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Governor : Prabha Rau

Chief Minister : Prem Kumar Dhumal

Capital: Shimla
Legislature: Unicameral
Lok Sabha seats: 4
Judicature: Shimla High Court
Languages: Hindi and Pahari
Population density: 109/sq km
No. of districts: 12
Main crops: Wheat, maize, tea, fruit and
Rivers: Ravi, Chenab, Beas, Sutlej, and Yamuna Minerals: Iron, gypsum, limestone
Industries: Resin, turpentine, fertiliser, cement and fruit processing
Airports: Kullu, Kangra, Shimla
Almost completely mountainous with attitudes varying from 350 m to 6,975 m above sea
level, Himachal Pradesh can be divided into five zones: (i) Wet sub-temperate zone (parts
of Kangra, Mandi and Chamba districts); (ii) Humid sub-temperate zone (Kullu and Shimla
districts; parts of Mandi, Solan, Chamba, Kangra and Sirmaur districts); (iii) Dry temperate
alpine highlands (parts of Lahaul and Spiti district); (iv) Humid subtropical zone (Sirmaur
district; parts of Chamba, Solan and Kangra districts); and (v) Sub-humid subtropical zone
(parts of Kangra district).
In Puranic chronicles Himachal has been referred to as the abode of Yakshas, Gandharvas and
Kinnars. In prehistoric times, it was inhabited by Kolls, Kirats and Nagas, followed by the Indo-
Tibetans from the north, Indo-Aryans from the Indus valley and Khasas from Central Asia,
migrated to this land of eternal snows and tranquil solitude. Mahabharata and Kumar
Sambhava held this land in high esteem where Kunindas and Audumbaras established multi-
tribal Kingdoms. During the medieval period, when there were invasions from the north-west,
ruling clans of Rajputana and adjoining areas migrated to the hills and established their
kingdom. These clans were primarily responsible in civilizing the local people besides
patronising Pahari art and monumental architecture which has no other parallel in the annals
of Indian art.
15 April 1948 - The State came into being as a Union Territory, as a result of integration of 30
princely states
1954 - C class State of Bilaspur merged with Himachal Pradesh.
1966 - On reorganistion of the states the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the state
increasing its size to 55,673 sq km.

1. An Indian river that does not form any delta is :

(A) the Krishna
(B) the Sindh
(C) the Narmada
(D) the Cauvery
Ans : (C)

2. Asias first underground Hydel Project is located in :

(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Arunachal Pradesh
(D) Himachal Pradesh
Ans : (D)

3. Indias first National Cricket Academy has been established in :

(A) Hyderabad
(B) Pune
(C) Bangalore
(D) None of these
Ans : (C)
4. With the enactment of 92nd Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003, how many Indian
languages figure in the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India ?
(A) 21
(B) 18
(C) 22
(D) 19
Ans : (C)

5. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) consists of mainly :

(A) methane, ethane and hexane
(B) methane, butane and propane
(C) ethane, hexane and nonane
(D) nonane, ethane and hexane
Ans : (B)

6. Which of the following diseases is not caused by bacteria ?

(A) Tuberculosis
(B) Typhoid
(C) Measles
(D) Leprosy
Ans : (C)

7. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus ?

(A) Diphtheria
(B) Tetanus
(C) Syphilis
(D) Influenza
Ans : (D)

8. Pituitary gland is present :

(A) below the brain
(B) above the brain
(C) inside the brain
(D) nowhere near the brain
Ans : (A)

9. Vitamin necessary to prevent prolonged bleeding is :

(A) Vitamin A
(B) Vitamin D
(C) Vitamin K
(D) Vitamin E
Ans : (C)

10. According to Huxley, the physical basis of life is :

(A) Ectoplasm
(B) Endoplasm
(C) Protoplasm
(D) Nucleoplasm
Ans : (C)

11. If the lens in eye becomes opaque, the disease is called :

(A) Myopia
(B) Astigmatism
(C) Glaucoma
(D) Cataract
Ans : (D)
12. Which one of the following writs is issued by the court in case of illegal detention of a
person ?
(A) Quo Warranto
(B) Mandamus
(C) Habeas Corpus
(D) Certiorari
Ans : (C)

13. Nobel Prize for Medicine 2009 was awarded to :

(A) Elizabeth H. Blackburn
(B) Carol W. Greider
(C) Jack W. Szostak
(D) All of the above
Ans : (D)

14. The Manas Wild Life sanctuary is located in the state of :

(A) Gujarat
(B) Madhya Pradesh
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Assam
Ans : (D)

15. The Reserve Bank of India appointed a six-member Committee to set out the framework
for fuller capital account, convertibility (CAC) on March 20, 2006. The committee was headed
(A) Mr. Kishore Chandra Deo
(B) Ms. Syeda Hameed
(C) Mr. Ratan Jata
(D) Mr. S. S. Tarapore
Ans : (D)

16. Obra is famous for :

(A) New Refinery
(B) Thermal Power Station
(C) New Aluminium Plant
(D) Birds Sanctuary
Ans : (B)

17. The Rajya Sabha which is the upper house of the Indian Parliament :
(A) Is a permanent body
(B) Has a life of six years
(C) Has a life of five years
(D) Has a life of four years
Ans : (A)

18. Which of the following pairs is not correct ?

(A) Deodhar TrophyCricket
(B) Rangaswami CupHockey
(C) Rovers CupFootball
(D) Davis CupBadminton
Ans : (D)

19. Name the Indian person who won the Raman Magsaysay Award 2009 ?
(A) Ek Sonn Chan
(B) Sanduk Ruit
(C) Deep Joshi
(D) Antonio Meloto
Ans : (C)
20. In the Indian Constitution, opportunities for the development of scientific temper,
humanism and spirit of inquiry and reform are found in the :
(A) Fundamental Rights
(B) Fundamental Duties
(C) Directive Principles of State Policy
(D) Preamble
Ans : (B)
Current General Knowledge 2010
More Questions > [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

1. The mountain range which forms the Western boundary of the Indian sub-continent is
called : (A) Aravali
(B) Satpura
(C) Pirpanjal
(D) Hindukush
Ans : (D)

2. Which of the following awards is instituted by the UNESCO ?

(A) Nehru Award for International Under-standing
(B) Kalinga Prize
(C) Arjuna Award
(D) Dronacharya Award
Ans : (B)

3. The Planning Commission was set up in the year :

(A) 1947
(B) 1950
(C) 1952
(D) 1948
Ans : (B)

4. Vitamin A is necessary in our body for :

(A) Prevention of blood clotting
(B) Haemoglobin synthesis
(C) Proper vision
(D) Improving digestion
Ans : (C)

5. From which of the following ores can iron be extracted ?

(A) Galena
(B) Cryolite
(C) Magnetite
(D) Cinnabar
Ans : (C)

6. Which of the following chemicals is used in the making of photographic films ?

(A) Sodium chloride
(B) Silver bromide
(C) Aluminium hydroxide
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)

7. Whose signature is found on one rupee note in India ?

(A) Governor, Reserve Bank of India
(B) Finance Secretary, Ministry of Finance Government of India
(C) Finance Minister, Govt. of India
(D) President of India
Ans : (B)
8. Panchayat Raj under 73rd constitutional system came into force in :
(A) 1991
(B) 1993
(C) 1992
(D) 1994
Ans : (D)

9. Which film bagged the Best Film of the 10th International Indian Film Academy Awards
distributed in June 2009 ?
(A) Tare Zameen Par
(B) Jodha Akbar
(C) Gazani
(D) Akasa Kusum
Ans : (B)

10. The Pravasi Bhartiya Sammelan was held on January 79, 2009 at :
(A) Bangalore
(B) Hyderabad
(C) Chennai
(D) Mumbai
Ans : (C)

11. Suez Canal was nationalised in the year :

(A) 1954
(B) 1955
(C) 1956
(D) 1957
Ans : (C)

12. Name of Indias indigenously developed Light Combat Aircraft is :

(A) Power
(B) Rudra
(C) Kranti
(D) Tejas
Ans : (D)

13. Which planet is in the outer most orbit of the solar system ?
(A) Saturn
(B) Jupiter
(C) Venus
(D) Pluto
Ans : (D)

14. Which constitutional Amendment provides for reservation in admissions in private unaided
institutions for members of scheduled castes/tribes and other backward classes ?
(A) 92nd Constitutional Amendment
(B) 93rd Constitutional Amendment
(C) 91st Constitutional Amendment
(D) 90th Constitutional Amendment
Ans : (B)

15. Which of the following is the headquarters of the newly established railway zone East
Coast Railways ?
(A) Vishakhapattnam
(B) Kolkata
(C) Hyderabad
(D) Bhubaneswar
Ans : (D)

16. Which of the following is the capital of Lakshdweep ?

(A) Kavaratti
(B) Aizwal
(C) Port Blair
(D) Silvassa
Ans : (A)

17. The 29th Olympic Games were played in August 2008 in Beijing. Where will the 30th
Olympic games be played in 2012 ?
(A) Osaka
(B) Toronto
(C) London
(D) Istanbul
Ans : (C)

18. A fuse wire is used in an electric circuit to :

(A) Minimise loss of electrical energy in transmission
(B) Maintain constant voltage level
(C) Prevent excessive current from passing through the circuit
(D) Prevent heating of electric wire
Ans : (C)

19. The 16th Asian Games will be held in :

(A) New Delhi
(B) Guangzhou
(C) Seoul
(D) Tokyo
Ans : (B)

20. Who won the Miss India world title for 2009 ?
(A) Neha Kapoor
(B) Aarti Thakur
(C) Amrita Pal
(D) Pooja Chopra
Ans : (D)
General Knowledge of Himachal Pradesh

Capital of Himachal Pradesh: Shimla;

Area of Himachal Pradesh: 55673sq. km.(1991 censes)
No. of Districts in Himachal Pradesh:12
Language Spoken by People in Himachal Pradesh: Hindi and Pahari.
Himachal got the status :Jan 25.1971.
Himachal got 'C' state status: Sept. 1957
When did himachal became Centerally- administered Territory: Nov.1,1956
Bilaspur was include in H.P.: July 1.1954
When was himachal territorial council made: July 1,1963
State first C.M.: Dr. Y.S.Parmar
First chairman of Territorial council: Thakur Karam Singh
Number of state:18th
On the basis of area: 14th
Vidhan sabha seats:68
Lok sabha seats:4
Rajya sabha seats: 3
Looking for JBT previous years entrance exam then here is the list of General Knowledge
question asked in JBT Entrance Exam(2010)

1. 'Kufri Jeewan' and 'Kufri Jyoti' are the two famous varieties of-
a. Tomato
b. Almond
c. Potato
d. Grapes
2. In which district is Bhuri Singh Museum situated?
a. Kangra
b. Chamba
c. Una
d. Solan

3. Where is 'Shoba Singh Art Gallery' situated?

a. Nurpur
b. Kala Amb
c. Andretta
d. Manali

4. In which year 'Shanan Power House' was built in Joginder Nagar?

a. 1815 AD.
b. 1820 AD.
c. 1825 AD.
d. None of these.

5. Who administers the oath of office to the President of India?

a. Prime Minister.
b. Speaker of Lok Shaba.
c. Chief Justice of India.
d. Vice President of India.

6. Which of the following is known as the Valley of Gods in H.P.?

a. Kangra Valley.
b. Mahasu Valley.
c. Chamba Valley.
d. Kullu Valley.

7. Who is the head of State?

a. Chief Minister.
b. Speaker of Vidhan Shaba.
c. Governor.
d. None of these.

8. The Right to Information Act was introduced in

a. 2005
b. 2001
c. 2006
d. 1994

9. Which district of HP has maximum industrial units?

a. Shimla.
b. Una
c. Kangra
d. Solan

10. Where is Minjar fair held?

a. Spiti
b. Chamba
c. Narkanda
d. Solan

11. In the ancient Indian Classics which area of HP has been called Trigarta?
a. Chamba
b. Kangra
c. Kullu
d. Kinnaur
12. Which of the following districts is known for the cultivation of Mushrooms?
a. Solan
b. Sirmour
c. Shimla
d. Kinnaur

13. How many tunnels are there on Kalka-Shimla Railway track?

a. 98
b. 86
c. 109
d. 103

14. The place Nirmand is located in which district of Himachal?

a. Kangra
b. Una
c. Mandi
d. Kullu

15. Which district of Himachal touches Roper district of Punjab?

a. Bilaspur
b. Chamba
c. Kangra
d. Sirmour

16. Masroor temples are situated in which district of HP?

a. Bilaspur
b. Kangra
c. Shimla
d. Solan

17. 'Litton Memorial Gate' is situated at which place in Himachal?

a. Una
b. Nadaun
c. Dehra
d. None of these

18. River Beas does not flow in district of

a. Kullu
b. Mandi
c. Kangra
d. Bilaspur

19. Who was the first speaker of HP Legislative Assembly?

a. Desh Raj Mahajan
b. Karm Singh
c. Jaiwant Ram
d. Lekh Ram Thakur

20. ' Bara Bhangal' is situated in which distric?

a. Lahaul and Spiti
b. Chamba
c. Kangra
d. Una

21. "The Tapovan" also known as 'Sandeepani Himalayas' is situated near which city?
a. Kaza
b. Solan City
c. Una
d. Dharamshala
22. Himachal Pradesh came into being as state on
a. 15th April,1948
b. 25th January,1971
c. 1st September,1972
d. None of these

23. The rive Satluj rises from

a. Mansarover
b. Riwalsar
c. Dadhol in Bilaspur
d. Dharamshala in Kangra

24. How many seats of M.L.A.'s are there in HP Vidhan Sabha?

a. 52
b. 68
c. 72
d. 48

25. World Human Rights day is celebrated on

a. May 13th
b. June 30th
c. December 10th
d. September 30th
Himachal GK
Q-1 In which year first central college opened in H.P .
(a) 1948 (b) 1950
(c) 1980 (d) None
Q-2 In Himachal first central college was open in.
(a) Una (b) Kangra
(c) Shimla (d) None
Q-3 In which year Bishop cotton School was opened?
(a) 1865 (b) 1863
(c) 1868 (d) None
Q-4 REC (Regional Engineering College) is in---------District?
(a) Hamirpur (b) Una
(c) Chamba (d) None
Q-5 In which year Himachal Pardesh Agriculture University established ?
(a) 1963 (b) 1961
(c) 1965 (d) None
Q-6 Dr.Y.S.Parmar university is in---------District?
(a) Una (b) Solan
(c) Shimla (d) None
Q-7 Dr.Y.S.Parmar university was established in----------
(a) 1965 (b) 1985
(c) 1968 (d) None
Q-8 Kinnauri language is spoken in which area ------------
(a) Kinnaur (b) Chamba
(c) Una (d) None
Q-9 Malana Nala is in----------District?
(a) Shimla (b) Kullu
(c) Chamba (d) None
Q-10 Lunkhari Khad is in ---------District?
(a) Una (b) Chamba
(c) Shimla (d) None
Q-11 What is total catchments area of Bhakra Dam in Himachal?
(a) 200Sq km. (b) 20000 Sq km.
(c) 300 sq km (d) None
Q-12 What is Altitude of Taintu ka Jot?
(a) 5600m (b) 5000m
(c) 4000m (d) None
Q-13 What is Altitude of Rangchi Galu?
(a) 1400m (b) 4550m
(c) 4900 (d) None
Q-14 Who built Ranikot fort in suket?
(a) Sidh sen (b) Hira Chand
(c) Sebant Sen (d) None
Q-15 Who is founder of Jubbal city?
(a) Rana Teg Chand (b) Rana Bir
(c) A&B (d) None
Q-16 Who is founder of Sapatu?
(a) Britishers (b) Ajber Sen
(c) Sahil Verma (d) None
Q-17 Taragarh, which is famous for Taragarh fort is in --------District?
(a) Una (b) Chamba
(c) Shimla (d) None
Q-18 Chail is famous due to ---------
(a) Highest water fall (b) Highest cricket ground
(c) Highest Bridge (d) None
Q-19 Kandror bridge is constructed over -----------river?
(a) Sutluj (b) Ravi
(c) Beas (d) None
Q-20 Which is smallest district in term of population?
(a) Hamirpur (b) Lahul Spiti
(c) Una (d) None
Q-21 How many villages are there in Kangra?
(a) 3869 (b) 3400
(c) 4000 (d) None
Q-22 Which districts have highest no. of populate village?
(a) Una (b) Kangra
(c) Chamba (d) None
Q-23 Bhakra Dam is in ---------
(a) Una (b) Bilaspur
(c) Chamba (d) None
Q-24 What is height of Bhakra Dam?
(a) 220m (b) 226m
(c) 400m (d) None
Q-25 Which is largest fish farm in Asia?
(a) Dayoli (b) Ranigarh
(c) A&B (d) None

1 (a) 1948
2 (c) Shimla
3 (b) 1863
4 (a) Hamirpur
5 (b) 1961
6 (b) Solan
7 (b) 1985
8 (a) Kinnaur
9 (b) Kullu
10 (a) Una
11 (b) 20000 Sq km.
12 (b) 5000m
13 (b) 4550m
14 (c) Sebant Sen
15 (a) Rana Teg Chand
16 (a) Britishers
17 (b) Chamba
18 (b) Highest cricket ground
19 (a) Sutluj
20 (b) Lahaul Spiti
21 (a) 3869
22 (b) Kangra
23 (b) Bilaspur
24 (b) 226m
25 (a) Dayoli
Kangra is known for the oldest serving Royal Dynasty in the world Katoch. Kangra became a
district of British India in 1846, when it was ceded to British India at the conclusion of the First
Anglo-Sikh War. The British district included the present-day districts of Kangra, Hamirpur,
Kullu, and Lahul and Spiti. Kangra District was part of the British Province of Punjab. The
administrative headquarters of the district were initially at Kangra, but were moved to
Dharamsala in 1855.[5][6] This area was significantly damaged by an earthquake on April 4,
Upon Indian Independence in 1947, Punjab province was partitioned between India and
Pakistan, and the eastern portion, including Kangra, became the Indian state of Punjab. Lahul
and Spiti became a separate district in 1960, and Kullu in 1962. In 1966, Kangra and Una
districts were added to Himachal Pradesh, which became a union territory of India, and an
Indian state in 1971. Hamirpur District was separated from Kangra in 1972.Twin Township and
riyasat of Haripur-Guler is also an important part of kangra district which gave refuge to
people during mughal period and gave patronage to them to make famous Guler
paintings.Historical village of Pragpur is also one of the most important historical part of
Kangra region.
Kangra district is having a topography that some of the parts like Milawan at 400 m altitude,
while area of Bara Bhangal are at the altitude of 5500 m. Indora block of Kangra district falls
in sub-humid sub-tropical zone where annual precipitation works out about 1000 mm and
mean temperature of about 24C, Dehragopipur and Nurpur blocks fall under humid sub-
tropical zone where the annual rainfall is between 9002350 mm and mean temperature
about 2 to 24C. Palampur and Dharamsala fall under wet temperate zone where the
temperature ranges from 15 to 19C and annual rainfall is about 2500 mm, making
Dharamshala the wettest place in Himachal Pradesh. (avg. of last fifty five years). Other parts
of the Kangra district fall under hill area where the mean annual temperature varies from 13
to 20C and annual rainfall is 1800 3000 mm.
The winter lasts from mid-December to mid-February, during which the temperature ranges
from 0 to 20 C. The winds cause winter rains. Summers last from April until June, and are hot
(temp 25 to 38 C) and dry. They are generally followed by a wet monsoon which ends in
autumn.The climate in the region is cool and soothing,especially near chamunda ji sub region,
main cause of which are the pine trees. But because of on the name of development,people
are cutting trees which,in coming future,may disable the serene environment of the region.
The need of the hour is to plant more trees and to safeguard the others.[2]
Baijnath is a town in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. It is roughly fourteen kilometres
from the town of Palampur. It is very famous all over the world as it is believed to be one of
twelve jyotirlingas according to popular legends.
Baijnath is located at 32.05N 76.65E.[1] It has an average elevation of 1,314 metres (4,311
feet). It is a small township in the Dhauladhar range of western Himalayas, 16 km from
Palampur in the Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh

Baijnath is famous for its 13th century temple dedicated to Siva as Vaidyanath, the Lord of
physicians. Originally known as Kiragrama, the town lies on Pathankot-Chakki-Manali highway
(National Highway No. 20) almost midway between Kangra and Mandi. The present name
Baijnath became popular after the name of the temple. The town is located on the left bank of
the river Binwa, a corrupt form of ancient Binduka, a tributary of river Beas.
The Baijnath temple has been continuously under worship ever since its construction in 1204
A.D. by two local merchants named Ahuka and Manyuka. The two long inscriptions in the
porch of the temple indicate that a temple of Siva existed on the spot even before the present
one was constructed. The present temple is a beautiful example of the early medieval north
Indian temple architecture known as Nagara style of temples. The Svayambhu form of
Sivalinga is enshrined in the sanctum of the temple that has five projections on each side and
is surmounted with a tall curvilinear Shikhara. The entrance to sanctum is through a vestibule
that has a large square Mandapa in front with two massive balconies one each in north and
south. There is a small porch in front of the mandapa hall that rests on four pillars in the front
preceded by an idol of Nandi, the bull, in a small pillared shrine. The whole temple is enclosed
by a high wall with entrances in the south and north. The outer walls of the temple have
several niches with images of gods and goddesses. Numerous images are also fixed or carved
in the walls. The outer doorway in the porch as also the inner doorway leading to the sanctum
of the temple are also studded with a large number of images of great beauty and
iconographic importance. Some of them are very rare to be found elsewhere.
The temple attracts a large number of tourists and pilgrims from all over India and abroad
throughout the year. Special prayers are offered in the morning and evening every day
besides on special occasions and during festive seasons. Makara Sankranti, Maha Shivaratri,
Vaisakha Sankranti, Shravana Mondays, etc. are celebrated with great zeal and splendor. A
five day state level function is held here on Maha Shivratri every year.
[edit]Temples of Baijnath

The main attraction of Baijnath is an ancient temple of Shiva. Neighbouring towns are
Palampur and Kangra. According to the legend, it is believed that during the Treta Yug, Ravana
in order to have invincible powers worshiped Lord Shiva in the Kailash. In the same process, to
please the almighty he offered his ten heads in the havan kund. Influenced by this extra
ordinary deed of the Ravana, the Lord Shiva not only restored his heads but also bestowed
him with powers of invincibility and immortality.
On attaining this incomparable boon, Ravana also requested the Lord Shiva to accompany him
to Lanka. Shiva consented to the request of Ravana and converted himself into Shivling. The
Lord Shiva asked him to carry the Shivling and told him that he should not place the Shivling
down on the ground on his way. Ravana started moving south towards Lanka and reached
Baijnath where he felt the need to answer the natures call. On seeing a shepherd, Ravana
handed over the Shivling to him and went away to get himself relieved. On finding the
Shivling very heavy, shepherd kept the ling on the ground and the Shivling got established
there and the same is in the form of Ardhnarishwar (God in form of Half Male & Half Female).
In the town of Baijnath, Dussehra festival in which traditionally the effigy of the Ravana is
consigned to flames is not celebrated as a mark of respect to the devotion of Ravana towards
Lord Shiva. Another interesting thing about the town of Baijnath is that there is no shop of
Another version also suggests that when Ravana was descending from the Himalayas after
years of worship of Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva had presented him a Shiva idol in form of a
Shivling, which was supposed to be established at Lanka, now Sri Lanka, which would have
blessed him (Ravana) with undefeatable powers even to the Gods. It was advised to Ravana
that he can not place the Shivling anywhere during the course of travel, even during resting.
Ravana was tricked by one of the Devas (Gods), who posed as a beggar and wanted help from
Ravana and promised to hold the Shivling for him while he (ravana) fetched food for the
beggar. The Deva posing as beggar placed the Shivling on ground, in absence of Ravana. The
Shiva idol or the Shivling at Baijnath temple is the same Shivling which was placed by the
Deva after tricking Ravana.
History: The history of the ancient Baijnath Temple is hazy and the two long inscriptions fixed
in the walls of the mandapa of the temple gives us account of the temple. The temple was
built in Saka 1126 (CE 1204)by two brothers Manyuka and Ahuka in devolution to Lord
Vaidyanatha. The inscriptions tell us that a Sivalinga known as Vaidyanatha already existed on
the spot but was without a proper house so the present temple and a porch in its front was
constructed. British Archaeologist Alexander Cunningham noticed an inscription of 1786 in the
temple referring to its renovations by king Sansara Chandra. An inscription on the wooden
doors of the sanctum of the temple provides the date as samvat 1840 (AD 1783) that is very
near to Cunninghams date. The devastating earthquake that shook the entire region of
Kangra on 4 th April 1905 also caused damage to the shrine, which has been reported by J.
Ph. Vogel and has since been repaired. At present the temple is a protected monument under
the Archaeological Survey of India but the performance of worship and rituals are under a
local board at Baijnath with SDM as its chairman. The hereditary priests continue to get a
share of the offerings.
Vaidyanath Siva Temple, Baijnath
Baijnath (32 3 North lat. And 76 41 East long.), a small township in the Dhauladhar range
of western Himalayas, 16 km from Palampur in the Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh is
famous for its 13th century temple dedicated to Siva as Vaidyanath, the Lord of physicians.
Originally known as Kiragrama, the town lies on Pathankot-Chakki-Manali highway (National
Highway No. 20) almost midway between Kangra and Mandi. The present name Baijnath
became popular after the name of the temple. The town is located on the left bank of the river
Binwa, a corrupt form of ancient Binduka, a tributary of river Beas.

The Baijnath temple has been continuously under worship ever since its construction in 1204
A.D. by two local merchants named Ahuka and Manyuka. The two long inscriptions in the
porch of the temple indicate that a temple of Siva existed on the spot even before the present
one was constructed. The present temple is a beautiful example of the early medieval north
Indian temple architecture known as Nagara style of temples. The Svayambhu form of
Sivalinga is enshrined in the sanctum of the temple that has five projections on each side and
is surmounted with a tall curvilinear Shikhara. The entrance to sanctum is through a vestibule
that has a large square Mandapa in front with two massive balconies one each in north and
south. There is a small porch in front of the mandapa hall that rests on four pillars in the front
preceded by an idol of Nandi, the bull, in a small pillared shrine. The whole temple is enclosed
by a high wall with entrances in the south and north. The outer walls of the temple have
several niches with images of gods and goddesses. Numerous images are also fixed or carved
in the walls. The outer doorway in the porch as also the inner doorway leading to the sanctum
of the temple are also studded with a large number of images of great beauty and
iconographic importance. Some of them are very rare to be found elsewhere.

The temple attracts a large number of tourists and pilgrims from allover India and abroad
through out the year. Special prayers are offered in the morning and evening every day
besides on special occasions and during festive seasons. Makara Sankranti, Maha Shivaratri,
Vaisakha Sankranti, Shravana Mondays, etc. are celebrated with great zeal and splendor. A
five day state level function is held here on Maha Shivratri every year.

Besides this temple there are other ancient shrines in and around the place such as Mahakala
temple complex that has recently been renovated, the Sidhanath temple, Mukutanath temple
etc. Besides the serene surroundings and salubrious climate of middle range hills of Baijnath,
tourists interested in adventure can also enjoy paragliding at nearby (about 10 km) Bir and go
for trekking in the region. The antiquity of the temple and its continuous patronage and
worship is attested by a number of inscriptions found within the temple complex. The most
important are the two long inscriptions written in Sanskrit language and Sharada script
engraved on stone slabs fixed in the northern and southern walls of the main hall (mandapa)
of the temple. They provide details of the construction of this temple in Saka year 1126 (AD
1204) by two merchant brothers Manyuka and Ahuka. The genealogy of the local rulers, name
of the sovereign ruler Jayachandra, names of the architects of the temple, Nayaka son of
Asika and Thoduka both from Susarmapura (modern Kangra) and the genealogy of the donor
merchants is mentioned in these inscriptions besides the verses in praise of the god Siva. The
text and translation of the inscriptions are given below for ready reference of the readers.

Besides these two inscriptions there are a number of short inscriptions engraved on the pillars
in the main hall of the temple. Most of them are of late date written in Takari script and local
pahari dialect. They record the names of various donors and pilgrims, such as Bhatta
Durgadasa, Bhatta Prabhakara, Thakur Parmaaraka son of Thakur Karama Simha, etc. One
inscription gives the name of Nagarakota i.e. Kangra. Since the purpose of these inscriptions
is not recorded it is difficult to give any definite view. Of special interest is an inscription on
the wooden doors of the sanctum dated in samvat 1840 (AD 1783) of the time of Sansara
Chandra II, when extensive repairs were carried out to the temple. Standing in its pristine
glory, facing west, on the northern side of the mountain with the river Binduka flowing about
one hundred meters below, the temple, with its curvilinear sikhara joined through a vestibule
(antarala) with a square mandapa having beautiful balconies in the north and south and an
entrance-portico (mukha-mandapa) preceded by a Nandi-shrine, catches the attention of not
only visitors, devotees and critics but even of a casual passer by.
The entire complex surrounded by a wall measures 36.5 mt. in length from east to west, 21.10
mt. in width in the east and 19.55 mt. in the west. The main entrance, through stairs, is on the
southern side with two shrines having the images of Ganapati and Hanumana on either side.
There is another entrance in the western corner of the northern side. A doorway in the
northern corner of the eastern wall, that may have been a later addition, is kept locked at
present. Besides the main building of the temple there are some smaller shrines in the
courtyard. A very conspicuous figure is that of a standing Nandi, some distance behind the
Nandi shrine, that was placed at a later period.

The Nandi-mandapa in front of the entrance porch has a seven tiered pyramidal roof topped
by an amalaka and a kalasa supported by four pillars and brackets of the same style as those
of the entrance porch. It measures 116 cm. x 120cm. With the pedestal of the Nandi
measuring 36 cm. x 100 cm. The image of Nandi enshrined in it appears to be the original one
of the 13 th century.

Next to it is the entrance porch (mukha-mandapa) measuring 3.10 x 2.31 mt. having beautiful
pillars of classical order in front with a square base on which is cushion like circular mouldings
above which are the slender plain circular shafts crowned by ghatapallava motifs and square
abaci and ornamental sridhara brackets. The roof supported on lintels above the brackets has
receding three tiers with an amalaka and a kalasa on the top.

The mandapa, almost a square, measuring 8.50 x 8.30 mt. has the three usual limbs bhadra,
pratibhadra and karna. It is joined to the entrance porch through a doorway and has two
massive balconies on the north and south respectively. The plinth and the vedibandha have
the same characteristics as those of the garbhagriha viz. the pitha consisting of a bhitta and
jadyakumbha and the vedibandha with mouldings khura, kumbha, purnaratna, kalasa,
pattika and kapotali. The jangha has bhadrikas (niches on the bhadras) supporting images
(infra). In the four corners are buttresses with niches in the shape of shrines with sikhara
rising to almost two third of the mandapas height. The roof of the mandapa has six horizontal
receding tiers, giving it a pyramidal shape and is topped with an amalaka and a kalasa.

At the entrance of the mandapa are two pillars each with a square base having each side 42
cm. topped by circular shafts and purnaghata with foliage capitals. Four massive pillars
support the lantern type ceiling of the mandapa, measuring 5.40 x 5.10 mt with their square
bases measuring 53 cm. across.. The round shafts are topped by octagonal bands and
purnaghata capitals. The architraves on these pillars divide the ceiling of the mandapa into
nine square and oblong sections. The center of the ceiling is reduced to a quarter of the
original and beautifully decorated by swirling foliage by way of concentric circles.

The most important part in the mandapa is the two balconies. With their different type of
sculptures and mouldings that do not go with those of the rest of the mandapa and the
garbhagriha. However, the balconies are not a new addition but only renovated at a later

Next to the mandapa is the antarala or vestibule. It has two pillars at the entrance with a
square base, 28 cm. above floor, each side measuring 32 cm. The ceiling of the antarala has
three round lotus motifs carved on it. The highly ornate doorway to the garbhagriha attracts
the visitors.

The garbhagriha forms the most important feature of the temple and is intact in its original
form. Pancharatha in plan, it measures 5.00 mt across and rises to the height of 14.20 mt.
from the base to the finial. The bhadra niches on its outer walls have circular columns on both
sides resting on plinth and topped with capitals and abaci. Besides the niches (rathikas), the
walls have various motifs for decoration. The sikhara above the jangha consists of nine
storeys each marked by a karnandaka and artistically decorated with intertwined gavaksha
arches. On the top are amalaka and kalasa above that is finial with a trident. In the front of
the sikhara is a beautiful round medallion in the center depicting three faces of Siva.

Inside the garbhagriha measures 2.30 mt. across. The ceiling of the sanctum is also of lantern
pattern with a lotus rosette in the center. It has a svayambhu Sivalinga in the center, which is
believed to be an Ardhanarisvara form of Siva, probably the only lingam known as such. At the
floor level is made a white marble yonipitha around the Sivalinga with a design of a serpent
around it. It leads to the sacred water outlet (pranala ) going out in the northern wall. A
beautiful image of snake, made of silver, with raised hood is placed around the Lingam.
Palampur is a green hill station and a municipal council in the Kangra Valley in the Indian state
of Himachal Pradesh, surrounded on all sides by tea gardens and pine forests before they
merge with the Dhauladhar ranges. Palampur is the tea capital of northwest India but tea is
just one aspect that makes Palampur a special interest place. Abundance of water and
proximity to the mountains has endowed it with mild climate.
The town has derived its name from the local word "pulum', meaning lots of water. There are
numerous streams flowing from the mountains to the plains from Palampur. The combination
of greenery and water gives Palampur a distinctive look. Palampur is at the confluence of the
plains and the hills and so the scenery shows the contrast the plains on one side and the
majestic snow covered hills on the other side. Behind this town stands high ranges of
Dhauladhar mountains, whose tops remain snow covered for most part of the year. History

The Kangra valley was the Trigarta of old, where the Palampur town is situated. It was one of
the leading hill states and was once a part of the Jalandhar kingdom. The Palampur gets its
name from 'Pulum' which means the abundant water. Countless streams and brooks criss-
cross the landscape and in their intricate mesh, hold tea gardens and rice paddies. The town
of Palampur came into being when Dr. Jameson, Superintendent of Botanical Gardens,
introduced the tea bush from Almora in 1849. The bush thrived and so did the town which
became a focus of the European tea estate owners. Since then the Kangra tea of Palampur
has been known internationally.
The future first prime minister of independent India Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru visited Palampur
in 1941 when it was still British India. There is a Nehru Chowk in Palampur to commemorate
this event.
Palampur also known as the 'Tea Capital of North India,' is a popular hill station because it is
not only known for its scenic beauty but also for the beautiful temples and buildings built in
the Colonial period. Here a nature lover can enjoy a quiet stroll while feasting his eyes on the
natural beauty and an outdoor lover with a taste for adventure can enjoy hand gliding and
trekking during the holiday. It has something for all tastes, which makes it an ideal holiday
resort for many. Hill Resort in India offers online booking for accommodation and tour/travel
packages to this beautiful hill resort. Palampur includes small places like Parour, Arla,
Maranda, Rajpur, Bundla, Kandi, Kulani and Chandpur.

During the second half of 18th Century, with success of tea estates in Palampur area, the
original settlement started developing. In 1888, it was made tehsil headquarter, by shifting
the same from Bhawarna. The tea estate owners impressed upon the administration to bring
infrastructure like schools, colleges and hospital. It also became a centre of labourers engaged
in plucking of tea leaves and packing, transportation and marketing thereof. The earthquake
of 1905 left a trail of destruction. Therefore, building style, projections and building material
had to be modified. The tehsil complex, school and church towards T-Bud Hotel were built
during British Period. Consequent upon laying of railway line for hydro-electric project at
Joginder Nagar in 1927 and thereby installation of railway station and staff quarters,
construction activity grew fast. Increase in the employment, led to investment in the area,
whereby multifarious development including roads took place.
[edit]Post Independence
In 1947, Sobha Singh moved from Punjab to Andreta and developed his art gallary. He painted
world famous art pieces related to Punjabi culture and shot into prominence as an artist. After
1946, the regional linkages of town started improving. A Military station got established at a
strategic location of the town. Agriculture University got established, besides the
establishment of Indian Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (I.C.S.I.R.) Complex (IHBT).
[1]. Many offices at the level of sub division pertaining to Electricity, Housing Board, Public
health and PWD (B&R) were located. tourist accommodation like T-Bud Hotel by Himachal
Tourism Development Corporation and other hotels were constructed.[2]
Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya (CSKHPKV) or Himachal
Pradesh Agricultural University, an Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) accredited
and ISO 9001:2000 certified university, has been operating since 1978.
GGDSD College, Rajpur (Palampur) specializes in many new professional courses like BCS, BBA
and BCA along with B.Sc., B.Com and B.A courses.Also the IGNOU study centre
Institute of Himalyan Bioresource Technology (CSIR)- A CSIR laboratory engaged on various
research aspects of Himalyan Bioresources. Imparting Ph.D in biological and Chemical
Sri Sai University, Palampur
Kendriya Vidyalaya, Holta Cantt. (Palampur)
St. Paul's sr. sec. School
DAV Public school
SD Chand sr.sec. School
ABM sr. sec. school, Maranda (Palampur)
Mount Carmel school, Thakurdwara (Palampur)
Crescent public school, Banuri (Palampur)
Anuradha public school, Maranda (palampur)
Neugal public sr. sec. school, Bindaraban (Palampur) Geography

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promotional content from a neutral point of view and removing any inappropriate external
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Palampur is located at 32.12N 76.53E,[4] at a height of 1,220 meters above sea level. It is
close to the Dhauladhar Range. It is in the northwestern region of Himachal Pradesh, in north
India and is only 30 km from the popular hill station of Dharamshala. Palampur, at a height of
1219 mts., is a main spot in the beautiful valley surrounded by tea gardens and pine trees.
Behind the town stands high ranges of Dhauladhar mountains (white hill of snow), whose tops
remain covered for most part of the year. This place is being developed as large tourist
centre. A ropeway and an amusement park is also on the way to be established here. An
Agricultural University is already functioning near by one Ayurvedic hospital is situated, also
one Ayurvedic medical college is there in Paprola is about 10 km away from here some tea
factories are also in operation Kangra valley is also known as tea capital of India this tea was
quite famous among the British.
On the outskirts of Palampur, at Bandla, Neugal stream is a thin streak running over stony
ground far below the cliff. It offers great scenic beauty with snow covered peaks. A
recreational spot, called Saurabh Van Vihar, is also located in Bandla, which gets its name
from Capt. Saurabh Kalia who hails from Palampur.
Several trek routes lead out of Palampur, particularly over the Dhauladhar Mountains towards
the town of Chamba, Himachal Pradesh. Some important treks are over the Sanghar pass to
Bharmaur via Holi, the forest trek from Mcleodganj to Treund and from Baijnath over the Jalsu
pass to Bharmaur. A four-day trek will lead the traveler to Holi, via Waru La. Twenty-eight
kilometers from Palampur is Billing, near Bir, Himachal Pradesh|Bir, an important centre for
the adventure sport of paragliding. Paraglider pilots often land near Palampur after cross-
country flights starting from Billing. Palampur also has numerous Buddhist monuments and is
famous for its Tibetan handicrafts.

[edit]By Air
Kingfisher Red is running daily flights from New Delhi to Kangra Airport (Gaggal Airport) which
is just 40 km from Palampur. Flights are prone to climatic conditions and can be cancelled due
to low visibility in the winters- plan your trip accordingly.
[edit]By Rail
Palampur is connected by narrow gauge railway from Pathankot. Approximate distance from
Pathankot to Palampur is 112 km. The journey takes about 7 hours covering two tunnels, one
of which is only 250 feet and the other 1,000 feet in length.
The kangra valley toy train also operates in the town. The nearest railway station is at
Maranda(Palampur), 3 km from main bus stand.
[edit]By Road
Palampur is well connected by road to all major cities and towns in and around the state.
Himachal Road Transport Corporation(HRTC) is the best way to travel plying Air conditioned,
Deluxe and Semi Deluxe buses from major cities like Delhi and Chandigarh. Distances to the
major cities are Delhi (530km), Chandigarh (240km), Shimla (259km), Manali (205KM),
Dharamshala (35km) etc. Tickets can be booked online from HRTC website.[1]

Visitor attractions in Palampur include:

Neugal Cafe is most visited place in the palampur. it is one of the great attraction in the
palampur from where you can view the dhauladhar hills and also can get the view of Neugal

View from Neugal Cafe

Sourabh Van Vihar is also one of the nice place to visit, here you can find a green park.
The village of Andretta, spread below the thickly wooden hill known for the art gallery. The
village was once the home for the painter Sardar Sobha Singh and playwright Norah
Dhauladhar Nature Park at Gopalpur in the lap of Dhauladhar Range is just about 12 km from
Palampur city and is a nice place to visit.
Famous Devi Latti Jakhni's temple situated at the top of Chandpur village is a place to feel the
beauty of DhaulaDhar from very close.
[edit]Adventure Sports

Palampur is the ideal hill resort for you if you enjoy trekking and Paragliding. There are several
trek routes that one can trek on, one important one being over Sanghar Pass to Bharmaur via
The paragliding site at Bir-Billing in Kangra district near Baijnath is regarded as among the
best in the world for Paragliding. Billing (2290 m) is the take-off site and Bir (1400 m) is the
village at the landing site.The road distance between the two is 14 km. Bir is sheltered by the
Dhauladhar mountains and the ridges behind keep rising to 3000 mtrs, 4000 mtrs, 5000 mtrs
and one after the other so as pilot can fly at 4000 mtrs and still watch the mountains tower
above. Bir is a beautiful village surrounded by tea gardens and spectacular scenery, whereas
Billing offers unique opportunities for high altitude and cross country flying and flights of 180
kms have been achieved from here.
All along the bottom of the ridges runs a parallel road from Mandi to Dharamshala and beyond
which assures easy recovery for pilots after landing. The most important feature of this region
is its weather. On bad weather days one can still fly 20-30 kms and on good days 100 kms is
not difficult. October & November are the ideal months for flying in autumn and March to May
i.e spring is also flyable but conditions are very strong in spring with thermals of 6-12 mtrs/sec
and cloudbase of 4000 to 6000 mtrs.
The small towns of Taragarh, Baijnath and Jogindernagar are close to Bir- Billing and large
town of Palampur is 29 km from Bir. Himachal Pradesh is conducting International Paragliding
competitions since 2002 at Bir-Billing every year.

Famous Places Around Palampur : Chamunda Devi Temple : This is a holy place around 20 km
from town. Thousands of devotees from all over India visit the temple and offer prayers at this
Bir and Billing : ( 35 km. from town.) This village is famous for its Buddhist monasteries. Hang
gliding pilots use it as their landing site. Bir, surrounded by tea gardens and an amphitheater
of low hills, is an ideal landing around for para-gliders. Bir has Buddhist Monasteries that are
worth visiting. Fine Tibetan handicrafts are also produced here. Billing, up in the hills 14 km.
from Bir with an arena of 200 km. for high altitude and cross country flying, is one of the best
aerosports sites in the country.
Baijnath : ( 16 km. from town.) The Shiva temple at Baijnath is one of the most remarkable
monuments of the Kangra valley. Ancient name of this town was 'Kirgrama'. Baijnath got its
name from Shiva Vaidyanatha. The temple consists of an 'Adytum' surrounded by a spire of
the usual conical shape with a 'Mandap' covered with a low pyramid shaped roof. The
'Adytum' contains the Lingam. There is fine sculpture work to be associated with Ravana, who
worshipped Shiva at this spot and gained immortality. Baijnath is one of the 'Twelve
Jyotirlingams'. Shivratri of Baijnath is a well attended fair.
Neugal Khad : ( 2 km. from town.) Neugal Khad provides a fine view of the Dhauladhar range.
It is roaring in the rainy season and gurgling all the year round. Himachal Tourism cafe
provides food and a fine view from its restaurant. It is a famous picnic spot and ideal for a day
escape from busy life.
Bundla Stream : ( 2 km. from town) Bundla stream with wide chasm of more than 100 metres,
swells up and rises madly in monsoons taking stones and boulders along with it making a loud
noise like that of continuous thunder. This is a lovely walk from Palampur to Bundla.
Bundla Tea Estate: ( 2 km. from town) This is one of the most beautiful tea estates of
Palampur, which covers Bundla, Aima and Lohna Panchayat. The road to Neugal Cafe from the
town leads from this estate. The lush green tea gardens are at its best in the monsoon. People
can be seen plucking tea from April till October. The old Bundla Tea Estate complex, which is
said to be over 200 years old can be seen from the road.
Andreta : ( 13 km. from town ) It is the home of the famous artist, late Sardar Shobha Singh
and late playwright Norah Richards. This presents an excellent view of the Dhauladhar Range.
Shobha Singh's Art Gallery : It is situated in Andhretta which is 13 km. from town. Chamunda
Maa: Temple complex is around 20 km from Palampur
Saurabh Van vihar : (4 KM from town) Named after the valiant Army officer, Captain Saurabh
Kalia, Saurabh Van Vihar is in Neugal near Palampur. Managed by the Himachal Pradesh Forest
Department, the Van Vihar was set up with the purpose of providing information to the
tourists about the nature and environment.
The Vihar sprawls on an area of 35 acres and there is a green park located here. The area is
surrounded by the Dhauladhar mountains and offers scenic views of the surrounding.

Hotel Taragarh palace

Hotel T Bud
Hotel Neugal cafe
Hotel Yamini
Hotel vishal residency
Hotel pines
Villa camellia resort
Sai gardens resort
The Citadel Resorts

Palampur is a state legislative constituency in Himachal Pradesh. The town politics is mostly
dominated between ruling Bhartiya Janta Party and the Congress(I). The current legislative
from Palampur is Praveen Kumar. He is from ruling BJP government. The political affair of
Palampur has always been a two way party affair. The last BJP legislator from BJP was former
chief minister Mr. Shanta Kumar. He was the last BJP legislator in 1992 when the state
government led by him was dissolved in the aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition. For
Congress, the politics has been dominated by a rich family, Butails. Lala Kanhiya Lal Butail, a
freedom fighter and Gandhian activist was the first representative from Palampur. His nephew
Kunj Behari Lal Butail served as an MLA for over a decade and also the first Pradesh Congress
Committee President. The seat, till recent elections was occupied his younger brother for over
20 years, Mr. Brij Bihari Butail who also remained a minister in the state Cabinet and advisor
to the Chief Minister.
[edit]Recent Issues

Palampur has seen somewhat exponential growth since the liberalization in India. It has grown
from a decrepit and quite British hill station to a buzzing town. You can start counting the
revenue generated in the town as total of Nineteen topmost banks are present here. Eg IDBI,
BOI, PNB, SBI, LIC etc. There has been a wide speed growth growth in and around Palampur. It
has threatened the fragile ecology of the town. Recently, the deodar trees in Palampur are
drying up with abnormally fast speed. Palampur is the only hill station in India where deodar
trees are grown between the height of 3000 feet to 4000 feet from Mean Sea Level.
^ "IHBT Website". IHBT. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
^ "Blog of Himachal". Retrieved 2011-08-15.
^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns
(Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16.
Retrieved 2008-11-01.
^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc Palampur
About Us
Kangra district lies between 31 21 to 32 59 N latitude and 75 47 55 to 77 45 E
longitude. It is situated on the southern escarpment of the Himalayas. The entire area of the
district is traversed by the varying altitude of the Shivaliks, Dhauladhar and the Himalayas
from north-west to south-east. The altitude varies from 500 metres above mean sea level
(amsl) to around 5000 metres amsl. It is encapsulated in the north by the districts of Chamba
and Lahaul and Spiti, in the south by Hamirpur and Una, in the east by Mandi and in the west
by Gurdaspur district of Punjab. The present Kangra district came into existence on the 1st
September, 1972 consequent upon the re-organisation of districts by the Government of
Himachal Pradesh. It was the largest district of the composite Punjab in terms of area till it
was transferred to Himachal Pradesh on the 1st November, 1966 and had six tehsils namely
Nurpur, Kangra, Palampur, Dehragopipur, Hamirpur and Una. Kullu was also a tehsil of Kangra
district up to 1962 and Lahaul & Spiti which also formed a part of Kangra was carved out as a
separate district in 1960. On the re-organisation of composite Punjab on the 1st November,
1966 the area constituting Kangra district were transferred to Himachal Pradesh along with
the districts of Shimla, Kullu and Lahaul and Spiti and tehsils of Una and Nalagarh and three
villages of Gurdaspur district.
Kangra district derives its name from Kangra town that was known as Nagarkot in ancient
times. Kangra proper originally was a part of the ancient Trigarta (Jullundur), which comprises
of the area lying between the river "Shatadroo" (probably Sutlej) and Ravi. A tract of land to
the east of Sutlej that probably is the area of Sirhind in Punjab also formed a part of Trigrata.
Trigrata had two provinces. One in the plains with headquarters at Jullundur and other in the
hills with headquarters at Nagarkot (the present Kangra).
The Kangra Fort was built by the Royal family of Kangra (The Katoch Dynasty), which traces its
origins to the ancient Trigarta Kingdom, mentioned in the Mahabharata epic. It is the largest
fort in the Himalayas and probably the oldest dated fort in India.

The fort of Kangra was taken by the Mahmud of Ghazni in AD 1009. In 1337, it was captured
by Muhammad bin Tughluq and again in 1351 by his successor, Firuz Shah Tughluq. But it was
not completely subdued until 1622, when after a siege of fourteen months, it was conquered
by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who garrisoned it with his troops and appointed a Governor
to keep the turbulent hill chiefs in check.
In the second half of 18th Century, following the decline of Mughal power, Raja Sansar Chand-
II succeeded in recovering the ancient fort of his ancestors, in 1789. But by carrying his
ambitions too far he came in conflict with the neighboring hill chiefs, the Gurkhas and finally
with Maharaja of Punjab, Ranjit Singh to whom he was compelled to surrender Kangra Fort in
1809. It remained in the hands of the Sikhs till 1846 when it was made over to the British
Government, along with the surrounding hills.

A statue claimed to be the earliest of Mahavira in Ambika Mata Temple at top of Kangra Fort.
A British garrison occupied the fort until it was heavily damaged in an earthquake in the year