Você está na página 1de 110

ALFOPlus

Access Link Full Outdoor

User manual

MN.00273.E - 001
Volume 1/1
The information contained in this handbook is subject to change without notice.
Property of Siae Microelettronica S.p.A. All rights reserved according to the law and according to the inter-
national regulations. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, without written permission from Siae Microelettronica S.p.A.
Unless otherwise specified, reference to a Company, name, data and address produced on the screen di-
splayed is purely indicative aiming at illustrating the use of the product.
MS-DOS, MS Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation
HP, HP OpenView NNM and HPUX are Hewlett Packard Company registered trademarks.
UNIX is a UNIX System Laboratories registered trademark.
Oracle is a Oracle Corporation registered trademark.
Linux term is a trademark registered by Linus Torvalds, the original author of the Linux operating system.
Linux is freely distributed according the GNU General Public License (GPL).
Other products cited here in are constructor registered trademarks.
ALFOPlus

Section 1.
USER GUIDE 5

1 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ............................................................................... 5

2 FIRST AID FOR ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND SAFETY RULES .......................................... 6


2.1 FIRST AID FOR ELECTRICAL SHOCK ..................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Artificial respiration .................................................................................. 6
2.1.2 Treatment of burns .................................................................................. 6
2.2 SAFETY RULES .................................................................................................. 7
2.3 CORRECT DISPOSAL OF THIS PRODUCT (Waste electrical & electronic equipment) ..... 9

3 PURPOSE AND STRUCTURE OF THE MANUAL ............................................................10


3.1 PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL .................................................................................10
3.2 AUDIENCE BASIC KNOWLEDGE ..........................................................................10
3.3 STRUCTURE OF THE MANUAL .............................................................................10

Section 2.
DESCRIPTIONS AND
SPECIFICATION 13

4 LIST OF ACRONYMS .................................................................................................13


4.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS ..........................................................................................13

5 PRESENTATION OF ALFOPlus RADIO SYSTEM ..........................................................15


5.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................15
5.2 APPLICATIONS .................................................................................................15
5.2.1 Functionality ..........................................................................................16
5.3 PROGRAMMABILITY ..........................................................................................16
5.4 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS...................................................................................17
5.5 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ..............................................................................22

6 DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF


ALFOPlus26
6.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................26
6.2 DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................26

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 1


6.2.1 Baseband processor ................................................................................27
6.2.2 TRX Transceiver unit ...............................................................................27
6.2.3 Firmware ...............................................................................................27
6.2.4 Web Lct .................................................................................................27
6.2.5 Switch for Ethernet ports .........................................................................28
6.2.6 Synchronisation ......................................................................................29
6.2.7 Adaptive code modulation ........................................................................30
6.2.8 ATPC and ACM interaction ........................................................................31
6.3 LOOPS ............................................................................................................32
6.4 ALARM SYSTEM ................................................................................................33
6.5 CHARACTERISTICS ...........................................................................................34
6.5.1 Electrical characteristics...........................................................................34
6.5.2 Line Interface Characteristics....................................................................41
6.5.3 Power supply and cable ...........................................................................51
6.5.4 Size ......................................................................................................51
6.5.5 Weights .................................................................................................51
6.5.6 Environmental conditions .........................................................................51

Section 3.
INSTALLATION 55

7 INSTALLATION OF ALFOPlus SYSTEM ......................................................................55


7.1 GENERAL INFORMATION TO BE READ BEFORE THE INSTALLATION..........................55
7.2 REQUIRED TOOLS FOR MOUNTING (NOT SUPPLIED) .............................................56
7.3 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE ...............................................................................56
7.3.1 Standard coupling kit ..............................................................................56
7.4 INSTALLATION ONTO THE POLE OF THE ODU WITH INTEGRATED ANTENNA .............57
7.4.1 ODU (Standard Lock) ..............................................................................57
7.4.1.1 1+0 ODU with integrated antenna ..............................................57
7.4.1.2 1+1 ODU with integrated antenna ..............................................58
7.5 INSTALLATION ONTO THE POLE OF THE ODU WITH SEPARATED ANTENNA...............58
7.5.1 ODU (Standard Lock) ..............................................................................58
7.5.1.1 1+0 ODU with separated antenna...............................................59
7.5.1.2 1+1 ODU with separated antenna...............................................60
7.5.1.3 Waveguide towards the antenna.................................................60
7.6 GROUNDING ....................................................................................................61
7.7 USER CONNECTORS..........................................................................................67

Section 4.
LINE-UP 71

8 LINE-UP OF ALFOPlus SYSTEM .................................................................................71


8.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................71
8.2 SWITCH ON .....................................................................................................71
8.3 ALARM LED CHECK ...........................................................................................72

2 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


8.4 CONNECTION PROCEDURE.................................................................................72
8.5 FIRST CONFIGURATION.....................................................................................73
8.6 OPTIMIZING ANTENNA ALIGNMENT WITH RX MEASUREMENT .................................75
8.7 ODU ACCESSING AND REMOTE MANAGEMENT......................................................78
8.8 FIRMWARE ......................................................................................................78
8.9 ADAPTIVE MODULATION....................................................................................79

Section 5.
MAINTENANCE 83

9 ALFOPlus ALARMS AND LOOPS.................................................................................83


9.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................83
9.2 ALARMS ..........................................................................................................83
9.2.1 Alarm indications ....................................................................................83
9.2.2 SCT/WebLCT displayed alarms..................................................................84

10 ALFOPlus MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................87


10.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................87
10.2 MAINTENANCE .................................................................................................87
10.2.1 Periodical checks ....................................................................................87
10.2.2 Corrective maintenance (troubleshooting) ..................................................88
10.3 TROUBLESHOOTING .........................................................................................88
10.3.1 Faulty condition detection ........................................................................88
10.3.2 Troubleshooting of a faulty unit ................................................................89

Section 6.
PROGRAMMING AND
SUPERVISION 91

11 PROGRAMMING AND SUPERVISION .........................................................................91


11.1 GENERAL.........................................................................................................91
11.2 SUPERVISION THROUGH ETHERNET....................................................................91
11.2.1 General .................................................................................................92
11.2.2 Configurations ........................................................................................92
11.2.3 "Transparent in-band" management ..........................................................93
11.2.4 "VLAN based in-band" management ..........................................................94
11.2.5 "VLAN based In-band" drop node ..............................................................94
11.2.6 "Out-of-band" management .....................................................................95
11.2.7 Configurability ........................................................................................95
11.2.8 Address .................................................................................................95
11.2.9 Restore supervisioning access mode ..........................................................95

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 3


Section 7.
COMPOSITION 97

12 COMPOSITION .........................................................................................................97
12.1 GENERALS .......................................................................................................97
12.2 ALFOPlus SYSTEM IDENTIFYING LABEL................................................................97
12.3 AVAILABLE ALFOPlus VERSIONS .........................................................................97
12.4 ODU INSTALLATION KIT ....................................................................................99

Section 8.
LISTS AND SERVICES 101

13 LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................101

14 LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................105

15 ASSISTANCE SERVICE............................................................................................107

4 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


Section 1.
USER GUIDE

1 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
Via Buonarroti, 21 - Cologno (MI) - Italy
DECLARES
THAT THE PRODUCTS

Digital Radio Relay System ALFOPlus


comply with the essential requirements of article 3 of the
R&TTE Directive (1999/05/EC)
and therefore are marked:

The following standards have been applied:


IEEE 802.3 for Ethernet interface

EN 301 489-4 for EMC

EN 60950 for operator safety

EN 302 217 for digital point to point fixed radio

EN 300 132-2 characteristics of power supply

EN 300 019 climatic characteristics (in operation: class 4.1 for ODU; storing: class 1.2; transport: class
2.3)

The equipment makes use of non-harmonized frequency bands.Following the requirements


of the R&TTE Directive (article 12) and the relevant decision of the EC, in term of classifica-
tion of Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment and associated iden-
tifiers, the ALFO shall carry the 'class 2' identifier:

Cologno Monzese, 17/03/2008 On behalf of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA


Chairman and Executive Officer
Alberto Mascetti

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


5
2 FIRST AID FOR ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND SAFETY
RULES

2.1 FIRST AID FOR ELECTRICAL SHOCK

Do not touch the bare hands until the circuit has been opened. pen the circuit by switching off the line
switches. If that is not possible protect yourself with dry material and free the patient from the con-
ductor.

2.1.1 Artificial respiration

It is important to start mouth resuscitation at once and to call a doctor immediately. suggested procedure
for mouth to mouth resuscitation method is described in the Tab.1.

2.1.2 Treatment of burns

This treatment should be used after the patient has regained consciousness. It can also be employed while
artificial respiration is being applied (in this case there should be at least two persons present).

Warning

Do not attempt to remove clothing from burnt sections

Apply dry gauze on the burns

Do not apply ointments or other oily substances.

6
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Tab.1 - Artificial respiration

Step Description Figure

Lay the patient on his back with his arms parallel to the body.
If the patient is laying on an inclined plane, make sure that his
1 stomach is slightly lower than his chest. Open the patients
mouth and check that there is no foreign matter in mouth (den-
tures, chewing gum, etc.).

Kneel beside the patient level with his head. Put an hand under
the patients head and one under his neck.
Lift the patients head and let it recline backwards as far
2 as possible.

Shift the hand from the patients neck to his chin and his
mouth, the index along his jawbone, and keep the other fingers
closed together.

3 While performing these operations take a good supply of oxy-


gen by taking deep breaths with your mouth open

With your thumb between the patients chin and mouth keep
his lips together and blow into his nasal cavities

While performing these operations observe if the patients


chest rises. If not it is possible that his nose is blocked: in that
case open the patients mouth as much as possible by pressing
on his chin with your hand, place your lips around his mouth
and blow into his oral cavity. Observe if the patients chest
5
heaves. This second method can be used instead of the first
even when the patients nose is not obstructed, provided his
nose is kept closed by pressing the nostrils together using the
hand you were holding his head with. The patients head must
be kept sloping backwards as much as possible.

Start with ten rapid expirations, hence continue at a rate of


twelve/fifteen expirations per minute. Go on like this until the
6
patient has regained consciousness, or until a doctor has as-
certained his death.

2.2 SAFETY RULES

When the equipment units are provided with the plate, shown in Fig.1, it means that they contain compo-
nents electrostatic charge sensitive.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


7
Fig.1 - Components electrostatic charge sensitive indication

In order to prevent the units from being damaged while handling, it is advisable to wear an elasticized band
(Fig.2) around the wrist ground connected through coiled cord (Fig.3).

Fig.2 - Elasticized band

Fig.3 - Coiled cord

The units showing the label, shown in Fig.4, include laser diodes and the emitted power can be dangerous
for eyes; avoid exposure in the direction of optical signal emission.

Fig.4 - Laser indication

8
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
2.3 CORRECT DISPOSAL OF THIS PRODUCT (Waste electrical &
electronic equipment)

(Applicable in the European Union and other European countries with separate collection systems). This
marking of Fig.5 shown on the product or its literature, indicates that it should not be disposed with other
household wastes at the end of its working life. To prevent possible harm to the environment or human
health from uncontrolled waste disposal, please separate this from other types of wastes and recycle it
responsibly to promote the sustainable reuse of material resources. Household users should contact either
the retailer where they purchased this product, or their local government office, for details of where and
how they can take this item for environmentally safe recycling. Business users should contact their supplier
and check the terms and conditions of the purchase contract. This product should not be mixed with other
commercial wastes for disposal.

Fig.5 - WEEE symbol - 2002/96/CE EN50419

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


9
3 PURPOSE AND STRUCTURE OF THE MANUAL

3.1 PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL

The purpose of this manual consists in providing for the user information which permit to operate and
maintain the ALFOPlus radio equipment.

Warning: This manual does not include information relevant to the SCT/WebLCT management program
windows and relevant application. They will provided by the program itself as helpon line.

3.2 AUDIENCE BASIC KNOWLEDGE

The following knowledge and skills are required to operate the equipment:

a basic understanding of microwave transmission

installation and maintenance experience on digital radio system

a good knowledge of IP networks and routing policy.

3.3 STRUCTURE OF THE MANUAL

The manual is subdivided into sections each of them developing a specific topic entitling the section.

Each section consists of a set of chapters, enlarging the main subject master.

Section 1 User Guide

It provides the information about the main safety rules and expounds the purpose and the structure of the
manual.

Section 2 Description and specifications

It describes a general overview of the typical applications and in particular of the whole radio equipment.

Section 3 Installation

The mechanical installation procedures are herein set down as well as the user electrical connections.

The content of the tool kit (if supplied) is also listed.

10
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 4 LineUp

Lineup procedures are described as well as checks to be carried out for the equipment correct operation.
The list of the instruments to be used and their characteristics are also set down.

Section 5 Maintenance

The routine maintenance actions are described as well as fault location procedures in order to identify the
faulty unit and to reestablish the operation after its replacement with a spare one.

Section 6 Programming and supervision

The ALFOPlus radio is programmed and supervised using different software tools. Some of them are al-
ready available, some other will be available in the future. This section lists the tools implemented and
indicates if descriptions are already available.

Each description of software tools is supplied in a separated manual.

Section 7 Composition

Position, part numbers of the components the equipment consist of, are shown in this section.

Section 8 Indexes and services

Lists of figures, list of tables and assistance service are shown in this section.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


11
12
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 2.
DESCRIPTIONS AND
SPECIFICATION

4 LIST OF ACRONYMS

4.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS

What follows is a list of acronyms used in this handbook:

- ACM Adaptive Code Modulation


- AGC Automatic Gain Control

- ATPC Automatic Transmitted Power Control

- BBP Base Band Processor


- BER Bit Error Rate

- CBS Committed Burst Size

- CF Coupling Flag

- CIR Committed Information Rate

- CoS Class of Service

- CVID Customer VLAN Identifier


- DSCP Differentiated Serviced Code Point

- EBS Excess Burst Size

- EIR Excess Information Rate

- ELP Ethernet Line Protection

- EVC Ethernet Virtual Connection

- FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array

- IP ToS Type of Service IP

- LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol or Link Trunk

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


13
- LAN Local Area Network

- LLF Link Loss Forwarding

- LNA Low Noise Amplifier

- MAC Media Access Control

- MDI Medium Dependent Interface

- MDX Medium Dependent Interface Crossover

- MEF Metro Ethernet Forum


- NE Network Element

- OAM Operation Administration and Maintenance

- ODU Outdoor Unit

- PLL Phase Locked Loop

- POE Power Over Ethernet

- PToS Priority Type of Service

- QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

- RED Random Early Drop

- RF Radio Frequency

- RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator


- RX Direction from antenna to user

- SCT Subnetwork Craft Terminal

- SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol


- SVID Service VLAN Identifier

- TX Direction from user to antenna

- UNI User Network Interface

- VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator

- VID Virtual Lan Identifier

- VLAN Virtual LAN


- WEBLCT WEB Local Craft Terminal

- WRR Weighted Round Robin

14
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
5 PRESENTATION OF ALFOPLUS RADIO SYSTEM

5.1 GENERAL

ALFOPlus is a full-outdoor and full IP digital radio system for point-to-point applications, used for high ca-
pacity Ethernet transport (1 Gbps). The frequency range is from 6 GHz up to 42 GHz with hitless adaptive
code modulation (from 4QAM up to 1024QAM).

There are two available versions for ALFOPlus: Gigabit Electrical (GE) and Gigabit Optical (GO). This doc-
ument provides a general overview of ALFOPlus (Access Link Full Outdoor) radio equipment.

5.2 APPLICATIONS

ALFOPlus is the ideal solution in urban environments foe all carrier-class applications in which the typical
requirements are Ethernet connections:

full IP radio, providing the foundation for a leading edge network

fully integrable with 3G, 4G, LTE nodes and backhaul

ideal for a fast and flexible evolution towards full IP network

complementary solutions for fibre deploy

last mile fibre extension for business customers

ISP high capacity and performance, for LAN-to-LAN connections


emergency wireless links

zero footprint applications

ALFOPlus doesnt need any indoor unit; power supply can be directly by POE+ through the data cable or
through a dedicated auxiliary port. Its available 1+0 or 1+1 radio system configurable via software fol-
lowing two versions of ALFOPlus:

Electrical Gigabit Version

- 1x10/100/1000BaseT traffic port (in-band management is also available) with clock and syn-
chronism recovery

- 1x10/100/1000BaseT supervision port with clock and synchronism recovery

Optical Gigabit Version

- 1x100/1000BaseX traffic port (In-Band management is also available) with clock and synchro-
nism recovery
- 1x100/1000BaseT supervision port with clock and synchronism recovery.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


15
5.2.1 Functionality

SIAE ALFOPlus radio system presents the same functionalities of a switch (Layer 2).

ALFOPlus radio system is able to forward Virtual LAN in transparent way or to manage incoming traffic fil-
tering it or tagging it or dividing it in different VLAN. Traffic Flow control and Traffic priority capabilities can
be enabled or disabled via LAN software.

ALFOPlus Ethernet switch functionality:

MAC switching, Learning and Ageing

Jumbo Frame up to 10 kbytes


MEF 10.2 bandwidth profiles for Ethernet Services

802.1Q VLAN/VLAN stacking QinQ and VLAN rewriting

IEEE 802.3x Flow control

Flexible QoS based on VLAN (IEEE 802.1p), MPLS Exp BIT, ToS/DSCP (IPV4 or IPV6) per Port,
802.1p rewrite with MPLS

Queue Packet with Drop Policy: Tail Drop, Queue Drop, Red, Wred/Strict, WFQ, Mixed

Ethernet Frame Fragmentation


Advanced multi-layer 1/2/3/4 header compressor algorithm

IEEE 802.1d STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)

IEEE 802.1v RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol)

IEEE 802.1ag OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance)/ITU-T y.1731/IEEE 802.3 ah

IEEE 802.3ad LACP - Link Aggregation Control Protocol or Trunking Line or Link Aggregation

IEEE 802.3af PoE - Power over Ethernet Enhanced

Complete Synchronisation Management (IEEE 1588)

ELP (Ethernet Line Protection)

LLF (Link Loss Forwarding)


Selective Rmon Statistics Based VLAN and Priority

5.3 PROGRAMMABILITY

ALFOPlus radio system is managed by a microprocessor that makes it totally programmable via software
to perform the following functions:

radio link management

- capacity and modulation

- Link ID

- Tx frequency and power

- ATPC (Automatic Transmission Power Control)

main management

- IP port configurable and supervisioning

- routing table

- remote element list

- alarm severity configuration (modify alarm)

- user manager (password, user, SNMP login)

16
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
operation and maintenance

- Rx signal threshold alarm

- performance monitoring (G.828, Rx PWR, Tx PWR, ACM) with alarm threshold

- S/N measure

- LAN summary, statistic basis on port, VLAN or Priority

- back-up/restore configuration

- software update
- report&logger maintenance (inventory, faul, commands)

- SNTP alignment

manual operations (depends on timeout)

- Tx transmitter OFF

- force switch synch

- radio BER test

- radio loop

Ethernet switch management and functionalities

synchronisation

More links can be managed by LAN access (see Fig.7).

5.4 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

- Tx power (at the antenna flange) see Tab.2

- Tolerance 2dB

Tab.2 - Tx power

Frequency Band (GHz) Guaranteed output power (dBm)

ALFOPlus series 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

6 27 27 25 25 23 23 23 23 23 22

7 27 27 25 25 23 23 23 23 23 22

11 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

13 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

15 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

18 21 21 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 16

23 21 21 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 16

26 20 20 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 15

28 19 19 17 17 15 15 15 15 15 14

32 18 18 16 16 14 14 14 14 14 13

38 17 17 15 15 13 13 13 13 13 12

42 15 15 13 13 11 11 11 11 11 10

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


17
- RF output attenuation up to 20, 1 dB step software adjustable

- ATPC range 20 dB implemented in 1 dB step

- Receiver threshold for BER=10-6 see Tab.3

Tab.3 - Receiver thresholds (Interleaving enabled)

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.5 -93.0 -89.5 -86.0 -84.5 -82.0 -78.5 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5
14 MHz -94.5 -91.0 -88.0 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -66.5

28 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -80.0 -77.0 -74.0 -70.5 -68.0 -64.0

56 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -60.5
6 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5
14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5

28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -95.5 -93.0 -89.5 -86.5 -84.5 -82.0 -78.5 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5

14 MHz -94.5 -91.0 -88.0 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -66.5

28 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -80.0 -77.0 -74.0 -70.5 -68.0 -64.0

56 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -60.5
7 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5

14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5

28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5

18
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0

28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5

56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
11 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0
28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5

56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
13 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0

28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5
56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
15 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


19
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -94.5 -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -83.5 -81.0 -77.5 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5

14 MHz -93.5 -90.0 -87.0 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.5 -65.5

28 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5 -67.5 -63.0

56 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -59.5
18 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.5 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0

56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -94.5 -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -83.5 -81.0 -77.5 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5

14 MHz -93.5 -90.0 -87.0 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.5 -65.5
28 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5 -67.5 -63.0

56 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -59.5
23 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.5 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0

56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -94.0 -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -83.0 -80.5 -77.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0

14 MHz -93.0 -89.5 -86.5 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.0 -69.0 -65.0

28 MHz -90.0 -86.5 -83.0 -80.0 -78.5 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0 -66.5 -62.5
56 MHz -87.0 -83.5 -80.0 -77.0 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0 -63.5 -59.0
26 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.0 -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0

14 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -81.0 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -67.0 -63.0

28 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.5

56 MHz -85.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.0 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0 -61.5 -57.0

20
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5

14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5

28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5
28 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -91.5 -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5

14 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.5 -62.5

28 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -60.0

56 MHz -84.5 -81.0 -77.5 -74.5 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5 -61.0 -56.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.0 -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0

14 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -81.0 -79.0 -76.5 -73.0 -70.0 -67.0 -63.0
28 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.5

56 MHz -85.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.0 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0 -61.5 -57.0
32 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -90.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.0 -76.5 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0

14 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -79.0 -77.0 -74.5 -71.0 -68.0 -65.0 -61.0

28 MHz -86.0 -82.0 -79.0 -76.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.5

56 MHz -83.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -71.0 -68.5 -65.5 -62.0 -59.5 -55.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.4 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0
56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5
38 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -90.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5

14 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -79.5 -77.5 -75.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.5 -61.5

28 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -75.0 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -59.0

56 MHz -83.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -71.5 -69.0 -66.0 -62.5 -60.0 -55.5

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


21
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -91.5 -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5

14 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.5 -62.5

28 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -60.0

56 MHz -84.5 -81.0 -77.5 -74.5 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5 -61.0 -56.5
42 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -89.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5

14 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -82.0 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.5 -60.5

28 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -58.0

56 MHz -82.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -70.5 -68.0 -65.0 -61.5 -59.0 -54.5

- Modulation 4QAM, up to 1024QAM

- Net bit rate (RF channel spacing) depending on modulation type (see Tab.4)

Tab.4 - Net Bit Rate

Bandwidth 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz 9.295 10.872 16.225 21.080 24.483 30.293 36.102 41.912 47.763 53.572

14 MHz 16.393 22.025 32.870 42.705 49.599 61.368 71.137 84.906 96.759 108.529

28 MHz 32.956 44.279 66.081 85.854 99.713 123.373 147.034 170.694 194.524 218.185

56 MHz 65.912 88.558 132.161 171.708 199.425 246.746 294.068 341.389 389.048 436.369

- Tx/Rx frequency spacing see Tab.5

- Tuning Frequency step 250 kHz


1
- Loop facility RF loop, Baseband loop

5.5 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

The equipment complies with the following international standard:

- EMC EN 301 489-4

- RF channel arrangement see Tab.5

1 RF loop is available for ALFOPlus version with isolator

22
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Tab.5 - Go-return frequency

Frequency band
Duplex Spacing Channel number Subbands
(GHz)

6L ITU-R F.383-8 and CEPT REC 14-01E - 252.04 MHz 3CH @ 29.65MHz 4

6U ITU-R F.384-10 - 340 MHz 3CH @ 40MHz 2

7.1 - 7.4 ITU-R F.385-9 Annex 3 - 196 MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 3

7.1 - 7.4 ITU-R F.385-9 - 161 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.1 - 7.4 CEPT REC(02)06 - 154 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.1 - 7.4 168 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.4 - 7.7 ITU-R F.385-9 - 161 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.4 - 7.7 CEPT REC(02)06 - 154 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.4 - 7.7 ITU-R F.385-9 Annex 3 - 168 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.4 - 7.9 ITU-R F.385-9 Annex 4 - 245 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.7 - 8.2 ITU-R F.386-8 Annex 6 - 311.32 MHz 4CH @ 29.65MHz 4

7.9 - 8.5 CEPT ECC REC(02)06 310 MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 3

8.2 - 8.5 ITU-R F.386-6 Annex 3 - 119/126 MHz 2CH @ 28MHz 3

7.9 - 8.4 ITU-R F.386-8 Annex 3 - 266 MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 3

11 CEPT T/R 12-06 and ITU-R F387-10 - 490/530 MHz 4CH @ 40MHz 3

13 ITU-R F.497 - CEPT ERC/REC 12-02 E - 266MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 3

15 ITU-R F636 - 420 MHz 4CH @ 28MHz 4

15 ITU-R F636 - 490 MHz 4CH @ 28MHz 4

15 ITU-R F636 - 644 MHz 4CH @ 28MHz 2

15 CEPT T/R 12-07 - 728 MHz 4CH @ 28MHz 1

15 CEPT - 315 MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 5

15 CEPT - 322 MHz 3CH @ 28MHz 5

18 ITU-R F.595 - CEPT REC T/R 12-03 - 1010 MHz 12CH @ 27.5MHz 3

18 ITU-R F.595 - Annex 7 - 1560 MHz 15CH @ 27.5MHz 1

23 ITU-R F.637-3 - Annex 3 CEPT T/R 13-02 - 1008 MHz 11CH @ 28MHz 2

23 ITU-R F.637-3 - Annex 4 - 1200 MHz 11CH @ 28MHz 3

23 ITU-R F.637-3 - Annex1 - 1232 MHz 11CH @ 28MHz 3

26 ITU-R F.748 - Annex 1 and CEPT T/R 13-02 - 1008 MHz 16CH @ 28MHz 2

32 ITU-R F.1520 and CEPT Rec (01)02 - 812 MHz 10CH @ 28MHz 3

38 ITU-R F.749 and CEPT Rec T/R 12-01 - 1260 MHz 20CH @ 28MHz 2

42 ECC Rec (01)04 - 1500 MHz 18CH @ 28MHz (520 MHz) 3

- Digital fixed point to point EN 301 128

- Climatic characteristics EN 300 019 (class 4.1 for ODU;


storage: class 1.2; transport: class 2.3)

- Safety EN60950

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


23
254 mm

254 mm
157 mm

Fig.6 - ALFOPlus front/side view

24
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Inband management (without VLAN)

payload + 1 1 1 1 1
ALFO ALFO ALFO ALFO
manag.
Plus

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


Plus Plus Plus

Outband management (without VLAN)

1 1 1
payload 1 1
ALFO ALFO ALFO ALFO
2 2 2
manag. 2 Plus Plus Plus
Plus

Fig.7 - Reachable links in ALFOPlus sub-network


Inband management (with VLAN)

payload (VLANx) +
manag. (VLANy) 1 1 1 1 1
ALFO ALFO ALFO ALFO
Plus Plus Plus Plus

25
6 DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
ALFOPLUS

6.1 GENERAL

SIAE ALFOPlus is a radio system for digital link in full outdoor mechanics.

ALFOPlus (Access Link Full Outdoor) microwave radio system is available in various frequency ranges from
6 to 42 GHz.

The Outdoor Unit can be easily installed and configured owing to its:

reduced size

easily orientable antenna

broad operating temperature range

high flexibility of line interfaces selection

low consumption.

The first description given in the following first concerns the circuitry common to all the versions, then that
of the line interfaces will follow.

6.2 DESCRIPTION

The ALFOPlus consists of two PCB housed in a small size aluminium cabinet:

BBP-GE (Baseband processor Gigabit electrical)

TRx (IF and RF transceiver)

or

BBP-GO (Baseband processor Gigabit optical)

TRx (IF and RF transceiver)

The description that follows (see Fig.16 and Fig.17) details the block diagrams of electrical and optical ver-
sion.

26
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
6.2.1 Baseband processor

The baseband Processor unit (BBP) carries out the following operations:

primary and secondary power supply

line interfaces and protections

baseband circuits and packets processing

I and Q signals generation and sampling

I, Q demodulator

Rx baseband filtering
Actuators and measurement points for TRx unit

FPGA debug connector

FPGA

Controller

BBP unit is different depending on the interface type (electrical or optical).

6.2.2 TRX Transceiver unit

TRX Transceiver unit consists of the following functional blocks:

power supply dedicated to microwave circuits


Tx baseband filtering

I, Q modulator

frequency synthesizer

microwave transmitter and receiver

IF devices on Rx side

6.2.3 Firmware

Equipment software permits to control and manage all the equipment functionality and it is distributed on
two hardware levels: main controller and ODU peripheral controllers.

Firmware can be updated through the Web Lct and it is stored in two different memory benches: one con-
taining the running firmware and the other the stand-by firmware. This permits to download a new
firmware release to the stand by bench without cutting the traffic

Use Bench Switch to activate the bench in stand-by (SW restart will be performed).

6.2.4 Web Lct

The Web Lct is a web interface software already present in the ALFO Plus, which requires Adobe Flash Play-
er and allows the configuration and the management of the local radio, using LAN Port Management. When
the remote one is configured properly, the whole link can be managed (left side=local radio and right
side=remote radio). WEB Lct runs on any browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox etc....).

Web Lct console is a free software downlodable from the site www.siaemic.com after registration.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


27
6.2.5 Switch for Ethernet ports

Inside ALFOPlus is present an Ethernet switch with 2 external ports line side (electrical 10/100/1000BaseT
or optical 100/1000BaseFX), one internal radio port and one port towards controller (see Fig.8).

Internal port is represented by the local radio stream where through native Ethernet transport is connected
with the remote equipment.

Microcontroller

Ethernet
packet switch
10/100BaseT Port A
LAN1 1000BaseT Radio
1+0
10/100/1000BaseT
LAN2

Fig.8 - ALFOPlus block diagram

Switch function

ALFOPlus can operate like a switch between two or more separated LANs with the following advantages:
to connect two separate LANs

to connect two LANs via radio within a complex digital network

to keep separated the traffic into two LANs towards MAC filtering to get a total traffic greater than
the traffic in a single LAN.

By default the routing works on basis Mac Address (Layer 2), but it can be enabled on basis VLAN ID, in
Web Lct - Ethernet switch (Enh) - Common Parameters.
The operation is the following: when a LAN port receives a MAC frame, on the basis of destination address,
it decides which LAN to send it:

if destination address is on originating LAN the frame is discarded


if destination address is a known address (towards address learning procedure) and is present into
local address table, the frame is sent only on destination LAN (MAC switching)

otherwise the frame is sent to all ports with the same VLAN ID (flooding).

Ethernet Speed/Duplex function

With electrical interface, in Web Lct - Baseband - Lan, Speed/Duplex can be manually or automatically
activated as half Duplex or Full Duplex 10/100/1000Base-T, while with optical interface, Speed Duplex can
be set as Full Duplex 100/1000Base-X.

Link Loss Forwarding

Link Loss Forwarding (LLF) is an alarm status of Ethernet interface. LLF can be enabled or disabled.

If LLF is enabled, any linkdown alarm will generate the alarm status of Ethernet interface blocking any
transmission to it. LLF can be enabled for each ports.

With LLF enabled the equipment connected (routers, switches so on) can be notified that radio link is not
available and can temporarily re-route the traffic.

28
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
MDI/MDIX cross-over

For each LAN interface, cross-over cable can be set in Web Lct - Baseband - Lan - Cable Crossover as:

Automatic - Lan recognizes automatically the connected cable type (Straight cable or Crossover ca-
ble)

MDI (NIC) - Manual crossover wiring type T568A

MDI-X (Switch) - Manual crossover wiring type T568B


With crossover cable it is necessary to use the same wiring format (MDI/MDI or MDI-x/MDI-x) on both
ends. In case of straight cable is the opposite.

VLAN functionality

ALFOPlus works with IEEE 802.1q and 802.1p tag. Tag is made up with:

a fixed word of 2 bytes

3 bits for priority according with 802.1p


1 fixed bit

12 bits VLAN identifier (VLAN ID) according with 802.1q.

Switch cross-connections are based on Vlan Configuration Table where input and output ports or only out-
put ports should be defined for any used VID. Vlan ID (VID) has a range from 1 to 4095.

Ethernet Flow Control (802.3x)

A network device asks its adjacent devices to send a pause frame because the input is faster it can process.
The protocol used for this purpose is the flow control (802.2x).

6.2.6 Synchronisation

Into ALFOPlus a synchronisation circuit, called SincE and defined by the standard G.8264, gets the syn-
chronisation signal from the following different sources:

LAN1

LAN2

radio

Internal source

As shown in Fig.9 the clocks extracted from the sources are sent to a selection circuit that chooses one of
the signals depending on the control sent by a selection logic.

This latter acts on the base of alarm roots (Synch Loss, Synch Drift, Holdover Freerunning), on the base
of assigned priority, manual forcing and preferential switch.
The selected clock drives an oscillator through a PLL circuit. The oscillator will generate the required syn-
chronisation for the frame generation. If no input signals are available the internal oscillator source is used
for the local restart.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


29
Alarms
Synchronisation Clock Selector Sync Loss
Source
Sync Drift
Status
TE LAN-1
TE LAN-2
T0 Reference
T2 Radio Clk PLL
Circuit
Internal Clock
Selection Logical

Force Switch
Priority Control
Preferential Switch

Fig.9 - Synchronisation block diagram

6.2.7 Adaptive code modulation

ACM profiles

In ALFOPlus radio family uses Adaptive Code and Modulation (ACM) in order to employ the correct modu-
lation profile depending on the Rx signal quality.

Available ACM profiles are the following:

4QAM strong

4QAM

16QAM strong

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

512QAM

1024QAM (optional).

These profiles operate in an RF channel with the following bandwidth:


7 MHz

14 MHz

30
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
28 MHz

56 MHz

112 MHz (optional).

ACM switching

The usage of the previous modulation profiles in a fixed channel bandwidth results in a variable capacity.
The criteria defining the necessity of an ACM switching, upshift or downshift, is the Rx S/N ratio.

Upshift - When there is an increase of received S/N, within the same Channel Spacing, the modu-
lation complexity is increased in the direction from 4QAM strong to 1024QAM increasing the spectral
efficiency

Downshift - When there is a decrease of received S/N, within the same Channel Spacing, the mod-
ulation is reduced in the direction from 1024QAM to 4QAM strong reducing the spectral efficiency,

In order to configure properly the radio link using ACM facility, an optimization must be found between
max traffic during good propagation conditions and max availability during bad propagation conditions. To
obtain this purpose the ACM in ALFOPlus family can be configured via software setting the following pa-
rameters: ACM setting and Tx Power mode.

ACM setting

The ACM can vary modulation profiles between two extremes defined by the operator through software
configuration: Upper Modulation and Lower Modulation.

Upper modulation - When propagation into the given radio channel is in the better condition (high
Rx S/N), the radio link is working at the maximum throughput defined at Upper Modulation: the
highest modulation profile that ACM can employ
Lower modulation - When propagation into the given radio channel is in the worst condition (low
Rx S/N), the radio link is working at the minimum throughput, defined at Lower Modulation: the
lowest modulation profile that ACM can employ

Tx Power Ramp

Tx Power Ramp function permits to set Tx power according to the available modulation profiles.
Tx Power Ramp Disabled - Tx power is the same at any modulation profile

Tx Power Ramp Enabled - Maximum Tx power based on the reference modulation

The Tx Power Ramp is set depending on the modulation license of the user and depending on the Lower
Modulation that has been set.

6.2.8 ATPC and ACM interaction

The Automatic Transmission Power Control (ATPC) regulates the RF output power of the local transmitter
depending on the value of the RF level at the remote terminal. This value has to be preset from the local
terminal as threshold high and low. The difference between the two thresholds must be equal or higher
than 3 dB.

As soon as the received level crosses the preset threshold level low due to the increase of the hop atten-
uation, a microprocessor (P), embedded in the ALFOplus, at the receiver side of the remote terminal
sends back to the local terminal a control to increase the transmitted power.

A good set of the thresholds is to put the ATPC Low Level threshold higher (or even slightly higher) than
the threshold of the highest modulation scheme of the ACM; this way, the ATPC start to work before than
the received signal is reduced and by consequence will force the system to downgrade the modulation. The
behaviour of the system is to always try to increase the PTX and so the System Gain, before than being
forced to reduce capacity a modulation.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


31
Resuming, the correct setting of the thresholds is when the two windows, the ATPC one and the ACM one,
are not overlapped, as per Fig.10.
Local Remote
Remote PRx
dBm Tx Rx

PTx actuation PRx recording


level
P P
PTx control
Thresh High
Transmission
Rx Tx
Thresh Low of PTx control

Threshold
highest ACM
profile

ACM
range

Hop attenuation (dB)


Local PTx
dBm

PTx max.

ATPC range

PTx min.

Hop attenuation (dB)

Fig.10 - ATPC diagram

6.3 LOOPS

To control the equipment correct operation a set of local and remote loops are made available. The com-
mands are forwarded by the WEBLCT program. The available loop facilities are:

Baseband loop

RF loop (only for GB8xxxx)

ALFO Plus

BBP-GE RADIO

BASE
BAND
LOOP RF Loop

Fig.11 - Available loops

32
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
6.4 ALARM SYSTEM

There are two ways of processing the alarms:

through LEDs

through SCT/WebLCT
Alarm associated to ALFOPlus can be classified in different groups. Names and composition of these groups
as well as association between alarm classes and relay contact can be defined by the customer.

Alarms are divided into 4 severity levels according to the effects that an alarm might cause to the regular
operation of the unit detecting it. Levels are prioritised as follows:

Critical (outofservice), urgent alarm

Major (severe failure, minimum residual functionality), urgent alarm

minor (failure neither urgent nor remote, high residual functionality), not urgent alarm

warning (failure neither urgent nor remote, high indication or wrong configuration), not urgent
alarm

none (the alarm is masked)

Critical and Major alarms indicate impossibility of executing a service, hence the faulty units needs to be
serviced. Minor level represents the not urgent alarms which do not prejudice service continuity. Warning
level indicates malfunctions that might be locally removed without having to replace the unit.

Alarm classification can be modified via SCT/WebLCT operator. A short description is given for each alarm
in Alarms section with relevant class.

The visual indication is given by a LED, which can be green or red. The information provided are:
Red light:

- ON - An internal alarm is active. Connect the PC for troubleshooting

- Flashing - An external alarm is active

Green light:

- Flashing - No radio connection with far-end terminal

- ON - Radio connection with far-end terminal is active

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


33
6.5 CHARACTERISTICS

6.5.1 Electrical characteristics

Tab.6 - Tx power

Frequency Band (GHz) Guaranteed output power (dBm)

ALFOPlus series 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

6 27 27 25 25 23 23 23 23 23 22

7 27 27 25 25 23 23 23 23 23 22

11 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

13 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

15 26 26 24 24 22 22 22 22 22 21

18 21 21 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 16

23 21 21 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 16

26 20 20 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 15

28 19 19 17 17 15 15 15 15 15 14

32 18 18 16 16 14 14 14 14 14 13

38 17 17 15 15 13 13 13 13 13 12

42 15 15 13 13 11 11 11 11 11 10

- RF output attenuation up to 20 dB, 1 dB step software adjustable


- ATPC range 20 dB

- Rx max input level (at antenna flange) 20 dBm

- Receiver threshold with BER = 10-3 see Tab.7

34
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Tab.7 - Receiver thresholds (Interleave enabled)

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.5 -93.0 -89.5 -86.0 -84.5 -82.0 -78.5 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5
14 MHz -94.5 -91.0 -88.0 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -66.5

28 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -80.0 -77.0 -74.0 -70.5 -68.0 -64.0

56 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -60.5
6 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5
14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5

28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -95.5 -93.0 -89.5 -86.5 -84.5 -82.0 -78.5 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5

14 MHz -94.5 -91.0 -88.0 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -66.5

28 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -80.0 -77.0 -74.0 -70.5 -68.0 -64.0

56 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -60.5
7 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.0 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5

14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5
28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


35
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0

28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5

56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
11 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0
28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5

56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
13 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -95.0 -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -84.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0

14 MHz -94.0 -90.5 -87.5 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.0

28 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -73.5 -70.0 -67.5 -63.5
56 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.0
15 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.0 -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -82.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0

14 MHz -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -82.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.0

28 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.0 -79.0 -77.5 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0 -65.5 -61.5

56 MHz -86.0 -82.5 -79.0 -76.0 -74.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.0

36
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -94.5 -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -83.5 -81.0 -77.5 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5

14 MHz -93.5 -90.0 -87.0 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.5 -65.5

28 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5 -67.5 -63.0

56 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -59.5
18 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.5 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0

56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -94.5 -92.0 -88.5 -85.5 -83.5 -81.0 -77.5 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5

14 MHz -93.5 -90.0 -87.0 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -69.5 -65.5
28 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -69.5 -67.5 -63.0

56 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -59.5
23 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.5 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0

56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -94.0 -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -83.0 -80.5 -77.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.0

14 MHz -93.0 -89.5 -86.5 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.0 -69.0 -65.0

28 MHz -90.0 -86.5 -83.0 -80.0 -78.5 -75.5 -72.5 -69.0 -66.5 -62.5
56 MHz -87.0 -83.5 -80.0 -77.0 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0 -63.5 -59.0
26 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.0 -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0

14 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -81.0 -79.0 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -67.0 -63.0

28 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.5

56 MHz -85.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.0 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0 -61.5 -57.0

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


37
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -93.5 -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -82.5 -80.5 -76.5 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5

14 MHz -92.5 -89.0 -86.0 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -64.5

28 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -82.5 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5 -66.0 -62.0

56 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -58.5
28 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -91.5 -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5

14 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.5 -62.5

28 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -60.0

56 MHz -84.5 -81.0 -77.5 -74.5 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5 -61.0 -56.5

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -92.0 -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -81.0 -78.5 -75.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.0

14 MHz -91.0 -87.5 -84.5 -81.0 -79.0 -76.5 -73.0 -70.0 -67.0 -63.0
28 MHz -88.0 -84.5 -81.0 -78.0 -76.5 -73.5 -70.5 -67.0 -64.5 -60.5

56 MHz -85.0 -81.5 -78.0 -75.0 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0 -61.5 -57.0
32 GHz
-6
Radio Guaranteed @BER10
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -90.0 -87.5 -84.0 -81.0 -79.0 -76.5 -73.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.0

14 MHz -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -79.0 -77.0 -74.5 -71.0 -68.0 -65.0 -61.0

28 MHz -86.0 -82.0 -79.0 -76.0 -74.5 -71.5 -68.5 -65.0 -62.5 -58.5

56 MHz -83.0 -79.5 -76.0 -73.0 -71.0 -68.5 -65.5 -62.0 -59.5 -55.0

Radio Normal @BER10-6


RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM
7 MHz -92.5 -90.0 -86.4 -83.5 -81.5 -79.0 -75.5 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5

14 MHz -91.5 -88.0 -85.0 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -63.5

28 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -81.5 -78.5 -77.0 -74.0 -71.0 -67.5 -65.0 -61.0
56 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -57.5
38 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode
Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -90.5 -88.0 -84.5 -81.5 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5

14 MHz -89.5 -86.0 -83.0 -79.5 -77.5 -75.0 -71.5 -68.5 -65.5 -61.5

28 MHz -86.5 -83.0 -79.5 -76.5 -75.0 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5 -63.0 -59.0

56 MHz -83.5 -80.0 -76.5 -73.5 -71.5 -69.0 -66.0 -62.5 -60.0 -55.5

38
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Radio Normal @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -91.5 -89.0 -85.5 -82.5 -80.5 -78.0 -74.5 -72.0 -69.0 -65.5

14 MHz -90.5 -87.0 -84.0 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -69.5 -66.5 -62.5

28 MHz -87.5 -84.0 -80.5 -77.5 -76.0 -73.0 -70.0 -66.5 -64.0 -60.0

56 MHz -84.5 -81.0 -77.5 -74.5 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5 -61.0 -56.5
42 GHz
Radio Guaranteed @BER10-6
RSL threshold (dBm) Physical Mode

Channel spacing 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz -89.5 -87.0 -83.5 -80.5 -78.5 -76.0 -72.5 -70.0 -67.0 -63.5

14 MHz -88.5 -85.0 -82.0 -78.5 -76.5 -74.0 -70.5 -67.5 -64.5 -60.5

28 MHz -85.5 -82.0 -78.5 -75.5 -74.0 -71.0 -68.0 -64.5 -62.0 -58.0

56 MHz -82.5 -79.0 -75.5 -72.5 -70.5 -68.0 -65.0 -61.5 -59.0 -54.5

- Modulation 4QAM up to 1024QAM

- Number of settable RF channel depending on RF band and capacity

- Tuning frequency step 250 kHz

- Tx/Rx frequency spacing see Tab.5

- Net bit rate (RF channel spacing) see Tab.8

- Ethernet latency see Tab.9

Tab.8 - ALFOPlus net bit rate

Bandwidth 4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 1KQAM

7 MHz 9.295 10.872 16.225 21.080 24.483 30.293 36.102 41.912 47.763 53.572

14 MHz 16.393 22.025 32.870 42.705 49.599 61.368 71.137 84.906 96.759 108.529

28 MHz 32.956 44.279 66.081 85.854 99.713 123.373 147.034 170.694 194.524 218.185

56 MHz 65.912 88.558 132.161 171.708 199.425 246.746 294.068 341.389 389.048 436.369

- Link ID identifier RFOH: 1 to 255

- Loop facility Baeband loop, RF loop (only for GB8xxxx)

- Spurious emissions/rejection according to ETSI

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


39
Tab.9 - Ethernet service delay (latency), interleaving enabled

One way delay


Physical Modes (64 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 1.100 1.083 1.069 1.064 1.060 1.056 1.054 1.052 1.051 1.049

14 0.649 0.641 0.634 0.632 0.629 0.627 0.626 0.626 0.625 0.624

28 0.329 0.325 0.321 0.320 0.319 0.318 0.318 0.317 0.317 0.316

56 0.170 0.168 0.166 0.166 0.165 0.164 0.164 0.164 0.164 0.163

One way delay


Physical Modes (128 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 1.148 1.120 1.095 1.088 1.078 1.071 1.068 1.065 1.063 1.060

14 0.674 0.660 0.648 0.644 0.639 0.636 0.634 0.633 0.632 0.630

28 0.342 0.335 0.329 0.327 0.324 0.323 0.322 0.322 0.321 0.321

56 0.177 0.174 0.171 0.169 0.169 0.168 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167

One way delay


Physical Modes (256 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 1.247 1.194 1.146 1.132 1.114 1.101 1.095 1.089 1.087 1.081

14 0.723 0.697 0.674 0.666 0.658 0.652 0.649 0.646 0.645 0.641

28 0.367 0.354 0.342 0.339 0.335 0.332 0.331 0.330 0.329 0.327

56 0.191 0.185 0.179 0.177 0.175 0.173 0.172 0.172 0.172 0.171

One way delay


Physical Modes (512 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 1.438 1.338 1.247 1.218 1.185 1.163 1.151 1.139 1.133 1.124

14 0.820 0.770 0.725 0.712 0.695 0.684 0.678 0.672 0.669 0.664

28 0.418 0.393 0.371 0.364 0.356 0.350 0.347 0.345 0.343 0.341

56 0.218 0.206 0.195 0.191 0.187 0.185 0.183 0.181 0.181 0.179

One way delay


Physical Modes (1024 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 1.824 1.628 1.450 1.395 1.329 1.284 1.261 1.238 1.228 1.208

14 1.014 0.917 0.830 0.803 0.770 0.748 0.737 0.725 0.721 0.711

28 0.519 0.470 0.426 0.414 0.397 0.386 0.380 0.375 0.372 0.368

56 0.272 0.248 0.227 0.220 0.212 0.206 0.203 0.200 0.200 0.197

One way delay


Physical Modes (1518 bytes)
(msec)

40
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 2.193 1.905 1.644 1.562 1.466 1.400 1.367 1.333 0.001 1.289

14 1.200 1.058 0.929 0.890 0.842 0.809 0.792 0.776 0.768 0.754

28 0.615 0.544 0.480 0.460 0.436 0.420 0.412 0.404 0.399 0.393

56 0.324 0.289 0.257 0.247 0.235 0.227 0.223 0.219 0.219 0.214

One way delay


Physical Modes (10000 bytes)
(msec)

Channel size
4SQAM 4QAM 16SQAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 256LQAM 512QAM 1KQAM
(MHz)

7 8.570 6.698 5.001 4.471 3.844 3.417 3.196 2.975 2.874 2.692

14 4.418 3.493 2.655 2.394 2.048 1.873 1.764 1.655 1.606 1.516

28 2.284 1.824 1.407 1.277 1.123 1.018 0.964 0.910 0.885 0.840

56 1.227 0.997 0.789 0.724 0.646 0.594 0.567 0.540 0.528 0.505

6.5.2 Line Interface Characteristics

Ethernet interface

- Ethernet connectors IEEE 802.3 10/100/1000BaseT RJ45


IEEE 802.3 100/1000BaseX LC

- Ethernet latency 2609 s for standard frame sizes


11684 s for jumbo frame sizes

Features of Ethernet switch enhanced

To have Ethernet switch enhanced you need to set Ethernet Enh as Present in Web Lct - Equipment Menu
- Equipment - Configuration; this allows to have the new features in the Ethernet switch menu and Lan
interfaces. In the following a description of the advanced features:

Ingress Filtering Policing (CIR/EIR according to MFE 10.2)

Enhanced QoS Management


Enhanced VLAN Management

Ethernet Frame Fragmentation

Packet Compression
Link Aggregation (IEEE 802.3ad) Load Balancing

Ethernet Line Protection

ITU-T Y.1731 Eth OAM/IEEE 8902.1ag/IEEE 802.ah

Selective RMon VLAN Based

SNMP V3

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


41
Ingress Filtering Policing (CIR/EIR according to MFE 10.2)

ALFOPlus allows to limit the ingress traffic rate on the basis of:

LAN port (Bandwidth profile per UNI): a different profile is defined for each LAN port (VLAN ID and
priority are not considered in this case by the rate limiting algorithm)

VLAN (Bandwidth Profile per EVC): a different profile is defined for different VLANs (priority is not
considered in this case by the rate limiting algorithm). Up to 64 VLAN can be managed with different
profiles

VLAN+priority (Bandwidth Profile per CoS): a different profile is defined for different couples
VLAN+priorities (up to 64 different cases can be managed). In this case the packet priority is always
considered by the rate limiting algorithm. More than one priority can be included in the same band-
width profile.

In general different criteria can be defined for each port/VLAN/priority. Up to 64 Ingress Filtering Policy
resources can be defined and each bandwidth profile defined on the basis either of LAN port, VLAN or
VLAN+priority consumes 1 of such resources.

In order to define the bandwidth profile, the following parameters must be configured:

CIR (Committed Information Rate:) it is admitted ingress rate (green coloured), with values be-
tween 0kbit/s and 1 Gbit/s

CBS (Committed Burst Rate): it is the maximum size of the token bucket of the green packets, with
values between 0 byte and 256 kbyte.

EIR (Excess Information Rate): it is maximum ingress rate eventually admitted (yellow coloured),
with values between 0 kbit/s and 1 Gbit/s

EBS (Excess Burst Rate): it is maximum size of the token bucket of the yellow packets, with values
between 0 byte and 256 kbytes

CF (Coupling Flag): if enabled, the excess token eventually charged into the green bucket are
moved into the yellow packet bucket.
Red packets, i.e. the ones exceeding the CIR+EIR rate, are automatically discarded.

The combination of CIR and EIR rates is typically referred to as PIR, or Peak Information Rate, which
represents the total burstable bandwidth sold to the customer.
According to MEF 10.2 (Metro Ethernet Forum) specifications, the bandwidth profile service attribute (In-
put Filter Policing), which includes some or all of the above categories, can be defined per UNI, per EVC or
per CoS identifier (CoS ID; EVC.CoS). For any given frame, however, only one such model can apply. The
service provider meets the bandwidth guarantees by reserving appropriate network resources and employ-
ing a two-rate/three-colour (trTCM) rate-limitation methodology as part of its traffic engineering policy to
ensure compliance by user traffic.
Green = Trasmitted: CIR and CBS.

Yellow = Low Priority (dropped in case of congestion): EIR and EBS.

Red = Dropped: traffic exceeding EIR and EBS is dropped.

CIR (green) EIR (yellow) dropped (red)

CBS (green) EBS (yellow) dropped (red)

For any port it is possible to add a Input Filter Policy table with this selections:

Disable

Uni Port Based

EVC C_Vid Based

COS C_Vid + Priority Based

EVC S_Vid/C_Vid Based

COS S_Vid/C_Vid + Priority Based

42
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
According the status of 802.1q Management> 802.1q settings =
Disable: you can select only Uni Port Based with CIR, EIR, CBS and EBS; Cf disable is ok.

Fallback: two selections 1) EVC C_Vid Based: applied to a CVLAN C_Vid with CIR, EIR, CBS and
EBS; Cf disable is ok. 2) COS C_Vid + Priority Based: applied to a CVLAN C_Vid with priority range,
CIR, EIR, CBS and EBS; Cf disable is ok.

Secure: two selections 1) EVC S_Vid/C_Vid Based: applied to a SVLAN S_Vid and a CVLAN C_Vid
with CIR, EIR, CBS and EBS; Cf disable is ok. 2) COS S_Vid/C_Vid + Priority Based: applied to a
SVLAN S_Vid and CVLAN C_Vid with priority range, CIR, EIR, CBS and EBS; Cf disable is ok.

Into ALFOPlus there is a total of 64 instances of Input Filter Policing for all the four ports into any radio port.

Any CVID can be used into only one port.

Into same port same CVID can be reused but with different priority.

Enhanced QoS Management

The ALFOPlus scheduler provides enhanced QoS management features. based on the ingress port (and op-
tionally also as a function of the LAN-ID), there are four different modes that can be used to set the priority
of an Ethernet frame:

Ethernet: the priority is set based on the PCP (Priority Code Point) field of the VLAN tag
(IEEE802.1p) (Native 802.1p C_Vid)
MPLS: the priority is set based on the EXP (Experimental Bit) field of the PLS tag (Native MPLS)

IP: the priority is set based on the DSCP field of the either IPv4 or IPv6 (Native ToS/DSCP)

Default: the priority is set in a static mode and its value is configurable based on the VLAN ID. The
Default mode is also used when all the other criteria are not applicable (Port Default).
It is in addition possible to map the EXP quality of the MPLS label into the PCP field of the outer VLAN tag
(802.1p Rewrite with MPLS). Once the priority is assigned, the packet is sent to one of the 8 output queues.
The size of each one of the 8 queues is configurable with one value between the following four options:
128kbit, 256kbit, 512kbit and 1024kbit.

On the basis of the filling status of the queue, different drop-policy can be applied. In ALFOPlus there are
four available policies:
Tail drop: if the packet is arriving into a full queue, it will be discarded

Queue drop: if a new packet is arriving into a full queue, the whole queue is emptied (with the ex-
ception of the head packet)

RED: when a new packet is arriving into the queue it has a discarding-probability that is function of
the filling status of the queue. the relation between the probability and the queue status is defined
by means of a SW configurable curve. If the queue is full, the new packet is discarded with proba-
bility 1 (like in the Tail drop case).

WRED: it is similar to RED, with the difference that for each queue two drops curves are defined.
the packet in ingress is coloured according to MEF 10.2, i.e.e according to the CIR and EIR ingress
filtering policy defined. As a consequence, WRED can be chosen only if CIR/EIR Ingress filtering pol-
icy is enabled for the ingress port. Once coloured, red packets are always discarded, while green
and Yellow packets are managed according to different curves.

the traffic in the queues is then emptied by means of either Strict priority or Weighted Fair Queue algo-
rithm. With the Strict Priority the highest priority takes always precedence. With WFQ the available band-
width is shared between the different priorities with configurable weights. It is in addition possible to
configure at the same time some queues as Strict Priority and the remaining as WFQ.

Random Early Drop function is shown in Fig.12.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


43
Fig.12 - 0 red curve

RED (Random Early Drop): no packet are dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches
Smin(G, Green), packets are dropped randomly until a percentage of Pmax and an Occupation %
of Smax(G) limits are reached, all packets are dropped over an Occupation % higher than Smax(G);

RED Gentle (Enable): no packets are dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches Smin(G,
Green); with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smin(G) and lower than Smax(G), packets
are dropped randomly with a percentage defined by the straight line between Smin(G)/0 and
Smax(G)/Pmax(G); with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smax(G) the percentage of ran-
domly dropped packets is defined by the straight line between Smax(G)/Pmax(G) and Sgentle(G)/
100%;

WRED (Weighted Random Early Drop): Weighted RED is a two line RED; one line for Green packets,
one line for Yellow packets; Green and Yellow are defined by CIR and EIR into Input Filtering Policy
(Lan1,2,3,4);
no green packet is dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches Smin(G, Green);
no yellow packet is dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches Smin (Y, Yellow);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smin(G) and lower than Smax(G) green packets are
dropped randomly with a percentage defined by the straight line between Smin(G)/0 and Smax(G)/
Pmax(G);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smin(Y) and lower than Smax(Y) yellow packets are
dropped randomly with a percentage defined by the straight line between Smin(Y)/0 and Smax(Y)/
Pmax(Y);
all green packets are dropped over an Occupation % higher than Smax(G);
all packets are dropped over an Occupation % higher than Smax(Y);

WRED Gentle (Enable): Weighted RED is a two line RED; one line for Green packets, one line for
Yellow packets; Green and Yellow are defined by CIR and EIR into Input Filtering Policy
(Lan1,2,3,4);
for Green packets no packet is dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches Smin(G);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smin(G) and lower than Smax(G) green packets are
dropped randomly with a percentage defined by the straight line between Smin(G)/0 and Smax(G)/
Pmax(G);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smax(G), the percentage of dropped green packets
is defined by the straight line between Smax(G)/Pmax(G) and Sgentle(G)/100%;
for Yellow packets no packet is dropped until Average Queue Occupation % reaches Smin(Y);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smin(Y) and lower than Smax(Y) green packets are
dropped randomly with a percentage defined by the straight line between Smin(Y)/0 and Smax(Y)/
Pmax(Y);
with Average Queue Occupation % higher than Smax(Y), the percentage of dropped green packets
is defined by the straight line between Smax(Y)/Pmax(Y) and Sgentle(Y)/100%;

WRED and WRED Gentle are very efficient to get the most from the radio link available traffic avoiding the
stop and go behaviour (SAW trend) typical of congested TCP/IP traffic.

Warning: RED and WRED impact only TCP/IP traffic, not UDP traffic.

44
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Ethernet Frame Fragmentation

QoS preserve High priority traffic, by giving them precedence during traffic congestions. However, in case
of real time traffic also latency and jitter are important factors. Latency is strictly related to the line speed
and usually can be managed by designing the network topology in a proper way (e.g. by limiting the max-
imum number of hops in link chains). Jitter is instead a more sensitive parameter because it depends on
the traffic conditions.
In fact, when a High priority packet has to be sent over the radio link it is scheduled on a High Priority
queue. However, before to be sent over the radio link it has to wait that the packet currently in transmis-
sion (also a Best Effort packet) will be entirely sent. This waiting time can considerably change depending
on the best effort packet size (from 64bytes to 1518 bytes of even more in case of jumbo frames). One
technique used to mitigate this phenomenon is packet fragmentation, i.e. longer frames are subdivided in
smaller fragments at Tx side. A label is added to the packet in order to number these subframes. At Rx
side the original frame is rebuilt after all the fragments are received. In this way, the maximum waiting
time for a High Priority packet is reduced to the sub-frame size (some hundreds of bytes), providing sen-
sitive benefits to the packet jitter.

ALFOPlus allows to fragment Ethernet frames with two options: 256 or 512 Bytes.

Enhanced VLAN Management

ALFOPlus provides the following enhanced VLAN management features:


VLAN rewriting

Selective QinQ based on VLAN and IEEE 802.1p priority

VLAN rewriting

VLAN rewriting is a feature available on radio side that allows to rewrite the VID of C-TAG of the packet
received (uplink side) or sent (downlink side) by the switch.

On uplink side (packets received by the switch) the VID can be rewritten on the basis of the following cri-
teria:

- LAN port + C-VID: new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured on the basis
of its original C-VID and the LAN port where it has been received.

- LAN port + C-VID + priority: new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured
on the basis of its original C-VID + priority and the LAN port where it has been received.

On uplink side it is possible to configure for all the LAN ports up to 64 LAN port + C-VID or LAN port + C-
VID + priority criteria.

On downlink side (packets sent by the switch) the VID can be rewritten on the basis of the C-VID of the
received packet. I.e., new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured on the basis of
its original C-VID. It is possible to configure up to 64 C-VID criteria in downlink, independently by the uplink
configuration.

Selective QinQ based on VLAN and IEEE 802.1p priority

VLAN staking (also named QinQ) is a feature that allows an Ethernet frame to include more than one IEEE
802.1Q TAG. The scope of VLAN staking is to differentiate the traffic at different levels when the packets
must cross networks managed by different entities.

The ALFOPlus radio supports the Vlan staking. Once a packet enters into the radio it is possible to add a
new IEEE 802.1Q TAG. The VID of the new TAG can be set based on different criteria:

- Ingress port of the packet

- C-VID and priority of the packet when received on the ingress port

The new TAG is added to the packet as a S-TAG. The Ethertype field of the TAG can be set either to stand-
ard values (0x88A8, 0x9100, 0x9200, 0x9300) or to any other custom values.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


45
Packet Compression

ALFOPlus provides header packet compression. This feature allows to compress the packet header by
transmitting over the radio link proprietary labels in place of long and repetitive header field.

ALFOPlus Single layer Packet Compression supports the following protocols: Ethernet, MPLS, IPv4/IPv6,
UDP and RTP and LTE S1 interface tunnelling. This latter cover the case of LTE eNodeB backhauling on S1
interface, where the eUE traffic (either IPv4 or IPv6) is enveloped into a GTP-U tunnel. the Header com-
pressed in this case includes (IPv4+UDP+GTP-U of the S1 interface)+(IPv4/IPv6+UDP+RTP of the eUE
traffic inserted into the tunnel).

When enabled, the user can select which header have to be compressed considering the following maxi-
mum limits:

the total header field size cannot exceed 124 bytes

the total header field size after internal coding cannot exceed 118 bytes. the internal coding is re-
quired by ALFOPlus in order to perform the compression task.
In Fig.13 are detailed the different header fields that can be selected with their weight in terms of header
field size and header field size after internal coding.

46
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Header field
Header
size after
field size
internal coding
(Bytes)
(Bytes)

 Ethernet +14 +12.5

 C-TAG (802.1Q) +4 +2

 Q-in-Q (802.1ad) - -

+(4*n) +(2*n)
Max number of S-TAG (from 1 to 2) (default=1)

 MAC-in-MAC (802.1ah)
+22 +18

 MPLS - -

+(4*n) +(4*n)
Max number of MPLS labels (from 1 to 3), PW included (default=1)

 Control Word (RFC4385) +4 +3.5

 IP+ - -

IPv4 only (default) +20 +19.5

IPv4 or IPv6 +40 +39.5

 UDP
+8 +8

 RTP

+12 +12

+100 +99
Tunneling OPv4 - IPv4/IPv6(IPv4+UDP+GTP-U+IPv4/IPv6+UDP+RTP)

Fig.13 - Header compression

LAG - Link Aggregation (IEEE 802.3ad)

Link Aggregation (LAG) is a feature available on SIAE ALFOPlus equipment that allows assigning up to 2
physical links to one logical link (trunk) that functions as a single, higher-speed Ethernet link.

SIAE ALFOPLus support IEEE802.3ad LAPC (Link Aggregation Control Protocol). LACP allows a network de-
vice to negotiate an automatic bundling of links by sending LACP packets to the peer (directly connected
device that also implements LACP). In addition to the increased capacity of the logical link, LACP provides
additional advantages:
Failover detection when a link fails, allowing for a trunk reconfiguration in order to avoid systematic
packet loss (after the reconfiguration the packets will be lost only if the throughput exceed the trunk
capacity)
it introduces an agreement between the two LACP peers before the staring of data transmission over
the trunk. This prevent anomalous behaviour in case of cabling or configuration mistakes.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


47
LACP works by sending frames (LACPDUs) over the links belonging to the trunk. Also the equipment de-
ployed on the other end of the trunk will send LACP frames over the same links: this enables the two units
to establish the trunk. LACP can be configured two modes: active or passive. In active mode it will always
send frames along the configured links. However, in passive mode it acts as speak when spoken to and
therefore it can be used as a way of controlling accidental loops (as long as the other device is in active
mode). SIAE ALFOPlus implements an active LACP.

A Line Trunk can aggregate up to 2 LAN interfaces with the following restrictions:
all the LAN interfaces must be defined with the same speed (either 10, 100 or 1000 Mbit/s)

all the LAN interfaces must be set in Full Duplex mode

When a Trunk is defined on SIAE ALFOPlus, the end-to-end traffic is transmitted over all the aggregated
lines. As a result, the overall capacity of the trunk can be theoretically equal to the number of aggregated
lines multiplied by the capacity of a single line. In the example of Fig.14, two full duplex - 100Mbit/s con-
nection are grouped into the same trunk, carrying all the capacity in transit from a radio link to another.
In this configuration, the theoretical maximum capacity that can transit on this trunk is 200 Mbit/s.

LAN1 100 Mbit/s LAN1

ALFOPlus ALFOPlus

LAN2 100 Mbit/s LAN2

Line
trunking

Fig.14 - Line trunking

To enable the Link Aggregation on both interfaces (LAN1 and LAN2), select the group Enable - Trunk1 or
Enable - Trunk2 or Enable - Trunk3 or Enable - Trunk4 in Web Lct - STP/ELP trunking menu.

Line Protection through distributed ELP

ELP (Ethernet Line Protection) is a feature available on ALFOPlus that allows to protect a GE interface
against cable failure or accidental disconnection. With ELP it is possible to connect an ALFOPlus to another
network element by using two GE interfaces. Both interfaces are active but just one is enabled to forward
and receive traffic (forwarding state), while the other does not allow any traffic to pass (blocking state). If
the forwarding interface goes down, the other one passes to the forwarding state. The typical switching
time is around 1.5sec. This feature does not imply the use of any protocol, but is simply based on the status
of the physical interfaces. As a consequence, no particular protocol support is required on the connected
equipment: it is simply required to enable the two GE interfaces.

It is recommended to disable any Spanning Tree protocol on the external equipment: this could cause long-
er traffic recovery times.

To enable the Ethernet Line Protection on both interfaces (LAN1 and LAN2), select the group Enable -
Prot1 or Enable - Prot2 in Web Lct - STP/ELP trunking menu.

Ethernet OAM (operation Administration and Maintenance)

This protocol can be used in any point-to-point Ethernet link. The aim of this protocol is to check and mon-
itor the functionality of the service that the provider guarantees on the network.

Service Layer OAM

The Service Layer OAM fully monitors a customer End-to-End Ethernet Service. Two main standards cover
this topic, the IEEE 802.1ag and ITU-T Y.1731.

48
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
The IEEE 802.1ag provides CFM (Connectivity Fault Management) useful for detecting, isolating and re-
porting connectivity faults. The ITU-T Y.1731 Standard comprehends the CFM plus some additional fea-
tures, like RDI (Remote Defect Indicator) that allows to report back to the start of the chain the Alarm
message.
SIAE ALFOPlus supports CFM according to both standards ITU-T Y.1731 and 802.1ag.

The IEEE 802.1ag and the ITU-T Y.1731 are End-to-End service, i.e. provides the tools to monitor the Eth-
ernet Service regardless of the layers, Network Path and operators. Since the spectrum of application can
include many applications a more hierarchical structure is needed.

The Standards define:

Maintenance Domains (MD): these specify the Domains of operators, users and service providers.
Levels from 0 to 7 are possible depending on the type of service to be monitored. Customer Domain
is the higher which includes both ends of the Ethernet service (from one End user to the other End
user), Standard Default values for Customer Domain are 7, 6 and 5. Service Provider Domains
should have a MD lower than the Customer Domain since include the whole network except the End
Users. Standard default values for Provider Domains are 3 and 4. Operator Domains are lower than
Service Provider Domains since just a part of the network is included. Standard Default values for
operator domains are 0, 1 and 2. Here follows a picture explaining the hierarchical structure of Main-
tenance Domains.

ALFOPlus: each interface can be configured as MEP, Port A interface (radio interface) included. Once
chosen the interface, depending on the network topology, the direction of the MEP has to be spec-
ified. Two Directions are possible, MEP and MEP . With MEP configured the OAM PDUs
are sent from the interface in the direction outside the equipment, i.e. the OAM PDUs are sent from
the interface on the cable toward next equipment. With MEP configured the OAM PDUs are sent
from the interface toward the inside of the equipment and will follow the VLAN table previously con-
figured. MEPs are distinguished from each other through a MEP ID, therefore MEPs belonging to
same MA must have different MEP Ids.
In order to configure a MIP the MA has to be habilitated on the equipment. Up to 32 MIPs or MEPs
can be configured on each equipment.

The protocols belonging to the Connectivity Fault Management implemented in SIAE equipment are follow-
ing listed:

Continuity Check Protocol: this protocol enables the sending of a periodic message (like a Heartbeat
message) which enables the other MEPs deployed in the network to distinguish the status of a vir-
tual connection. This massage can only be originated by a MEP.

ALFOPlus: is adjustable with 1s, 10s, 1min, 10min. These messages do not trigger any automatic
reply from the destination entity.

LoopBack Protocol: it resembles an IP PING message; once this message is sent (e.g. MEP1 sends
a Loopback Message to MEP2). MEP2 replies to MEP1 confirming therefore the status of the connec-
tion. This is done to check the status of the connection between the MEP originating the message
and the MEP/MIP to which the message is addressed. This message can only be originated from one
MEP and can be addressed to both MEPs or MIPs.

ALFOPlus: the number of Loopback Messages in ALFOPlus equipment is adjustable from 1 to 5 con-
secutive Loopbacks. In each equipment, it is possible fro each MEP to check the presence of other
MEPs in the same MA. This is done through the Remote MEP application which allows this acknowl-
edgement and distinguishes the other MEP through means of MEP IDs and MAC address.

Link Trace Protocol: this protocol sends a message similar to the LoopBack protocol. Every equip-
ment that is reached by this message will answer to the sender providing its own MAC Address. In
this way the sender is able to understand of which equipment the MA is composed. E.g. a MEP sends
the Link Trace Message to another MEP belonging to the same maintenance association. The MIPs
that are eventually deployed in the middle of the path will forward this message and answer to the
initiating MEP with their own MAC Address. By doing so the initiating MEP knows the OAM-devices
deployed in the path and their order.

Remote Defect Indicator: this feature allows a MEP, in presence of a fault or a defect, to send a RDI
to inform the other MEPs, belonging to the same MA, of the presence of this Defect. The advantages
of this procedure are to avoid multiple Alarms created by the same cause and to be able to check
the status of other Remote MEPs. This RDI information is reported in the Continuity Check Message.

ALFOPlus: this feature is present in ALFOPlus equipment and the presence of this alarm can be
checked as well in the Remote MEPs screen on the equipment.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


49
OAM example with ALCplus2

As an example, lets consider a network where a sequence of 18 SIAE ALFOPlus Radio links is deployed. In
this case a Maintenance Domain, a VLAN and a Maintenance association have to be defined. The VLAN car-
ring the traffic has to be added in the VLAN table of each equipment.

ALFOPlus: in SIAE ALFOPlus equipment one MaintenanceDomain can be specified. At each end of
the Maintenance Domain two MEPs (Maintenance End Point) will be specified. The MEPs are mark-
ers that defies the end of a domain and are in charge of originating OAM frames. In a domain also
MIPs (Maintenance Intermediate Points) can be specified. The MIPs are passive check-points. The
MEPs and MIPs configurations are discussed in details in the following points. The choice of the do-
main and the Domain Label (name) is left to the user. Particular attention must be paid to use the
same MD label in each equipment where the MD is specified, i.e. different equipment with same
value of MD domain but different MD labels belongs to different Domains.

CE PE PE CE
Access Operator 1 Operator 2 Access
Network Core Network Core Network Network

High Level

Customer MEP MEP

Service MEP MEP


Provider

MEP MIP MIP MEP


Operator 1

Low Level
MEP MIP MIP MEP

Operator 2

Fig.15 - Hierarchical structure of Maintenance Domains

50
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
A Maintenance Association (MA) is one association which correlates the VLAN to the MD in which
the MEPs and MIPs have to be defined.

ALFOPlus: when a specified traffic needs to be mentioned, then it is necessary to relay the VLAN to
a Domain and to the corresponding MEPs or MIPs through the MA. Before creating the Maintenance
Association, the VLAN, either S-VLAN or C-VLAN, has to be specified in the VLAN Table. In each
SIAE equipment it is possible to set up to 32 different MA. Particular attention must be paid to use
the same MA label in each equipment where the MA is specified, i.e. different MA labels on the same
VLAN correspond to different MA associations.

At the Edge of a MD there are MEPs (Maintenance End Points) and in the middle there could be MIPs
(Maintenance Intermediate Points). MEPs are the units in charge of managing the CFM to correctly
monitor the status of the Ethernet service provided. MIPs are passive check-points that answer to
pollings coming from MEPs. MEPs will forward OAM messages coming from higher domains and will
discard OAM messages generated from lower domains.

Two MEPs at the end of the chains and a variable number of MIPs in the middle has to be defined with
Continuity Check Message (CCM) enabled.
In case of defect or Ethernet problem, the Continuity Check Message will result in an Inactive status trig-
gering one Alarm. By logging on one MEP it is sufficient to configure the Loopback message, and Link Trace
Message correctly detects the location of the Bottleneck or defect related to this traffic. If more than one
VLAN is present then more than one MAC has to be defined.

6.5.3 Power supply and cable

ALFOPlus unit is compatible with standard POE + IEEE 802.at (with exceeding maximum power). Power
supply can be provided at the main port (GE) or at an auxiliary separated connector.

Power supply must be at least 33V. As critical application example, 2 pairs of CAT-5e cable (AWG 24 - 8.4
Ohm) allow the power supply on a 100m length with at least 40.8V (48V - 15%) only if the consumption
is not higher than 33 W.

- Operating voltage 48Vdc 15%


- Power consumption (max) 38 W

In any case, for other different needs, a dedicated auxiliary port (5 pin connector) provides power supply
48Volt (see Fig.24). For installation, please use rugged and waterproof cable.

6.5.4 Size

- ALFOPlus 256 x 256 x 114 mm (wxhxd) (see Fig.6)

6.5.5 Weights

- ALFOPlus < 4.5 kg.

6.5.6 Environmental conditions

- Operating temperature Class ETSI 33 to +55 C


- Weather-proof ODU IP65

- Wind resistance ODU 150 km/h (in operation)


200 km/h (survival)

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


51
52
CONN LO
Ge Aux port Surge protection RAM
& magnetics
DA Filter
MOD
2xSync
DA Filter
SWD GMII FPGA
GMII
PW
Surge protection,
Ge Main
magnetics,
QSPI
Poe splitter ADC

MII

ADC C
Aux Pwr Supply
PWM

Fig.16 - ALFOPlus GE
Microcontroller
LO
Main DC/DC,
Aux DC/DC ADC Vga Filter Down converter,
DEM
RAM SSD Filter Agc
ADC Vga

BBP: base band processor


TRX: IF and RF transceiver

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


Ge Main port (SFP 1000BaseX) RAM CONN. LO

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


DAC Filter
MOD
GMII DAC Filter
GMII FPGA
Ge Aux Port SWD GMII
PHY PWM

QSPI
ADC

MII

ADC C
Pwr Supply
PWM

Fig.17 - ALFOPlus GO
Microcontroller
LO
Main DC/DC,
Aux DC/DC ADC Vga Filter Down converter,
DEM
RAM SSD ADC Vga Filter Agc

BBP: base band processor TRX: IF and RF transceiver

53
54
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 3.
INSTALLATION

7 INSTALLATION OF ALFOPLUS SYSTEM

7.1 GENERAL INFORMATION TO BE READ BEFORE THE INSTALLA-


TION

ALFOPlus equipment is a full-outdoor IP Ethernet radio link system operating in the frequency ranges 15,
18, 23 or 38 GHz, for transport capacity up to 500 Mbit/s, designed to establish LAN-LAN connections. For
the details related to the actual used frequency band refer to the label on the equipment.
The system is provided with an integral antenna; however, in case its antenna is not used, it should be
connected to an antenna conforming to the requirements of ETSI EN 302 217-4-2 for the relevant frequen-
cy band.

This equipment makes use of non-harmonized frequency bands.

Class 2 radio equipment subject to Authorisation of use. The equipment can operate only at the fre-
quencies authorised by the relevant National Authority.

The deployment and use of this equipment shall be made in agreement with the national regulation
for the Protection from Exposure to Electromagnetic Field.
The symbol indicates that, within the European Union, the product is subject to separate collec-
tion at the product end-of-life. Do not dispose of these products as unsorted municipal waste. For more
information, please contact the relevant supplier for verifying the procedure of correct disposal.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


55
The ALFOPlus radio system is made up of an outdoor unit, protected by a metallic shield. The mechanical
structure complies with IEC48 and DIN41494 standards.

Compliance to electromagnetic compatibility is guaranteed through the following precautionary measures:

during the design phase

- use of protection circuits against electrical dischargers

- use of filters on the power supply input circuits against noise propagating on the power supply
wires
during the installation phase

- use of shielded cables

- use of ground connections.

The installation phases of the whole system are described in the following paraghaphs.

7.2 REQUIRED TOOLS FOR MOUNTING (NOT SUPPLIED)

N.2 13mm torque wrench

N.1 15 mm torque wrench


N.1 17 mm torque wrench

N.1 3 mm Allen wrench.

7.3 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE

Installation procedure proceeds according to the following steps:

Installation onto the pole of the supporting plate

Installation of the ODU

ODU grounding.

7.3.1 Standard coupling kit

The standard coupling kit is mounted on ALFOPlus by means of four screws.

Coupling kit assembly procedure

See Fig.18 - Put the standard coupling kit on the ODU.

Align the four holes of the coupling kit with the four nut screws on the ODU. Insert and tighten the four
screws.

56
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
7.4 INSTALLATION ONTO THE POLE OF THE ODU WITH INTEGRAT-
ED ANTENNA

7.4.1 ODU (Standard Lock)

Mounting kit 1+0 version

Centring ring and relevant screws

M10 bolts

ODU with O-ring and devices for ground connection

Mounting kit 1+1 version

Centring ring and relevant screws

M10 bolts for hybrid and ODU mounting


Hybrid mechanical body

Polarization twist disk (see Fig.21)

2 ODUs with O-rings and devices for ground connection.

7.4.1.1 1+0 ODU with integrated antenna

Install the antenna using the antenna installation guide (specific for each antenna) inside the antenna box
provided by antenna producer. Keep attention to the polarization of the antenna feeder depending on re-
quested polarization.

After the antenna is installed onto the pole, the ODU must be installed, see Fig.19.

Position the three holes circular flange (1) on the antenna flange and align the three holes on the
circular flange with the three relevant holes on the antenna flange

Insert and tighten the three 3mm M4 Allen screws (2) using a 3mm Allen wrench (torque = 2 Nm)
Screw partially the four M10 bolts (3) on the antenna back plate: each bolt should be tightened to
have the square head out of the hole of about 13-14mm (the thickness of hook (4), use 15mm span-
ner)
Apply silicone grease (e.g. RHODOSIL PATE 4) to the O-ring, protecting fingers with gloves, and
insert in the proper track on the ODU flange

Position the ODU (5) vertically near the four bolts on the antenna flange and align the ODU to match
the polarization of the antenna feeder:

- vertical polarization: the handle (6) of the ODU is at the bottom left corner

- horizontal polarization: the handle (6) of the ODU is at the bottom right corner

After the right position has been found, rotate 30 counter clockwise the ODU and approach the
ODU to the antenna flange in order to have the four slots of the Standard Lock cross between the
four bolts
Rotate 30 clockwise the ODU to hook each slots on the relevant bolt

When each slot is firmly hooked on the relevant bolt, tighten each bolt (use 15mm spanner,
torque=46mm)

Optional: sun cover kit - Insert the sun cover and tie one of its bottom holes to the ODU handle by
means of the black plastic strip included in the sun cover kit

The ODU is ready to be connected to the IDU-ODU cable and to the grounding cable.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


57
7.4.1.2 1+1 ODU with integrated antenna

Install the antenna using the antenna installation guide (specific for each antenna) inside the antenna box
by antenna producer.

Keep attention to the polarization of the antenna feeder depending on requested polarization.

After the antenna is installed onto the pole, follow the procedure below, see Fig.20.

Mounting the hybrid (3) on the back of the antenna:

Position the three holes circular flange (1) on the antenna flange and align the holes on the circular
flange with the relevant holes on the antenna flange

Insert and tighten the three 3mm M4 Allen screws (2) using a 3mm Allen wrench (torque = 2mm)
Prepare the polarization disk (see Fig.21) with the two O-rings: silicone grease e.g RHODOSIL PATE
4 must be applied to the O-ring, protecting fingers with gloves; each O-ring must be inserted in
the proper track on each surface of the disk

Mount always (with vertical and with horizontal polarization) the polarization disk on the hybrid
flange (antenna side) as shown in Fig.21 and tighten the four screws (only three screws in 13 GHz
and 15 GHz hybrid). The polarization disk must br oriented depending on requested polarization by
antenna feeder (position V or H as shown in Fig.21. Torque values as in Tab.10.

7.5 INSTALLATION ONTO THE POLE OF THE ODU WITH SEPARAT-


ED ANTENNA

Diameter of the pole 60-114 mm

7.5.1 ODU (Standard Lock)

Mounting kit 1+0 version

Supporting plate, fixing bracket with M10 130mm bolts (with washer, spring and nut)

1 antenna side flange, variable as function of RF frequency, with relevant screws

M10 25mm bolts for ODU mounting

ODU with O-ring and devices for ground connection

Mounting kit 1+1 version

Supporting plate, fixing bracket with M10 130mm bolts (with washer, spring and nut)
M10 25mm bolts for hybrid and ODUs mounting

Hybrid mechanical body

Polarization twist disk (see Fig.21)

2 ODUs with O-rings and devices for ground connection.

58
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
7.5.1.1 1+0 ODU with separated antenna

See Fig.22.

Position the supporting plate (1) on the pole and fix the rear bracket (2) to it by means of the four
130 mm M10 bolt (3) with relevant washers, springs and nuts (use 15mm spanner, torque =
46Nm).

Fix the antenna side flange (4) with the proper screws (in Fig.22 the antenna flange is shown in two
different positions depending on the polarization), the screw holes side is the side where the
waveguide must be installed.

On the supporting plate, on the opposite side respect to the antenna flange just mounted, insert in
holes (5) on the supporting plate the four 25mm M10 bolts (3): screw them partially, each bolt
should be tightened to have the square head out of the hole of about 13-14 mm (the thickness of
hook (4), use 15mm spanner).

Apply silicon grease (e.g. RHODOSIL PATE 4) to the O-ring, protecting fingers with gloves, and
insert it in the proper track on the ODU flange.

Position the ODU vertically near the four bolts on the supporting plate and align the ODU to match
the polarization of the antenna flange:

- vertical polarization: the handle of the ODU is at the bottom left corner

- horizontal polarization: the handle of the ODU is at the bottom right corner

After the right position has been found, rotate 30 counter clockwise the ODU and approach the
ODU to the supporting plate in order to have the four slots of the Standard Lock cross between the
four bolts

Rotate 30 clockwise the ODU to hook each slots on the relevant bolt
When each slot is firmly hooked on the relevant bolt, tighten each bolt (use 15 mm spanner, torque
=46 Nm).

Tab.10 - Torques for tightening screws

Frequencies Screw Tool Torque

from 18 to 38 GHz Allen screw M3 Allen key 2.5 mm 1 Nm

up to 15 GHz Allen screw M4 Allen key 3 mm 1 Nm

Mount the hybrid on the back of the antenna by means of four M10 bolts (4) (torque = 46 Nm)

Mounting each ODU on the hybrid:

Screw partially four M10 bolts (4) on the hybrid flange (ODU side): each bolt should be tightened
to have the square head out of the hole of about 13-14 mm, use 15 mm spanner

Apply silicon grease (e.g. RHODOSIL PATE 4) to the O-ring, protecting fingers with gloves, and
insert in the proper track on the ODU flange

Position the ODU (5) vertically near the four bolts on the antenna flange and align the ODU to match
the polarization of the antenna feeder: horizontal polarization must be used, the handle (6) of the
ODU is at the bottom right corner

After the right position has been found, rotate 30 counter clockwise the ODU and approach the
ODU to the antenna flange in order to have the four slots (7) of the Standard Lock cross between
the four bolts on the hybrid

Rotate 30 clockwise the ODU to hook each slots on the relevant bolt

When each slot is firmly hooked on the relevant bolt, tighten each bolt (use 15 mm spanner, torque
= 46Nm)

Optional: sun cover kit - Insert the sun cover and tie one of its bottom holes to the ODU handle by
means of the black plastic strip included in the sun cover kit

Now the ODU is ready to be connected to the grounding cable

Repeat for the other ODU on the other side

Optional: sun cover kit. Insert the sun cover and tie one of its bottom holes to the ODU handle by
means of the black plastic strip included in the sun cover kit

Now the ODU is ready to be connected to the IDU-ODU cable and to the grounding cable.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


59
7.5.1.2 1+1 ODU with separated antenna

See Fig.23.

Position the supporting plate (1) on the pole and fix the rear bracket (2) to it by means of the four
130 mm M10 bolt (3) with relevant washers, springs and nuts (use 15 mm spanner, torque = 46
Nm)

Mount the hybrid (4) on the back of the antenna by means of four 25 mm M10 bolts (5) (use 15
mm spanner with torque = 46 Nm) in the holes (6) (see Fig.19).

Mounting each ODU on the hybrid:

Screw partially four 25 mm M10 bolts positioning them in the holes (7) on the hybrid flange (ODU
side): each bolt should be tightened to have the square head out of the hole of about 13-14 mm,
use 15 mm spanner

Apply silicon grease e.g. RHODOSIL PATE 4 to the O-ring, protecting fingers with gloves, and insert
in the proper track on the ODU flange

Position the ODU vertically near the four bolts on the antenna flange and align the ODU to match
the polarization of the antenna feeder: horizontal polarization must be used, the handle of the ODU
is at the bottom right corner

After the right position has been found, rotate 30 counter clockwise the ODU and approach it to
the antenna flange in order to have the four slots of the Standard Lock cross between the four bolts
on the hybrid
Rotate 30 clockwise the ODU to hook each slots on the relevant bolt

When each slot is firmly hooked on the relevant bolt, tighten each bolt (use 15 mm spanner, torque
= 46 Nm)

Optional: sun cover kit - insert the sun cover and tie one of its bottom holes to the ODU handle by
means of the black plastic strip included in the sun cover kit

Now the ODU is ready to be connected to the grounding cable

Repeat for the other ODU on the other side

7.5.1.3 Waveguide towards the antenna

After having installed the ODU in 1+0 configuration or in 1+1 configuration, the waveguide towards the
antenna must be installed.

1+0: the waveguide must be fixed to the antenna flange on the supporting plate of the ODU. In
case of flexible waveguides, an excessive folding can damage the waveguide, see Tab.11 for details.

1+1: the waveguide must be fixed to the hybrid. In case of flexible waveguides, an excessive folding
can damage the waveguide, see Tab.11 for details.

60
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
7.6 GROUNDING

The ODU must be connected to ground with the available grounding bolt and eyelet terminal, making ref-
erence to details of Fig.18.

Tab.11 - Waveguide bending radius according to frequency

Bending radius Bending radius Bending radius Bending radius


without rebending without rebending with rebending with rebending
Frequency
mm (inch) mm (inch) mm (inch) mm (inch)
E-plane a H-plane b E-plane a. H-plane b.

15 GHz 130 (5,1) 280 (11,0) 150 (5,9) 300 (11,9)

18 GHz 130 (5,1) 280 (11,0) 150 (5,9) 300 (11,9)

23 GHz 110 (4,3) 230 (9,1) 130 (5,1) 250 (9,9)

38 GHz 80 (3,1) 140 (5,5) 90 (3,6) 150 (5,9)

a. Bending E-plane

Rmin/E
Bending E-plane
(short side of the section)

b. Bending H-plane

Rmin/H
Bending H-plane
(long side of the section)

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


61
Fig.18 - ODU ASN with standard coupling flange

62
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Fig.19 - 1+0 ODU installation

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


63
Fig.20 - 1+1 ODU installation

64
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Fig.21 - Polarization disk

114-60
3

Fig.22 - 1+0 antenna flange

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


65
7
4
3
1

5
2

Fig.23 - 1+1 antenna flange

66
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
7.7 USER CONNECTORS

ALFOPlus provides two Amphenol connectors which guarantee Ethernet port compatibility for both version:
Gigabit electrical and optical.

The section area of the cable must be > than 35 mm2.

Accessories available at the moment of printing:

F03594 cable for auxiliary power force (see Fig.24)

P20032 RJ45 full outdoor conn. kit key down

P04181 conn. plast M12 Fem. 90 flying sp.

M02472 data cable CAT5e for outdoor

The auxiliary 5 pin circular connector has various functions and it is used when:

the power over Ethernet injection through the data Lan cable is not available and it is necessary a
direct access to the radio

during the alignment of antenna (remember to enable Received Signal Strength Indicator in Equi-
pment Menu - General Preset RSSI)

in case of emergency, if ALFOPlus IP address is unknown, connect it with Serial Console 1, as shown
in Fig.24, using hyperterminal 115200 8, N, 1 and press any button to access at the login.

It is recommended to set RSSI as Disable, not to overload CPU.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


67
68
THERMOFIT
PIPE

6
F03594

THERMOFIT 7 3
PIPE
COURSE
FROM TO COLOURS

4 BLACK WHITE/BROWN V- A3

2-5 3-A2 WHITE/GREEN A2


1-5 WHITE/BLUE V+ A1
8 RED BLUE
2-4
1-2 ORANGE

Fig.24 - F03594 cable


2-3 1-3 WHITE/ORANGE
2-2 3-A1 GREEN THERMOFIT
PIPE
2-1 3-A3 BROWN

RED 8

BLACK 4
THERMOFIT
PIPE

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


Fig.25 - ALFOPlus connectors

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


69
70
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 4.
LINE-UP

8 LINE-UP OF ALFOPLUS SYSTEM

8.1 GENERAL

The line-up phases of the ALFOPlus radio link are:


switching on the two equipment

alarm leds check

optimizing antenna orientation


insertion into telecontrol and reachability of far-end terminal

check of Ethernet connections

quality evaluation with performance monitoring

Operations involving the use of SCT/WebLCT are roughly described here. For further details please refer
to software manual.

8.2 SWITCH ON

Checks to be performed before switching on the unit are:

power supply voltage - the power supply must be 48 Vdc 15%.

antenna presence - check the connection between ODU output flange and antenna.
If everything is correct, switch on the ODU.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


71
8.3 ALARM LED CHECK

On the rear panel of ODU unit there is a transparent plastic window to see the status of an internal LED
dedicated to show unit alarms. Further information about ALFOPlus alarms can be found onto the chapter
ALFOPlus alarms and troubleshooting.
Colours status:

Red light

- ON An internal alarm is active. Connect SCT/WebLCT for troubleshooting

- Flashing An external alarm is active.

Green light

- Flashing No radio connection with remote ODU. In this case, if remote equipment is on and
properly oriented, it is necessary to check frequency, attenuation and link identifier (see parag.
First configuration.....) and to evaluate the alarm list with SCT/WebLCT software

- ON the radio connection with remote ODU is active.

8.4 CONNECTION PROCEDURE

Connection between PC and ALFOPlus can be made directly or through a switch.

First connection (you know IP address)

1 with SCT or browser (internet explorer) type IP address stored previously (Factory Default is
1.0.0.1)

- User: system

- Password: siaemicr

2 after connection its possible to modify IP address, etc.....

Emergency connection (you dont know IP address)

1 Assign a static IP address (any) to PC and in Local area connection properties enable the box
Show icon in notification area when connected (see Fig.27)

2 Connect your PC directly to ALFOPlus

3 Start SCT, connect using Local Area Network, press connect button, insert 1.0.0.1 IP address, user:
System, Password: siaemicr, without pressing OK button.

4 Switch off ALFOPlus and turn on again

5 Wait some sec until the LAN symbol shows LAN connected and press OK button in SCT

6 Enable the In-Band supervisioning (see Fig.26).

Fig.26 - Local Area Connection

72
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Fig.27 - IP address setting

8.5 FIRST CONFIGURATION

To activate a radio link it is necessary to program the ODU in some basic items listed in the following:

Local Tx frequency
Remote Tx frequency

Local Tx power

Remote Tx power
Link identifier, Link Type (Modulation&Capacity): same parameters on local and on remote unit

Connect the PC to serial input of ALFOPlus (Service connector) and start the communication towards the
ODU microcontroller with SCT/WebLCT program.

Tx frequency setting

See Fig.28. Into SCT/WebLCT at position:

Equipment menu

Radio Branch window

Settings card: in this card you have to select Tx frequency; Rx frequency is shown and is set au-
tomatically.

Tx frequency to be set at remote radio is equal to local Rx frequency. Tx frequency can be set on single
unit or, if link is on service, on whole link. Please set the frequency according to your license.

Tx power setting

See Fig.28. Into SCT/WebLCT at position:

Equipment menu

Radio Branch window

Powers card: in this card you have to set Tx Level Max; in this card ATPC thresholds can be set:
Rx Level Min, Rx Level Max.

The same at remote ODU.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


73
Link Type (Modulation and Capacity) and Link identifier setting

See Fig.29.

Into SCT/WebLCT at position:

Equipment menu

Mod. Cap/Link ID card

In Mod. Cap/Link ID card, you can select Capacity and Modulation and set a Link Identifier.

Fig.28 - Frequency and power setting

74
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Fig.29 - Link general setting (Modulation&Capacity, Local Link ID)

8.6 OPTIMIZING ANTENNA ALIGNMENT WITH RX MEASUREMENT

When radio link is on, antenna alignment can be optimized. Antenna alignment optimization is performed
depending on the Rx signal power at local and remote equipment and evaluating both local and remote S/
N value maximizing them.

There are two possibilities to see the Rx signal power level:

through SCT/WebLCT software

through a voltmeter connected to Service connector on the ODU.

In order to get the Rx signal power level by means of software, connect the PC to serial input of ALFOPlus
(Service connector) and start the communication towards the ODU microcontroller with SCT/WebLCT su-
pervisory program.
Into SCT/WebLCT:

Main menu (first window opened after login)

The card (or other cards of equipment menu), displays on right top the Rx signal power level see
Fig.30

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


75
If youre using a voltmeter the Rx signal power level is available on the Service connector of ODU, the
measurement can be performed with a proper cable.

Following this last procedure, the voltage youre reading with the voltmeter is proportional to Rx power
level, refer to Tab.12.

Tab.12 - Voltage measured in auxiliary port

Received Signal (dBm) Signal Output (V) Error (dB)

-20 4.68 5

-30 3.51 5

-40 2.34 3

-50 1.17 3

-60 0 3

-70 -1.17 3

-80 -2.34 3

-90 -3.51 5

-100 -4.68 5

Formula RSSI=Offset + (Signal/Output)/Slope

Slope (V/dB) 0.117

Offset (dBm) -60

Rx signal power level is the most important item to optimize the antenna alignment, but in a situation of
interference Rx level can be good, BER acceptable but BER margin low. This means that when Rx fields will
decrease then BER will increase fast. The situation can be easily shown with SCT/WebLCT software looking
at Signal Quality level.

Into SCT/WebLCT Software select:


Equipment menu

S/N Meas. card (see Fig.31)

Refer to the ALFOPlus operator manual for parameter evaluation.

76
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Fig.30 - Main menu with Rx signal power level

Fig.31 - S/N measurement monitoring

Antenna aiming

Antenna aiming devices allow to perform the following adjustments with respect to the starting aiming po-
sition:

- horizontal 15 operating on the nut (3) shown in Fig.33, only after having loosen
the nuts (7), (8), (9), (10) of Fig.34.

- vertical 15 operating on vertical adjustment worm screw (2) shown in Fig.33


only after having loosen nuts (1), (2), (11) of Fig.34 and (4) of Fig.33
For adjustment from 0 to +30 extract nut (1) Fig.34 and position it in
hole (4), extract nut (2) Fig.34 and position it in hole (6). Operate on
vertical adjustment worm screw (2) after having loosen nuts (1), (2), (11) of
Fig.34 and (4) of Fig.33.
For adjustment from 0 to 30 extract nut (1) of Fig.34 and position it in hole
(3), extract nut (2) of Fig.34 and position it in hole (5). Operate on vertical
adjustment worm screw (2) after having loosen nuts (1), (2), (11) of Fig.34
and (4) of Fig.33.

For vertical adjustment some markers, every 10, are available on support. The bigger marker gives 0
starting aiming position. Once the optimum aiming position is obtained, tighten firmly the four nuts (1),
(2), (11) of Fig.34 and (4) of Fig.33 for vertical adjustment and the four nuts (7), (8), (9), (10) of Fig.34
for horizontal adjustment. Tighten with 15 mm wrench and 32 Nm torque.

- grounding The grounding can be connected with the available bolt spring washer and
flat washers as shown.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


77
8.7 ODU ACCESSING AND REMOTE MANAGEMENT

Local ALFOPlus ODU and its remote ODU can be accessed at Service connector or LAN1 ports. Once the
radio link has been configured, connect to the local ODU and specify the network password too. SCT/We-
bLCT window shows also a field referred to the remote ODU:

double click on this field -> remote ODU is opened in monitor mode

if its necessary to act on remote ODU you have to login on remote ODU (IP address is known be-
cause you can read it from monitor windows).

8.8 FIRMWARE

The releases of ALFO firmware, downloadable by the operator, are listed in Fig.32.

Using SCT/WebLCT Software open Main menu, select Software info & Maintenance and in the window
shown in Fig.32 select Equipment Firmware and Download SW Setup.

Downloading time depends on connection used between PC and ALFOPlus.

Further informations can be found on software manual of ALFOPlus equipment.

Fig.32 - Software download procedure

78
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
8.9 ADAPTIVE MODULATION

ALFOPlus ODUs implement an error free adaptive modulation algorithm to improve the system gain when
the quality of the received signal become insufficient to guarantee an error free link.

The thresholds for ACM are shown in the Tab.13.

Tab.13 - ACM switching thresholds

Power BER 10-6 Up-shift a Margin Up-shiftb Margin


7M Physical Mode
(Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.)

4SQAM 0 6.4 13.2 5 13.2

4QAM 0 8.2 17.7 5 20.2 5.0

16SQAM -2.5 12.7 19.6 5 19.6 7.5

16QAM -2.5 14.6 22.2 5 23.5 5.0

32QAM -3.75 17.2 24.7 5 24.5 6.3

64QAM -3.5 19.7 27.8 5 27.8 4.8

128QAM -3.5 22.8 31 5 31.6 5.0

256QAM -4.125 26 34.1 5 34.1 5.6

512QAM -4.125 29.1 37.3 5 38.2 5.0

1KQAM -5 32.3 5 5.9

Power BER 10-6 Up-shift a.


Margin Up-shift b.
Margin
14M Physical Mode
(Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.)

4SQAM 0 5.64 13

4QAM 0 8.16 17.8 4.84

16SQAM -2.5 12.7 19.8 5.1

16QAM -2.5 14.65 22.3 5.15

32QAM -3.75 16.8 24.9 5.5

64QAM -3.5 19.44 28.2 5.46

128QAM -3.5 22.64 31.1 5.56

256sQAM -4.125 25.64 33.1 5.46

256QAM -4.125 27.52 5.58

Power BER 10-6 Up-shift a. Margin Up-shiftb. Margin


28M Physical Mode
(Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.)

4SQAM 0 5.62 13

4QAM 0 8.14 17.8 4.86

16SQAM -2.5 12.7 19.8 5.1

16QAM -2.5 14.85 22.1 4.95

32QAM -3.75 16.82 24.7 5.28

64QAM -3.5 19.52 28.2 5.18

128QAM -3.5 22.7 30.9 5.5

256sQAM -4.125 25.64 32.9 5.26

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


79
256QAM -4.125 27.29 5.61

Power BER 10-6 Up-shift a. Margin Up-shiftb. Margin


56M Physical Mode
(Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.) (Estim.)

4SQAM 0 5.6 13

4QAM 0 8.1 17.8 4.9

16SQAM -2.5 12.5 19.8 5.3

16QAM -2.5 14.4 22 5.4

32QAM -3.75 16.89 24.6 5.11

64QAM -3.5 19.53 27.8 5.07

128QAM -3.5 22.6 30.8 5.2

256sQAM -4.125 25.65 32.8 5.15

256QAM -4.125 27.38 5.42

a. Up-shift thresholds in case of constant output power. Reference mode 256QAM.


b. Up-shift thresholds in case of output power depending on current physical mode - Reference mode 4QAM.

3
4
5 1
2

Fig.33 - Vertical and horizontal adjustment

80
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
15 mm wrench 15 mm wrench
32 Nm torque 32 Nm torque

7
4 11 1 8
3

10

9 15 mm wrench
6 32 Nm torque
5 2
15 mm wrench
32 Nm torque

Fig.34 - Antenna aiming block

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


81
82
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 5.
MAINTENANCE

9 ALFOPLUS ALARMS AND LOOPS

9.1 GENERAL

A radio link generating alarm requires troubleshooting.


The troubleshooting of the ALFOPlus can be organized on the basis of alarms.

Basic alarms come from LEDs on the equipment and all the active alarms can be observed through SCT/
WebLCT.

In this document is present ALFOPlus alarm list and a description of the loop facilities provided into the
equipment.

9.2 ALARMS

Alarms can be pointed out through unit LEDs and/or through SCT/WebLCT software.

9.2.1 Alarm indications

On the back of the ALFOPlus a small plastic window shows the status of an internal LED.

The information provided is:


Red light

- ON An internal alarm is active. Connect SCT/WebLCT for troubleshooting.

- Flashing An external alarm is active.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


83
Green light

- Flashing No radio connection with remote ODU. In this case, if remote equipment is on and
properly oriented, it is necessary to evaluate the Alarm list with SCT/WebLCT software.

- ON Radio connection with remote ODU is active.

9.2.2 SCT/WebLCT displayed alarms

ALFOPlus TRU is microprocessor controlled and all the alarms are displayed through SCT/WebLCT program
running on a PC. Alarms are divided in classes to refer to a particular functionality and are characterized
by programmable severity.

Alarms, with class and a short description, are listed into Tab.14.

In the following you can find a class list and the item they describe:

BASE BAND Hardware failure in BBP-GE/GO unit

COMMON Failure or status relevant to whole equipment

ETH LAN - Failure on Ethernet traffic

P.M. G.828 Performance monitoring on signal quality

P.M. Rx Power Performance monitoring on received signal


P.M. Tx Power Performance monitoring on transmitted signal

Plug-in module - Alarm on plug-in device

RADIO - Alarm on Tx/Rx section of ALFOPlus

SETS - Synchronisation alarm or status

SNTP - Server lost (unavailable in this SW version)

Unit - Hardware or software unit alarm

Tab.14 - Alarms

Class WebLCT name Description

Base Band Modulation Fail Alarm Alarm on baseband transmitting side


BASE BAND
Base Band Demodulation Fail Alarm Alarm on baseband receiving side

Equip Rmon Alarm Unavailable in this SW version

COMMON Equip Mngt Cable Fail Alarm Alarm on supervisory cable

Equip Manual Operation At least one manual operation on

Eth Lan Phy Lacp Protocol Down Unavailable in this SW version

Eth Lan Phy Master Slave Configura- Autonegotiation GBit Frame configuration
tion Fault failed

ETH LAN Eth Lan Phy Link Loss Forwarding Link loss in remote port

Eth Lan Phy Autonegotiation Autonegotiation failed

Eth Lan Phy Sync Synchronization not aligned

Eth Lan Phy Link Loss Loss of Ethernet signal

84
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
pm G828 - 24H SepAlarm

pm G828 - 15M SepAlarm

pm G828 - UAS Alarm


Quality measurements on radio signal re-
P.M. G.828 pm G828 - 24H Ses Alarm
ceived a
pm G828 - 24H ES Alarm

pm G828 - 15M Ses Alarm

pm G828 - 15M ES Alarm

pm RxPwr - 24H Rlts Alarm


Rx Power measurements on radio signal re-
P.M. Rx Power
pm RxPwr - 15M Rlts Alarm ceived a.

pm TxPwr - 24H Rlts Alarm


Tx Power measurements on radio signal
P.M. Tx Power
pm TxPwr - 15M Rlts Alarm transmitted a.

Plug-in Los Alarm

Plug-in Module Alarm


Plug-in module Unavailable in this SW version
Plug-in Module Mismatch Alarm

Plug-in Status Change

Radio Config Mismatch Set Mod/Cap mismatch on radio link

BaseBand Rx Quality Low Warning Received signal quality degraded

BaseBand Rx Quality Low Alarm Insufficient received signal quality

Radio Rt If Fail Intermediate frequency alarmed

Radio Rt Vco Fail Voltage Controlled Oscillator failure

Radio Tx Power Alarm Transmitted power below the fixed threshold

Radio Rx Power Low Alarm Received power below the fixed threshold
RADIO
BaseBand Rx Alarm Set Low received power on base band

Radio Invalid Frequency Alarm Set Wrong frequency on radio link

Bit error rate/Syncloss on received radio sig-


Radio Equip Ber Sync Loss Alarm
nal

Capacity is reduced respect to the one with


Radio Equip Reduced Capacity Alarm
reference modulation

Radio Equip Link Telemetry Fail Alarm Telemetry failed to radio link missing

Radio Equip Link ID Alarm Wrong Link ID received

Timing Sync Active Status Timing Sync is active

Timing Sync Drift Alarm Selected Synch bad quality

Timing Sync Los Alarm Selected Synch missing


SETS
Timing Generator Holdover Status Equipment in holdover status

Timing Generator Free Running Sta-


Equipment in Free Running status
tus

Timing Generator T0 Fail Alarm T0 synch missing

SNTP Sntp Client Unicast Server Lost Unavailable in this SW version

Unit Unit SW Mismatch Alarm SW mismatch detected on the unit

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


85
Unit HW Mismatch Alarm HW mismatch detected on the unit

Unit Not Responding Alarm No response from the unit

Unit Missing Alarm Missing condition on the unit

Unit Fail Alarm Failure on the unit

a. Regarding periods of 15 minutes or 24 hours.

ALFO Plus

BBP-GE RADIO

BASE
BAND
LOOP RF Loop

Fig.35 - Available loops

86
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
10 ALFOPLUS MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOT-
ING

10.1 GENERAL

In the following pages are listed all the procedures to follow for ALFOPlus maintenance.

When corrective maintenance is necessary, a troubleshooting procedure helps the operator to identify the
failure unit to replace it with a spare one.

10.2 MAINTENANCE

Maintenance consists of two stages:

1 periodical checks to be carried out using SCT/WebLCT


2 corrective maintenance.

Periodical checks serve to detect correct radio performance without the presence of any alarm condition.

Corrective maintenance takes place as soon as one or more alarm conditions are in existence. Operation
sequence to be carried out is shown in Troubleshooting paragraph.

10.2.1 Periodical checks

System routine maintenance consists in a series of routine checks aiming to verify correct operating mode
of an alarmfree system.

These checks are made through SCT/WebLCT program, installed on a PC.

The items to be checked are:

Tx power (i.e., attenuation value in dB vs. nominal value)


Rx field (value measured must comply with that resulting from hop calculation)

S/N (presence of possible interference)

BER (values measured must comply with hop calculations)


How these operations are carried out is specified in Lineup section or, more widely, in ALFOPlus software
manual.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


87
10.2.2 Corrective maintenance (troubleshooting)

Corrective maintenance starts as soon as one or more alarm indication become active.

Corrective maintenance purpose is to locate the faulty unit and replace it with spare after having verified
that the cause of faulty is not external to the equipment.

Corrective maintenance does not include malfunction due to a wrong or incomplete configuration of the
system or to failure due to alarm indication system itself or any other cause external to the system, i.e.:
cabling damage, main voltage loss, antenna misalignment and propagation problems.

See paragraph 10.3 TROUBLESHOOTING for details.

10.3 TROUBLESHOOTING

Main purpose of troubleshooting is to declare an unit faulty or not.

After this step alarms are caused by bad configuration and/or external causes.

10.3.1 Faulty condition detection

Alarms can be pointed out through unit LEDs and/or through SCT/WebLCT software:

Unit LEDs

Near the circular connector of the ODU its shown the status of a LED, which can be green or red. The in-
formation provided are:

Red light

- ON An internal alarm is active. Connect SCT/WebLCT for troubleshooting.


- Flashing An external alarm is active.

Green light

- Flashing No radio connection with remote ODU. In this case, if remote equipment is on and
properly oriented, it is necessary to evaluate the alarm list with SCT/WebLCT software.

- ON Radio connection with remote ODU is active.

SCT/WebLCT

Alarms are divided in classes to refer to a particular hardware or software functionality and are character-
ized by their programmable gravity.

A window with alarm classes list is available for local ODU (the unit PC is physically connected to) and for
remote ODU.

The presence of a current alarm is pointed out by SCT/WebLCT program, see software manual.
The presence of an historical alarm is pointed out in the event log window of SCT/WebLCT program (see
Fig.36 and Fig.37).

88
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
10.3.2 Troubleshooting of a faulty unit

Into SCT/WebLCT software, in Equipment menu select View Current Alarm menu.

In this window they are displayed the current alarm and their severity. Depending on which alarm classes
are active, following situation can arise.

ODU alarm classes active

ALFOPlus is made up by a single unit, the ODU. This is the minimum spare part.

If one or more of the following conditions occur, the ODU is faulty:

One or more alarms inside the ODU hardware class are active

One or more alarms inside ODU link class are active

If the following condition occurs a further investigation is necessary:

Sw config alarm in ODU software class is active

Every log window has to be inspected. In the window are present additional information about Sw
config alarm; if it is impossible to clear through restart, the unit is not able to work properly and
needs to be tested again in SIAE final test department.

Troubleshooting on remote ODU

With SCT/WebLCT program the alarm on the Remote ODU are displayed the same way as for the local one.
The above described troubleshooting can be carried out for the remote ODU too.

Fig.36 - Current alarm monitoring

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


89
Fig.37 - Event log window

90
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 6.
PROGRAMMING AND
SUPERVISION

11 PROGRAMMING AND SUPERVISION

11.1 GENERAL

ALFOPlus is programmed and supervised using a software tool: SCT/WebLCT. This subject is fully described
in the separated software manual.

11.2 SUPERVISION THROUGH ETHERNET

The provided structure for Ethernet traffic defines the management facilities of "ALFOplus" unit.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


91
Ge Main port Internal port

SWD
Switcing Device
Ge Aux port

Mgt

Mac Rate adapter


Microcontroller (fpga)

Fig.38 - Traffic management of "ALFOplus" unit

11.2.1 General

In general you suppose that the equipment performs the "host" functionality in an Ethernet network and
that supervisory network follows the traffic routing, eventually separated by "VLAN tag". The management
can be:
"In-band" by one or both traffic ports (with or without "VLAN tag")

"Out-of-band" by auxiliary port "Ge aux port" (without " VLAN tag")

The two modalities can be enabled at the same time, but the IP network address must be shared. If the
"In-band" management by "Ge main port" is provided with "VLAN tag", "Ge aux port" may extend the man-
agement network (without "VLAN tag") towards other units into the same site.

Supervisory network can be disable selectively line side and radio site.
Local access to the unit must be always guaranteed by "Ge aux port".

11.2.2 Configurations

The following supervision modalities, associated to the input ports, can be provided:

"In-band" by traffic ports "Ge main port" and "Ge aux port" (with or without "VLAN tag")

"Out-of-band" by auxiliary port "Ge aux port" (without "VLAN tag")

In detail, the line ports can be configured as in:

92
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Tab.15 - Configurations
"Ge main port" management Function

The management by "Ge main port" can't get access to


"Disable
the controller

The management by "Ge main port" can access to the


"In-band controller. It's configured "VLAN tag" (or absence) of
supervisory network

Ge aux port" may access only to the local controller. Su-


"Local access only
pervisory network is not connected to radio side

The management by "Ge aux port" can access to the


"In-band controller. It's configured "VLAN tag" (or absence) of
supervisory network

Ge aux port" can access to local controller and super-


"Out-of-band visory network is connected to radio side using "VLAN
stacking" function to separate the traffic

"Ge aux port" can access to local controller and the port
"In-band-drop-node is considered as a node into the supervisory network
"in-band" (with VLAN tag)

The two configurations can be enabled at the same time. The transparent connection between "Ge main
port" and "Ge aux port" at different speed could cause undesired congestion situations for the traffic to-
wards the port with lower speed: this condition must be avoided by means of network dimensions.
The connection between the two ports line side is enabled only when the supervisory network "in-band"
uses a "VLAN tag" dedicated and therefore the traffic is assumed lower than the minimum band of the ports
line side.

Due to management and Ethernet maintenance (OAM), exigencies the controller must know the source
port of received frames and route properly the transmitted frames.

11.2.3 "Transparent in-band" management

This modality allows the access to "ALFOplus" unit via "Ge main port" and "Ge aux port" in the easiest pos-
sible way, with frames without " VLAN tag" and therefore with IP domain shared. This modality can be used
if the user is IP addresses owner and so the equipment is inserted into a traffic network level 3 (IP routing).
For this reason, the Security management is defined by the operator using the function (Access Control
List).

Ge Main port


Ge Aux port 


CPU

Port based vlan

Fig.39 - Transparent in-band management

In order to limit the visibility of controller to the line side (c) rather than radio side (d), you can enable
or disable the paths indicated. The path (e) can be enabled only if both line sides are enabled to super-
vision (in-band) and are not in protection configuration (LAG or ELP).

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


93
11.2.4 "VLAN based in-band" management

This procedure allow the access of "ALFOplus" unit by "Ge main port" more safely, because the IP domain
is independent of payload traffic through dedicated "VLAN tag" (configurable). This mode can be used when
the user is owner of "VLAN tag" and the equipment is interposed in a level 2 network traffic (switching).
In that case the management routing is obtain to filtering of "VLAN tag".

Ge Main port

 
Ge Aux port



CPU

Vlan map filtering

Fig.40 - VLAN based in-band management

To reduce the visibility of the controller to line side (c), radio side (d) and extent supervision network
(f) you can enable or disable the paths indicated in filtering "VLAN tag". The path (e) can be enabled
only if both line ports, are enabled to "In-band" management.

In case of protection configuration through LAG or ELP, the path (e) cannot be enabled.

11.2.5 "VLAN based In-band" drop node

This particular way allows to introduce the supervision traffic "VLAN based In-band" (mandatory with
"VLAN tag") using "Ge Aux port" obligatorily without "VLAN tag". The line ports are linked together using
the filtering "VLAN tag" (set as tagged the default port "Ge aux port").

Ge Main port 
 
Ge Aux port
 

MGT CPU

Vlan map filtering Port based vlan

Fig.41 - VLAN based In-band drop node

This mode allows the supervision of outdoor units placed in the same site, but excludes the possibility of
simultaneous monitoring "Out-of-band" in the network.

The insertion direction (on the line and radio side) can be selectively enabling or disabling the paths cor-
responding (c and d). This mode is not available in the case of interfaces in a secure configuration.

94
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
11.2.6 "Out-of-band" management

This mode allows the access to the local "ALFOplus" unit of frame without "VLAN tag" and the extension of
the supervision network to the remote terminal. The priority of management traffic is obtained with "VLAN
tag".

In remote terminal the payload and management traffic are again divided. This involves increasing the
length of traffic frame of four bytes.

Fe Aux port
Fe Aux port


CPU CPU

Port based vlan Vlan map filtering

Fig.42 - Out-of-band management

11.2.7 Configurability

The management mode of equipment affects the Ethernet Channel and on the Switch configuration (RSTP,
OAM, ). Therefore it is important to decide the optimal configuration of traffic Ethernet and management,
to avoid blocking traffic conditions.

11.2.8 Address

The unit uses a single IP address associated at the management port of controller and a single "default
gateway". Depending on the configuration of these addresses are visible from supervision "in-band" and
"Out-of-band".

In special cases is necessary a local connection mode via "Ge aux port" that allows the connection or the
acquisition of the address unit (eg MAC address or set the IP address or DHCP client).

11.2.9 Restore supervisioning access mode

The RESTORE OF CPU ACCESS command is available through Console port (round type connector) via
Hyperterminal (115200bps,n,8,1):

Login use WEBLCT credential

Type string: lao

This string restores the factory default of port configuration:

LAN1 disable

LAN2 local access only

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


95
96
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 7.
COMPOSITION

12 COMPOSITION

12.1 GENERALS

This document shows ALFOPlus system available versions with the relevant main specifications and char-
acteristics.

12.2 ALFOPlus SYSTEM IDENTIFYING LABEL

Different versions are identified by a label. This label contains the main characteristics of the equipment
(see Tab.16).

12.3 AVAILABLE ALFOPlus VERSIONS

In Tab.16 you find the available versions with following information:

Code

ODU frequency

Go-return
RF Subband (L and H)

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


97
Tab.16 - RF band and RF filter band

Code Description Go-return (MHz) RF/Subband

GB 8700 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 1L

GB 8701 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 1H

GB 8702 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 2L

GB 8703 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 2H

GB 8704 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 3L

GB 8705 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 3H

GB 8716 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1560 18 GHz 1L

GB 8717 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1560 18 GHz 1H

GB 8718 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 1L

GB 8719 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 1H

GB 8720 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 2L

GB 8721 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 2H

GB 8726 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 1L

GB 8727 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 1H

GB 8728 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 2L

GB 8729 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 2H

GB 8730 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 3L

GB 8731 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 3H

GB 8782 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 1L

GB 8783 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 1H

GB 8784 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 2L

GB 8785 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 2H

GB 9646 ODU ALFOPlus 15 420 15 GHz 1L

GB 9647 ODU ALFOPlus 15 420 15 GHz 1H

GB 9700 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 1L

GB 9701 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 1H

GB 9702 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 2L

GB 9703 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 2H

GB 9704 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 3L

GB 9705 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1010 18 GHz 3H

GB 9716 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1560 18 GHz 1L

GB 9717 ODU ALFOPlus 18 1560 18 GHz 1H

GB 9718 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 1L

GB 9719 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 1H

GB 9720 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 2L

GB 9721 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1008 23 GHz 2H

98
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
GB 9726 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 1L

GB 9727 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 1H

GB 9728 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 2L

GB 9729 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 2H

GB 9730 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 3L

GB 9731 ODU ALFOPlus 23 1200/1232 23 GHz 3H

GB 9782 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 1L

GB 9783 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 1H

GB 9784 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 2L

GB 9785 ODU ALFOPlus 38 1260 38 GHz 2H

12.4 ODU INSTALLATION KIT

The ALFOPlus system installation kit is concerning pole mounting of ODU according with the operating fre-
quency, dimensions and presence of the centring ring.

- V32308 for ODU with frequency from 15 to 38 GHz

The following installation kit is supplied with the equipment.

1+0 version

60 to 129 mm pole mounting kit:


centring ring and relevant screws

pole support system plus antenna (already assembled) and pole fixing brackets

1+0 ODU support and relevant screws


ODU with O-ring and devices for ground connection.

Required tools for mounting (not supplied):

N.1 2.5 mm Allen wrench

N.1 3 mm Allen wrench

N.1 6 mm Allen wrench

N.1 13 mm spanner

N.2 17 mm spanner.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


99
100
ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
Section 8.
LISTS AND SERVICES

13 LIST OF FIGURES

Fig.1 - Components electrostatic charge sensitive indication................................................. 8

Fig.2 - Elasticized band ................................................................................................... 8


Fig.3 - Coiled cord .......................................................................................................... 8

Fig.4 - Laser indication.................................................................................................... 8

Fig.5 - WEEE symbol - 2002/96/CE EN50419 ..................................................................... 9


Fig.6 - ALFOPlus front/side view ...................................................................................... 24

Fig.7 - Reachable links in ALFOPlus sub-network................................................................ 25

Fig.8 - ALFOPlus block diagram ....................................................................................... 28

Fig.9 - Synchronisation block diagram .............................................................................. 30

Fig.10 - ATPC diagram ................................................................................................... 32

Fig.11 - Available loops .................................................................................................. 32


Fig.12 - 0 red curve .................................................................................................... 44

Fig.13 - Header compression .......................................................................................... 47

Fig.14 - Line trunking .................................................................................................... 48

Fig.15 - Hierarchical structure of Maintenance Domains ...................................................... 50

Fig.16 - ALFOPlus GE ..................................................................................................... 52

Fig.17 - ALFOPlus GO..................................................................................................... 53

Fig.18 - ODU ASN with standard coupling flange................................................................ 62

Fig.19 - 1+0 ODU installation.......................................................................................... 63

Fig.20 - 1+1 ODU installation.......................................................................................... 64

Fig.21 - Polarization disk ................................................................................................ 65

Fig.22 - 1+0 antenna flange ........................................................................................... 65

Fig.23 - 1+1 antenna flange ........................................................................................... 66

Fig.24 - F03594 cable .................................................................................................... 68

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 101


Fig.25 - ALFOPlus connectors .......................................................................................... 69

Fig.26 - Local Area Connection ........................................................................................ 72

Fig.27 - IP address setting.............................................................................................. 73

Fig.28 - Frequency and power setting .............................................................................. 74

Fig.29 - Link general setting (Modulation&Capacity, Local Link ID) ....................................... 75

Fig.30 - Main menu with Rx signal power level .................................................................. 77

Fig.31 - S/N measurement monitoring ............................................................................. 77


Fig.32 - Software download procedure ............................................................................. 78

Fig.33 - Vertical and horizontal adjustment ....................................................................... 80

Fig.34 - Antenna aiming block......................................................................................... 81

Fig.35 - Available loops .................................................................................................. 86

Fig.36 - Current alarm monitoring ................................................................................... 89

Fig.37 - Event log window .............................................................................................. 90

Fig.38 - Traffic management of "ALFOplus" unit................................................................. 92

Fig.39 - Transparent in-band management ....................................................................... 93

Fig.40 - VLAN based in-band management ....................................................................... 94

Fig.41 - VLAN based In-band drop node ........................................................................... 94


Fig.42 - Out-of-band management................................................................................... 95

102 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001


ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 103
104 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
14 LIST OF TABLES

Tab.1 - Artificial respiration .............................................................................................. 7

Tab.2 - Tx power............................................................................................................17

Tab.3 - Receiver thresholds (Interleaving enabled) .............................................................18

Tab.4 - Net Bit Rate........................................................................................................22

Tab.5 - Go-return frequency ............................................................................................23

Tab.6 - Tx power............................................................................................................34

Tab.7 - Receiver thresholds (Interleave enabled) ................................................................35

Tab.8 - ALFOPlus net bit rate ...........................................................................................39

Tab.9 - Ethernet service delay (latency), interleaving enabled ..............................................40


Tab.10 - Torques for tightening screws..............................................................................59

Tab.11 - Waveguide bending radius according to frequency .................................................61

Tab.12 - Voltage measured in auxiliary port .......................................................................76


Tab.13 - ACM switching thresholds ...................................................................................79

Tab.14 - Alarms .............................................................................................................84

Tab.15 - Configurations...................................................................................................93

Tab.16 - RF band and RF filter band .................................................................................98

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 105


106 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001
15 ASSISTANCE SERVICE

For more information, refer to the section relevant to the technical support on the Internet site of the com-
pany manufacturing the product.

ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001 107


108 ALFOPlus - MN.00273.E - 001