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GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION

t
ADVANCED LEVEL
n s
e
(Grade 12 and 13)
m
om
COMBINED MATHEMATICS

r C SYLLABUS
(Effective from 2017)

Fo
Department of Mathematics
Faculty of Science and Technology
National Institute of Education
Maharagama
SRI LANKA
ii i
Combined Mathematics
Grade 12 and 13 - syllabus

nts
National Institute of Education
First print 2017

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ISBN :

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Department of Mathematics
Faculty of Science and Technology Fo
National Institute of Education
www.nie.lk

Printed by :

iiii ii
CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction

nts ......................................... iv

2.0

3.0
Common National Goals

Basic Competencies
me .........................................

.....................................
v

vi

4.0 Aims of the syllabus

om ......................................... viii

5.0

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Relationship between the common national
goals and the objectives of the syllabus ......................................... ix

6.0

7.0
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Proposed plan in the allocation of competency
levels in the syllabus into the school terms

Proposed term wise breakdown of the syllabus


.........................................

......................................... 1
x

8.0 Syllabus. ......................................... 5

9.0 Teaching learning strategies ......................................... 65

10.0 Assessment and Evaluation ......................................... 51

Mathematical symbols and notations ......................................... 65-68

iiiiii iii
1.0 INTRODUCTION

The aim of education is to turn out creative children who would suit the modern world. To achieve this, the school curriculum should be revised according to
the needs of the time.

nts
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Thus, it had been decided to introduce a competency based syllabus in 2009. The earlier revision of the G.C.E. (Advanced Level) Combined Mathematics
syllabus was conducted in 1998. One of the main reason for the need to revise the earlier syllabus had been that in the Learning - Teaching- Assessment

m
process, competencies and competency levels had not been introduced adequately. It has been planned to change the existing syllabus that had been
designed on a content based approach to a competency based curriculum in 2009. In 2007, the new curriculum revision which started at Grades 6 and 10 had

m
introduced a competency based syllabi to Mathematics. This was continued at Grades 7 and 11 in 2008 and it continued to Grades 8 and 12 in 2009.

Co
Therefore, a need was arisen to provide a competency based syllabus for Combined Mathematics at G.C.E.(Advanced Level) syllabus the year 2009.

After implementing the Combined Mathematics syllabus in 2009 it was revisited in the year 2012. In the following years teachers views and experts opinion

or
about the syllabus, was obtained and formed a subject comittee for the revision of the Combined Mathematics syllabus by acommodating above opinions the
committee made the necessary changes and revised the syllabus to implement in the year 2017.

F
The student who has learnt Mathematics at Grades 6-11 under the new curriculum reforms through a competency based approach, enters grade 12 to learn
Combined Mathematics at Grades 12 and 13 should be provided with abilities, skills and practical experiences for his future needs. and these have been
identified and the new syllabus has been formulated accordingly. It is expected that all these competencies would be achieved by pupils who complete
learning this subject at the end of Grade 13.

Pupils should achieve the competencies through competency levels and these are mentioned under each learning outcomes

It also specifies the content that is needed for the pupils to achieve these competency levels. The number of periods that are needed to implement the
process of Learning-Teaching and Assessment also mentioned in the syllabus.

Other than the facts mentioned regarding the introduction of the new curriculum, what had already been presented regarding the introduction of Combined
Mathematics Syllabus earlier which are mentioned below too are valid.
iviv iv
To decrease the gap between G.C.E. (Ordinary Level) Mathematics and G.C.E. (Advanced Level) Combined Mathematics.
To provide Mathematics knowledge to follow Engineering and Physical Science courses.
To provide a knowledge in Mathematics to follow Technological and other course at Tertiary level.

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To provide Mathematics knowledge for commercial and other middle level employment.

life.

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To provide guidance to achieve various competencies on par with their mental activities and to show how they could be developed throughout

mm
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or
F

vv v
2.0 Common National Goals

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The national system of education should assist individuals and groups to achieve major national goals that are relevant to the individual and society.

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Over the years major education reports and documents in Sri Lanka have set goals that sought to meet individual and national needs. In the light of the
weaknesses manifest in contemporary educational structures and processes, the National Education Commission has identified the following set of goals
to be achieved through education within the conceptual framework of sustainable human development.

I
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Nation building and the establishment of a Sri Lankan identity through the promotion of national cohesion, national integrity, national unity, harmony

m
and peace, and recognizing cultural diversity in Sri Lankas plural society within a concept of respect for human dignity.
II
III

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Recognizing and conserving the best elements of the nations heritage while responding to the challenges of a changing world.
Creating and supporting an environment imbued with the norms of social justice and a democratic way of life that promotes respect for human rights,

IV

or
awareness of duties and obligations, and a deep and abiding concern for one another.
Promoting the mental and physical well-being of individuals and a sustainable life style based on respect for human values.
V
VI

VII
F
Developing creativity, initiative, critical thinking, responsibility, accountability and other positive elements of a well-integrated and balance personality.
Human resource development by educating for productive work that enhances the quality of life of the individual and the nation and contributes to
the economic development of Sri Lanka.
Preparing individuals to adapt to and manage change, and to develop capacity to cope with complex and unforeseen situations in a rapidly changing
world.
VIII Fostering attitudes and skills that will contribute to securing an honourable place in the international community, based on justice, equality and mutual
respect.

vivi vi
3.0 Basic Competencies

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The following Basic Competencies developed through education will contribute to achieving the above National Goals.
(i) Competencies in Communication

ent
Competencies in Communication are based on four subjects: Literacy, Numeracy, Graphics and IT proficiency.

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Literacy : Listen attentively, speck clearly, read for meaning, write accurately and lucidly and communicate ideas effectively.
Numeracy : Use numbers for things, space and time, count, calculate and measure systematically.
Graphics :

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Make sense of line and form, express and record details, instructions and ideas with line form and color.

o
IT proficiency : Computeracy and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in learning, in the work environment and in
personal life.

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(ii) Competencies relating to Personality Development
C
-

-
-
o
General skills such as creativity, divergent thinking, initiative, decision making, problem solving, critical and analytical thinking, team

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work, inter-personal relations, discovering and exploring;
Values such as integrity, tolerance and respect for human dignity;
Emotional intelligence.

(iii) Competencies relating to the Environment


These competencies relate to the environment : social, biological and physical.
Social Environment : Awareness of the national heritage, sensitivity and skills linked to being members of a plural society, concern for
distributive justice, social relationships, personal conduct, general and legal conventions, rights, responsibilities, duties and obligations.
Biological Environment : Awareness, sensitivity and skills linked to the living world, people and the ecosystem, the trees, forests, seas,
water, air and life-plant, animal and human life.
viivii vii
i
Physical Environment : Awareness, sensitivity and skills linked to space, energy, fuels, matter, materials and their links with human living, food,
clothing, shelter, health, comfort, respiration, sleep, relaxation, rest, wastes and excretion.

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Included here are skills in using tools and technologies for learning, working and living.

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(iv) Competencies relating to Preparation for the World of Work.

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Employment related skills to maximize their potential and to enhance their capacity
to contribute to economic development,
to discover their vocational interests ad aptitudes,

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to choose a job that suits their abilities, and

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to engage in a rewarding and sustainable livelihood.
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o
(v) Competencies relating to Religion and Ethics

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Assimilating and internalizing values, so that individuals may function in a manner consistent with the ethical, moral and religious modes of
conduct in everyday living, selecting that which is most appropriate.
(vi) Competencies in Play and the Use of Leisure
Pleasure, joy, emotions and such human experiences as expressed through aesthetics, literature, play, sports and athletics, leisure pursuits
and other creative modes of living.

(vii) Competencies relating to learning to learn


Empowering individuals to learn independently and to be sensitive and successful in responding to and managing change through a transformative
process, in a rapidly changing, complex and interdependent world.

viiiviii viii
4.0 AIMS OF THE SYLLABUS

(i) To provide basic skills of mathematics to continue higher studies in mathematics.

(ii)

ts
To provide the students experience on strategies of solving mathematical problems.

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e
(iii) To improve the students knowledge of logical thinking in mathematics.

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(iv) To motivate the students to learn mathematics.

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This syllabus was prepared to achieve the above objectives through learning mathematics. It is expected not only to improve the knowledge of math-

o
ematics but also to improve the skill of applying the knowledge of mathematics in their day to day life and character development through this new
syllabus.

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When we implement this competency Based Syllabus in the learning - teaching process.





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Meaningful Discovery situations provided would lead to learning that would be more student centred.

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It will provide competencies according to the level of the students.
Teacher's targets will be more specific.
Teacher can provide necessary feed back as he/she is able to identify the student's levels of achieving each competency level.
Teacher can play a transformation role by being away from other traditional teaching methods.

When this syllabus is implemented in the classroom the teacher should be able to create new teaching techniques by relating to various situations under
given topics according to the current needs.

For the teachers it would be easy to assess and evaluate the achievement levels of students as it will facilitate to do activities on each competency level
in the learning- teaching process.
In this syllabus, the sections given below are helpful in the teaching - learning process of Combined Mathematics.
ixix ix
iii
A Basic Course for G.C.E (Advanced Level)
Combind Mathematics
No. of
Competency Competency Level Content Learning outcome
Periods
1. Review of 1.1 Expands algebric Expansion of a 2 b 2 , a 3 b 3 Applies the formula to simplify algebraic
Basic expressions expression. 04
and (a b c)2 , (a b c)3
Algebra
1.2 Factorises algebraic expres Factorisation for a 2 b 2 , a 3 b3 Factorises algebraic expression by
sions

1.3 Simplifies algebraic


fractions
en t s using the formule.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication Uses the knowledge of factorisation in


and Division of Algebraic fractions. the formulaes involved expansion
02

04

1.4 Solves Equations

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Equations with algebraic fractions,
simultaneous equations up to three
Solves equations by using factorisation
formulaes involved expansion

or C unknowns , quadratic simultianeous


equations with two variabess. 04

F
1.5 Simplifies expressions Rules of indicies fundamental Simplifies expressions involves indices.
involving indices and properties of logarithies Solve equations with indices.
logarithims Simplifies logarithims expressions.
02
Solves equations with logarathims

1.6 Describes and uses the Equality of two ratios is a proportion


properties of proportions a c
Finds values of algebraiac expression
a :b c :d using propotions
b d
Properties of the abve proporture Solves equations using propotions
02

1
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2. Geometry 2.1 Identifies theorems involving Pyhtagarus theorem acule angled Describes the theorem when two 04
Analyses rectangles in circle and uses theorem obtuse angled theorem chords intersect. and the theorem
plane geom-
etry
is Geometry problems. applloniuis theorem.

en t s
involved alternate segments.
Uses the above theorems to solve
problems.

and its extensions in prob


lems.

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2.2 Applies pythagoras theorem Pythagoras theorem acute angled
theorem obtuse angled theorem
Apollinius theorem.
Uses the theorems to prove state-
ments.
Uses the theorem to find length and
04

C
angless.

F or
2.3 Applies bisector theorem in Internal and external Angles of a
geometry problems. triangle bisects the opposite side
proportially,
Uses the theorem involved find length
in triangle.
02

2.4 Applies theorems on The areas of similar triangles are Describes the theorem and uses it to 03
similartriangles in geometry. propotional to the square of the solve problems.
corresponding sides.

2.5 Identifies the centres of a Circum centre, Incentre, Definies the 4 centres of a triangles 02
triangles Orthocentre, Centroial medians, and uses it in problems.
attitudes.

2
6.0 PROPOSED TERM WISE BREAKDOWN OF THE SYLLABUS
Grade 12
Competency Levels Subject Topics Number of
Periods
First Term
Combined Mathematics I
1.1, 1.2 Real numbers 02
2.1, 2.2
8.1, 8.2
17.1, 17.2
Functions
Angular measurements
Rectangular cartesian system, Straight line

en t s 04
02
03

m
9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 Circular functions 12
11.1 sine rule, cosine rule 01
4.1, 4.2, 4.3
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4
5.1
Polynomials
Trigonometric identities

C
Rational functions
o m 07
14
06

or
6.1 Index laws and logarithmic laws 01
7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Basic properties of inequalities and solutions of inequalities 14
9.5

Combined Mathematics II
1.1> 1.2> 1.3> 1.4
2.1> 2.2> 2.3
F Solving trigonometric equations

Vectors
Systems of coplanar forces acting at a point
04

14
10

Second Term
Combined Mathematics I
3.1, 3.2 Quadratic functions and quadratic equations 25
12.1, 12.2, 12.3 Inverse trigonometric functions 08
11.2 sine rule, cosine rule 06

3
Competency Levels Subject Topics Number of
Periods
13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, Limits 18
13.7, 13.8

s
Combined Mathematics II
2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
System of coplanar forces acting on a rigid body
Motion in a straight line

en t 23
23

Combined Mathematics I

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Third Term

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14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6,
C Derivatives 30

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14.7, 14.8
15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4 Applications of derivatives 15

Combined Mathematics II
Projectiles
3.4 Equilibirium of three coplanar forces 08
2.8 Friction 08
2.9 Newtons laws of motion 10
3.5 Work, power,energy, 10
3.6,3.7 Impulse and collision 14
3.8,3.9 15

4
Grade 13
Competency Levels Subject Topics Number of
Periods
First Term
Combined Mathematics I

s
18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5 Straight line 16
16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5,
16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9 Intergration

en t 28

Combined Mathematics II

2.10 Jointed rods

o m m 10
2.11
3.10,3.11,3.12,3.13
3.14, 3.15, 3.16 C
Frame works

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Relative motion
Circular rotion
10
30
16

Combined Maths I F Circle


Second Term

15
26.1, 27.1, 27.2, 27.3, 27.4,
27.5
24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.5 Permutations and Combinations 15
19.1 Principle of Mathematical Induction 05
20.1, 20.2, 21.1, 21.2 Series 18

5
Competency Levels Subject Topics Number of
Periods
Combined Mathematics II

4.1, 4.2 Probability 10


Simple harmonic motion 18

s
3.17, 3.18, 3.19
2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17 Center of mass

Third Term
en t 20

Combined Mathematics I

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22.1, 22.2, 22.3
23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6

r CBinomial expansion
Complex numbers
12
18

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25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4 Matrices 14

Combined Mathematics II

4.3, 4.4, 4.5 Probability 18


5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 Statistics 18
5.7, 5.8, 5.9.

6
T

Subject Number of Periods Total


First Term
Combined Mathematics I 70
Combined Mathematics II 24 94

Combined Mathematics I
Combined Mathematics II
Second Term

en t s 57
46 103

Combined Mathematics I

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Third Term
45
Combined Mathematics II

or C Fourth Term
67 112

F
Combined Mathematics I
Combined Mathematics II

Combined Mathematics I
Fifth Term
44
66

53
110

Combined Mathematics II 48 101

Sixth Term
Combined Mathematics I 44
Combined Mathematics II 36 80

7
7.0 Detailed Syllabus - COMBINED MATHEMATICS - I
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
1. Analyses 1.1 Classifies the set of real Historical evolution of the number Explains the evolution of the number 01
the system numbers system systems
of real Notations for sets of numbers
numbers


,
, , '
, ,

Geometrical representation of real


numbers

en t s
Represents a real number geometrically

1.2 Uses surds or decimals to



Number line.

om m
Decimal representation of a real
number
Classifies decimal numbers

C
describe real numbers
Decimals, infinite decimals,

r

01
recurring decimals, and

2. Analyses
F
2.1 Review of functions
o


non-recurrring decimals
Simplification of expressions
involving surds
Intuitive idea of a function
Rationalises the denominator
of expressions with surds

Explains the intuitive idea of a function 02


single Constants, Variables
variable Expressions involving relationships Recognizes constants, variables
functions between two variables Relationship between two variables
Functions of a single variable Explains inverse functions
Functional notation Explain Domain, Codomain
Domain, codomain and range Explains One - one functions explains
One - one functions onto functions
Onto functions
Inverse functions
8
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.2 Reviews types of functions Types of functions Recognizes special functions
Constant functions, linear functions, 02
piece-wise functions, modulus

s
(absolute value) function Sketches the graph of a

3. Analyses 3.1 Explores the properties of


Graph of a function
Composite functions
Quadratic functions t
functions

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Finds composite functions
Introduces quadratic functions
10

m
quadratic quadratic functions Definition of a quadratic function
Explains what a quadratic function is
f ( x) ax 2 bx c; a, b, c ;

m
functions Sketches the properties of a quadratic
and a 0

o
Completing the square
Discriminent
function
Sketches the graph of a quadratic func-

or
Properties of a quadratic function tion
Greatest value, least value Describes the different types of graphs

F
3.2 Interprets the roots of a
quadratic equation


Existence / non-existence of real
zeros
Graphs of quadratic functions
Roots of a quadratic equation
Sum and product of the roots
of the quadratic function
Describes zeros of quadradic functions

Explaneing the Roots of a quadratic


equation 15
Equations whose roots are Finds the roots of a quardatic equation
symmetric expressions of the roots Expresses the sum and product of the
of a quadratic equation roots of quadratic equation in terms of
Nature of roots using discriminant its coefficient
Condition for two quadratic Describes the nature of the roots of a
equations to have a common root quardatic equation
Transformation of quadratic Finds quadratic equations whose roots are
equations symmetric expressions of and
9
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Solves problems involving quadratic
functions and quadratic equations
Transforms roots to other forms

4. Manipulates 4.1 Explores polynomials of a Polynomials of single variable Defines a polynomial of a single variable 01

s
Polynomial single variable polynomials Distinguishes among linear, quadratic
functions Terms, coefficients, degree,
leading term, leading coefficient

en t
and cubic functions
States the conditions for two
polynomials to be identical

4.2 Applies algebraic operations


to polynomials

om m
Addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division and long division
Explains the basic Mathematical
operations on polynomials
01

C
Divides a polynomial by another

r
polynomial

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4.3 Solves problems using Division algorithm States the algorithm for division
Remainder theorem, Factor Synthetic division States and prove remainder theorem 05
theorem and its converse Remainder theorem States Factor theorem
Factor theorem and its converse Expresses the converse of the Factor
Solution of polynomial equations theorem
Solves problems involving Remainder
theorem and Factor theorem.
Defines zeros of a polynomial
Solves polynomial equations
( Order 4 )

10
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
5. Resolves 5.1 Resolves rational function Rational functions Defines rational functions 06
rational into partial fractions Proper and improper rational Defines proper rational functions and
functions functions improper rational functions
into partial Partial fractions of rational functions Finds partial fractions of proper
fractions


With distinct linear factors in the
denominator

en
With recurring linear factors in the
denominator t s
rational functions (upto 4 unknown)
Partial fractions of impropper
irational function (upto 4 unknowns)

om m
With quadratic factors in the
denominator (Up to 4 unknowns)

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6. Manipulates 6.1 Uses index laws and
C The index laws Uses index laws 01

F
index logarithmic laws to solve Uses logarithmic laws
and problems Logarithmic laws of base
Uses change of base to solve problems
logarithmic Change of base
laws

11
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
7. Solves 7.1 States basic properties of Basic properties of inequalities Defines inequalities 04
inequalities inequalities States the trichotomy law
including trichotomy law
involving Represents inequalities on a real
real Numerical inequalities
Representing inequalities on the real number line
numbers

t
number line Denotes inequalities in terms of

en
Introducting intervals using interval notation
inequalities

7.2 Analyses inequalities


functions

o m m
Inequalities involving simple algebraic

Manipulation of linear, quadratic and


States and proves fundamental
results on inequalities
Solves inequalities involving algebric
04

or C
rational inequalities
Finding the solutions of the above
inequalities
expressions
Solves inequalities including rational

F
algebraically functions, algebraically and graphically
graphically

7.3 Solves inequalities involving Inequalities involving modulli (absolute States the modulus (absolute value) 06
modulus (absolute value) value) of a real number
function Manipulation of simple inequalities Sketches the graphs involving
involving modulus (absolute value) modulus functions
sign Solves inequalities involving modulus
Solutions of the above inequalities (only for linear functions)
algebraically
graphically
12
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
8. Uses 8.1 States the relationship Angulur measure Introduces degrees and radians as
01
relations between radians and The angle and its sign convention units of measurement of angles
involving degres Degree and radian measures Convert degrees into radian and
angular vice-versa

s
measures
8.2 Solves problems involving
arc length and area of a
circular sector
Length of a circular arc, S r

Area of a circular sector, A


1 2
r

en t
Find the lenth of an arc and area of a
circular sector
01

m

2

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9. Interpretes 9.1 Describes basic Basic trigonometric functions Explains trigonometric ratios
Definitions of the six basic trigono- Defines basic trigonometric circular 04

C

trignometric trigonometric (circular)
metric functions , domain and range functions

r
funtions functions
Introduces the domains and the

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ranges of circular functions

9.2 Derives values of basic Values of the circular functions of Finds the values of trigonometric
the angles functions at given angles 01
trigonometric functions at
commonly used angles States the sign of basic
0, , , and
6 4 3 2 trigonometric function in each
quadrant

13
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
9.3 Derives the values of basic Trignometric relations of the angle Describes the periodic properties of 03
trigonometric functions at circular functions
3
angles differing by odd , , , , 2 Describes the trigonometric relations
2 2

s
of

t
multiples of and integer etc
2

en
multiples of (- ), , , 3 , 2
2 2
in terms of

o m m Finds the values of circular functions


at given angles

C
9.4 Describes the behaviour of Graphs of the basic trigonometric Represents the circular functions
04

or
basic trigonometric functions and their periodic properties graphically
functions graphically Draws graphs of combined circular

F
functions

9.5 Finds general solutions General solutions of the form Solves trigonometric equations
sin sin , cos cos and 04
tan tan

14
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
10.Manipulates 10.1 Uses Pythagorean identities Pythagorean identities Explains an identity 04
trigonometric Trigonometric identities
Explains the difference between iden-
identities
tities and equations

s
Obtains Pythagorian Identities

en t
Solves problems involving Pythagorian
Identities

10.2 Solves trigonometric


problems using
sum and difference formulae

om m
Sum and difference formulae
Applications involving sum and
difference formulae
Constructs addition formulae
Uses addition formulae
02

10.3 Solves trigonometric

o r
problems using product-sum
C Product- sum, sum-product formulae
Applications involving product-sum,
Manipulates product - sum, and
Sum - product formulae
05

F
and sum-product formulae and sum - product formulae
Solves problems involving
sum - product, product - sum formulae

10.4 Solves trigonometric Double angle, triple angle and half


problems using Solves problems using double, tripple
angle formulae 03
Double angles, Triple angles and half angles
and Half angles
solutions of equations of the form Derives trigonometric formula for
a cos b sin c , where a, b, c double, trible and half angles
Solves equations of the form
a cos b sin c only finding
solutions is expected)

15
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods

11. Applies 11.1 States and proves sine rule Sine rule and cosine rule Introduces usual notations for a triangle 01
sine rule and cosine rule States and prove sine rule for any
and triangle
cosine rule

s
States and prove cosine rule for any
to solve
trigonomet-
ric problems
11.2 Applies sine rule and Problems involving sine rule and cosine
triangle

en t
Solves problems involving sine rule and

12. Solves
cosine rule

12.1 Describes inverse



rule

Principal values

o m m
Inverse trignometric functions
cosine rule

Defines inverse trignometric functions


06

C
trignometric functions States the domain and the range of 02
problems

or
involving inverse trigonometric functions
inverse

ric
functions F
trigonomet- 12.2 Represents inverse
functions graphically
Sketching graphs of inverse trignometric
functions sin-1, cos-1, tan-1
Draws the graph of an inverse
trigonometric functions
02

12.3 Solves problems involving


inverse trignometric
Problems involving inverse Solves simple problems involving inverse
trigonometric functions trigonometric functions
functions
04

16
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
13. Determines 13.1 Explains the limit of a Intuitive idea of Explains the meaning of limit 02
the limit of a function lim f ( x) l , where a, l Distinguishes the cases where the limit
function xa
of a function does not exist

13.2 Solves problems using the Basic theorems on limits and their

en t s
. Expresses the theorems on limits.
03

theorems on limits

13.3 Uses the limit


applications

Proof of

om m xn an
lim n 1
na ,
xn an
na n 1 where

C
Proves lim
xn an
xa
xa xa x a

r
n 1 03
lim na where n is a rational number and its n is a rational number.

Fo
xa
xa applications Solves problems involving above
to solve problems result

13.4 Uses the limit Sandwich theorem (without Proof) States the sandwich theorem
03
sin x
Proof of
sin x
lim 1 to sin x
Provesthat lim 1
x 0
x lim
x 0 x
1 and its
solve problems x 0
x
applications Solves the problems using the above
result

17
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
13.5 Interprets one sided limits Intuitive idea of one sided limit Interprets one sided limits
Right hand limit and left hand limit: Finds one sided limits of a given 02
lim f ( x ), lim f ( x ) function at a given real number
x a x a

13.6 Find limits at infinity and its


applications to find limit of
Limit of a rational function as x
Horizontal asymptotes

en t s
Interprets limits at infinity
Explains horizontal asymptotes 02

m
rational functions

om
13.7 Interprets infinite limits Explains vertical asymptotes
Infinite limits
01
Vertical asymptotes using one

sided limits

F o r
13.8 Interprets continuity at a
point
Intuitive idea of continuity
Explains continuity at a point by using
examples
02

18
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
14. Differenti- 14.1 Describes the idea of Derivative as the slope of tangent line Explains slope and tangent at a point
ates derivative of a function Derivative as a limit Defines the derivative as a limit 06
functions Derivative as a rate of change
Explains rate of change
using suit-

s
able meth-
ods 14.2 Determines the derivatives
from the first principles
Derivatives from the first principles

n
x , where n is a rational number

en t
Finds derivatives from the first
principles
05

m
Basic trigonometric functions
Functions formed by elementary

algebraic operations of the above

14.3 States and uses the

C o
or
theorems on differentiation Theorems on differentiation States basic rules of derivative
Solves problems using basic rules of 03
Constant multiple rule

F Sum rule derivatives


Product rule
Quotient rule
Chain rule

14.4 Differentiates inverse


trigonometric functions Derivatives of inverse trigonometric Finds the derivatives of inverse
03
functions trignometric functions
Solves problems using the derivatives
of inverse tricnomatric functions

19
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
14.5 Describes natural exponen- The properties of natural exponential Defines the exponential function (ex)
02
tial function and find its de- function Express domain and range
rivative of exponential function
d x
e ex

s
States that e is an irrational number

t

dx Describes the properties of the ex

en
x
Graph of e Writes the estimates of the value of e
Writes the derivative of the exponential

o m m function and uses it to solve problems


The graph of y = ex

function

or C
14.6 Describes natural logarithmic Properties of natural logarithmic
function
Defines the natural logarithmic function
Expresses the domain and range
of the logarithmic function
03

F
Definition of natural logarithmic
function, ln x or log e x x 0 , Expresses the properties of lnx
asx the inverse function of The graph of y = lnx
e , its domain and range Defines the function ax for a > 0
d 1 Expresses the domain and the range
ln x , fo r x 0 of y = a x
dx x
Solves problems involving logarithmic
Graph of ln x
function
Definition of a x and its derivative Deduces the derivative of lnx
x
Deduces the derivative of a
Solves problems using the derivatives of
x
lnx and a

20
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
14.7 Differentiates implicit Intuitive idea of implicit functions Defines implict functions
functions and parametric and parametric functions Finds the derivatives of implicit functions 06
functions Diferentiation involving Implicit
Differentiates parametric function
functions and parametric equation
Writes down the equation of the

s
including parametric forms at parabola

t
tangent and normal at a given point to a

en
x2 y2 given curve
y = 4 ax and clipse 2 2 1
2
a b

m
and hyperabola

C om
or
Finds derivatives of higher order 02
Successive differentiation

F
14.8 Obtains derivatives of Differentiates functions of various types
higher order Derivatives of higher order
Find relationship among various orders
of derivatives

21
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
15. Analyses the 15.1 Investigates the turning Stationary points Defines stationary points of a givin
05
behaviour of points using the derivative Increasing / decreasing functions function
a function Maximum points (local), minimum Describes local (relative) maximum

s
using

t
points (local) and a local minimum
derivatives

en
Point to inflection Employs the first derivative test to find
First derivative test and second the maximum and minimum points of a

m
derivative test function
States that there exists stationary

om
points which are neither a local

C
maximum nor a local minimum

or
Introduces points of inflection
Uses the second order derivative to

F
test whether a turning points of a
given function is a local maximum or a
local minimum
15.2 Investigates the concavity Uses second derivative to find 02
Concavity and points of inflection concavity

15.3 Sketches curves Sketches the graph of a function 04


Sketching curves only (including
horizontal and vertical asymptotes)
15.4 Applies derivatives for 04
Uses derivatives to solve
practical situations Optimization problems real life problems
22
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
16. Find 16.1 Deduces indefinite Integral Integration as the reverse process of Finds indefinite integrals using the 03
indefinite using anti-derivatives differentiation (anti - derivatives of a results of derivative
and definite function)
Integrales
of functions
16.2 Uses theorems on integra-
tion
Theorems of integration

en t s
Uses theorems on integration 02

16.3 Review the basic properties


of a definite integral using



m
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

om
Intuitive idea of the definite integral
Uses the fundamental theorem of
calculus to solve problems
Solves definite integral problems

C
Definite integral and its properties
the fundamental theorem of
Uses the properties of definte

r
Evaluation of definite integrals 02
calculus

Fo
integral
16.4 Integrates rational functions Indefinite integrals of functions of the Uses the formula
using appropriate methods form
f x
; where f x is the
f ( x)
derivative of f (x) with respect to x 05

16.5 Integrates trigonometric Use of partial fractions Uses of partial fractions for
expressions using integration
Use of trigonometric identities 03
trigonometric identities Uses trigonometric identities for in-
0000000000
tegration
u

23
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
16.6 Uses the method of Integration by substitution Uses suitable substitutions to find 04
substitution for integration intergrals

16.7 Solve problems using


integration by parts Integration by parts

en t s
Uses integration by parts to solve 03

16.8 Determines the area of a

om m
Uses of integration
Area under a curve
problems

Uses definite integrals to find area 04

C
region bounded by curves
under a curve and area between two
Area between two curves

or

using integration curves

F
16.9 Determines the volume of
revolution

b

to find the volume of revolution


2
Use of the formulae f x dx Uses integration formula to find the
volume of revolution
02

24
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
17. Uses the 17.1 Finds the distance between Rectangular Cartesian coordinates Explains the Cartesian coordinate
rectangular two points on the Cartesian Rectangular Cartesian system 01

system

s
system of plane

t
Defines the abscissa and the ordinate
Cartesian

en
axes and Introduces the four quadrants in the
geometrical cartesian coordinate plane
results

o m m
Distance between two points Finds the length of a line segment
joining two points

or C

F
17.2 Finds Co-ordinates of the Coordinates of the point that divides Finds Co-ordinates of the point divid-
point dividing the straight ing the straight line segment joining two 02
a line segment joining two given
line segment joining two points in a given ratio given points internally in a given ratio
given points in a given ratio
internally
Finds Co-ordinates of the point divid-
externally
ing the straight line segment joining two
given points externally in a given ratio

25
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
18. Interprets 18.1 Derives the equation of a Straight line Interprets the gradient (slope) of a line
straight line Inclination (angle), gradient (slope) and the x and y intercepts 05
the straight

s
line in terms Intercepts on the x and y axes Derives various forms of equation of a
of Cartesian
co-ordinates

Various forms of equation of a
straight line
Point of intersection of two non
en t
straight line

Finds the coordinates of the point of

m
18.2 Derives the equation of a 02
parallel straight ines intersection of two non parallel
straight line passing through

om
the point of intersection of The equation of the straight line pass- straight lines
ing through the point of intersection of Finds the equation of the line passing
two given non parallel

C
two given non parallel straight lines through the
straight lines

or
intersection of two given lines
18.3 Describe the relative position The condition that the two given points Finds the Condition fortwo points to 02

F
of two points with respect to are on the same or opposite sides of a be on the same side or an opposit sides
a given straight line given straight line of a given line
18.4 Finds the angle between Angle between two straight lines Finds condition for two lines to be
02
two straight lines The relationship between the gradients parallel or perpendicular
of pairs of Finds the angles between two given
parallel lines perpendicular lines lines by using their gradients
18.5 Derives the perpendicular Parametric equation of a straight line Derives parametric equation of a 06
distance from a given point Perpendicular distance from a point to straight line
to a given straight line a straight line Find perpendicular distance from a
point to a given line using parametric
Equations of bisectors of the angles
equation of the line
between two intersecting straight lines
Finds the equations of angular
bisectors of two non parall straight
lines
26
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
19. Applies the 19.1 Uses the principle of Method of mathematical induction States the principles of Mathematical
principle Mathematical Induction 05
Principle of Mathematical Induction Induction

s
of Applications involving, divisibility,

t

Mathemati- summation and Inequalities Proves the various results using

en
cal Induction
principle of Mathematical Induction
as a type of

m
proof for
Mathemati-

om
cal results
for positive
integers

or C
F
Sigma notation Describes finite sum 03
20. Finds sums 20.1 Describes finite series and
of finite their properties n n n Uses the properties of
series Ur Vr Ur Vr
r 1 r 1 r 1
notation
n n
kU
r 1
r kUr ;where k is a constant
r 1

27
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Finds general term and the sum of AP,
20.2 Finds sums of elementary Arithmetric series and geometric series
GP, 05
series

s
n n n
Proves and uses the formulae for

t
r 3 and their applications
r , r 2
,
n n n

en
r 1 r=1 r 1 2 3
values of r , r , r to find
r 1 r=1 r 1

m
the summation of series

om
21 Investigates 21.1 Sums series using various Summation of series Uses various methods to find the
infinite series methods Method of differences 08
sum of a series

C
Method of partial fractions

or
Principle of Mathematical Induction

F
21.2 Uses partial sum to detemine
convergence and divergence


Sequences
Partial sums
Interprets sequences
Finds partial sum of an infinite series
03
Concept of convergence and Explains the concepts of convergence
divergence and divergance using partial sums
Sum to infinity
Finds the sum of a convergent series
Sequences

28
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
22. Explores 22.1 Describes the basic Binomial theorem for positive integral States binomial theorem for positive
the binomial properties of the binomial integral indices. 03
indices

s
expansion expansion Writes general term and binomial

t
Binomial coefficients, general term
for positive coefficient

en
integral Proof of the theorem using Proves the theorem using
indices mathematical Induction
Mathematial Induction

22.2 Applies binomial theorem


coefficients

o m m
Relationships among the binomial Writes the relationship among the
binomial coefficients
06

C Specific terms Finds the specific terms of binomial

or
expansion

the system
of complex
numbers
system
F
23. Interprets 23.1 Uses the Complex number


Imaginary unit
Introduction of , the set of complex
numbers
Real part and imaginary part of a
States the imaginary unit
Defines a complex number
States the real part and imaginary
part at a complex number
Uses the equality of two complex
02

complex number
Purely imaginary numbers numbers
Equality of two complex numbers

29
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
23.2 introduces algebraic Algebraic operations on complex numbers Defines algebraic operations on
operations on complex z complex numbers 02
z1 z2 , z1 z2 , z1 z2 , 1 ( z 0)
numbers Uses algebraic operations between

s
z2 2

en t
two complex numbers and verifies
that they are also complex numbers
Basic operations or algebraic opera-

m
tions

om
23.3 Proves basic properties Definition of z Defines z 02
of complex conjugate Obtains basic properties of complex
Proofs of the following results:

C
conjugate
z1 z2 z1 z2

or
Proves the properties
z1 z2 z1 z2

F
z1 z2 z1 z2

z1 z1

z2 z2
23.4 Define the modulus of a Definition of z , modulus of a
complex number Defines the modulus 0of a 04
complex number z
complex number z
Proves of the following results: Proves basic properties of
z1 z2 z1 z2 modulus
z1 z Applies the basic properties
1 if z2 0
z2 z2
2
zz z
2 2 2
z1 z2 z1 2Re( z1 z2 ) z2
30above results
applications of the
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
23.5 Ilustrates algebraic The Argand diagram Represents the complex number on
operations geometrically 04
Representing z x iy by the point Argand diagram

s
using the Argand diagram Contstructs points representing

t
( x, y )

en
Geometrical representations of z1+z2, z and z where
Expresses a non zero complex number
z1 z2 , z1 z2 , z , z

m
in pola Form
where
z r (cos i sin ): r 0,

om
Polar form of a non zero complex Defines the argument of a complex
number number

or C Definition of arg ( z )
Definiting Arg z , principal value of the
Defines the principle argument of a non
zero complex number

F argument z is the value of satisfying Constructs points representing


z1
z1 z2and z in the Argand diagram
Geometrical representation of 2

z Constructs points representing


z1 z2 , 1 ; z2 0

z2 r (cos i sin ) where
r (cos i sin ) , where R, r 0
,r>0 Constructs points representing
z1 z2 z1 zc


, where ,

, where , R and
and 0 0

31
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Proves the triangle inequality
proof of the triangle inequality
Deduces the reverse triangle

s
z1 z2 z1 z2 inequality
Deduction of reverse triangle inequality
z1 z2 z1 z2 t
Uses the above inequalities to solve

en
problems

o m m
23.6 Uses the DeMoviers
theorem

or C State and prove of the DeMoviers


Theorem States and prove of the DeMoviers
02

F Elementary applications of DeMoviers Theorem


theorem Solves problems involvings
Elementary applications of
DeMoviers theorem
23.7 Identifies locus / region of a 04
variable complex number
Locus of
z z0 k and z z0 k Sketchs the locus of variable com-
plex numbers in Argand diagram
Arg z z0 a n d
Obtains the Cartesian equation of a
Arg z z0
locus
where and z0 is fixed
z z1 z z2 , where z1 and z2
are given distinct complex numbers

32
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
24.Uses 24.1 Defines factorial Definition of n ! , the factorial n for Defines factorial
permutations States the recursive relation for 01
n or n = 0.

s
and factorials
General form

t

combinations

en
Recursive relation
as
mathematical
Techniques regarding the principles of Explains the fundamental principle of 02

m
models 24.2 Explains fundamental
principles of counting counting counting
for sorting
and
arranging 24.3 Use of permutations as a
technique of solving

C
Permutations
Definition
o m n
Defines Pr and obtain the
n
formulae for Pr .
06

or
n
mathematical problems The notation Pr and the formulae The number of permutations of n dif-
When 0 r n; Z ferent objects taken r at a time

F Finds the number permutations of


different objects taken all time at a
time
Permutation of n objects not all
different
Explains the cyclic permutations

Finds numer of permutations of n dif-


ferent objects not all different taken
r at a time

33
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
24.4 Uses combinations as a Combinations Defines combination
055
n
technique of solving math- Definition Define as Cr and finds a formulae for

s
ematical problems n
Define as Cr and finds a formulae n
Cr

en
n
for Cr Finds the number of combinations of
n different objects taken r at a time

m
Distinction between permutation and where r 0 r n
combnation Explains the distinction between

om
permutations and combinations

C
25. Manipulates 25.1 Describes basic properties of Definition and notation Defines a matrix

r
matrices matrices Elements, rows, columns

Defines the equality of matrices 02

Fo
Size of a matrix
Defines the multiplication of a matrix by
Row matrix, column matrix,
square matrix, null matrix a scalar
Explains special types of matrices
Equality of two matrices
Uses the addition of matrices
Meaning of A where is a scalar
Writes the condition for compatibility
Properties of scaler product
Definition of addition
Properties of addition

34
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Subtractions of matrices Defines subtraction using addition and
Multiplication of matrices scaler multiplication
Compatibility

s

Writes the conditions for compatibility

t
Definition of multiplication States and uses the properties of

en
Properties of multiplication multiplication to solve problems

m
25.2 Explains special cases of Square matrices Identifies the order of a square
square matrices Order of a square matrix

om
matrices
Identity matrix, diagonal matrix, 02
symmetric Classifies the different types of

r C matrix, skew symmetric matrix


Triangular matries (upper, lower )
matrices

Fo

25.3 Describes the transpose


Transpose of a matrix Finds the transpose of a matrix
and the inverse of a matrix Definition and notation Finds the inverse of a 2x2 matrix 03
Inverse of a matrix
Only for 2 2 matrices

25.4 Uses matrices to solve


Solution of a pair of linear equations Solves simultaneous equations 04
with two variables using matrices
simultaneous equations
Solutions graphically
Illustrates the solutions graphically
The existence of a unique
solutions, infinitely many solutions
and no solutions graphically

35
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
26.1 Finds the Cartesian Equation of a circle with origin as Defines circle as a locus of a
26. Interprets the cetre and a given radius 03
equation of a circle variable point such that the distance
the

s
Equation of a circle with a given from a fixed point is a constant

t
Cartesian centre and radius

en
equation of Obtains the equation of a circle
a circle Interprets the general equation of

m
a circle
Finds the equation of the circle

om
having two given points as the
end points at a diameter

27.Explores
Geometric

or C
27.1 Describes the position of a
straight line relative to a
Conditions that a circle and a
straight line intersects, touches or do
Discuses the position of a straight
line with respect to a circle
02
properties
of circles
circle

F
27.2 Finds the equations of tan-


not intersect
Equation of the tangent to a circle at
a point on circle

Equation tangent drawn to a circle from


Obtains the equation of the tangent
at a point on a circle

Obtains the equation of the


an external point 03
gents drawn to a circle from tangent drawn to a circle from an
an external point.
length of tangent drawn from an
external point
extenal point to a circle
Obtains the length of tangent
Equation of chord of contact
drawn from an external point to a
circle
Obtains the equation of the chord
of contact

36
20202

No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
27.3 Derives the general The equation of a circle passing through Interprets the equation 02
equation of a circle the points of intersection S + U = 0

s
passing through point of of a straight line and a circle
intersection of a given
straight line and a given circle

Position of two circles


en t
m
27.4 Describes the position of Discribes the condition for two 03
two circles Intersection of two circles circles to Intersect or Not-intersect

Non-intersection of two circles Discribes the condition for two

Two circles touching externally circles to Touch externally or Touch

or C


Two circles touching internally
One circle lying within the other
internally
Discribes To have one circle lying
within the other circle

F
\\

27.5 Finds the condition for two Condition for two circles to enter seet Finds the condition for two circles to 02
circle to intersect orthogonaly intersect orthogonally
orthogonally

37
COMBINED MATHEMATICS - II
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
1. Manipulates 1.1 Investigates vectors Introduction of scalar quantities and Explains the differneces between
Vectors scalars scalar quantities and scalars 03

s
Introduction of vector quantities and

t
Explains the differnece between
vectors

en
vector quantity and a vectors.
Magnitude and direction of a vector
Represents a vector geometrically
Vector notation

m
Algebraic, Geometric
Expresses the algebraic notation of a
vector

m
Null vector

o
Notation for magnitude (modulus) of a Defines the modulus of a vector
vector Defines the null vector

or C


Equality of two vectors
Triangle law of vector addition
Multiplying a vector by a scalar
Defines -a , where a is a vector
States the conditions for two vectors

F
to be equal
Defining the difference of two States the triangle law of addition
vectors as a sum
Deduces the paralle logram law of
Unit vectors
addition
Parallel vectors
Condition for two vectors to be
Adds three or more vectors
parallel Multiplies a vector by a scalar
Addition of three or more vectors Subtracts a vector from another
Resolution of a vector in any Identifies the angle between two
directions vectors
Identifies parallel vectors
States the conditions for two vectors
to be paralles

38
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
State the conditions for two vectors
to be parallel

en t s
Defines a unit vector
Resolves a vector in a given
directions

1.2 Constructs algebraic


system for vectors

m m
laws for vector addition and

o
multiplication by a scaler
States the properties of addition and
multiplication by a scaler
01

solve problems
C
1.3 Applies position vectors to

or


Position vectors
Introduction of i a n d j

Defines position vectors
Expresses the position vector of a point
06

F
in terms of the cartesian co-ordinates of
Position vector relative to the 2D
that point
Cartesian Co-ordinate system
Adds and subtracts vectors in the form
Application of the following results
xi y j
If a and b are non - zero and
non - parallel vectors and if Proves that if a , b are two non zero,
a b 0 then non - parallel vectors and if

0 and 0 a b 0 then 0 and
0
Applications of the above results

39
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods

1.4 Interprets scalar and vector Definition of scalar product of two Defines the scalar product of two 04
product vectors vectors
States that the scalar product of two
Properties of scalar product vectors is a scalar

s
a b b a (Commutative law) States the properties of scalar

a b c a b a c (Distributive

en
product
law) Interprets scalar product
Condition for two non-zero vectors to geometrically



m
be perpendicular

m
Introduction of k

o
Solves simple geometric problems
involving scalar product
Define vector product of two

C
Definition of vector product of two vectors

or
vectors States the properties of vector
Properties of vector product product

F
(Application of vector product are
ab ba not expected)

2. Uses 2.1 Explains forces acting on a Concept of a particle Describes the concept of a particle
systems of particle Describes the concept of a force 02
coplanar Concept of a force and its
States that a force is a localized vector
forces representation
Represents a force geometrically
Dimension and unit of force
Introduces different types of forces
Types of forces in mechanics
Resultant force Describes the resultant of a system
of coplaner forces acting at a point

40
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.2 Explains the action of two Resultant of two forces States the parall-elogram law of forces
forces acting on a particle to find the resultant of two forces 04
Parallelogram law of forces

s
acting at a point
Equilibrium under two forces
Resolution of a force
in two given directions t
Uses the parallelogram law to obtain

en
formulae to determine the resultant of
two forces acting at a point

m

Solves problems using the
in two directions perpendicular to
parallelogram law of forces

C
each other

o m Writes the condition necessary for a


particle to be in equilibrium under two
forces

or
Resolves a given force into two
components in two given directions

F
2.3 Explains the action of a
systems of coplanar forces
Define coplanar forces acting on a
particle
Resolves a given force into two
components perpendicular to each
other
Determines the resultant of three or
more coplanar forces acting at a point
04

acting on a particle. Resolving the system of coplanar forces by resolution


in two directions perpendicular to each Determines graphically the resultant of
other three or more coplanar forces acting
Resultant of the system of coplanar at a particle
forces States the conditions for a system of
method of resolution of forces coplanar forces acting on a particle to
graphical method be in equilibrium

41
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Conditions for equilibrium Writes the condition for eqilibrium
null resultant vector
(i) R 0

s
R XiY j 0

t
R X i Yj 0

en
Vector sum 0 or, equivalently,,
X 0, Y 0
X 0 and Y 0
Completion of Polygon of forces Completes a polygon of forces.

2.4 Explains equilibrium of a


particle under the action
of three forces.

C



Triangle Law
Lamis Theorem

o m
Problems involving Lamis theorem
Explains what is meant by equilibrium.
States the conditions for equilibrium of
a particle under the action of three
05

or
forces
States the theorem of triangle of forces,

F for equilibrium of three coplanar forces


States the converse of the theorem of
triangle of forces
States Lamis theorem for equilibrium
of three coplanar forces acting at a
point
Proves Lamis Theorem.
Solves problems involving equilibrium
of three coplanar forces acting on a
particle

42
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.5 Explains the Resultant of Concept of a rigid body Describes a rigid body 04
coplanar forces acting on Principle of transmission of forces States the principle of transmission of

s
a rigid body forces

t
Explaining the translational and

en
rotational effect of a force Explains the translation and rotation
Forces acting on a rigid body of a force
Defining the moment of a force

m
Defines the moment of a force about
about a point a point

om
Dimension and unit of moment Explains the physical meaning of
Physical meaning of moment moment

C
Magnitude and sense of moment of Finds the magnitude of the moment

r
a force about a point
about a point and its sense

o
Geometric interpretation of moment
States the dimensions and units of

F General principle about moment of


forces
Algebraic sum of the moments of the
component forces about a point on
moments
Represents the magnitude of the
moment of a force about a point
geometrically
Determines the algebraic sum of the
the plane of a system of coplanar
forces is equvalent to moment of moments of the forces about a point
the resultant force about that point in the plane of a coplanar system of
forces
Uses the general principle of moment
of a system of forces
Uses the resultant of two parallel forces
acting on a rigitd body

43
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.6 Explains the effect of two Resultant of two forces Uses the resultant of two non - 06
parallel coplanar forces When the two forces are not parallel parallel forces acting on a rigid body

s
acting on a rigid body When the two forces are parallel and States the conditions for the

like

en
equilibrium of two forces acting on a
When two forces of unequal
rigid body
magnitude are parallel and unlike Describes a couple



m m
Equilibrium under two forces
Introduction of a couple

o
Moment of a couple
Magnitude and sense of the moment
Calculates the moment of a couple
States that the moment of a couple
is independent of the point about

of a couple which the moment of the forces is

or
The moment of a couple is
taken
independent of the point about which States the conditions for two

F


the moment is taken
Equivalence of two coplanar couples
Equilibrium under two couples
Composition of coplanar couples
coplanar couples to be equivalent
States the conditions for two
coplanar couples to balance each
other
Combines coplanar couples

44
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.7 Analyses a system of A force (F) acting at a point is Reduces a couple and a single force 08
coplanar forces equivalent to a force F acting at any acting in its plane into a single force
acting on a rigid body given point together with a couple

s
Shows that a force acting at a point is

t
Reducing a system of coplanar forces equivalent to the combination of an

en
to a single force R acting at a given point
equal force acting at another point
together with a couple of moment G
together with a couple

m
Magnitude, direction and line of action
of the resultant Reduces a system of coplanar forces

om
Conditions for the reduction of system to a single force acting at an arbitrary
of coplanar forces to point O and a couple of moment G

or C


a single force:
R 0 X 0 or Y 0
a couple :
Reduces any coplanar system of
forces to a single force and a couple
acting at any point in that plane

F
R = 0 X = 0 and Y 0
and G 0
equilibrium
R =0 (X= 0 and Y=0) and G= 0
Single force at other point : R 0 ,
(i) Reduces of a system of coplanar
forces to a single force
X 0 or Y 0
(ii) Reduces of a system of forces to
a couple when X= 0. Y = 0 and
G0 G0
Problems involving equlibrium of rigid
(iii) Expresses conditions for
bodies under the action of coplanar
equilibrium
forces
Finds the magnitude, direction and the
line of action of the resultant of a
coplanar system of forces

45
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.8 Explains the Equillibrium of All forces must be either concurrent or States conditions for the equilibrium of 08
three coplanar forces all parallel three coplanar forces acting on a rigid
acting on a rigid body Use of

s
body

t
Triangle Law of forces and its
Finds unknown forces when a rigid

en
converse
Lamis theorem body is in equillibrium

m
Cotangent rule
Geometrical properties

om
Resolving in two perpendicular
directions

C Introduction of smooth and rough Describes smooth surfaces and rough


2.9 Investigates the effect of 10

or
surfaces
friction surfaces
Describes the nature of frictional force
Frictional force and its nature

F
Explains the advantages and
Advantages and disadvantages of
disadvantages of friction
friction Writes the definition of limiting
Limiting frictional force frictional force
Laws of friction States the laws of friction
Coefficient of friction defines the angle of friction and the
Angle of friction coefficient of friction.
Problems involving friction Solves problems involving friction

States the type of simple joints


2.10 Applies the properties of Types of simple joints
Describes the movable joints and rigid 10
systems of coplanar forces Distinguish a movable joint and a rigid joints
to investigate equilibrium joint Marks the forces acting on a smooth
involving smooth joints Forces acting at a smooth joint joints
Applications involving jointed rods Solves the problems involving joined
rods
46
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
. Describes a frame work with light rods 08
2.11 Determines the stresses in Frameworks with light rods
Conditions for the equilibrium at each States the condition for the equilibrum
the rods of a framework with
at each joint in the frame work

s
smoothly jointed rods joint at the framework


Bows notation and stress
diagram
Calculation of stresses

en t
Uses Bows notation
Solves problem involing a frame work
with light rod

2.12 Applies various



om m
Definition of centre of mass Defines the centre of mass of a system 04

C
techniques to determine Centre of mass of a plane body of particles in a plane
the centre of mass of symmetrical about a line

or
Defines the centre of mass of a lamina
symmetrical Uniform thin rod Finds the centre of mass of uniform

F
uniform bodies Uniform rectangular lamina bodies symmetrical about a line
Uniform circular ring Finds the centre of mass of bodies
Uniform circular disc symmetrical about a plane
Centre of mass of a body symmetrical Finds centre of mass of a Lammina of
about a plane different shapes
Uniform hollow or solid cylinder

Uniform hollow or solid sphere

Use of thin rectangular stripes to find


the centre of mass of a plane lamina
and use of it in finding the centre of
mass of the following lamina
Uniform triangular lamina

Uniform lamina in the shape of a

parallelogram

47
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
2.13 Finds the centre of mass of Centre of mass of uniform continuous Finds the centre of mass of symmetrical 06
simple geometrical bodies symmetric bodies bodies using integration
using integration Circular arc, circular sector

The centre of mass of uniform


symmetric bodies
Hollow right circular cone
Solid right circular cone
Hollow hemisphere
Solid hemisphere
Segment of a hollowsphere
Segment of a solid sphere
2.14 Finds the centre of mass Centre of mass of composite bodies Finds the centre of massof composite
(centre of gravity) of Centre of mass of remaining bodies bodies 04
composite bodies and Finds the centre of mass of remaining
remaining bodies bodies

2.15 Explains centre of gravity Introduction of centre of gravity States the centre of mass and centre of
Coincidence of the centre of gravity gravity are same under gravitational
and centre of mass field.

2.16 Determines the stability of Stability of equilibrium of bodies resting Explains the stabillity of bodies in 02
bodies in equilibrium on a plane equilibrium using centre of gravity

Solves problem involving suspended 02


2.17 Determines the angle of problems involving suspended bodies bodies
inclination of suspended
bodies
48
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3. Applyes the 3.1 Uses graphs to solve Distance and speed and their dimensions Defines distance
Newtonian problems involving motion and units Defines average speed
model to in a straight line Average speed, instantaneous speed, Defines instantaneous speed
describe the
instanta-
neous
motion in a


uniform speed
Position coordinates
Displacement and velocity and their

en
speed s
Defines uniform speed

t
States dimensions and standard units of

States that distance and speed are


plane

dimensions and units

om m
Average velocity, instantaneous
velocity, uniform velocity
scalar quantities
Defines position coordinates of a
particle undergoing rectilinear motion

C
Defines Displacement
Displacement - time graphs

r
Expresses the dimension and standard
Average velocity between two

Fo

units of displacement
positions Defines average velocity
Instantaneous velocity at a point Defines instantaneous velocity
Average acceleration, its dimensions and Defines uniform velocity
units Expresses dimension and units of
Instantaneous acceleration, velocity
uniform acceleration and retardation Draws the displacement
time graphS
Velocity-time graphs
Gradient of the velocity time graph is
equal to the instantaneous acceleration
at that instant

49
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods

The area signed between the time axis Finds the average velocity between 08
and the velocity time graph is equal two positions using the displacement
time graph

s
to the displacement described during
that time interval

en t
Determines the instantaneous velocity
using the displacement time graph
Defines accelaration

m
Expresses the dimension and unit of
acceleration

om
Defines average acceleration
Defines instantaneous acceleration

o r C Defines uniform acceleration


Defines retardation
Draws the velocity time graph

F Finds average accelaration using the


velocity time graph
Finds the acceleration at a given
instant using velocity - time graph
Finds displacement using velocity time
graph
Draws velocity time graphs for
different types of motion
Solves problems using displacement
time and velocity-time graphs

50
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3.2 Uses kinematic equations to Derivation of constant acceleration Derives kinematic equations for a 08
solve problems involving formulae particle moving with uniform

s
motion in a straight line with Using definitions acceleration
constant acceleration

Using velocity - time graphs

v u at , s

uv
2
1 2 2
2
2
t , s ut at , v u 2 as

en t
Derives kinematic equations using
velocity - time graphs
Uses kinematic equations for vertical

m
Vertical motion under constant

m
acceleration due to gravity

o
Use of graphs and kinematic

equations
motion under gravity
Uses kinematics equations to solve
problems

or C Uses velocity - time and displacement


- time graphs to solve problems

3.3

F
Investigates relative motion
between bodies moving in a
a straight line with constant
accelerations



Frame of reference for one
dimensional motion
Relative motion in a straight line
Principle of relative displacement,
relative velocity and relative accel-
Describes the concept of frame of
reference for two dimensional motion
Describes the motion of one body
relative to another when two
bodies are moving in a straight line
06

eration
States the principle of relative
Use of kinematic equations and graphs
when relative acceleration is displacement for two bodies moving
constant along a straight line
States the principle of relative
velocity for two bodies moving along
a straight line

51
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
States the principle of relative
acceleration for two bodies moving

s
along a straight line

en t
Uses kinematic equations and graphs
related to motion for two bodies
moving along the same straight line with

3.4 Explains the motion of a

o m m
Position vector relative to the origin
constant relative acceleration

Finds relation between the cartesian


06

C
of a moving particle coordinates and the polar coordinates
particle on a plane.
of a point moving on a plane

or
Velocity and acceleration when the
position vector is given as a function Finds the velocity and acceleratain

F
of time when the position vector is givin as a
function of time
3.5 Determines the relative mo- Frame of reference 06
Defines the frame of referance
tion of two particles mov- Displacement, velocity and
acceleration relative to a frame of obtains the displacement and velocity
ing on a plane
reference and acceleration relative to frame of
Introduce relative motion of two referance
particles moving on a plane Explains the principles of relative
Principles of relative displacement, displacement,relative velocity, and
relative velocity,and relative relative acceleration
acceleration. Finds the path and velocity relative to
Path of a particle relative to another another particle
particle
Velocity of a particle relative to
another particle
52
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods

3.6 Uses principles of relative Shortest distance between two Uses the principles of relative motion 10
motion to solve real word particles and the time taken to reach to solves the problems

s
the shortest distance Finds the shortest distance between two

t
problems
The time taken and position when particles

en
two bodies collide Finds the requirements for collision of
Time taken to describe a given path two bodies

3.7 Explains the motion of a


Use of vectors

projectile in a vertical plane

om m
Given the initial position and the Introduces projectile

C
initial velocity of a projected particle Describes the terms velocity of 08
the horizontal and vertical projection and angle of projection

F o r components of
(i) velocity (ii) displacement , after a
time t
Equation of the path of a projectile
Maximum height
States that the motion of a projectile
can be considered as two motions,
separately, in the horizontal and
vertical directions
Applies the kinematic equations to
Time of flight interpret motion of a projectile
Horizontal range Culculates the components of velocity
Two angles of projection which of a projectile after a given time
give the same horizontal range Finds the components of displacement
Maximum Horizontal range of a projectile in a given time

53
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Calculates the maximum height of a
projectile

en t s
Culculates he time taken to reach the
maximum height of a projectile
Calculates the horizontal range of a

m
projectile and its maximum
States that in general there are two

om
angles of projection for the same
horizontal range for a given velocity of

r C projection
Finds the maximum horizontal range for

Fo
a given speed
For a given speed of projection finds the
angle of projection giving the maximum
horizontal range
Derives Cartesian equations of the path
of a projectile
Finds the time of flight
Finds the angles of projection to pass
through a given point

54
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods

3.8 Applies Newtons laws to Newtons first law of motion States Newtons first law of motion
explain motion relative to an concept of mass linear Defines force

s
momentum and inertial frame of Defines mass

t
inertial frame
reference Defines linear momentum of a particle

en
Newtons second law of motion States that linear momentum is a vector
Absolute units and gravitional units of quantity




force

om m
Distinguish between weight and mass
Newtons third law of motion
Application of newtons laws (under
States the dimensions and unit of linear
momentum
Describes an inertial frame of reference
States Newtons second law of motion

or C
constant foce only)
Bodies in contact and particales
connected by light inextensible string
Defines Newton as the absolute unit of
force
Derives the equation F = ma from 15

F second law of motion


Explains the vector nature of the equa-
tion F = ma
States the gravitational units of force
Explains the difference between mass
and weight of a body
Describes action and reaction
States Newtons third law of motion
Solves problems using F ma
Bodies in contact and particles
connected by light inevtencible strings
System of pullys, wedges (maximum 4
pullys)
55
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3.9 Interprets mechanical energy Definition of work Explains the concept of work 08
work done by constant force Defines work done under a constant

s
Dimension and units of work force
Introduce energy,its dimensions and
units
Kinetic energy as a type of mechanical t
States dimension and units of work

en
Explains Energy
Explains the mechanical energy
energy

particle
m
Definition of kinetic energy of a

om
work energy equation for kinetic
Defines Kinetic Energy
Defines Potential Energy
Explains the Gravitational Potential
Energy

o r C energy
Disssipative and conservative forces
Potential energy as a type of mechanical
Explains the Elastic Potential Energy
Explains conservative forces and
dissipative force

F energy
Definition of potential energy
Definition of gravitational potential
energy
work energy equation for potential
Writes work - energy equations
Explains conservation of mechanical
Energy and applies to solve problems
States dimension and units of energy
energy
Definition of elastic potential energy
Expression for the elastic potential
energy
The work done by a conservative force
is independent of the path described
Principle of conservation of mechanical
energy and its applications

56
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3.10Solves problems involving Definition of power its dimensions and Defines Power 08
power units States its units and dimensions

s
Tractive force( F) constant case only Explains the tractive force
Definition and application of
Power= tractive force x velocity
( P=F.V)De

en t
Derives the formula for power
Uses tractive force when impluse is
constant
3.11Interprets the effect of an im-
pulsive action units
m
Impulse as a vector its dimension and

om
Explains the Impulsive action
States the units and Dimension of
Impulse
05

o r C

I = (mv) Formula

Loss of kinetic energy due to an


Uses I = mv to solve problems
Finds the change in Kinetic energy due
to impulse

F
3.12Uses Newtons law of resti-
tution to direct elastic impact



impulsive actione
Newtons law of restitution
Coefficient of restitution e , 0 e 1
Perfect elasticity e 1
Explains direct impact
States Newton's law of restitution
Defines coefficient of restitution
Explains the direct impact of a sphere
10

Loss of energy when e 1 on a fixed plane


Direct impact of two smooth elastic Calculates change in kinetic energy
spheres Solves problems involving direct
Impact of a smooth elastic sphere impacts
moving perpendicular to a plane
3.13 Solves problems using the Principle of conservation of linear Solves problem ousing the priciple 04
conservation of linear momentum of linear momentum
momentum
57
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3.14 Investigatesvelocity and Angular velocity and angular Defines the angular velocity and 06
acceleration for motion acceleration of a particale moving accelaration of a particale moving in a
circle

s
in circuler on a circle
Velocity and acceleration of a particle
moving on a circle

en t
Find the velocity and the acceleration
of a particle moving in a circle

3.15 Investigates motion in a


horizontal circle

m m
Motion of a particle attached to an end
of a light in extensible string whose

o
other end is fixed, on a smooth

Finds the magnitude and direction of
the force on a particle moving in a
horizontal circle with uniform speed
solves the problems involving motion
04

C
horizontal plane
in a horizontal circle

or
Conical pendulum solves the problems involving
conical pendulam.

F
3.16 Investigates the relevent
principles for motion on a
vertical circle
Applications of law of conservation of
energy
uses the law F ma

Explains vertical motion
Explains the motion of a ring threeded
on a fixed smooth vertical wire/
particle moving in a fixed smooth
10

Motion of a particle circular,vertical tube


on the surface of a smooth sphere Finds the condition for the motion of a
inside the hollow smooth sphere particle suspended from an inelastic light
suspende from an inextensible,light string attached to a fixed point,in
string attached to a fixed point vertical circle.
Discusses the motion of a particle on the
threaded in a fixed smooth circular outersurface of a fixed smooth sphere in
vertical wire a vertical plane
In a vertical tube Solves problems including circular
motion.
58
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
3.17 Analyses simple harmonic Definition of simple harmonic motion Defines simple harmonic 04
motion Characterstic equation of simple mortion(SHM)

s
Obtain the differential equation of

t
harmonic motion,and its solutions
simple harmonic motion and

en
Velocity as a function of displacement
The amplitude and period verifies its general solutions
Displacement as a function of time Obtains the velocity as a function

m
Interpretation of simple harmonic

om
motion by uniform circular motion,
and finding time
of displacement
Defines amplitude and period of
SHM

C
Describes SHM associated with
uniform circular motion and finds

or
time

F
Using Hookes law
Finds the tension in an elastic string. 06
3.18 Describes the nature of a Tension in a elastic string
simple harmonic motion on a Tension or thust in a spring using Hookes
Tension or thrust in a spring
horizontal line Law
Describes the nature of simple Harmonic
Simple harmonic motion of a particle
motion on a horizontal line
under the action of elastic forces

3.19 Describes the nature of a Simple harmonic motion of a particle Explains the simple Harmonic motion 06
simple harmonic motion on on a vertical line under the action of on a vertical line
a vertical line elastic forces and its own weight
Solves problem with combination
Combination of simple harmonic
of simple harmonic motion and motion
motion and free motion under gravity
under gravity.

59
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
4. Applies 4.1 Interprets events of a random Intuitive idea of probability Explains random experiment
04
mathemati- experiment Definition of a random experiment Defines sample space and sample

s
cal Definition of sample space and sample point
models to
analyse
random
points


Finite sample space
Infinite sample space

en t Defines an event
Explains event space
Explains simple events and
events Events

m m
Definition

o
Simple event, composite events,
compound events
Classifies the events finds union and
intersection of events

C
null event
complementary events,

or
Union of two events, intersection of
two events


Mutually exclusive events
Exhaustive events
Equally probable events
Event space

States classical definition of probabil- 06


4.2 Applies probability models to Classical definition of probability and its
solve problems on random limitations ity and its limitations
events Frequency approximation to probability, States the axiomatic definition
and its limitations Proves the theorems on probability
Axiomatic definition of probability, and using axiomatic definition and solves
its importance problems using the above theorems.

60
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
Theorems on probability with proofs States
Let A and B be any two events in a Frequency appoximation to
given sample space probability and its limitation.
(i) P A 1 P A where A is
the complementry event of A
(ii) Addition rule
en t s
Importance of axiomatic detinition.

m m
P A B P A P B P A B

If A B , then

o
P A P B

4.3

or C
Applies the concept of
conditional probability to
determine the probability of a


Definiton of conditional probability
Theorems with proofs let A, B, B1 , B2
Defines conditional probability
States and proves the theorems on
conditional probability
08

F
random event under given
conditions
be any four events is a given sample
space with P A 0 . then
(i) P A 0
(ii) P B A 1 P B A ,
(iii) P B1 A P B1 B2 A P B1 B2/ A
states multiplication rule

(iv) P B1 B2 A P B1 A P B2 A
P B1 B2 A)
Multiplication rule
If A1 , A2 are any two events in a given
sample space with P A1 0
then P A1 A2 P A1 P A2 A1
61
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
4.4 Uses the probability model to Independence of two events Uses independent two or three 04
determine the independence of Independence of three events events to not solve problems
two or three events Pairwise Independence
Mutually Independence

en t s
om m
C
4.5 Applies Bayes theorem 06

Fo r


Partition of a sample space
Theorem on total probability, with proof
Bayes Theorem
Defines a partition of a sample space
States and prove on theorem of total
probability
States Bayes theorem and applies to
leave problems

62
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
5. Applies sci-5.1 Introduces the nature of statis- Definition of statistics Explains what is statistics 01
entific tools tics Descriptive statistics Explains the nature of statistics

s
to develop
decision
making skills
5.2 Describes measures of central Arithmetric mean, mode and median

en t
Finds the central tendency 03

m
tendency Ungrouped data measurments
Data with frequency distributions

om
Describes the mean,median and
Grouped data with frequency distri-
mode as measures of central
butions

C
tendency
Weighted arithmetric mean

F o r
5.3 Interprets a frequency distribu-
tion using measures of relative
positions
Median, Quartiles and Percentiles for
ungrouped and grouped data with fre-
quency distributions
Finds the relative position of
frequency distribution
04

BOX Plots

63
No. of
Competency Competency Level Contents Learning outcomes
Periods
5.4 Describes measure of disper- Introduction to Measures of disper Uses suitable measure dispersion to
sion sion and their importancy make decisions on frequency dis- 08
Types of dispersion measurements


Range
Inter Quartile range and Semi
inter - quartile range
tribution

en t s
States the measures of dispersion
and their importancy

m
Explain pooled mean, variance at
mean deviation Z-score

om
variance and standard deviation
ungrouped data

C
ungrouped data with frequency

or
distributions
group data with frequency

F
distrubutions
pooled mean
pooled variance
z - score

5.5 Determines the shape of a Introduction to Measures of skewness Defines the measure of skewness
distribution by using measures Karl Pearsons measures of skewness Determines the shapes of the distribu- 02
of skewness. tion using measures of skewness

64
8.0 TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES

To facilitate the students to achieve the anticipated outcome of this course, a variety of teaching stategies must be employed. If students are to improve
their mathematical communication, for example, they must have the opportunity to discuss interpretations, solution, explanations etc. with other students
as well as their teacher. They should be encouraged to communicate not only in writing but orally, and to use diagrams as well as numerial, symbolic and
word statements in their explanations.

en t s
Students learn in a multitude of ways. Students can be mainly visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners, or employ a variety of senses when learning. The

om m
range of learning styles in influenced by many factors, each of which needs to be considered in determining the most appropriate teaching strategies.
Research suggests that the cltural and social background has a significant impact on the way students learn mathematics. These differences need to be
recognised and a variety of teaching strategies to be employed so that all students have equal access to the development of mathematical knowledge and
skills.

or C
F
Learning can occur within a large group where the class is taught as a whole and also within a small gruop where students interact with other members
of the group, or at an individual level where a student interacts with the teacher or another student, or works independently. All arrangements have their
place in the mathematics classroom.

65
9.0 SCHOOL POLICY AND PROGRAMMES
To make learning of Mathematics meaningful and relevant to the students classroom work ought not to be based purely on the development of
knowledge and skills but also should encompass areas like communication, connection, reasoning and problem solving. The latter four aims, ensure the
enhancement of the thinking and behavioural process of childern.

in the learning process.


Students study circles

en t s
For this purpose apart from normal classroom teaching the following co-curricular activities will provide the opportunity for participation of every child

m
Mathematical Societies
Mathematical camps

om

Contests (national and international)


Use of the library

or
Mathematical laboratory
Activity room C
The classroom wall Bulletin

Projects F
Collectin historical data regarding mathematics
Use of multimedia

It is the responsibility of the mathematics teacher to organise the above activities according to the facilities available. When organising these activities the
teacher and the students can obtain the assistance of relevant outside persons and institution.

In order to organise such activites on a regular basis it is essential that each school develops a policy of its own in respect of Mathematics. This would
form a part of the overall school policy to be developed by each school. In developin the policy, in respect of Mathematics, the school should take
cognisance of the physical environment of the school and neighbourhood, the needs and concerns of the students and the community associated with the
school and the services of resource personnel and institutions to which the school has access.

66
MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS

The following Mathematical notation will be used.

1. Set Notations

{x1, x2 , . . . }
an element
not an element
the set with elements x1, x2, . . .


[a, b]

en t s
union
intersection
the colsed interval { x R : a x b}

x / ... or x :...
n(A)
the set of all x such that...
the number of elements in set A

o m m( a, b]
[ a, b)
( a, b)
the interval {x R : a x b}
the interval {x R : a x b}
the open interval {x R : a x b}

C
empty set

or
universal set
2. Miscellaneous Symbols
A/ the complement of the set A

F equal
the set of natural numbers,
not equal
{1, 2, 3, ...}
identical or congruent
the set of integers 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . approximately equal
the set of positive integers {1, 2, 3, . . . } proportional
the set of rational numbers less than
less than or equal
the set of real numbers
> greater than
the set of complex numbers
greater than or equal
a subset
infinity
a proper subset
if then
M not subset
if and only if ( iff )
not a proper subset
3. Operations 4. Functions
a plus b

s
ab f (x ) the functin of x
a b
a b, a b
a minus b
a multipllied by b
f :AB

f :x y

en t f is a function where each element of set A has an


unique Image in set B
the function f maps the element x to the element y

m
a
a b, a divided by b
b f 1 the inverse of the function f
a :b

a
n
the ratio between a and b

C o m g f x
lim f ( x )
the composite function of g of f

the limit of f x as x tends to a

or
i a1 a 2 ... a n xa
i 1

F
a the positive square root of the positive real number a x an increment of x
a the modulus of the real number a dy
the derivative of y with respect to x
dx
n! n factorial where n 0
dny th
n n! the n derivative of y with respect to x
Pr 0r n n , r {0} dx n
(n r )!
f (1) x , f (2) x , . . . , f n x
n n!
Cr ,0 r n n , r {0}
r !(n r )! the first, second , ..., nth derivatives of f x
with respect to x

ydx indefinite integral of y with respect to x


b
ydx definite integral of y w.r.t x in the interval a x b
a

x ,
x, ... the first, second,... derivative of x with respect to
time
5. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 8. Matrices
ex exponential function of x
a matrix M

s
M
log a x
ln x
logarithm of x to the base a
natural logarithm of x
MT
M -1

en t
the transpose of the matrix M
the inverse of the matrix M

m
lg x logarithm of x to base 10
det M the determinant of the matrix M

om
6. Cricular Functions

C
sin, cos, tan 9. Vectors

or
the circular functions
cosec, sec, cot a or a the vector a

F
sin 1 , cos 1 , tan 1
AB the vactor represented in magnitude and direction by the
1 1 1 the inverse circular functions
cosec , sec , cot directed line segment AB
i, j , k unit vectors in the positive direction of the cartesian axes
7. Complex Numbers
a the magnitude of vector a
i the square root of - 1
AB the magnitude of vector AB
z a complex number, z x i y
r c o s i s in a b the scalar product of vectors a and b
Re( z) the real part of z, Re x i y x a b the vetor product of vrctors a and b
Im( z ) the imaginary part of z, Im x i y y
z the modulus of z
arg z The argument of z
Arg z the principle argument of z
z the complex conjugate of z
10. Probability and Statistics
A, B, C ect.. events
AB
AB
union of the events A and B
intersection of the events A and B

en t s
m
P(A) probability of the event A

om
A/ complement of the event A
P (A x B) probability of the event A given that event B occurs
X, Y, R, ...
x, y, r, ... ect.
random variables

or C
values of the random variables X, Y, R etc.
x 1 , x2 , ...
f1, f2, ...

x
observations

F
frequencies with which the observations
x1 , x2 , ... occur
Mean
2 Variance
/ S / SD Standard deviation