncompletionthesedevelopedstructurescreatepotentialforagingandspawnhabitatsfor
fishthuscreatingadiversebiologicalcommunity.

6.4.1.2.Coststreams
a)Financialcoststreams
Constructioncost
ThereclamationcostisestimatedatUSD1.4billion.
SalesandGeneralexpenses
During the reclamation stage to effectively generate land sales, CPCDP will undertake a
comprehensive global marketing campaign to target key stakeholders. Moreover, skilled and
operationalpersonnelwillbeemployedtomanageoperations.Assuch,approximately3.0%ofland
salerevenueistobeallocatedfortheseactivities.
DebttoEquity
A debt to equity ratio of 70:30 is assumed for the project, which is not unusual for real estate
projects

b)Economiccostsstreams
Lossofrevenuetothegovernment
The CPCDP requires approximately 65 million m3 of sea sand. At present the Sri Lanka Land
Reclamation and Development Corporation provides sea sand for construction purposes for which
royalty, Nation Building Tax (NBT) and Value Added Tax (VAT) are required to be paid to the
governmentbythebuyer.ForCPC,thedeveloperwillbeutilisingitsownequipmenttodredgethe
sea sand during reclamation stage, as such, the