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TEACHERS
RESOURCE PACK

www.santillana.es
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1 The basis of life

OBJECTIVES
1. To identify the characteristics of living beings 5. To recognise the importance of photosynthesis.
and differentiate them from inert matter. 6. To learn about cellular respiration and nutrition.
2. To learn about cells and their components. 7. To learn about cellular division.
3. To differentiate between the two types of cell 8. To study the effects of temperature on yeast cell
nutrition. division.
4. To understand how cells obtain matter and energy.

CONTENTS
CONCEPTS Living beings: vital functions and chemical composition (Objective 1).
Cell theory, structure and organelles (Objective 2).
Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition (Objective 3).
Cellular reproduction (Objective 7).

PROCEDURES Analysing and interpreting diagrams of complex processes (Objectives 4, 5, 6 and 7).
& KEY SKILLS Describing processes with the help of diagrams (Objectives 4, 5, 6 and 7).
Using flow charts to explain processes (Objectives 5 and 6).
Conducting an experiment to study the effect of temperature on yeast cell division
(Objective 8).
Using a microscope to observe cells (Objective 8).

ATTITUDES Showing interest in learning about the vital functions which sustain life.
Appreciating life in all its dimensions.

COMPETENCES
Competence in linguistic communication: understanding descriptions and
definitions (sections 1-7, pp. 9-16); understanding instructions (Activities, p. 18);
listening to the summary of the unit (Students CD, track 1).
Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding diagrams, cross-
sections and microphotographs (sections 1-7, pp. 9-16); researching biomolecules
(Investigate, p. 19); researching the possibility of life on another planet (Web task 1,
Students CD).
Competence in learning to learn: focusing on the About this book and Learning
to learn sections (pp. 3-7) and Content objectives (p. 8); acquiring language skills
(Key language p. 8); explaining a process with a flow chart (sections 5 and 6, pp. 14
and 15); formulating and testing a hypothesis (Hands on, p. 17).

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VALUES
Protection of the Environment
Sustainable development needs to be achieved at a The Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992)
local level, as well as at a global level. In 1987, the produced the Local Agenda 21 Agreement. This
World Commission on Environment and Development proposes the integration of local environmental,
defined sustainable development as the way in which economic and social policies with sustainability criteria.
the present generation could satisfy its needs without In this way, all citizens are encouraged to participate
endangering the needs of future generations. It actively in local affairs.
concluded that the economic model of the first world
was incompatible with rational use of natural resources.

EVALUATION CRITERIA
1. Can identify the characteristics of living beings 5. Can recognise the importance of photosynthesis.
and differentiate them from inert matter. 6. Can explain cellular respiration and nutrition.
2. Can describe cells and their components. 7. Can describe some types of cellular division.
3. Can differentiate between the two types of cell 8. Can conduct an experiment to study the effect
nutrition. of temperature on yeast cell division.
4. Can explain how cells obtain matter and energy.

INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS


Web links La Recherche
Cells Alive http://www.larecherche.fr/
Original French webpage of Scientific World Journal.
http://www.cellsalive.com
Regularly publishes articles on cells, generally at a fairly
A classic webpage which contains all sorts basic level.
of information on cells, mainly in the form of images.
The Biology Project Books
http://www.biology.arizona.edu Life: An unauthorised biography
A University of Arizona project on general biology. Richard Fortey.
Virtual Cell Publisher: Flamingo; New Ed edition (6 April 1998).
http://www.life.uiuc.edu/cgi-bin/plantbio/cell/cell.cgi Aimed at non-specialised readers, this book tells the
A virtual interior of a plant cell. Interesting due to its story of life on Earth from the first cells to Homo
realistic approach. Manipulate the image to rotate, cut, Sapiens.
and zoom the plant cell.
Bio Netbook
http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/BNB/bnb-en.html
Webpage belonging to the prestigious Pasteur Institute.
It contains more than seven thousand biology links.

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1 WORKSHEET 1
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

1 Write out each abbreviation in full.

1. H2O =

2. O2 =

3. RNA =

4. CO2 =

5. DNA =

6. ER =

2 Use the clues to solve the puzzle and find the mystery word.

1. These organic compounds are


4 5 6 insoluble in water.

2 3
2. These compounds act as sexual
hormones or as vitamin D.
1 7
3. It is the total set of genes.

4. The production of more complex


organic substances from simple
substances.

5. It carries the genetic information


of living things.

6. It contains the organelles.

7. It is used to make bread


and beer.

Mystery word:

3 Complete the sentences with words from the box.

catabolism amino binary cells vital glucose

1. The functions which support life are called functions.

2. The chains of molecules which make up macromolecules are called acids.

3. are the structural and functional units of all living things.

4. Complex organic substances are degraded into simples substances by .

5. Oxygen and are essential for cell respiration.

6. fission produces two identical daughter cells of the same size.

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1 WORKSHEET 2
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

1 Use your Students Book to complete the chart about vital functions.

NUTRITION INTERACTION REPRODUCTION

Autotrophic: Reception of stimuli: 8. :


Using energy from the Sun: Animals have both This requires a male parent and
1. 4. and a 9.
Using energy from chemical 5. parent.
reactions: Plants do not have Asexual:
2. 6. This requires only
Using organic matter from other but they respond to 10.
living beings: 7.

3.

2 Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

lipids carbohydrates unicellular yeast


biomolecules anabolism water polysaccharides

1. are the building blocks of life.

2. is needed to regulate body temperature.

3. are organic compounds which are insoluble in water.

4. Starches such as rice contain .


5. organisms such as bacteria reproduce asexually.

6. is used to make different foods such as bread and wine.

7. are responsible for storing and transporting energy.

8. requires energy to produce complex organic substances.

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1 WORKSHEET 3
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

1 Use your Students Book to complete the map with examples of organic biomolecules.

Polysaccharides 1.
collagen 4.

2.
Disaccharides
glucose 3. 5.

Monosaccharides
Amino acids

Carbohydrates Proteins

Organic biomolecules

Lipids Nucleic acids

fats 9.

6. 10.

7.

8.

2 Choose and describe the function of some of the biomolecules.

Example: Polysaccharides are responsible for storing energy.


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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1 WORKSHEET 4
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

1 Work in pairs. Read and then put in order the autotrophic cell nutrition processes.

During this process, oxygen is released from the cell.

Using energy from catabolism and simple molecules, complex organic molecules are produced
in the process called anabolism.

Using sunlight, organic matter is produced.

Part of the organic matter produced is used in the mitochondrion, where catabolism takes place.

As a result of catabolism, CO2 is produced and released outside.

Using oxygen, energy and inorganic substances (H2O and CO2) are produced.

1 The cell takes in water, CO2 and mineral salts from the outside.

2 Draw a schematic diagram to explain autotrophic nutrition.

3 Read and then put in order the heterotrophic cell nutrition processes.

Part of this organic matter is used in the mitochondrion, where catabolism takes place.

As a result of catabolism, toxic CO2 is produced and released outside.

1 The cell takes in organic matter made by other organisms.

Using energy from catabolism and simple organic molecules, complex organic molecules
are produced in the process called anabolism.

Using oxygen, energy and inorganic substances are produced.

4 Draw a schematic diagram to explain heterotrophic nutrition.

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1 WORKSHEET 5
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

The cold life of Emperor Penguins


They are similar in size to a human child. a couple of months. When dad returns,
They are approximately 1.2 metres tall both parents look after their chick until
and weigh between 30 and 40 kilos. it is ready to start nursery school.
However, emperor penguins can A few adults stay behind to look after the
reproduce when they are four years old. toddlers while all the rest go fishing.
They manage to live up to 20 years in the By now, all the chicks have learnt to
coldest, most inhospitable climate on recognise their parents by a special call.
Earth: the Antarctic. The chicks start losing their grey fluff or
In May or June, mum lays one large egg. down, and by Christmas time, they have
She immediately rolls the egg to the top become adults.
of dads feet. He keeps it warm and
incubated in the thick blanket of skin
and feathers of his belly. The dads
survive the dreadful weather by standing
in tight groups for up to nine weeks.
During this time mum goes off looking for
food. Dad doesnt eat at all, and so loses
up to half his body weight.
Once baby arrives, its dads turn to get
some food. Now mum stays home for

1 True or False? Write T or F.

1. The parents go to find food while the chick stays behind with other adults.
2. The males incubate the eggs.
3. The chicks lose their down and become adults in spring.
4. Both parents look after the chick and teach it their special call.
5. The females lay several eggs.
6. The eggs hatch and the females look after the chicks.

2 Answer the questions.

1. In what season do the females lay their eggs? .


2. How long can Emperor Penguins live?

3. How do the males survive the incubation period in the cold weather?

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1 TEST 1
THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME: CLASS: DATE:

1 Circle the correct answer.

1. Animals produce responses to stimuli with the help of their (a) effectors (b) receptors (c) energy.
2. Carbohydrates are also known as (a) waxes (b) steroids (c) saccharides.
3. Starch contains molecules called (a) monosaccharides (b) disaccharides (c) polysaccharides.
4. DNA is found in the (a) cytoplasm (b) nucleus (c) enzymes.
5. Mineral salts are necessary to (a) transmit nervous impulses (b) regulate body temperature
(c) transport nutrients.
6. The cytoplasm of a cell contains (a) the organelles (b) the vesicles (c) DNA.
7. The function of vacuoles is to (a) provide support (b) store substances or waste (c) transport
substances.
8. Cellular metabolism involves (a) effectors and receptors (b) anabolism and catabolism
(c) multiplication and division.
9. During the process of respiration, cells take in (a) phospholipids (b) steroids (c) glucose.
10. Cellular division always involves (a) the nucleus (b) binary fission (c) photosynthesis.

2 Read the text and answer the questions.

Inorganic biomolecules
Inorganic biomolecules include water and mineral salts. Water is the most
abundant substance in living beings. It is found in tissues, organs, blood and
even teeth, and makes up about 65% of our body. It is needed to carry out
chemical reactions, transport substances and regulate body temperature.
Mineral salts form the solid structure of living beings, such as skeletons.
They are also necessary for chemical reactions and for the transmission
of nervous impulses.

1. What are the functions of water in living beings?

2. How much of our body is not water?

3. What part of living beings is formed by mineral salts?

4. What do mineral salts have in common with water?

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