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ebooks

AvaywbK wek vb wevbi GKwU AweiYxq Dveb njv KwDUvi| eZgvb mfZvi Ggb Kvb Kvh cwimi bB,
hLvb mv_Kfve KwDUvii eenvi Kiv nq bv| cMwZkxj gvbe Rxebi cZKwU avci mv_B KwDUvi
RwoZ| gvbe mfZvi GK wekl Avkxev` njv KwDUvi|
KwDUvit gvbe mfZvi P~ov ce KwDUvi njv GKwU AZvaywbK BjKUwbK h wekl| A_vr KwDUvi njv
egyLx KvRi gZv mb GKwU BjKUwbK h, hvi gvag Dcv MnY, webvm I weklY Kivi ci H DcvK
wW ev wZZ Rgv ivLv nq cqvRb eenvi Kiv hvq Ges B-gBj, BUvibU Kvh mb ne|
KwDUvi GKwU BsiwR k| GwU MxK k Compute _K Computer ic De nqQ| MxK Compute A_ njv
MYbvKvix BjKwUK h| myZivs A_MZfve ejv hvq-mykLj Ges mymse Z_ mgw^Z wnme wbKvki BjKwUK h
njv Computer|
g~jZt KwDUvi njv we`yr PvwjZ GKwU egyLx gZv mb BjKUwbK h hvi gvag wekvj Z_ fvvi msMn
Ki Zvi webvm, weklY, evLv, mshvRb, weqvRb Ki cqvRbxq Kvhvw` mymb Kiv nq|
BsiwRZ ejv hvq-Computer is a automatic problem solving machine whose main purpose is data processing or
processing information and which is represented electrically.
eZgvb weki wmwfjvBb mgvR Gi mvnvh KvR Kiv, Mvbkvbv, wnmve-wbKvk Kiv, WvUv msMn, webvm Kiv,
cvMvg Zwi Kiv, wUwf `Lv, mgq `Lv, wfwWI MBg Kiv, B-gBj Ges BUvibU BZvw` Kvhg h_v_fve mb
Kiv me nqQ|

KwDUvii gwjK gZv


KwDUvii wbR _K Kvb wKQy Kivi gZv bB| GwU GKwU BjKUwbK h weavq ^qswqfve KwZcq KvR
KiZ cvi| Ze KwDUvi gvbyli gZv bq Ges gvbyli weKI bq| gvbyl Z_v eenviKvix hfve KwDUviK
wb`k `vb Kieb mfve KwDUvi KvR Ki _vK| GLvb gvbyli eywgvB njv eo KwDUvi| gvbyli mw
njv KwDUvi| eenviKvixi wb`kbvq KwDUvi KvR Ki _vK, Z_ I djvdj wZZ ai ivL, Dcvi evLv
weklY Ki Ges cqvRb cybivq e Ki| Z_vwc Abvb BjKUwb hi PvBZ KwDUvii wKQy Avjv`v
weklZ AvQ hv`iK KwDUvii gwjK gZv wnme aiv nq| A_vr KwDUvii gwjK gZv wnme wbPi
`wfwjvKB weePbv Kiv hvq| hgb-
1. KvRi MwZi `ZZv;
2. wbfyj KvR Kivi gZv;
3. `Z Dcv cwqvKiY gZv;
4. KvwnxbZv I ciY gZv;
5. wekvj wZi fvvi msiY;
6. Abyf~wZnxb Ges wbeva BjKUwbK h;
7. wekvqb ceYZv;
8. Z_i `Z weklY I Dcvcb gZv|

KwDUvii eenvwiK iZ
Avgv`i `bw`b Rxeb KwDUvi GKwU weqKi BjKUwb h wnme Avwef~Z nqQ| wmwfjvBR mgvR
Rxebi cZK B KwDUvi eeZ nQ| KvRB Avgv`i gvbe mfZvi weKvki mv_ mv_ KwDUvii
eenvwiK iZ eY ew cqQ| w`b w`b Gi ZvrchI eoB PjQ| gvbe mgvR KwDUvi eenvii
cqvRbxqZv ev Gi eenvwiK iZi KqKwU w`K wb AvjvPbv Kiv njv-
1. wkv`vbi t eZgvb wkv KwDUvii eenvi eY ew cvQ| weklKi wkv MelYv,
wkv`vb, Z_ cwiekb, Z_vw`i mshvRb, msiY, ckc cYqb, gy`Y, cvVcyK gy`Y, MvcbxqZv iv, B-
gBj BUvibU G Z_vw`i ciY BZvw` KwDUvi eeZ nQ| GZ Ki wkvi Dbqb Aviv ewk
MwZkxjZv cvQ|

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2. wPwKrmv t wPwKrmv KwDUvii eenvi AviK weq mw KiQ| wekl Ki ivMi jY msiY
mbvKiY, ivM wbYq, ivMi cwZKvi, Jlac mbvKiY BZvw` Kvh KwDUvi eeZ nQ| G Qvov
ivMxi hveZxq Z_vw`I msiY Ges MelYvKvh eenvi Kiv me nQ KwDUvii gvag|
3. hvMvhvMi t eZgvb wek hvMvhvMi AbZg cavb gvag nQ KwDUvi| Gi gvag B-gj, BUvibU
Ki g~Zi gaB weki GK cvi Lei Ab cv Pj hvQ| GQvov mvUjvBU chyw, Z_ chyw AvR
wekK GKwU Mvg cwiYZ KiQ|
4. Awdm eevcbvqt wewfb wk KviLvbv, eemv cwZvb, wKsev ckvmwbK A_ev wkv cwZvbi Awdm eevcbvq
KwDUvi iZc~Y Dcv`vb wnme eeZ nQ| ew Kvh KwDUvii eenvi Awdm eevcbvK AbK
ewk cMwZkxj KiQ| Gi gvag `Z KvR Kiv me nqQ|
5. `bw`b wnmve wbKvkt Avgv`i `bw`b Rxeb wewfb wnme wbKvk Z_v MvwYwZK mgmvi mgvavb KwDUvi
eeZ nQ| MvwYwZK Ges cwimsLvwbK Z_vw`i evLv weklY Ges mgvavb KiY KwDUvii eenvii
`ib Avgv`i Rxeb nqQ Aviv ewk MwZkxj, mnRZi Ges KvwLZ| KvRB Gi eenvwiK iZ AbK
ewk|
6. Z_ eevcbvt eZgvb hyMK ejv nq Z_ chywi hyM| G hyM KwDUvii gvag wevb, chyw, wkv,
wPwKrmv, Bwwbqvwis BZvw` cwZwU B Z_i eevcbv nq _vK| hvi dj Avgiv Avgv`i cqvRbi
mgq AwZ `Z Z_vw`i mshvRb I Dcvcb KiZ cvwi|
7. cKvkbv wkt eZgvb cKvkbv wkK KwDUvi AbK ewk mg KiQ| cvywjwc KvR, WvUv cmwms,
KvwUs, cws, bZzbZ Avbqb, Kvjvi cmwms Ges wcwUs BZvw` hveZxq Kvh KwDUvi eeZ nq _vK| hvi
djkwZZ cyK cKvk Kiv mnR Ges `ZZi nqQ|
8. cvMvg ZwiZt gvbyli cqvRbxq wewfb cvMvg ZwiZ KwDUvi eeZ nq| weklKi webv`b, evswKs,
Ljv, Z_vw`i msiY, wfwWI c`kbi cvMvg ZwiZ KwDUvi AZxe iZc~Y Dcv`vb| GwUi eenvi
Rxeb nqQ ab|
9. djvdj cKvk I mb` c`vbt wewfb cixvi djvdj cKvk Ges `Z mb` c`vb KwDUvii eenvi Kiv
nQ| GZ Ki wkv_xiv ^ mgq Zv`i mb` wKsev djvdj kxU nvZi KvQ cvQ| wkvi Dbqb Kvh Aviv
ewk MwZkxj nQ| mshvRb nQ Z_ chywi|
10. dvBj msiYt wewfb Awdm Av`vjZi Riwi Kvb iZc~Y dvBj msiY KwDUvii Ae`vb Ab^xKvh|
GwU wbivc` I `xN gqv`x eev| G MvcYxq Z_vw`i msiY KwDUvi njv Mvcb Ges wek ez|
gvbe mfZvi weKvki mv_ mv_ Avgv`i Rxeb nqQ cMwZkxj| wekUv nqQ Mvevj wfjR| G KwDUvi
chywi eenvi gvbe RxebK Aviv ewk cMwZkxj KiQ| A_vr, hvwK mfZvq gvbeRxebK weKwkZ KiY
KwDUvii Ae`vb Ab^xKvh|

KwDUvi Ges gvbyli KvRi Zzjbv


KwDUvi gvbyli Zwi| Z_vwc KwDUvi Ges gvbyli KvR Kivi ga h_ mv`k Ges emv`k iqQ| gvbyl
Ges KwDUvii KvRi mv`k Ges emv`k Z_v Zzjbvg~jK AvjvPbv wbPi QKi ga Dcvcb Kiv njv-
(K) KwDUvi Ges gvbyli KvRi mv`k
KwDUvi gvbyl
1. KwDUvi `Z KvR KiZ cvi| 1. gvbylI PvBj `Z KvR KiZ cvi|
2. KwDUvii KvR Kivi gZv AvQ| 2. gvbyliI KvR Kivi gZv AvQ|
3. GwU RwUj wnme wbKvk KiZ 3. gvbylI RwUj wnme wbKvk KiZ
cvi| cvi|
4. KwDUvii eenvwiK egyLxZv 4. gvbyli Kvh aiY I egyLx|
AvQ|
5. KwDUvi cqvRbxq Z_ 5. gvbylI Rxebi cqvRbxq Z_vw`
ggvixZ msiY KiZ cvi| ggvixZ ivLZ cvi|
6. GwU RwUj mgmvi mgvavb KiZ 6. gvbylI RwUj mgmvi mgvab KiZ
cvi| cvi|

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(L) KwDUvi Ges gvbyli gwjK cv_K ev emv`k


KwDUvi gvbyl
1. KwDUvii AveM Abyf~wZ 1. gvbyli AveM Abyf~wZ AvQ|
bB|
2. KwDUvi GKwU BjKUwb h| 2. gvbyl Avjvni m Rxe|
3. KwDUvii Kvb Kvw bB| 3. gvbyli Kvw AvQ
4. Gi wbR^ Kvb eyw weePbv Ges 4. gvbyli wbR^ eyw weePbv Ges
AvMn bB| AvMn ceYZv iqQ|
5. Gi Kvb Dvebx gZv bB| 5. Gi Dvebx gZv AvQ|
6. GwU cvMvg Zwi KiZ cvi bv 6. gvbyl wbR KwDUvii Rb
eis cvMvg gvZveK KvR Ki| cvMvg Zwi Ki _vK|
7. GwU cvMvgi ewk cwieZb 7. gvbyl Zvi BQ Abyhvqx h Kvb
KiZ cvi bv| ewki cwieZbi I cwieab
KiZ cvi|
8. GwU h Kvb RwUj mgmvi `Z 8. gvbyl KLbB KwDUvii gZv
mgvavb w`Z cvi| `Z KvR KiZ cvi bv|
9. GwU wecbK cwiek KvR 9. gvbyl Rxebi SzwKc~Y cwiek
KiZ cvi| KvR KiZ Pvq bv|
10. KwDUvi PjvPj KiZ cvi 10. gvbyl Rxebi ZviY ^Qvq
bv| PjvPj KiZ cvi|

RAM Gi f~wgKv
RAM nj GKwU BsiwR ki msw ic| A_vr Random Acess Memory Gi wZbwU A`i wbq GK MVb Kiv
nqQ RAM. GwU KwDUvii ggvixi mv_ mswk welq| KwDUvii g~L ev cavb wZ njv `yB cKvii Zvi
GKwU njv RAM Ges AciwU njv ROM ev Read Only Memory. BbcyU wWfvBm nZ AvMZ mKj cKvi Z_
c_g RAM G Rgv nq| RAM G hLb ZLb bZzb Z_ jLv hvq, Z_ coZ cviv hvq| Avevi BQ Kij
Z_vw`K gyQ djv hvq| RAM Gi Z_ cov I jLv Dfq KvRB Kiv hvq ej GK Avevi wjLb cVb wZ bvgI
AwfwnZ Kiv hvq|
Kvb KviY we`yr cevn e nj RAM Gi mKj Z_ gyQ hvq| GRb GK Avevi Avqx wZ bvgI AwfwnZ Kiv
hvq| mvaviY RAM -G Z_vw` cybtcyb wjLbi gvag cybixweZ KiZ nq| GRbB KwDUvi Z_vw`i cVb I
cwieZb RAM eenvi Kiv nq _vK| KviY RAM wPc AewZ hKvb wZ vb mivmwi wbevPb Kiv hvq Ges
hKvb wZvb mivmwi WvUv gIRy` Kiv hvq| cqvRbi mgq WvUv wb`k cvV Kiv hvq| GwU KwDUvii we`yr
mieivni mv_ mivmwi mswk|
cKvif`t KvhKvwiZvi Dci wfw Ki KwDUvii RAM-K Avevi `yB fvM wef Kiv hvq| hgb-
(K) WvBbvwgK ivg (Dinamic Ram);
(L) vwUK ivg (Static Ram)|
Dcmsnvit KwDUvi KLbI gvbyli mgK bq| KwDUvi hZ `Z MwZZB KvR KiK bv; GwU evcK Kvh
gZv mb njI gvbylK KLbI KwDUvii cvZi Kvb wKQy fvev wVK ne bv| gvbyl KwDUvi Avwevi
KiQ wK KwDUvi gvbyl Avwevi Kiwb| KwDUvi Kejgv gvbyli wb`wkZ cvMvg gvZveK `Z KvR
KiZ _vK| KvRB Gi wZ k KLbI gvbyli gZv nZ cvi bv| Z_vwc cqvRbi Zvw`M Avgv`i wewfb RwUj
gvbyli weK wnme KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nQ|
KwDUvii kYxwefvM t
Avgv`i `bw`b Rxeb eeZ BjKUwb `evw`i ga KwDUvi me Pq ewk iZc~Y| wmwfjvBR mgvRi
cvq mKj B KwDUvi eeZ nq _vK| KwDUvi Ggb GKwU BjKUwb h hvi ewea KvR Kivi gZv
iqQ| hvi djkwZZ gvbyl Zvi cqvRb Abymvi wewfb aibi KwDUvi Dveb KiQ|

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KwDUvii kYxwefvM
mvaviYZ KvRi aiY I cwqvi Dci wfwKi KwDUviK wbv Dcvq kYxwefvM Kiv nqQ-

KwDUvi

GbvjM KwDUvi wWwRUvj KwDUvi nvBweW KwDUvi

mycvi gBbdg wgwb gvBv


KwDUvi KwDUvi KwDUvi KwDUvi
QKt KwDUvii kYxwefvM

K. GbvjM KwDUvit GbvjM ki A_ mv`kKiY| mvaviY _vgvwgUvii KvRi mv_ mv`k Ki evqyi Pv, Zvc,
DzZv, Av`Zv, evqycevn BZvw` cwigvc Kivi Rb h KwDUvi Dveb Kiv nqQ ZvKB GbvjM KwDUvi
ejv nq| GwU gvMZ cwieZbkxj cwigvc cwZZ KvR Ki _vK| GbvjM KwDUvi e`ywZK msKZi
gvag cqvRbxq cwigvcMZ djvdj wW c`kb Ki _vK& GwU g~jZ c`v_we`vi bxwZi Dci cwZwZ| GwU
_vgvwgUvii KvRi mv_ mv`k c~Y weavq GK GbvjM KwDUvi bvg AwfwnZ Kiv nqQ|
KvR/eenvwiK iZt GbvjM KwDUvi w`q wbv Kvhg mvw`Z Kiv nq| hgb-
1. e`ywZK Zvii fvRi DVvbvgv cwigvc KiY|
2. Kvb cvBc ev Nii ev wk KviLvbvi fZii evqy ev Zij c`v_i Pvci cwigvc KiY|
3. evZvmi cevn I Pvc cwiewZZ nIqv wbaviY|
4. wMqvii N~Yqb Ges kKUi Aevb cwieZb Rvbv|
5. wk KviLvbv ev Awdmi AfixY evqyi Pvc, Zvc, cevn mK Z_vw` Rvbvi G KwDUvii
eenvi Kiv nq|
L. wWwRUvj KwDUvit cPwjZ A_ KwDUvi ejZ wWwRUvj KwDUviKB eySvbv nq _vK| wWwRU k nZ
wWwRUvj ki Drcw nqQ| wWwRU nQ msLvevPK msLv| wWwRU Z_v MvwYwZK bxwZi wfwZ cwZwZ
KwDUviKB wWwRUvj KwDUvi ejv nq| wWwRUvj KwDUvii eYbv, eY, msLv, msKZ, cZxK BZvw`
BbcyU wnme wWwRU eeZ nq| GwU Lye m~fve wbfyj djvdj c`vb Ki _vK| mycvi KwDUvi, jvcUc
KwDUvi, WKwDUvi, wgwb KwDUvi BZvw` Gi DjLhvM D`vniY|
KvRt Avgv`i `k cPwjZ KwDUvijvi AwaKvskB wWwRUvj KwDUvi| hv`i mvnvh wbv Kvhvw` mb
nq|
1. wWwRUvj KwDUvi msLv cwqv KiYi gvag KvR Ki|
2. GwU 0 Ges 1 `ywU msLv w`q me aibi cwqvKiY mb Ki _vK|
3. GwU Lye m~ Ges wbfyjfve djvdj c`vb Ki _vK|
4. GwU eYmsLv KviUi ev msKZi gvag BbcyU MnY Ki|

AvKvi, aiY Ges gZvi Dci wfw Ki wWwRUvj KwDUvii kYxwefvM t


AvKvi, AvKwZ I Kvh `Zv I gZvi Dci wfw Ki wWwRUvj KwDUviK PviwU kYxZ fvM Kiv hvq Avevi
AvqZb Ges gZvi Dci wfw Ki wWwRUvj KwDUviK PviwU kYxZ fvM Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
K. mycvi KwDUvi;
L. gBbdg KwDUvi;
M. wgwbdg KwDUvi;
N. gvBv KwDUvi|

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K. mycvi KwDUvit eZgvb weki mePq MwZ mb `Z Kvh gZv hy eqej KwDUvi njv mycvi
KwDUvi| AvKwZi w`K _K GwU meenr| Gi Z_ msMn Kvh gZv Ges cwqvKiY Awekvm iKgi m~ Ges
`ZMwZ mb| eZgvb m~ evwbK MelYv, bfvhvb, Rxwegvb, cbv wbqY Gi eenvi Kiv nq|
K. gBbdg KwDUvit mvaviYZ GKwU eo KwDUvii mv_ AbKjv QvU KwDUvihy Ki AbKjv
gvbyli KvR Kivi myweav_ h KwDUvii cPjb Kiv nqQ ZvKB gBbdg KwDUvi ejv nq| GZ
mnmvwaK Wv^Uvwgbvj eenvi Kiv nq| GZ GKvwaK cwqv KiYi Ask _vK|
L. wgwbdg KwDUvit mvaviYZ gBbdg KwDUvii Pq QvU KwDUviKB wgwb dg KwDUvi ejv nq|
GK Avevi wgwb KwDUvi ejv nq| GKI Avevi Uvwgbvji gvag GK m AbK eenviKvix eenvi KiZ
cvi| Gi k `N 32-64 weU ch|
M. gvBv KwDUvit gvBv cmmi w`q Zwi mevcv z` Ges ej eeZ KwDUviKB gvBv KwDUvi
bvg mevwaK cwiwPZ| Gi k `N 8-32 weU ch| ewMZ, eemvwqK, `vwiK Ges miKvwi I emiKvwi
KvR GwU eeZ nq _vK| hgb-jvcUc, WUc G aiYi KwDUvi|
M. nvBweW KwDUvit gvbyli eenvwiK ZvwM` GbvjM Ges wWwRUvj G `yB kYxi KwDUvi chywi mg^q wgk
chywi h KwDUvi Dveb Kiv nqQ ZvKB nvBweW KwDUvi ejv nq| mvaviYZ hmg evwbK MelYv
Kvhg h GbvjM Ges wWwRUvj Dfq aiYi chywi wgk DcwwZi `iKvi nq mme G nvBweW
KwDUvii eenvi Kiv nq|
KvRt
1. GbjvM cwZZ G KwDUvi Dcv msMnxZ nq Ges msMnxZ DcvK msLvi icvKiY wWwRUvj
Aski eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
2. Gi wWwRUvj Ask Dcvi cwqvKZ djvdj c`kb Ki _vK|
3. GwU AcvKZ enr Ges LiP ej weavq gvbyli `bw`b mvaviY cqvRb eenvi Kiv nq bv|

eZgvb weki KwDUvi RMZi AbKUvB `Lj Ki iLQ wWwRUvj KwDUvi| Gi eenvi w`b w`b ew cqB
PjQ| gvbyl Zvi cqvRb Aviv wewfb aiYi wWwRUvj KwDUvi Dvebi gvMZ cPv Pvwjq hvQ|

KwDUvi Ges KvjKzjUii ga we`gvb cv_K


, -Computer is a automatic problem solving machine whose main purpose is data
processing or processing information and which is represented electrically.

KwDUvi Ges KvjKzjUii cv_K


A_MZfve KwDUvi Ges KvjKzjUii ga Lye GKUv cv_K bB| DfqwU w`qB MYbv Kiv hvq| DfqwUi
AvwfavwbK A_ njv wnme wbKvk h| Ze eZgvb wek KwDUvi eenvii evcKZvq G`i Kvhgi h_
cv_K iqQ| KwDUvi Ges KvjKzjUii ga cv_K wbP DjL Kiv njv-
KvjKzjUi KwDUvi
1. KvjKzjUii AvKvi QvU| 1. KwDUvii AvKvi eo|
2. Gi mvnvh ay gv MYbv Kiv hvq| 2. Gi Kvh gZv ewPZvc~Y|
3. Gi mvnvh wfwWI `Lv hvq bv| 3. Gi mvnvh wfwWI `Lv hvq|
4. Gi mvnvh B-gj Kiv hvq bv| 4. Gi mvnvh B-gj Kiv hvq|
5. BUvibU Kvh Gi eenvi bB| 5. BUvibUi Kvh Gi eenvi AvQ|
6. GK gnvk~b MelYvq eenvi Kiv nq bv| 6. GK gnvk~Y MelYvq eenvi Kiv hvq|
7. KvjKzjUii wWwRU msLv mxgve| 7. KwDUvii wWwRU msLv mxgve bq|
8. Gi cvMvwgs gZv mxgve| 8. Gi cvMvwgs gZv mxgve bq|
9. Gi Z_ msMni gZv Kg| 9. Gi Z_ msMni gZv AZ ewk|
10. Gi hvski cwigvY Kg| 10. Gi hvski cwigvY ewk|
11. Gi enb ev vbvi mnR| 11. Gi enb ev vbvi KvjKzjUii PvBZ KwVb|
12. GwU wnmei KvRi Rb eeZ nq| 12. GwU Avgv`i `bw`b Rxebi ewe` KvR eeZ
nq|

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KwDUvii gweKvki BwZnvm (mswic)


KwDUvii gweKvki BwZnvm AbK cyivbv| KwDUvii De Ges wevii cQb gvbyli kZvxi ci kZvx
ch cPv AenZ wQj| GLbI gvbyl Aviv DbZ Aviv ewk Kvhg KwDUvi wKfve Dveb Kiv hvq Zvi
cPv AenZ iLQ| g~jZt cvPxb MYbv h nZB Gi Dvebx i nq|

KwDUvii gweKvki BwZnvmt gvbyli cqvRbxq MYbv Kvhg nZB KwDUvi Dvebi cPv i nq|
cvPxbKvj gvbyl MYbvi Rb bywo, wSbyK, `woi wMU, Qwoi wMU BZvw`K MYbvi Kvh eenvi KiZ| cvPxb ivgbiv
mi PuvO bywo cv_i dj MYbv KiZ Ges Zv vbvwiZ KiZ| ivgvb fvlvq Gme bywocv_iK ejv nZv
KvjKzwj (Calculi)| Avi G KvjKzwj nZ BsiwR KvjKzjUi kwU De nqQ| Gi KqK nvRvi eQi ci
DvweZ nqQ AvevKvm bvg MYbvi h|
AvevKvm GKwU cvPxb MYbvi h| GUvKB KwDUvi BwZnvmi c_g h wnme aiv nq _vK| g~jZt AvevKvm
nZB KwDUvi BwZnvmi g AMhvv i nq| AvevKvm wQj dg AvUKvbv vb cwieZb hvM wUi mg^q|
Lx c~e 500 A wgki wKsev Pxb mec_g GwU DvweZ nqwQj| 1614 mvj Ujvi MwYZwe` bwcqvi
jMvwi`g mviYx Avwevi Ki KvwVi eenvi Ki MYbvi GKwU h Dveb Kib hvK bwcqvii nvo (Napiers Bone)
ejv nZv| wbDUb Zvi Dbqb mvab Kib|

Abw`K divmx hyeK eBR 1642 mvj Dveb Kib cvvj bvgK GKwU MYbvi h| Zvici 1670 mvj Rvgvb
MwYZwe` MU dvBW fb wjewgR Dveb Kib wjewgR bvgK MYbvi h| hvi mvnvh hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM BZvw`
Kiv me nqQ| Zvici 1786 mvj Rvgvbxi g~jvi Dveb Ki Aviv DbZ MYbvi h wWdvi Bwb| hvK c_g
KvjKzjUi wnme aiv nq| cieZxZ Pvjm eveR 1812 mvj cwic~Y MYbvi h Dveb Kib| hvK AvaywbK
KwDUvii c~eic wnme aiv hvq|

1887 mvj gvwKb cwimsLvbwe` Wt nvigvb njwi_ Av`g gvix Kvh cvKvW eenvi Ki KwDUvii
AMhvvK Aviv ewk mylgvwZ Kib| Zvi bZZ MwVZ nq UeyjwUs Kvvbx hvi gvag KwDUvi wki
eemvwqK `wfwi m~cvZ NU| ci G Kvvbx Ges Aviv KqKwU Kvvbx wgj KwDUvi Dveb Ges
evwYRi Dk MwVZ nq IBM ev BUvibvkbvj weRbm gwkb bvg GKwU enr Kvvbx| ZLb _KB evRvi
Gm hvq GbvjvBwUKvj Bwb bvg bZzb aibi MYbvi h|
1946 mvj hyivi cbwmjfvwbqv wekwe`vjqi AavcK Wt Rb gWmwj Ges Zvi Qv cmcvi GKvU ENIAC
bvg GKwU MYbvi h Dveb Kib| Gi IRb wQj 30Ub Ges fvKzg wUDe wQj 1900wU| hwU Pvjvbvi Rb
we`yrkwi cqvRb nZv 130 wKt Iqvt Avi RvqMvi cqvRb wQj 1500 eMdzU| 1950 ch Gi eenvi Pvjy wQj|
Rb gvDmwj Ges cmcvi GKvU 1951 mvj Avevi Dveb Kib UNIVAC. hvi eenvi gZv wQj AZ
ewPgq| GwUB njv evwYwRK wfwZ Zwi c_g BjKUwbK KwDUvi| GZ wvj WvqvW myBP Ges fvKzqvg
wUDe myBP eenvi Kiv nq| Gi mePq iZc~Y ewk njv Gi mvnvh cov, MYbv Ges Z_ jLvi KvR Kiv
hvq| cKZc ZLb nZB ek wKQy cwZvb evwYwRK wfwZ KwDUvi Zwi KiZ _vK Ges evRvi RvZ Ki|
1971 mvji w`K gvwKb hyivi KwZcq Kvvbx Aviv ewk Drcv`bg Ges Kvhg KwDUvi Drcv`b I
evRviRvZ KiZ i Ki| Gw`K Gwkqvi A_bwZK wKs RvcvbI G gvUI wcwQq bB| ZvivI wewfb
gWji ej KvhgZv mb KwDUvi Drcv`b I evRviRvZ KiY wekK `Lj Ki wbqQ| Zv`i Drcvw`Z
KwDUvijv `vg mv AZ `Z MwZ mb Ges gReyZ| weki gvbyl Rvcvbi KwDUvii cwZ Aviv ewk
SuvK co|

KwDUvii gweeZbi BwZnvm bvwZ`xN| Z_vwc Rvbvi Rb GLvb mswic KwDUvii BwZnvm Dcvcb Kiv
njv| eZgvb AZ QvU wPcm eenvi Ki AZvaywbK Ges QvU AvKvii KwDUvi DvweZ KiQ| GLb Avi
KwDUvi ay MYbvi h bq| Gi eenvi AZ ewPgyLx nqQ| hvi KjvYKi w`K Amxg|

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KwDUvii AMMwZi cQb Pvjm eveR(KwDUvii RbK) Ae`vb t


KwDUvi weki DbwZi mv_ h gnvb ewi bvg Rwoq iqQ wZwb njb Pvjm eveR| KwDUvii
AvaywbKvqbi mv_ Pvjm eveR Gi Ae`vb Ab^xKvh| wZwb g~jZt GKRb BsiR MwYZwe`| wZwbB mec_g
kwkvjx MYbvi hi Dveb Kib| hvi Dci wfw Ki KwDUvi Dveb mnR nq|
Pvjm eveRt Pvjm eveR wQjb Bsjvi KvgweR wekwe`vjqi MwYZi AavcK| wZwb 1792 mvj RbMnY
Kib Ges 1871 mvj gZzeiY Kib| wZwb mvivRxeb MelYv Ki GKwU kwkvjx MYbvi h Avwevi Kib hvi
bvg wQj wWdviwqvj Bwb ev weqvM dj wfwK MYbvi h| wZwb GZ cvKvWi eenvi Ki KwDUvii
AvaywbKvqbi m~cvZ NUvb| ZvB ZvK AvaywbK KwDUvii RbK ejv nq| Pvjm eveR Zvi MelYv Kvhi Rb
ewUk miKvi KZK wekvj Aby`vb cqwQjb|
Pvjm eveRi Ae`vbt 1812 mvj Pvjm eveR jMvwi`gi m~K cqvM Ki KwDUvii wWdviwqvj Bwb
Dveb Kib| GZ wZwb GK mvwi cvmKj aiYi MYbvi h Ggbfve mshy Kib h GKwUi Output ev djvdj
AciwUi Input ev hvMvb wnme KvR Kie| Pvjm eveR Rxebi `k eQi MelYv Ki h wWdviwqvj Bwb
Dveb KiwQjb Zvi KvhgZv h_v_ bv nIqvq cieZxZ wZwb bZzb aiYi h Avwevi gbvhvMx nb| Zuvi
MelYv Kvhg wQj my`xN|
Pvjm eveR Rxebi kl w`bwU ch h h Dveb KvwUqQb mwU njv AvbvjvBwUKvj Bwb ev weklbx h|
Pvjm eveRi G DvweZ wPvkw wKsev gwkb cwiKbv AvaywbK KwDUvii g~jbxwZi Dci mycwZwwZ cvq|
A_vr Zvi cwiKbvi m~ aiB KwDUvi weki AvaywbKvqb me nqQ| GRbB Pvjm eveRK AvaywbK
KwDUvii RbK ejv nq|
Pvjm eveR Zvi gwkb cwiKbvq AvaywbK KwDUvii gZv wbqY Ask, MvwYwZK Ask, wZ Ask, MnYgyL Ask,
wbMgbgyL Ask wPwZ KiwQjb| hw`I eveRi cwiKbv wQj DbZ Ges evwbK Z_vwc ZLbI hyMvKvix
chywi Dbqb nqwb weavq Zvi cwiKbvK ZLb evevqb Kiv me nqwb| hvi dj ZLbKvi Abvb wevbxiv
eveR cwiKbvK eveRi g~LZv (Babbages Folly) ej Dcnvm KiwQj| miKviI Zvi MelYvi Aby`vb e
KiwQj|
cKZ c Pvjm eveRi wPv Ges cwiKbv wQj kZ eQii AvMvg wPv| A_vr KwDUvi RMZi kZ eQi
ci wKic DbZ chywi mshvRb nZ cvi ZviB cwZdjb KiwQjb eveR Zvi KwDUvi cwiKbvq| Ze Zuvi
wPv cm~Z cwiKbv Zvi gZzi ci evevqb Kiv me nqwQj| Zuvi AmsL wP Ges bKkv AvaywbK KwDUvi
weKvki ciYv hywMqQ| eveRi wPvi GKk eQi ci KwDUvii h chvq DbxZ nqQ mic KwDUvi
wPv wZwb GKk eQi AvM KiwQjb| ZvB wZwb AvaywbK KwDUvii RbK wnme ^xKwZ cqQb|
KwDUvii Dbqb AbK wevbxi bvgB weklfve RwoZ iqQ| Ze Pvjm eveRi Ae`vb Ab^xKvh| hw`I G
wevbx Rxekvq Gi ^xKwZ cq hZ cvibwb| cw_exZ wZwbB GKgv wevbx whwb mviv Rxeb GKwU gv h
DvebB KvwUqQb, Zey mdj nZ cvib wb| ZvB wZwb Rxekvq mZx_`i Dcnvmi cv cwiYZ nqwQjb|

KwDUvi cRb
KwDUvii gweeZbi BwZnvm cyibv njI wZxq wekhyi cieZx mgq nZ KwDUvi cRb aiv nq| Gi AvM
KwDUvii aviYv wfbfve MYbvi Kvh eeZ nZv| AvaywbK KwDUvii AMhvv g~jZt weMZ cvk eQi AvM
_KB i nqQ|
KwDUvi cRbt cRbMZ Ges HwZnvwmK DbwZ Abymvi KwDUvii AMhvvK h KqwU fvM fvM Kiv nqQ
ZvKB KwDUvi cRb (Generation of Computer) ejv nq| KwDUvi cRbi wnme 1946 Z_v wZxq wekhyi
ci nZB aiv nq _vK| KviY ZLb _KB KwUvii AvaywbKxKiYi AMhvv i nqQ| KwDUvii eenviI
mcmvwiZ nqQ|
KwDUvi cRbi kYxwefvMt AvaywbK KwDUvi wevbxMY KwDUvi cRbK cvuPwU fvM fvM KiQb| hv`iK
GK GKwU KwDUvi cRb ejv nq| hgb
K. c_g cRb (1st Generation)
L. wZxq cRb (2nd Generation)
M. ZZxq cRb (3rd Generation)
N. PZz_ cRb (4th Generation)
O. cg cRb (5th Generation)
K. c_g cRbt 1946 mvj nZ 1958 mvj ch KwDUvii mgq mxgvK KwDUvii c_g cRb ejv nq|
Kviv Kviv gZ G mgqmxgv 1937 mvj nZ 1958 mvj ch weZZ| wUDe wewk BjvwbK ebxi ej
eenvi, Pz^Kxq Wvg ev XvjK, wZ, mxwgZ Z_, aviY gZv, cvKvW, BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU mivg Ges

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KvWi eenvi BZvw` G cRbi cavb ewk| c_g cRb DvweZ KwDUvi jvi ga wbvjv
AbZg| hgb-
IBM 650, MARK- ii, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC BZvw`|
ewkt c_g cRbi KwDUvijv wbv ewkjv we`gvb wQj-
1. KwDUvijv wekvj AvKwZi wQj|
2. WvqvW, UvqvW, fvjf, iwRvi, gvcwmUvi BZvw` hvsk eeZ nZv|
3. gwkbi fvlvq cvMvg iwPZ nZv|
4. fvKzqvg wUDei Avqy Kvj Yvqx|
5. iYveY I Dvc mgmv cLi wQj|
6. mxwgZ cvMvg aviY gZv|
L. wZxq cRbt mvaviYZ KwDUvi weki 1959 mvj nZ 1965 mvj ch mgqmxgvK KwDUvii wZxq cRb
ejv nq| KwDUvii wZxq cRb BbwUMUW mvwKWi h_v_ eenvi, Zvcgvv wbqY, KwDUvii AvKvi nvm
Ges wbfihvMZv BZvw` mvdj ficyi| G cRb ASC ii cwZi DvweZ nq| G mgq nvWIqvii cvkvcvwk
mdU& Iqvii cf~Z DbwZ mvwaZ nqQ| KwDUvii wZxq cRbi KwDUvii gWj jvi ga IBM
1400, ACA 501, NCR 300 BZvw` AbZg|
ewkt
1. KwDUvii AvKwZi msKvPb|
2. fvKzqvg wUDei cwieZ UvwRvii eenvi|
3. gwWDjvi wWRvBbi eenvi|
4. P^K Kvii eevni|
5. Zvc mgmvi Aemvb, AwWI I wfwWIi hvM Dbqb|
6. DP MwZ mb BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU mivg|
M. ZZxq cRbt 1966 mvj nZ 1970 mvj ch mgqmxgvK weki KwDUvii ZZxq cRb ejv nq| G cRb
KwDUvi Small Scale Integrated Circuit Ges Medium Scale Integrated Circuit eenvi nq| ZLb KwDUvi
AvDUcyU wnme Video Display Unit Ges DP MwZi wcUvii cPjb nq| ZLb nZB BASIC fvlvi eenvi nq
Ges gvDmi eenvwiK KvhKvwiZv Avi nq| KwDUvii ZZxq cRbi KwDUvijvi ga IBM-360,
IBM-370, PDP-8 BZvw` AbZg|
ewkt
1. KwDUvii AvKwZi Aviv msKvPb|
2. gyw`Z AvKvi AvDUcyU cvIqvi Rb jvBb wcUvii eenvi|
3. KwDUvi cmmi weZZ wb`kgvjv weBb eenvi|
4. mgw^Z mvwKU eenvi I wbevnx cwZi Dbqb|
5. wgwb KwDUvi, DPZi fvlvi eenvi|
N. PZz_ cRbt mvaviYZt 1971 mvj nZ 1994 mvj ch weZZ mgqmxgvK KwDUvi PZz_ cRb ejv nq| G
mgq KwDUvi weki cf~Z DbwZ mvwaZ nqQ| G cRb LSI Ges VLSI gvBvcmmi Ges Some
Conductor Memory w`q KwDUvi Zwi nqQ| G cRb RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM AvweZ nqQ|
DBvR, Wm, Ges AcviwUs wmg G cRb eeZ nQ| G cRb gvBv KwDUvi c~Yv ic jvf
KiQ| PZz_ cRbi KwDUvi gWjjvi ga IBM-3030, IBM-4300, IBMS/36, Sharp PC-1211, Apple
II BZvw` AbZg|
ewkt
1. enr AvKvii GKxf~Z eZbx
2. evcK Z_ aviY gZv|
3. cvMvg cvKRi evcK DbwZ I cPjY|
4. cvMvg cvKR DPZi fvlvi eenvi|
5. gvBv KwDUvii cfZ DbwZ|
6. Uwej ewmq KvR Kivi gZv ew|
O. cg cRbt Rvcvb KwDUvi wevbx`i enr mjbi gvag 1995 mvj nZ cieZx mgqmxgvK
KwDUvii cg cRb wnme aiv nqQ| Ze eenvwiK GLbI PZz_ cRbi KwDUvi Pvjy AvQ|
eZgvb cRb AZvaywbK KwDUvi Dvebi cPv AevnZ iqQ| wewfb aibi wPcm Ges AcwUKvj
dvBevi w`q cg cRbi KwDUvi mw nqQ| GwU AZv kwkvjx gvBv cmmi I cPzi WvUv aviY
gZv mb KwDUvi G cRb Dveb Kiv nqQ| G cRbi KwDUviK Knowledge Information,
Processing system = IPS ev GcvU wmg ejv nq|
ewkt
1. Kwg eywgvi mshvRb|

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2. ^qswq Abyev` Kvhg|


3. gvbyli K^i mbv Kivi gZv|
4. wecyj gZv mb mycvi KwDUvii Dveb|
5. weqKi wZ kw|

cvPxb KvjKzjUi, AvevKvm, wWdvi Bwb Ges cevW t


cvPxb KvjKzjUit mfZvi iZ gvbyl Mybvi Kvh Avyj, cv_i wKsev el Kiv ci nvoi eenvi KiZv|
cieZxZ Zviv wewfb aibi bywoK Mybvi Kvh eenvi KiQ| GK mgq gvbyl `woi wMU ev wSbyKK Mybvi Kvh
eenvi KiZ Af njv cvPxb ivgvbiv mi MZ ev Pv bywo dj enr Mybvi KvR mviZ| ivgvb fvlvq QvU
cv_i ev bywoK ejv nq KvjKzwj| Avi G KvjKzwj k nZB AvaywbK KvjKzjUi Gi De nqQ| AvaywbK
KvjKzjUi Dveb ewUk Ges Rvgvb`i Ae`vb mevcv ewk| ZvivB wek evRvi AvaywbK KvjKzjUi mcmviY
NwUqQ|
AvevKvmt cvPxb MYbv hi bvg njv AvevKvm| GK c_g wWwRUvj MYbv h ejv nZv| GwU KvjKzjUi Gi
gZvB MYbv h| aviYv Kiv nq AvR nZ 2500 eQi c~e Pxb A_ev wgki AvevKvm aibi MYbvi h eenvi Kiv
nZv| Ze weki MYbvi hwU AvevKvm bvgB cwiwPZ wQj| Pxb, Rvcvb, ivwkqvq GLbI MYbvi h wnme
AvevKvm eenvi Kiv nq Ges Gi mvnvh wkv cwZhvwMZv Kiv nq| Rvcvb AvevKvmK ej mvivevb Ges
ivwkqvq ej vwPiv|
AvevKvm njv dgve `i ga wU mshy GKwU MYbvi h| AvevKvmi iqQ 7 ev 9wU `| cwZwU ` `yB
w`K w`q dg Ave Ges gvSLvb Ab GKwU dg w`q Pvcv `qv hvZ Ki Dcii wU mnR bxP Ges bxPi wU
mnRB Dci hZ cvi bv| wK eenviKvix wbavwiZ Kkj wUi Dci bxP mshvM KgvZ evovZ cvib Ges
vbPzZ KiZ cvib| cieZxZ Ujvi MwYZwe` bwcqvi cvPxb AvevKvk hi Dbqb mvab Kib| AbK ci
wevbx wbDUb AvevKvm MYbv h cf~Z Dbqb mvab Kib|
wWdvi Bwbt ^qswq MYbvq hi bvg wWdvi Bwb| Rvgvb wevbx g~jvi 1786 mvj wWdviwqvj Bwb bvg
GKwU KvjKzjUii cwiKbv Kib| Zvi cvq `yB hyM ci ewUk MwYZwe` Pvjm eveR MYbvi ^qswq h wnme
wWdvi Bwb Dveb Kib| 1812 mvj Pvjm eveR jMvwi`wgK wnmvemn MvwYwZK wnmvei Rb DbZ wWdvi
Bwb Zwi Ki mevi Rb Dby Ki `b| 1823 mvj wWwe wZwb wWdvi Bwb Gi mv_ wKvYwgwZ Ges Abvb
MvwYwZK wnmve ^qswqfve mb Ki gyw`&Z djvdj cvwi evevqb Kib|
GZ Ki MYbv hi cf~Z DbwZ nq Ges ewUk miKvi Zvi Rb Avw_K Aby`vbi eev Kib| wZwb cwic~Yfve
wWdvi Bwb Gi KvR kl Kib| wZwb Gi Aviv Dbqb mvab Ki 1862 mvj AvRvwZK wevb c`kbxZ
hwUi eenvi Ki `Lvb| G hi g~j wfw wQj Kvb mgxKiYi X Gi wewfb gvbi Rb Y Gi wewfb gvbi
weqvMdj wfwK QK Zwi Kiv|
cKvWt KwDUvi RMZ cKvWi aviYv AbKUvB cyibv| GwU MYbvi Kvh eeZ nq AvmQ| divmx e wk
me c_g cKvWi eenvi mshy nq| G divmx ewkx hvmd mvixi bvg weklfve DjLhvM| wZwb
Kvcoi bKkv wbqY wQ`hy cKvWi eenvi Pvjy Kib| Zvici KwDUvi wevbx eveR Gi cKvWK
KwDUvi Avw`ic GvbvjvBwUKvj Bwb eenvi Kib| cieZxZ KwDUvi cKvWi eenvi `viY fve cPwjZ
nq|
AvaywbK KwDUvii KvhKix c`c i nq c_g e`ywZK cKvWi eenvii gvag| gvwKb hyivi mvgwiK
Kvh `ZZi Kivi Rb cwimsLvbwe` Wt nigvb njwew_ 1890 mvj me c_g c KvWi eenvi Kib| Gici
nZ KwDUvi MYbvi Kvh cKvW eenvii c_v evcKfve Pvjy nq|

GbvjvBwUK Bwb Ges BjKwUK KwDUvi


GbvjvBwUK Bwbt wevbx Pvjm eveR Rxebi kl w`bwU ch h hwU Avwevii Rb weewPZ wQjb Zv njv
GbvjvBwUK Bwb ev weklYx h| Pvjm eveRi DvweZ KwDUvi cwiKbvi Dci wfw KiB AvRKi
KwDUvi weki GZv ekx mgw GmQ| A_vr Zvi KwDUvi cwiKbvi m~ aiB AZvaywbK KwDUvii
Dveb NUvbv nhQ| GRbB Pvjm eveRK AvaywbK KwDUvii RbK ejv nqQ|
Pvjm eveR GvbvBwUK Bwb bvg h DbZ gvbi KwDUvii gKvwbKvj cwiKbv KiwQjb Zv cieZxZ wek
KwDUvi wece NUvZ mg nqQ|

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Zvi c`wkZ KwDUvi cwiKbvq h Ask jvi aviYv `qv nqwQj mjvi mv_ AvaywbK KwDUvii wewfb
Aski `vib mv`k iqQ| cwiKbv gZ GvbvjvBwUK Bwb cavbZ mUvi, wgj Ges KUvj bvgK wZbwU Ask
_vKvi K_v| ZvZ cKvWi mvnvh mUvi mg Z_, wb`k Ges wewfb chvqi MYbvi djvdj _vKe| wgj
wMqvii mvnvh cKvW nZ cv Z_i wfwZ MYbv Kie| KUvj wgjK wb`k `e KLb wK KvR Kie|
Pvjm eveR AvaywbK KwDUvii gZv Zvi gwkb wbqY Ask, MvwYwZK Ask, wZ Ask, MnYgyL I wbMgb gyL
Askjv wPwZ Kib| cKvW w`q gwkbi mv_ mshvMmn gwkbi AfixY Kvh wbqYi RbI wZwb KvW
eenvii wb`k `b| wZ Ask cvk AsK `Ni 1000 msLv msiYi cwiKbv Kib| Zvi cwiKbv Abyhvqx
cvk AsKi `yBwU msLvi hvM ev weqvMi Rb GK mK Ges Yi Rb 1 wgwbU mgq jvMvi K_v| eveRi
aviYv LyeB AvaywbK wQj| Zvi gwjK wPv cm~Z cwiKbvK AbymiY KiB AvRKi KwDUvi wevbxiv
AZvaywbK KwDUvi Avwevi KiZ mg nqQ| hvi cfve GLbI AenZ iqQ| wK Rxekvq wZwb Gmei
^xKwZ cvbwb|
BjKwUK KwDUvit 1946 mvj hyivi cbwmjfvwbq wekwe`vjqi AavcK Wt Rb gvBmwj Ges Zvi mnKgx
cmcvi GKvD ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) bvg h KwDUvi Avwevi Kib ZvnvB
njv BjKwUK KwDUvi| Gi IRb wQj 30 Ub Ges fvKzg wUDe wQj 1900wU| hwU cwiPvjbv KiZ we`yrkwi
cqvRb wQj 130 wKt IqvU| Avi RvqMvi cqvRb wQj 1500 eMdzU| 1955 mvj ch Gi eenvi cPwjZ wQj|
Gi mvnvh `k AsKi `ywU msLvi Y KiZ mgq jvMZ 1 mKi GK nvRvi fvMi wZb fvM Ges hvM KiZ
jvMZ 200 gvBv mK Avi fvM KiZ mgq jvMZ 6 gvBvwgwjqb mK|
cieZxZ KgweR wekwe`vjqi AavcK gwim 1949 mvj Zvi Aviv ewk DbZ cvMvg mU Kib| Zvici
wevbx gvDmwj, , evKm, MvvBb, Ges Rb weDgvb cgyLi cPvq EDVAC bvg cbv Ges Abvb hyv
wbqYi KwDUvi DvweZ nq| cieZxZ UNIVAC bvg BjwbK eenvihvM KwDUvi cewZZ nq| DjL
UNIVAC B njv me c_g evwYwRK wfwZ Zwi BjKUwbK KwDUvi| G KwDUvi wvj WvqvW myBP Ges
fvKzg wUDe mvwKU eenvi Kiv nqQ| Gi mePq DjLhvM ewk nQ GwU GKB m cov, MYbv, Ges Z_
jLvi KvR KiZ cviZv| cKZ c ZLb nZB ek wKQy cwZvb evwYwRK wfwZ KwDUvi Zwi Ges evwYR
KiZ _vK|
Zvi ci 1971 mvj hyivi BjUj Kvvbx wek evRvi BjKUwbK KwDUvi ivbx KiZ _vK| Abw`K
Rvcvb lvUi `kK nZB wekevcx KwDUvi Drcv`b I evwYR KiZ _vK| AvRKvj GK Bw PIov, `o Bw j^v
Ges wmwK Bw cyi wPcm eenvi Ki AbK QvU A_P `Z KvR Kivi MwZ mb KwDUvi Dveb Kiv nqQ|
hv evRvi cvIqv hvQ|

wkY I MelYv KwDUvii Ae`vb


wkv MelYv KwDUvii ewe` eenvi iqQ| weklfve wkv`vb, MelYv Kvh, Z_i msiY, eenvi
Ges djvdj c`vb KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nq _vK| QvU`i KvUyb wPi gvag eY cwiPq, DPviY wkLvbv, Qwe
c`kb, Mi gvag wkKi Dcvcbi wmwW c`kb BZvw` Kvh KwDUvi eenvi Kiv nq| G Qvov Qv Qvxiv
wbRivB KwDUvi eenvi Ki mvaviY vb Ges eenvwiK wekl vbi e Z_vw` AvqZ KiZ cvi|
DPZi kYxi wkv_x`i Rb evRvi AmsL KwDUvi mdU&Iqvi cPwjZ iqQ| Gme md&UIqvii gvag
wkv_xiv Zv`i wkY mwKZ AbK welq mK AeMZ nZ cvi| wPwKrmv Ges Bwwbqvwis welqi wkv_xiv
KwDvi wmwW eenvi Ki Zv`i welqMZ AbK Z_vw` PgrKvifve AeMZ nZ cvi| wmwWi gvag Gme welqi
m~ Ges wek` weeiY mK AeMZ nZ cvi| G KwDUvi wkv_x`i nvZ Kjg wkv`vbi KvRwU
fvjfve mv`b Kiv hvq|
wkv_x`i DP wkvi kl chvq Ges DP wkv kl MelYvg~jK KvRi KwDUvi GKwU wekl mnvqK h
wnme KvR Ki _vK|
wkv_x`i DP wkvi kl chvq Ges DP wkv kl MelYvg~jK KvRi KwDUvi GKwU wekl mnvqK h
wnme KvR Ki _vK MelYvi Z_vw`i msMn weklY, MelYv Z_i djvdj c`vb, msiY, gy`Y, MelYv
cwZe`b Zwi BZvw` hveZxq KvR KwDUvii gvag mb Kiv nq _vK| KvRB KwDUvi G mvaviYZ
gvwwgwWqv wnme eeZ nq _vK| Gi gvag `~i wkYi KvhwUI weklfve mb nQ| g~jZt KwDUvi
cPwjZ wkv aviYvKB weklfve cv w`Q|
eZgvb wek cwZwU evwbK MelYvq GK iZc~Y I Acwinvh Dcv`vb nQ KwDUvi| wekl Ki c`v_,
imvqb, Rxewevb, cwimsLvb, MwYZ, GvivbwU, GvivWvg, wRb cKkjmn mKj aibi evwbK MelYvq
KwDUvi eeZ nQ| KvRB wkv MelYvi KwDUvii Acwimxg Ae`vb iqQ| hv AvR meRb ^xKZ|

13

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MelYv Ges MelYv cv djvdj gvbe mfZvK DbwZi c_ cwiPvwjZ KiQ| Avi gvbe mfZvi Dbqbi G
MelYvK gwjK A_ ZvwoZ KiQ KwDUvi| ZvBZv ejv nq eZgvb KwDUvi Qvov AvaywbK wkv MelYv
APj|
cwikl ejv hvq gvbe mfZvK m~Y fve DbZ KiQ wkv Ges wkv MelYv| hLvb eZgvb KwDUvii
mnhvwMZvg~jK f~wgKv Ab^xKvh| gvbyli KjvYi Rb KwDUvi eenvi Ges gvbexq mgmv mgvavbi
MelYvg~jK KgKv KwDUvii eenvi w`b w`b Aviv ewk ew cvQ|

KwDUvi wfwK Aciva Ges MvcbxqZv mgmv t


eZgvb mvgvwRK iciLv Z_v mgvR Rxebi cwieZb Avbqb KwDUvii f~wgKv Ab^xKvh| hfve KwDUvii
evcKZv ew cvQ ZvZ AvMvgxZ cwZwU KwDUvii cqvM Qvov mgvR Rxeb APj Ges AKbxq nq
DVe| KwDUvii eenvi gvbe RxebK GZv wbweo eb Ave KiQ hv ej kl Kiv hve bv|
gvbyyli mgvR Rxeb I KwDUvii mKt gvbyli mgvR Rxeb KwDUvii mK AwZ wbweo| eZgvb mfZvq
KwDUvi bvbvwea Kvh eeZ nQ| wekl Ki wkv MelYv, Kj KviLvbv, wk, eemv, hvMvhvM, cwienb,
`i, Awdm Av`vjZ, wPwKrmv BZvw` KwDUvii eenvi `Z mcmvwiZ nQ| KwDUvi eZgvb gvbyli
Rxebi MwZK evwoq w`qQ| KwDUvii eenvi mviv cw_ex AvR Mvevj wfjR cwiYZ nqQ| gvbyli
mv_ gvbyli hvMvhvMi evcK DbwZ mvwaZ nqQ| Z_ chywi Dbqb KwDUvii AweiYxq Ae`vb cwZdwjZ
nqQ| KvRB mgvR Rxeb I KwDUvi AvR wbweo eb Ave nq MQ| GZ Ki gvbyl AvR hvwK mfZvi
KvQ wRw nq coQ| gvbyl gvbyli mcxwZ AbK B nvm cvQ| A_vr ejv hvq- KwDUvi gvbyli
mvgvwRK mKi ebK AvjMv Ki w`Q| Ze G Mfxifve wPv Kij `Lv hve h GRb gvbyli
gvbwmKZvB weklfve `vqx| KviY gvbyl wbRi Abyf~wZK ai iL hi KvQ civwRZ njv A_ev wbRi Aw
ZK Abyfe Kij bv GRb Zv KwDUvi `vqx bq| KwDUvi Zv gvbyli mw| KvRB gvbylK wbRB wbRi Rxe
kZ ai ivLZ ne|
KwDUvi wfwK Acivat eZgvb wek GKwU jYxq Aciva nQ KwDUvi Aciva| KwDUvii hvwK ggvwiZ
msiwZ g~jevb WvUvi wKQy Ask hw` KD fyj ev BQvKZfve b Ki Ze Zv Dvi Kiv cvq Ame nq co|
mvaviYZ msiwZ WvUv BQvKZ fve b KivB njv KwDUvi Aciva| wekl Ki evswKs Kvh KwDUvii KvW
f KD hw` evsKi MwQZ weivU Aski UvKv AcmviY Ki wfb GKvDU vbvwiZ Ki AvZmvZ Ki, Ze Zv
nq KwDUvii gvivZK Acivai Afy|
KwDUvi Acivai ga Mvcbxq KvW b^i Pzwi Kiv AZ gvivZK| KviY G UvKv AvZmvZKvwi wKsev
Acivaxi nw`m cvIqv AZ KwVb nq co| KwDUvi eenvii evcKZv G aibi Acivai gvvK evwoq
w`qQ| GRb cqvRb gvbyli Pwii Dbqb, bwZKZv Ges g~jeva wkvi mcmviY|
KwDUvi Acivai ga Avi GKwU w`K njv BUvibU, B-gBj Gi gvag ebvg KDK Rxeb gZzi gKx `qv
G ebvgx AcivaKvix aiv Qvqvi evBi Pj hvq Ges Ab ew dum hvq| GQvovI KwDUvii gvag v
Z_vw` ciY Ki ebvg ewK wec` djv hvq| KvDK Ab_K nqivwb Kiv hvq| GRbB Kov wbivcv eev
Ges AvBb-Kvbyb cqvM Ki KwDUvi Aciva `gb Kiv hvq|
MvcbxqZv cKvkt KwDUvii gvag ewMZ MvcbxqZv b nq hZ cvi| A_ev ewi ewMZ Z_vw` AbK
mgq ` AcviUii AcviwUs Gi gvag MvcbxqZv duvm nq hZ cvi| ez nq KwDUvi evDwRs Gi gvag
A_ev Rb B-gji gvag cwZvb `i wKsev ewMZ Z_vw` m^ AeMZ nq Zv Ab duvm Ki `qv me nq|
eZgvb wek DbZ `k jvi cvq cZKB KwDUvi eenvi Ki _vK| Zviv gb Ki ewi MvcbxqZv duvm
Kivi KwDUvi GKwU gvivZK gKx ^ic| BjKUwbK gji gvag msev`i MvcbxqZv iv cvq bv|
Mvcb msev`wU me cKvwkZ nq hvq| gvwKb gyjyKi 54% RbMY gb Kib Uvwgbvj eenvi Ki KwDUvi
ggvwi nZ msev` mnRB duvm Ki `qv me| GQvov cw_exi wewfb vb KwDUvii gvag WvUv Pzwii ceYZvI
Kg bq| KwDUvii Aciva ceYZv nvm Kivi Rb KwDUvi cwZiv chywi Dbqbi cvkvcvwk KwDUvi
eenvi MvcbxqZv ivi KwVb AvBb cYqb Kiv Acwinvh|

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Kx evW: webvm, KvhcYvjx Ges eenvi


KwDUvii mvgbi nvZi KvQi Askjv Kx-evW| BbcyU wnme Kx-evWi wekl f~wgKv iqQ| GLb ch
cvq mKj KvR Gi mvnvh Kiv nq _vK| GwU `LZ AbKUv eo AvqZvKvi cvZi gZv hvZ AbKjv wb`kK
evZvg iqQ|
Kx-evWt eY, msLv Ges wPhy AbKjv evZvgi mg^q MwVZ AvqZvKvi cvZi gZv AskKB Kx-evW ev
Key Bord ejv nq| GwU KwDUvii BbcyU h wnme mycwiwPZ| GwU KwDUvii evBii Ask hv Zvi viv g~j
hi mwnZ mshy _vK| GK mshvM wewQb Ki Avjv`vfve enb Kiv hvq|
KvhcvYvjxt Kx-evW AmsL evZvg iqQ| cZKwU evZvg wbw` KvRi wb`kK iqQ| hLb hwUi cqvRb
PvcjB Zv xb Pj Avme| mvaviY PvBc Kx-evWi h evZvgwUZ Pvc `qv nq m evZvgi m hy wP ev
AiwU mivmwi wiebi Dci Pvc `q Ges AiwU wiebi cQb vcb Kiv KvMRi Dci gyw`Z nq| wK
KwDUvii m hy Kx-evWi evZvg Pvc `qvi m m H evZvgi m mKhy wP ev AiwU mivmwi
gwbUii c`vq `Lv hvq bv ev gyw`Z nq bv| KwDUvii m mshy Kx-evWi Kvb evZvg Pvc w`j m m
GKwU e`ywZK msKZ Zwi nq|

ZLb KwDUvii Kx-evWi GbKvWvi (Keybord Encoder) bvgK BjKUwbK mvwKU G e`ywZK msKZK mbv
Ki Ges KwDUvii Avqx wZZ Rgv Ki| GKB m gwbUii c`vq c`kb Ki| MvUv cwqv AZ
`ZMwZZ mb nq| dj Kx-evWi evZvg Pvc `Iqvi m mB gwbUii c`vq wP ev AiwU `Lv hvq|
KvRi aiB Abyhvqx evZgi kYxwefvMt
1. wbqY evZvgt Ctrl, Alt, Command, Option I Tab Ges Zxj wPwZ evZvgjv (Arrow key) KvRi
wewfb cwqv wbqY Ki _vK|
2. Kvmii Aevb wbqY evZvgt Wm AcviwUs wmg Pg Dn, Pg Up, Home BZvw` wKQy evZgi mvnvh
Kvmii Aevb wbqY Kiv nq _vK|
3. AcviwUs wmg ev cwiPvjbv cwZi evZvg ev dvskb Kxt Wm AcviwUs wmg Kx-evWi GKevi Dcii
mvwiZ ev evg w`K 12wU evZvg (F1.........F12) eenvi Ki AcviwUs wmg ev cwiPvjbv cwZi KvR Kiv
nq| G evZvgjv dvskb Kx (Function Key) bvg cwiwPZ|
4. wbDgwiK Kx-cvWt Kx-evWi Wvb Ask KvjKzjUii gZ 0 _K 9 Ges hvM, wehvM, Y fvM BZvw`
wPwZ evZvgjvK wbDgwiK Kx-cvW ejv nq| wnmve wbKvk `ZMwZZ Kivi Rb GB wbDgwiK Kx-cvo
eenvi Kiv nq|
Kx-evW nQ KwDUvii cavb BbcyU h| KwDUvi Mvwd ev wfwWI GwWwUs RvZxq KvR Qvov Abvb KvRi
kZKiv cuPvbeB fvMiI ewk Z_ I wb`k c`vbi KvR mv`b Kiv hvq Kx-evWi mvnvh| Avi cvMvg Zwii
KvR Zv meUvB Kiv nq Kx-evW eenvi Ki, Zv m cvMvg hZ QvU ev hZ eoB nvK bv Kb|

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Kx-evWi cKvif`
KwDUvi Z_ UvBc, wb`k Ges Av`vb c`vbi AbZg gvag wnme h Kx-evW eenvi Kiv nq Zv cavbZ
`yB cKvi| hgb-
(i) vvW Kx-evW (Standard keyboard)
(ii) Gbnv Kx-evW (Enhanced keyboard)
Kx-evWi mvnvh Kvm vbvibt
Kx-evWi Gviv Kx Ges Abvb Kx eenvi Ki wewfbfve Kvm vbvwiZ Kiv hvq| eenviKvix hw` Kx-evWi
Wvb AewZ wbDgvwiK Kx-cvW nZ Kx eenvi Ki Kvm vbvwiZ KiZ Pvq Zvnj AekB Num Lock Kx
Ad _vKZ ne|
Avi Ab Kiv _vKj G Kx-Z GKevi Pvc w`q Ad KiZ ne| Kx-evW eenvi Ki Kvm vbvibi cwqvMZ
Dcvqjv wbP Dcvcb Kiv njv-
vbviY (To Move) Pvc `qv (To Presser)
GK Ai evg
GK Ai Wvb
GK jvBb Dci
GK jvBb wbP
GK k evg Ctrl +
GK k Wvb Ctrl +
jvBbi kl End
jvBbi iZ Home
eZgvb AbyQ`i iZ Ctrl +
c~ei AbyQ`i iZ Ctrl +
cieZx AbyQ`i iZ Ctrl +
GK xb Dci Ctrl +
GK xb wbP Page Up
xbi wb cv Page down
xbi wkiv cv Ctrl + Page down
WKzgUi iZ Ctrl + Home
WKzgUi kl Ctrl + End

gvDm : MVb, Kvhvewj Ges eenvi


KwDUvii z` GKwU BbcyU h njv gvDm| GwU mivmwi A_ev KwDUvii Kx-evWi gvag KwDUvii mwnZ
mshy _vK| gvDmwU mvaviY KwDUvii cvk Uweji Dci iL eenvi KiZ nq| GwU nvZ w`q bvovPvovi
hvM|
gvDmt KwDUvii z` Ges eenviKvixi nvZi _vevq Pc ai Kvhg BbcyU hKB gvDm Mouse ejv nq|
GwU z` GKwU PvKv hy _vK| GwU Zvii gvag KwDUvii mwnZ mshy| GwUK nvZ w`q bvovPov Ki KvR
KiZ nq| GwUK Uweji Dci gmY vb iL bvovPvov KiZ nq| Gi PvKv ev ejwU AZ QvU hv Avgv`i
kvnv`Z Aywj w`q bvovZ nq| hvi gvag Kvh wmw nq _vK|
gvDmi MVbt gvDm `LZ GKwU enr gvKz hi gZv| mvgb GKwU ev `yBwU evZvg iqQ| evZvgK wKK KiZ
nq KvRi mgq| mvaviYZ gwKbUvm KwDUvii m eeZ gvDm GKwU gv evZvg iqQ| Avi IBM.PC
KvwUDej KwDUvii m eeZ gvDm `yUv ev wZbwU evZvg iqQ| `yPviwU wekl KvR Qvov evg w`Ki
evZvgB ewki fvM eenvi KiZ nq| gvDmi wbP GKwU PvKv ev ej iqQ hvi NyYqb gvDmi Kvh
mnhvwMZv nq _vK|

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gvDmi Kvhvewjt gvDmwUK Dwq aij `Lv hve Gi wfZi GKwU ej ev PvKv iqQ gvDmwUK Uweji Dci
iL bvovj ejwUI wewfb w`K NyiZ _vK| ejwUK wNi _vK N~YqhvM PvKv| N~YqhvM PvKv hy _vK
GbevWvi `i m| gvDm bvovj PvKv NyiZ _vK Ges PvKvi NyYq MwZi wfwZ GbevWvi ` e`ywZK m`b
mw Ki| G e`ywZK m`b gvDmi MwZ Ges GK Aevb nZ Ab Aevb bvovbvi `~iZ wbaviY Ki `q| Zv
cieZxZ e`ywZK msKZ AvKvii wb`k wnme KwDUvi ciY Ki _vK|
gvDmi KvRi MwZt AvB weg Gi mvnvh Kvm ev Bbgvmb cqUvi Aevb wbqY KiZ nq| hgb Kvmj ev
Bbgvmb cqUvii eZgvb Aevb nZ cuvP `k jvBb wbP Kvb GKwU ki gvSLvb wbq Avmvi Rb Kx-evWi
Zxi wPwZ evZvg eenvi Kij ek wKQyUv mgq jvM| wK gvDm bvov w`q AvB weg mivmwi H ki gvSLvb
wbq Avmv hvq| G Qvov cR gKvAvc ev c mvi wewfb cvMvg Ges cBU/Wwqs cvMvg jvZ bvbv cKvi
ewk Avivc Kiv Ges iLv wPi wewfb AjsKvib Zwi Kivi Rb I wfwWI GwWwUs cvMvgi KvR Kivi Rb
gvDm nQ cavb Aej^b| Gi Kvh MwZ-cevn eenviKvixi eenvi `Zvi Dci wbfi Ki _vK|
gvDmi eenvit KwDUvii mv_ mshy gwbUii c`vq gvDmi MwZwewa wewfb ic c`wkZ nq| wewfb KvRi
Rb Gi wewfb ic eenvi Kiv nq _vK| Ze gwbUii c`vq gvDmi cavb icwU nQ Zxii djvi gZv| Zxii
djvi gZv G icwUK ejv nq gvDm cqUvi| gvDmi mvnvh mvaviYZ wbPi KvRjv Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
(i) MvwdKvj BDRvi BUvdg ev GUI Gi AcviwUs wmgi KvRjv gvDm cqUvii mvnvh Kiv nq
_vK|
(ii) GUI wmg wfwK eenvwiK Kgm~wPZ KvR Kivi mgq gby Kgv KvhKi Kiv Ges jLv webvmi KvRi
mgq gvDm cqUvi eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
(iii) jLv-jwL ev IqvW cmwms Gi mgq gvDm cqUvi Ibeam G icvwiZ nq _vK| hvi mvnvh Kvh wmw
Kiv hvq|
(iv) gvDm Gi mvnvh Kvb WvUv ev Z_ wKsev Kvb ki wb`k wPwZ Ki Zvici Kx-evW eenvi Ki Zv mskvab,
cwieZb, cwieab ev evwZj Kiv hvq|
gvDm Ges Gi cqUvi KwDUvi eenviKvixi wbKU LyeB iZc~Y| Gi mvnvh eenviKvix Zvi cqvRbxq Z_i
mskvab, wbevPb I mshywi wb`k w`Z cvib| gvDm Gi mv_ Kx-evWi mK AZ Mfxi weavq eenviKvix
gvDm eenvii cieZx KvRwU Kx-evWi gvag my-mb Ki _vKb| gvDm KwDUviiB z` Ask|
Kx-evW Ges gvDmi ga Zzjbv
Kx-evW Ges gvDmi ga GKw`K hgb wgj iqQ Abw`K Awgji cwigvYI Kg bq| eenvwiK Giv
AbK mgq GKB KvR Ki| Avevi wfbZi KvRI G`i viv mb Kiv hvq| wbP QKi gvag Kx-evW Ges
gvDmi ga cv_K DjL Kiv njv-
wKevW gvDm
1. Kx-evWi mvnvh e`ywZK msKZ 1. gvDm Gi mvnvhI e`ywZK
Zwi Kiv hvq| msKZ Zwi Kiv hvq|
2. Kx-evW GbevWvi bvgK 2. gvDm PvKvi N~Yqb MwZi wfwZ
BjKUwbK mvwKU e`ywZK msKZK GbevWvi `i e`ywZK `b mw
mbv Ki gwbUi c`wkZ Ki| Ki msKZ gwbUi c`kb Ki|
3. Kx-evWi mvnvh WvUv ev Z_ 3. gvDm Gi mvnvh WvUv ev Z_
KvR Kiv hvq KvR Kiv hvq bv|
4. Kx-evW evZvgi mvnvh KvR 4. gvDm PvKvi mvnvh KvR Kiv nq|
Kiv nq|
5. Kx-evWi mvnvh Kvb wKQy wb`k 5. gvDmi mvnvh Kvb wKQy wb`k
`qv hvq `qv hvq|
6. Gi mvnvh Kvb wKQy wWwjU Kiv 6. Gi mvnvh Kvb wKQy wWwjU Kiv
hvq| hvq bv, Ze mbv Kiv hvq|
KwDUvii Kx-evW Ges gvDm DfqwUB evBii Ask hv BjKwUK mshvMi mvnvh KwDUvii mwnZ hy _vK|
`yUvi mvnvhB KwDUvii evBii KvR Ki Zvi mwVK Aevb, hvPvB, evQvB, mskvab Ges gyQv BZvw` KvRjv
mb Kiv nq| KvRB eenvwiK `yUviB iZ iqQ|

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cvMvwgs jvsqR
Programming Language: KwDUvi w`q KvR Kwiq bqvi Rb KwDUviK Ggb fvlvq wb`k w`Z nq
hv Computer eySZ cvi| h fvlvq `qv wb`k KwDUvi eySZ cvi m fvlvKB ejv nq Programming
Language.
KwUvii evaMg fvlvq wb`k Ljv ev UvBc Kivi Rb 3 aibi cvMvwgs Gi fvlv eenvi Kiv nq _vK| h_vt
1. hvwK fvlv (Machine Language)
2. Gvm^jx fvlv (Assembly Language)
3. DP ii fvlv (High Level Language)
1. hvwK fvlvt hvwbK fvlvi mnR K_v nQ hi fvlv| Computer Gi hi fvlv nQ evBbvix fvlv| A_vr
Computer evBbvix msLv Qvpv Ab Kvb fvlv ev msLv MYbv KiZ cvi bv| Avgiv Computer G h mKj
k jwL g~jZ Zv Computer G BbcyU Kivi ci Dnv evBbvix A_vr 0 A_ev 1| G cwieZb Ki Processor
ev Hard Disk G ciY Ki| Avevi gwbUi ev wcUi gvag `Lvi mgq evBbvix _K cwieZb Ki D
k icvwiZ Kiv nq| gvU K_v h fvlvq cvMvg iPbv Kivi Rb gwkbi fvlv A_vr evBbvix msLv eenvi
Ki cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq ZvK hvwK fvlv ev Machine Language ejv nq| GB fvlvq cvMvg iPbv Kij
Zv `Z wbevn nq|
2. Gvm^jx fvlv (Assembly Language)t Computer K mivmwi evBbvix cwZZ BbcyU Ges wb`k
c`vbi cwieZ BbcyU Ges wb`ki fvlvK AbKUv gvbyli KvQvKvwQ fvlvq icvi Ki h fvlvq cvMvg
iPbv Kiv nq ZvK Gvm^jx fvlv ev Assembly Language ejv nq| Kvb Computer K hvM Kivi
wb`k w`Z nj Machine Language G ADD wjL Program iPbv Kiv nq|
3. DP ii fvlv (High Level Language) t h fvlvq Program iPbv KiZ gvbyli gyLi fvlvK wbw`
wbqg eenvi Ki Program iPbv Kiv nq ZvK DP ii fvlv ev High Level Language ejv nq Kvb
BASIC, C++, Pascel BZvw`Z Programming iPbvi fvlvK DyP ii fvlv ev High Level
Language Programming ejv nq| DP ii fvlvK hi fvlvq icvi Kivi Rb Compiler ev
Interpreter eenvi Kiv nq|

cvMvg iPbvi wewfb avc


wbfyjfve Program iPbv KiZ 4wU avc KvR mb KiZ nq| avcjv nQ-
1. mgmv mbvKiY Ges weklY Kiv
2. cevnwP (Flow chart) Zwi Kiv|
3. KvW Kiv ev Program iPbv Kiv|
4. wU `~i Kiv ev Debagging.
1. mgmv mbvKiY Ges weklY Kiv t Kvb cqvRbxq mgmvi mvlRbK mgvavb DcbxZ nIqvB GKwU
cvMvgi g~j j| KvRB c_g KvR nQ mgmvwUK mwVKfve mbv ev wbaviY Kiv| Zvc ci DnvK
cqvRb Abymvi weklY Kiv
Kvb Program iPbv Ki Zv KvhKi KiZ chvqwgK avcwj wK iKg ne Zvi MVb wbaviY Ki bqvi Rb
wmvg Zwi Ki wbZ nq Avi G ic wmvggB Programming Gi fvlvq ejv nq Algorithm.
2. cevnwP (Flow chart) Zwi Kivt Kvb Program iPbv Kivi c~e cvMvgi i _K kl ch
avcjvK wPi gvag Dcvcb KivK cevnwP ev Flow chart ejv nq| Program AsKb Ki wbZ ne|
3. KvW Kiv ev cvMvg iPbv Kivt Algorithm Ges Flow chart Abyhvqx Program iPbv ev jLvKB-
Programming Gi fvlvq Cding ejv nq| GB avcwUB nQ Programming Gi Avmj avc| A_vr G avc
Program jLv ev iPbv Kiv nq _vK|
4. wU `~i Kiv ev Debugging Kiv t Program iPbv Kivi mgq wewfb aibi wU `Lv w`Z cvi|
wUjv nQ-Syatax Error, Logical Error, Execultion Error BZvw`| G me wUjv aiv covi

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ci Gjv G jv `~i Ki w`Z nq| hLb Program wU wU gy ne ZLbB Program wU ic jLv


mgv ne| wU `~i KivB nQ Program iPbvi kl avc|
cvMvwgs jvyqR KwDUvii Rb AZ iZc~Y| Gi gvag Lye mnRB cvMvwgs AvDUcyU cvIqv hvq|
cvMvwgs jvsqR wewfb cKvii nq _vK| eenviKviK Zvi h_v_ wb`kbv w`q eenvi KiZ ne| Avevi
cvMvg Kivi RbI eenviKvxK h_v_ cwZMZ avc AbymiY KiB KvR KiZ ne|

msLv cwZ ev bv^vwis wmg


t
mfZvi Avw`Kvj _KB gvbyl MYbvi cqvRbxqZv Abyfe Ki AvmQ| MYbvi wewfb chvq gvbyl Avyj, KvwV, bywo
cv_i, iwkZ wMU w`q Ges gvwUZ ev `qvj `vM KU MYbvi Kvh mv`b KiQ| mfZvi weZbi wewfb chvq
MYbvi Rb wewfb DcKiY eeZ nq AvmQ| G fve MYbv wkvi Rb wewfb mvsKwZK wP, eY, msLv BZvw`i
cPjb i nq| L c~e 3400 mvj nvqwMwd (Hieroglyphics) wP ev msLv cwZ eenvii gvag mec_g
MYbvi KvR wjwLZ msLv ev wPi cPjb i nq| Gi ci i nq gqvY (Mayan) cwZ Ges L c~e 400
mvj ivgvb (Roman) msLv cwZ i nq|
msLv cwZt mfZvi AMMwZi avc avc gvbyli eyw I AwfZvi weKvk NUZ _vK| gvbyl gv^q MYbvi KvR
bvbv aibi wP ev cZxKi eenvi i Ki| cvPxb evwejbi gvbyl `yaibi MYbv cwZ eenvi KiZ| QvU
MYbvi Rb 10-wfwK msLv cwZ eenvi KiZ Ges eo msLvi Rb eenvi KiZ 60-wfwK msLv cwZ| cvq
500 wLvi w`K Avieiv G cwZ AvqZ Ki fviZxq`i KvQ _K| Gi ci Avie wevbx AvjLvqvwiRgx 10-
wfwZ&K msLv cwZi Dci AviexZ eB cKvk Kib| Zuvi GB eBwU jvwUb fvlvq Abyev` Kiv nq BDivc I DbZ
wek wn`y-Aviexq MYbv cwZ wnme cPwjZ nq| eZgvb mvaviY wkv eevq MvwYwZK KvRjv Kiv nq 10-
wfwK msLv cwZZ|
MvwYwZK KvR mb Kivi Rb Avgiv h wewfb Dcvq MYbvi KvR Ki _vwK ZvK msLv cwZ ev bv^vwis wmg
ejv nq| A_vr MYbvi KvR Kivi Rb h me cwZ eenvi Kiv nq ZvK msLv cwZ ejv nq|
msLv cwZi cKvif`t
eZgvb cPwjZ msLv cwZ PviwU| h_v-
1. Wwmgj (Decimal) ev `kwgK msLv cwZ|
2. evBbvix (Binary) ev `yB-wfwK msLv cwZ|
3. Avj (Octal) ev AvU-wfwK msLv cwZ|
4. nvWwmgj (Hexadecimal) ev lvj-wfwK msLv cwZ|
1. Wwmgj (Decimal) ev `kwgK msLv cwZt h cwZZ msLv MYbvi Rb `kwU wfw eenvi Kiv nq ZvK
Wwmgj (Decimal) ev `kwgK msLv cwZ ejv nq| G cwZi wfw jv nQ 0, 1 ,2 ,3 ,4, 5 ,6, 7, 8 I
9| eZgvb wnmve wbKvki Rb Avgiv mvaviYZ G cwZ eenvi Ki _vwK| hgb 12 (evi), 25 (cuwPk), 102
(GK kZ `yB) BZvw`|
2. evBbvix (Binary) ev `yB-wfwK msLv cwZt h cwZZ msLv MYbvi Rb 2 (`yB) wU wfw eevni Kiv nq
ZvK evBbvix (Binary) ev `yB-wfwK msLv cwZ ejv nq| Gi wfwjv nQ 0 I 1| hgb 101 (cuvP),
111 (mvZ) BZvw` mvaviYZ KwDUvi h Kvb MYbvi KvR evBbvix msLv cwZi gvvag Ki _vK|
3. Avj (Octal) ev AvU-wfwK msLv cwZt h msLv cwZi wfw 8 (AvU) wU ZK Avj (Octal) ev AvU-
wfwK msLv cwZ ejv nq| G cwZi wfwjv nQ- 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 I 7| BnvI GKwU KwDUvi Gi
wnmve wbKvk K`xq msLv cwZ| hgb- 101 (cqlw), 17 (cbi) BZvw`|

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4. nvWwmgj (Hexadecimal) ev lvj-wfwK msLv cwZt h msLv cwZi wfw msLv 16 (lvj) ZvK
nv Wwmgj msLv cw ejv nq| Gi wfw jv nQ- 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E I F|
BnvI GKwU KwDUvi Avfvwib MYbvi msLv cwZ| hgb 1F (GKwk), 11 (mZi) BZvw`|

KwDUvi MvwYwZK m~vewji eenvi ev MvwYwZK mgmvewji mvgvavb msLv cwZi cqvM Kiv hvq| wekl Ki
cXwkU weklY cvMvg mn Abvb MvwYwZK KvhvewjZ MvwYwZK msLv cwZ ev bv^vwis wmg Acwinvh|
G eenviKvixK AekB wewfb bv^vwis cwZi cqvM mK RvbZ ne| Zvi ci Kvh Gi cqvM Kiv
hve|

Wwmgj msLvK evBbvix, Avj I nvWwmgj Ges Wwmgj icvi cwqv t


h Kvb Wwmgj msLvK evBbvix, Avj I nvWwmgj- G icvwiZ KiZ nj h cwZZ icvwiZ KiZ
ne H cwZi wfw msLv viv cybt cybt fvM Kij h fvMkl _vK Zvi kl msLv _K c_g msLvwU gv^q
wjLj mswk msLv cwZi msLvwU cvIqv hve|
. Wwmgj msLv 75 K evBbvixZ icvi
2 75
2 37-1
2 18-1
2 9-0
2 4-1
2 2-0
2 1-0
0-1
A_vr 7510 = 10010112

wet`t msLvi Wvb w`Ki bxPi w`K msLvwU `L wfwi msLv A_vr Kvb msLv cwZi msLv Zv eySv hvq|

. Wwmgj msLv 75 K Avj msLv cwZZ icvi-


8 75
8 9-3
8 1-1
0-1
A_vr 7510 = 1138
. Wwmgj msLv 75 K nvWwmgj msLv cwZZ icvi-
16 75
16 8-B
0-4
A_vr 7510 = 4 B16
h Kvb evBbvix Avj A_ev nvwWwmgj msLvK Wwmgj msLvq icvi-

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h Kvb evBbvix, Avj A_ev nWwmgj msLvK Wwmgj msLvq icvwiZ KiZ nj Wvb w`K nZ msLv
jvK gv^q bxP wbP wjL D msLv cwZi wfw msLvi NvZ (Power) 0 (k~b) _K gv^q 1, 2, 3, 4,
-- BZvw` wjL D msLv jvi mv_ Y Ki me kl hvM Kij Wwmgj msLvwU cvIqv hvq-

(1) evBbvix msLv 1001011 K Wwmgj G icvi-


120 = 11 = 1
1
12 = 12 = 2
2
12 = 14 = 0
123 = 18 = 8
024 = 016 = 0
5
12 = 132 = 0
6
12 = 164 = 64
75
A_vr 10010112 =7510
(2) Avj msLv 113 K Wwmgj G icvi-

380 = 31 =3
181 = 18 =8
122 = 164 = 64
75
A_vr 1138 = 7510
(3) nv Wwmgj msLv 4 K Wwmgj G icvi
160 = 111 = 11
1
416 = 416 = 64
75
A_vr 4 = 7510

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md&UIqvi

g~jZt KwDUvii md&UIqvi nQ GKwU A`k kw| Avgiv gvbyli `nK nvWIqvi aij md&UIqvi nQ Zvi
cvY| nvWIqvi mwZKvi A_ KwDwUs KvR Ki Ges md&UIqvi KwDUvi Pvjvq| KwDUvii nvWIqvii Kvh
gZvK eenvii Rb cqvRbxq cvMvg mg~nKB md&UIqvi ejv nq| md&UIqvi eenviKvix Ges nvWIqvii
mv_ hvMvhvM iv Ki _vK| Dchy md&UIqvii cfve KwDUvi Ro c`v_ nZ MvwYwZK kwmb eywgvb
h ic bq| wewfb aibi cvKR cvMvg, DPZi fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvg cwZ mswk cvMvg md&UIqvii
AvIZvq co|

wewfb aibi md&UIqvi


KwDUvii md&UIqvi wewfb aibi| eenvwiK iZi Dci wfw Ki KwDUvii md&UIqviK cavbZ `yUv
kYxZ wef Kiv hvq| hgb
K. wmg md&UIqvi (System Software)
L. cvKR ev eenvwiK md&UIqvi (Application software)
K. wmg md&UIqvit KwDUvii GKwU iZc~Y Ges AweQ` BDwbU nQ wmg md&UIqvi| A_vr
KwDUvii wewfb Aski KvRi mg^q ivKvix I eenvwiK wbevni mshvM ivKvix BDwbUKB wmg
md&UIqvi ejv nq| KwDUvi cwiPvjbvi Rb eeZ wewfb cvMvg wmg md&UIqvi Gi Afy|
AcviwUs wmg wmg md&UIqvii GKwU iZc~Y Ask|
wmg md&UIqvii BDwbUt wmg md&UIqvi cavbZ wZbwU BDwbU iqQ| wb mjv Dj L Kiv njv-
1. wmg wbqY cvMvg|
2. wmg mnvqK cvMvg|
3. wmg Dbqb cvMvg|
L. cvKR ev eenvwiK md&UIqvit KwDUvi mvaviYZ eenvwiK mgmv mgvavb ev WvUv cwqvKiYi Rb
eeZ cvMvgKB eenvwiK md&UIqvi ev cvKR md&UIqvi ejv nq| G cvKR md&UIqvK Avevi
Gwc Kkb md&UIqvi bvgI AwfwnZ Kiv nq _vK| KwDUvi eenviKvix wbRB wbRi KwDUvii fvlv
eenvi Ki cqvRbxq h Kvb mgmv mgvavb Ki A_ev WvUv cwqvKiYi Rb cvMvg iPbv KiZ cvib|
eenvwiK mgmv mgvavbi Rb AbK iKg cvMvg Zwi Ki evwYwRK cY wnme evRvi Qvov nq| IqvW
cmwms, WwmW, WvUveR BZvw` cvKR cvMvg ej eeZ Ges Rbwcq|
cKvif`t cvKR md&UIqviK cavbZ `yUv fvM wef Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
1. GKK cwqv cvKR md&UIqvi|
2. mgw^Z cwqvi cvKR md&UIqvi|
1. GKK cwqv cvKRt aygv GK aibi mgmv mgvavbi Rb GKK cwqv cvKR eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
cvMvg eenvi Ki mnRB mgmv mgvavb Kiv hvq| mvaviYZ wjwc cZi Rb eeZ IqvWvi, eivBUvi,
IqvW, IqvW cvid, Mvd, eviPvU, cvB-PvU, BDwbU Gi Rb eeZ Mvd, Mvd c vb BZvw` GKK cwqv
cvKR cvMvgi D`vniY|
2. mgw^Z cwqv cvKRt GKvwaK cwqv mgvavbi Rb AbK iKg evwYwRK cvKR cvIqv hvq| G aibi
cvKR cvMvgK mgw^^Z cwqv cvKR ejv nq| GZ wewfb cwqv mgvavbi Rb AbK iKg cvMvgi
mg^q Kiv nq _vK| GKB dvBji WvUv w`q wewfb aibi KvR KiZ nj GKxf~Z cvKR mnvqK nq|
jvUvm 1,2,3 gvBvmd&U, Gj, IqvKwmU BZvw` KqKwU Rbwcq mgw^Z cvKR cvMvg|

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wmg md&UIqvi Ges cvKR md&UIqvi


KwDUvii nvWIqvii Kvh gZvK eenvii Rb cqvRbxq cvMvg mg~nKB md&UIqvi ejv nq| Dchy
md&UIqvii cfve KwDUvi Ro c`v_ nZ MvwYwZK kw mb eywgvb h ic bq| wewfb aibi cvKR
cvMvg md&UIqvii AvIZvq co|
wmg md&UIqvit wmg md&UIqvi nQ KwDUvii GKwU AweQ` BDwbU| AcviwUs wmg, wmg
md&UIqvii GKwU iZc~Y Ask| KwDUvi eeZ wewfb cvMvg wmg md&UIqvii GKwU iZc~Y Ask
wnmeB mswk cvMvgi AvIZvf~ _vK| wmg md&UIqvii wZbwU BDwbU iqQ| hgb-
2. wmg wbqY cvMvg|
3. wmg mnvqK cvMg|
4. wmg Dbqb cvMvg|
wmg md&UIqvii KvRt KwDUvii wmg md&UIqvii iZc~Y Kvhvewj wb Dj L Kiv njv-
1. wmg md&UIqvi KwDUvii wewfb Aski mwnZ mg^q iv Ki|
2. eenvwiK cvMvg wbevni Rb KwDUvi mvg_K mv_Kfve wbqvwRZ ivL|
3. AcviwUs wmg wmg md&UIqvi GKwU iZc~Y Ask wnme KvR Ki _vK|
cvKR md&UIqvit KwDUvi h mKj cvMvg wbw` eenvwiK cqvRbi mve mKj cKvi wb`k Zwi Ki `qv
_vK eenviKvixK wbR Kvb cvMvg Zwi KiZ nq bv, wbw` eenvwiK cqvRb mve mKj cKvi wb`k Ges
myhvM GK Ki h me eenvwiK cvMvg Zwi Kiv nq ZvKB cvKR cvMvg ejv nq| GK Avevi cvKR
Gwc Kkb md&UIqvi bvgI AwfwnZ Kiv nq _vK| mvaviYZ IqvW cmwms, WwmU, WvUveR BZvw` cvKR
md&UIqvi bvg ej Rbwcq| cvKR md&UIqvi mvaviYZ `yB aibi nq _vK| hgb-
K. cvMvwgs jvsqR|
L. cvKR cvMvg|
cvKR md&UIqvii KvRt KwDUvi cvKR md&UIqvii iZc~Y Kvhvewj wb Dcvcb Kiv njv
1. GZ wbw` eenvwiK cqvRbi mve mKj cKvi wb`k Zwi Kiv _vK|
2. GZ mKj myhvM GK Ki cvMvg Zwi Kiv nq _vK|
3. eenvwiK mgmv mgvavb GK eenvi Kiv nq|
wmg md&UIqvi Ges cvKR md&UIqvii cv_Kt KwDUvii wmg md&UIqvi Ges cvKR md&UIqvii
ga gwjK A_ h_ cv_K we`gvb iqQ| G `UvB KwDUvii iZc~Y Ask| G`i KvhKvwiZv AbK
ewk| G`i cfveB KwDUvi MvwYwZK kwmb eywgvb h ic wbq _vK| KwDUvii fvlv eenvi Ki
cvqvRbxq cvMvg iPbv Kiv me nq _vK| wb QKi gvag KwDUvii wmg md&UIqvi Ges cvKR
md&UIqvii ga cv_K Dcvcb Kiv njv
wmg md&UIqv cvKR md&UIqvi
2. wmg md&UIqvi njv KwDUvii AweQ` 1. cvKR md&UIqvi njv KwDUvii GKwU
BDwbU| iZc~Y cvMvg|
2. GwU cvMvgi wbw` cqvRbi mve mKj cKvi
3. GwU KwDUvii wewfb Aski mwnZ mg^q iv wb`k Zwi Ki `q|
Ki| 3. cvKR md&UIqvi GKK cvMvg m^wjZ|
4. cvKR md&UIqvii ga, IqvW cmwms,
4. wmg md&UIqvi cavbZ wZbwU BDwbUhy| WwmU Ges WvUveR wekl iZc~Y|
5. wmg md&UIqvii iZc~Y Ask njv AcviwUs 5. cvKR md&UIqvi wmg md&UIqvii mnvqZv
wmg| wbq cvimvbvj KwDUvii eenvihvM wewfb
cvMvg Zwi Ki _vK|
6. wmg md&UIqvi cvKR md&UIqvii KvhvewjK
wbevn KiY mnvqZv Ki _vK|

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KwDUvii cvY : AcviwUs wmg


KwDUvii cvYkw nQ md&UIqvi| mvaviYZ KwDUvi viv Kvb KvR KiZ nj mLvb md&UIqvi wekl
cqvRb nq| md&UIqvi KwDUvi cwiPvjbv Ki _vK| GwU KwDUviK w`q KvR Kivq| eZ md&UIqvi nQ
KwDUvii wb`kgvjv|
AcviwUs wmgt
AcviwUs wmg KwDUvii GKwU iZc~Y Ask| AcviwUs wmg bv _vKj KwDUvii hcvwZ w`q A_ev
Kvb cvMvg w`q KvR Kiv hZ bv| AcviwUs wmgi Rb gvbyl Lye mnRB KwDUvi eenvi KiZ cviQ|
myZivs KwDUvi wkvi AcviwUs wmg AZ iZen| AcviwUs wmg KwDUvii cvMvg
cwiPvjbvi Rb Dchy cwiek Zwi Ki _vK|
KwDUvi cwiPvjbvq AcviwUs wmg njv g~jZt GKwU wmg md&UIqvi| A_vr h md&UIqvi KwDUvii
wewfb Aski ga mg^q mvab Ki KwDUvii mvg_K KvR jvwMq Gvwc Kkb md&UIqvi jvK Pvjbv Ki
ZvnvB nQ AcviwUs wmg| Abfve ejv hvq KwDUvii wbR^ wbqYi Rb h me cvMvg eeZ nq ZvKB
AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| wU AZ iZc~Y|
AcviwUs wmg g~jZt AbKjv cvMvgi mgw| mgw^^Zfve G cvMvgjvKB KwDUvii Afi
eenviKvwii Kg cwiek mw Ki _vK Ges eenviKvixi nc Qvov KwDUviK AbeiZ Pvjy ivL| D`vniY
wnme wbvjvK Dcvcb Kiv hvq| hgb-
1. Wm 4. DBvR 98
2. BDwb 5. DBvR 2000
3. DBvR 95 6. gvK BZvw`|

AcviwUs wmgi cqvRbxqZvt KwDUvi cwiPvjbvq AcviwUs wmg D


it
KwDUvii AcviwUs wmg cvMvg cwiPvjbvq Dchy cwiek mw Ki _vK| md&UIqvi ev cvMvg cwiPvjbvi
Rb AcviwUs wmg eenviKvix Ges cvMvgK wekl wKQy mweav cv`b Ki _vK| G myweavjv c`vbi g~j
Dk njv KwDUvi eenvi mnRZi Kiv|

KwDUvii AcviwUs wmg cvMvg cwiPvjbvq Dchy cwiek mw Ki _vK| md&UIqvi ev cvMvg cwiPvjbvi
Rb AcviwUs wmg eenviKvix Ges cvMvgK wekl wKQy mweav cv`b Ki _vK| G myweavjv c`vbi g~j
Dk njv KwDUvi eenvi mnRZi Kiv| KwDUvii cvY md&UIqvi Gi AvjvK AcviwUs wmgi f~wgKv
wb AvjvPbv Kiv njv-
1. cvMvg cwiPvjbvt KwDUvi cvMvg cwiPvjbv Kiv AcviwUs wmgi c`vb KvR| Kvb cvMvg cwiPvjbvi
Rb h mKj iwUb ev dvskb cvMvgi cqvRb nq AcviwUs wmg Zv mieivn Ki _vK| GQvov
eenviKvixi eenvii Rb AcviwUs wmg cvMvg ggvwiZ cqvRb Abymvi msiY Ki _vK|
2. BbcyU/AvDUcyU Acvikbt GKwU wbevnx cvMvg h Kvb AvDUcyU Acvikb hgb Kvb wbw` dvBj nZ cvi
Zgwbfve GwU wbw` BbcyU AvDUcyU wWfvBm nZ cvi| G wbw` dvskb cvMvgi cqvRb nq|
3. dvBj wmg wbqYt AcviwUs wmgi Avi GKwU iZc~Y KvR njv dvBj wmg wbqY Kiv| mvaviYZ
cvMvg cwiPvjbvi Rb wewfb iKg dvBji Z_ wbw`KiY cqvRb nZ cvi| Gi cvkvcvwk wewfb aibi
dvBj Zwi ev gyQ djvi cqvRb `Lv w`Z cvi| AcviwUs wmg viR wWfvBm G Kvh mb nq|
4. wU wbYqt AcviwUs wmg me mgq mve wU wbYqi Rb mRvM _vK| wU wewfb wWfvBm G `Lv
w`Z cvi | hgb ggvwi, BbcyU, AvDUcyU wWfvBm BZvw`Z wU `Lv w`Z cvi| KwDUvi cwZwU
wUi Rb AcviwUs wmg mwVK c`c bq Ges wU mvivbvi eevI MnY Ki _vK|
5. wmg ebt hw` GKvwaK eenviKvix GKvwaK cvMvgi mv_ KvhiZ _vK Ze KwDUvi myz cwiPvjbvi Rb
wmgi wewfb Ask mevi mv_ iZ Abymvi eb Ki w`Z nq| AcviwUs wmgK me mgq wewfb iKg
ebi KvR KiZ nq| G wmg wekl wKQy Ask eb Kivi Rb wekl eb KvW eeZ nq|
6. GKvDwUst AbK mgq eenviKvix KZUzKz cwigvY wmgi Kvb Ask eenvi KiQ Zv wbYq Kivi cqvRb
`Lv `q| m G me Z_ msiYi KvRI AcviwUs wmg Ki _vK| GKvDwUs myweav c~Yic MnYi
Rb G RvZxq Z_ msMn msiY cwqv GKv Riwi nq _vK|

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7. Zveavbt hLb GKvwaK eenviKvix GKwU wmg eenvi Ki ZLb cZK eenviKvix Zvi Z_K Abi
KvQ _K mwiq ivLZ mP nq| AcviwUs wmg G myweav c`vb Ki _vK| Avevi hLb GKvwaK wewfb
iKg KvR GKB mv_ cwiPvjbv KiZ `Iqv nq ZLb hvZ GKwU KvR AbwUi weN bv NUvq Zvi h_vh_
Zveavb mywbwZ KiZ nq|

AcviwUs wmgi cKvif`

KwDUvii AcviwUs wmgK MVb Ges Kvhi Dci wfw Ki wbv wewfb kYxZ fvM Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
1. evP cmwms wmg|
2. gvw cvMvwgs AcviwUs wmg|
3. gvw cmwms wmg|
4. UvBg kqvwis AcviwUs wmg|
5. wiqj UvBg AcviwUs wmg|
6. wWwweDUW AcviwUs wmg|
1. evP cmwms wmgt h AcviwUs wmg GKwU wbw` mgq ai wewfb eenviKvix Uvwgbvj nZ Dcvjv
GKwU wbw` wZ fvvi mwZ mgq ci mwZ Dcvjv GKhvM cwqvKiY i nq ZvK evP AcviwUs
wmg ejv nq| evswKs Kvh mviv w`bi jb-`b kl g~j Uvwgbvj DcvjvK vbvwiZ Ki Zvi
cwqvKiY i Kiv nq| Ab-jvBb cmwms Gi evP cmwms Kiv hZ cvi|
2. gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmgt KwDUvi h AcviwUs wmg GK mv_ GKvwaK cvMvg GK cwiPvjbv
Kiv hvq ZvK gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| GK Avevi gvwUvws AcviwUs wmg bvgI AwfwnZ
Kiv hvq| gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmg RAM Gi gvag Kvh wbevnx cvMvgi mwqZv wVKKiY nq _vK|
G aibi AcviwUs wmg Kvb cvMvgi KvR e KiZ nj CPU K BUvicU cvMvwgs Gi Rb Abyiva
cvVvq hv cieZxZ CPU KvhKix Ki _vK|
3. gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmgt KwDUvi gvw cmwms wmg `yB ev `yqi AwaK cmmi mgw^^Z cwZZ
KvR Ki _vK| GZ wewfb cvMvgi wb`k ev ^Z cvMvg GKB m GKvwaK cmmi KvhKix nq _vK|
Avevi wewfb cmmi GKB mv GKB cvMvgi wewfb wb`k KvhKi KiZ cvi| G AcviwUs wmg
mycvifvBRvi cvMvg wewfb cvMvgi Rb wZi cwigvY eiv Ki _vK| G myL cmmi Ges cavb
cmmi weklfve KvhKix nq _vK|
4. UvBg kqvwis AcviwUs wmgt mvaviYZ CPU w`q GKB mgq KqKwU cvMvgi KvR GK mv_ mgv Kivi
cwqvB njv UvBg kqvwis AcviwUs wmg| GZ cZK eenviKvixi KvR K`xq wKsev wbavwiZ cmmi
viv mb nq _vK| GZ mgq eiv _vK GKs wbavwiZ mgqi ga Ab cvMvgi mvnvh Kiv nq _vK|
CPU cZKwU cvMvgi Rb ci ci GKwU Ki UvBg vBW eenvi Ki _vK|
5. wmqj UvBg AcviwUs wmgt KwDUvi cKZ mgq ev wiqj UvBg AcviwUs nQ Pjgvb NUbv ev cwiwwZi
dj| GZ Pjgvb NUbv ev cwiwwZi cwicwZ m m cqvRbxq eev MnY Kiv nq _vK| wiqj UvBg
cwZZ ZvrwYK c`kb cwqv mb nq _vK| wiqj UvBg AcviwUs wmg cZKwU Uvwgbvj nZ cv
BbcyUi Kj m m cZ nq| GZ GKB m GKvwaK Uvwgbvj KvR PjZ cvi| cwZ wgwbU dvBj mekl
m^wjZ Kivi cwqv AevnZ _vKZ cvi|
6. wWwweDUW AcviwUs wmgt KwDUvi wWwweDUW AcviwUs wmg nQ GK mshy KZjv cmmi
hv ggvwi A_ev e K KvbwUB kqvi Ki bv| cwZwU cmmii wbR^ jvKvj ggvwi _vK hv nvBxW WvUv
A_ev jvBbi gvag wbR`i ga wbR^ hvMvhvM iv Ki _vK| wWwweDUW AcviwUs wmg cavbZ
wZb cKvii| hgb-
K. jvKvj Gwiqv bUIqvK|
L. gUvcwjUb Gwiqv bUIqvK|
M. IqvBW Gwiqv bUIqvK|

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evP cmwms Ges wiqj UvBg cmwms


t
KwDUvi wewfb cKvi AcviwUs wmgi ga evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg Ges wiqj UvBg AcviwUs wmg
AZ iZc~Y| G`i KvhKvwiZvq h_ cv_K we`gvb iqQ|
evP cmwms AcviwUs wmgt KwDUvi h AcviwUs wmg GKwUi ci GKwU cvMvg chvqg cwiPvjbv Kiv
nq ZvKB evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| G aibi AcviwUs wmg GKwUi ci GKwU KvR wbw` mgq
mb Kiv nq _vK| G BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU Z_i Av`vb c`vbi mgq CPU Ajm mgqcb Ki _vK|
eenviKvix Zvi myweav gZv wbavwiZ cvMvgi KvR wbavwiZ mgq mb Kivi gvbm evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg
cqvM Ki _vKb| evswKs Kvh GwU Lye ewk KvhKix|
wiqj UvBg cmwms AcviwUs wmgt mvaviYZ hvwK wmg wbqYi Rb KwDUvi h me cvMvg eenvi Kiv
nq ZvKB wiqj UvBg AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| G `yqi AwaK AcviwUs wmg GK _vK| dj Kvb
GKwU AcviwUs wmg b nq Mj mv_ mv_ Ab AcviwUs wmg mwq nq DV| GZ mgqi AcPq nq bv
Ges cvMvg b nq hvq bv| GZ eenviKvix Zvi c~Y `ZvK KvR jvMvZ cvi|
mvaviYZ mvUjvBUi Aevb, MwZ, Zib, N~Yqb, mgq cY BZvw` Z_vw`i h_v_ wnme wbKvk wiqj UvBg
AcviwUs wmg weklfve KvhKix nq _vK| Gi mvnvh gnvk~bi iKU hvb, mvUjvBUi MwZ Ges Aevb
wbqY Kiv hvq| GRb ejv nq AZvaywbK KwDUvi cvMvgi Dbqb wiqj UvBg cmwms AcviwUs wmg
AZ KvhKix ic eeZ nq|
evP cmwms Ges wiqj UvBc cmwms Gi cv_Kt evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg Ges wiqj UvBc cmwms AcviwUs
wmgi ga cv_K wbi QK Dcvcb Kiv njv
evP cmwms wiqj UvBc cmwms
1. evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg GKwUi ci GKwU 1. mvaviYZ KwDUvi hvwK wmg wbqYi Rb h
cvMvg chvqg cwiPvjbv KiZ nq| me cvMvgi eenvi Kiv nq ZvKB wiqj UvBg
2. G GKwU wbw` mgq Ai Ai wbw` Kvh cmwms AcviwUs wmg ejv nq|
mb KiZ nq| 2. GZ eenviKvix KwDUvi c~Y `ZvK KvR
3. G BbczU, AvDUcyU Z_i Av`vb c`vbi jvMvZ cvib| mgq b nq bv|
mgq CPU Ajm mgq cb Ki _vK| 3. G CPU Ajm mgq cb Kivi Kvb
4. Gi KvhMwZ AcvKZ Kg nq| myhvM bB|
5. Kvb KviY AcviwUs wmg e nq Mj mg 4. Gi Kvh MwZ AcvKZ ewk nq _vK|
KvhMwZ _g hvq| 5. Kvb KviY GKwU AcviwUs wmg e nq
Mj AbwU Avcbv nZB mwq nq dj
6. evswKs Kvh WvUv cmwms Gi aibi AcviwUs KvhMwZ _g hvq bv|
wmg Lye ewk KvhKix| 6. mvUjvBU Ges gnvKvk hvbi MwZ I AveZb
wbqY G wmg eenvi Kiv nq|

AcviwUs wmgi MVb


t
KwDUvii AcviwUs wmg KZjv cvMvgi mgw| AcviwUs wmgi MVbK cavbZ `yB fvM fvM Ki eYbv
Kiv hvq| hgb-
K. wbqY cvMvg (Control Programme)
L. mvwfm cvMvg (Survice Programme)
K. wbqY cvMvgt KwDUvi Pvjy Kivi mv_ mv_ AcviwUs wmg Zvi KvR Kivi Rb mwq nq| ZLb wbqY
cvMvgi Dj LhvM KqKwU `vwqZ nQ BbcyU AvDUcyU Gi KvR wbqY Kiv| mnvqK wZ Ges cavb wZi
ga Dcv PjvPj wbqY Kiv, eo cvMvgjvK QvU QvU fvM wef Ki cwiPvjbv Kiv, cvMvg cwiPvjbvi
Kvhg iv Kiv Ges GKvwaK cvMvg GKB m eenvi Kivi eev Kiv| Kx evW, gwbUi, wcUvi, BZvw`i
eenvi Ki Lye mnRB Kvh nvwmj Kiv| KwDUvii wbqY cvMvgK Avevi wZb fvM fvM Kiv nq _vK|
hgb-
1. mycvifvBRvi cvMvg|

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2. Re KUvj cvMvg|
3. BbcyU I AvDUcyU cvMvg|
1. mycvifvBRvi cvMvgt AcviwUs wmg KwDUvi Pvjy nIqvi mv_ mv_ mycvifvBRvi cvMvg K`xq
cwqvKiY BDwbUi cavb wZZ Aevb Ki| Avi Abvb cvMvgjv mnvqK wZZ _vK| cqvRb
Abymvi mycvifvBRi cvMvg Zv`iK cavb wZZ wbq Avm Ges H cvMvg viv mswk KvR mb Ki
Avevi mnvqK wZZ wdwiq wbq hvq| GfveB mycvifvBRi cvMvg KvR Ki _vK|
2. Re KUvj cvMvgt KwDUvii mvnvh KvR Kivi mgq GKwU KvRi ci Ab KvR KiZ gvSLvb Ajm mgq
_vK| G Ajm mgqi AcPq cwinvi Kivi Rb AvaywbK cwZZ AbKjv KvR mvwiefve ivLv nq|
AcviwUs wmgi wbqY cvMvgi AMZ Re KUvj cvMvg G mvwiefve Acvgvb KvRjv chvqg
mb Kivi `vwqZ cvjb Ki _vK|
3. BbcyU I AvDUcyU cvMvgt KwDUvi BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU cvMvg nQ AcviwUs wmgi iZc~Y Ask|
BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU cvMvg KwDUvii K`xq cwqvKiYi BDwbUi KvRi mv_ mg^q mvab Ki _vK|
KvRi mgq BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU hi m Kvb cKvi cwZMZ AmwZ `Lv w`j Zv KwDUvii c`vq
fm DV| ZLb BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU K`xq cwqvKiY BDwbU Dcv Ges Z_vw` Av`b c`vbi KvR wbqY
I cwiPvjbv Ki _vK|
L. mvwfm cvMvgt KwDUvii AcviwUs wmgi mvwfm cvMvg ejZ Zvi cwqvKiY Ges BDwUwjwU cvMvgi
mgw^^Z AevKB evSvbv nq _vK| mvwfm cvMvgi gvagB KwDUvii AcviwUs wmgi wbqY
cvMvgi Kvhvw`i mdjZv Gm _vK| mvwfm cvMvgK `yB fvM wef Kiv hvq| hgb-
1. cwqvKiY cvMvgt KwDUvii mvwfm cvMvgi cwqvKiY cvMvgi g~j KvRB nQ wewfb DPZi fvlvq
wjwLZ cvMvg hvwK fvlvq icvwiZ Kiv| AcviwUs wmgi mvwfm cvMvgi AMZ cwqvKiY cvMvgB
Abyev`K cvMvg wnme eenZ nq| Abyev`K cvMvgi cavb wZZ Aevb Ki DPii fvlvq jLv
cvMvgK hvwK fvlvq icvwiZ Ki cwqvKiYi KvR Zivw^Z Ki _vK|
2. BDwUwjwU cvMvgt mvwfm cvMvgi BDwUwjwU cvMvg cwqvKiYi Rb Dcv Ges iKWjvK
chvqwgKfve web Ki `q| web Kiv GKvwaK dvBj GKxf~Z Ki mekl Z_ m^wjZ GKwU dvBj
Zwi Ki _vK| me kl BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU wWfvBR nZ DcvjvK vbvib Ki _vK|

eY wfwK (CUI: Character User Interface) Ges wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg (GUI:
Graphical User Interface)

eY wfwK AcviwUs wmgt mvaviYZ wewfb aibi eY ev UU eenvi Ki KwDUvi cwiPvjbv Kiv nj ZvK eY
wfwK AcviwUs wmg (Text Based Operating System) ejv nq| G aibi AcviwUs wmg Kx evW nZ wewfb
eY, msLv, cZxK BZvw` UvBc Ki KwDUvi cqvRbxq wb`kbv c`vb KiZ nq| UU wfwK AcviwUs wmg
KvR KiZ Mj eenviKvixK AvM _KB Kgv Rvbv _vKZ nq Ges wmbU Abyhvqx Zv cqvM KiZ nq|
gvBv KwDUvi ej eeZ eY wfwK AcviwUs wmg nQ DOS.
eY wfwK AcviwUs wmgi myweavt
1. eY wfwK AcviwUs wmg wewfb eY, msLv cZxK UvBc Ki KwDUvi evZvg Pvc w`jB cqvRbxq wb`k
Pj Avm|
2. GZ wmg Abyhvqx KvR Kij Lye fvj dj cvIqv hvq|
3. DOS Gi ej eeZ KwDUviiv AcviwUs wmg njv eY wfwK AcviwUs wmg hvi eenvwiK
mydj AbK ewk|
Amyweavewjt
1. eY wfwK AcviwUs wmg eenvi Ki Kvh nvwmj KiZ mgq ewk jvM|
2. eenviKvixi h_v_ Kvh `Zv bv _vKj G BwZ Dk nvwmj nq bv|
3. h me eY UvBc KiZ ne Zv`i KvbwU Gw`K Iw`K nj KwDUvi Kvh mvov `q bv|

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4. eYi gvS h_v_ duvK ivLv evbxq bZzev dj wfbZi nq|

wP wfwK AcviwUs wmgt mvaviYZ KwDUvi Mvwd ev wPi gvag Kgv cqvM Ki KwDUvi cwiPvjbv
Kiv Mj ZvK wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| GZ wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg wewfb KvRi Rb AvBKb
Ges cyj WvDb gby _vK| hvi dj gvDm wKsev Kx evW eenvi Ki Kgv cqvM Kiv hvq| G KwDUvi Pvjy
Kivi ci c`vq wewfb cvMvgi AvBKb ev cZxKx wP DV Avm| hvi dj cqvRbxq cvMvgi AvBKvbi Dci
gvDm cqUvi w`q Wvej wKK KijB cvMvgwU Pvjy nq hvq|
wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg njv DBvR-95, DBvR 98, GbwU.80 Ges gvK OS BZvw`|
myweavewjt
1. G UemW AcviwUs wmgi Kgv gyL KiZ nq bv|
2. GLb eYi gvS duvK ivLvi weo^bv cvnvZ nq bv|
3. G ay gvDm eenvi Ki KwDUvi cwiPvjbv Kiv hvq|
4. wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg eenviKvixK Kgvi AfixY MVb Rvbvi cqvRb nq bv|
5. G Kvbic Kgv gby gyL Kivi ceYZv _vK bv|
Amyweavewjt
1. wP wfwK AcviwUs wmg eenviKvixK Kgv gby mK Rvbv _vKZ nq|
2. Kx evW mwKZ aviYv MnYi iZ Kg hvq|
3. KwDUvii Kvhg gvDm wfwK wbfikxjZv eo hvq|
4. h_v_ cvMvg Icb KiZ bv cvij eenviKvixi weo^bv cvnvZ nq|

wewfb cKvii AcviwUs wmg Pvjyi KviY

evRvi cPwjZ wewfb Kvvwbi KwDUvii ggvix msMVb wewfb wKsev wewfb cvMvg Pvjvbv ev KvhKix Kivq
wewfb Kkj cqvM nq _vK| GQvov wewfb KwDUvii gvawgK ggvwi wWfvBm wewfb iKgi| G KviY wewfb
Kvvbxi KwDUvi viv wewfb Kvhvewj mv`bi Rb wewfb cKvi AcviwUs wmgi cPjb Kiv nqQ|
eZgvb evRvi cvq mvZ aibi AcviwUs wmg Pvjy iqQ| hgb-
1. evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg|
2. gvw cvMvwgs AcviwUs wmg|
3. gvw cvmwms wmg|
4. UvBg kqvwis AcviwUs wmg|
5. Ifvijvc cmwms wmg|
6. wiqj UvBg AcviwUs wmg|
7. wWwweDUW AcviwUs wmg|
evP cmwms wmgt KwDUvi evP cmwms AcviwUs wmgi GKwU iZc~Y cKiY hv GKwU wbw` mgq ai
wewfb eenviKvixi Uvwgbvj _K Dcvjv GKwU wbw` wZ fvvi mwZ mgq ci mwZ DcvjvK
GKhvM KvR Ki _vK| hgb evsKi mvivw`bi jb-`bi Dcv wewfb KvDUvi Rgv _vK| Zvici mLvb
_K DcvjvK Uvwgbvj Gb g~j KwDUvi cwqvKiY Ki evP cmwms Gi Kvh nvwmj Kiv nq _vK| evP
cmwms cwqv wmwiqvj Ab jvBb cmwms KvR wnmeI LvZ|
IfviivcW cmwms wmgt KwDUvi h cwqvi gvag AbKjv cvMvg GK wbevn Kiv nq ZvKB
IfvijvcW cmwms wmg ejv nq| IfvijvcW cmwms AcviwUs wmg GK m GKvwaK Kvh GK mb
Kiv hvq| G BbcyU, AvDUcyyU Z_vw`i Av`vb c`vb CPU Ajm mgq cb Ki bv| eenviKvix IfvijvcW
cmwms wmgi gvag ^ mgq AbK ewk KvR KiZ cvi| KvRB evcK wfwK Kvh nvwmji Rb G aibi
AcviwUs AvekK|
evP cmwms Ges IfvijvcW cmwms Gi cv_Kt evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg Ges IfvijvcW cmwms wmgi
ga cv_K wbi QK Dcvcb Kiv njv

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evP cmwms wmg IfvijvcW cmwms wmg


1. evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg GKwUi ci GKwU 1. Ifvi jvcW cmwms wmg GKB mgq
cvMvg chvqg cwiPvjbv KiZ nq| AbKjv cvMvg GK wbevn nq _vK|
2. GZ GKwU wbw` mgq GKwU wbw` KvR mb KiZ 2. G GKB mgq GKvwaK Kvh mb nq|
nq| 3. G CPU KLbB Ajm Aevq mgq cb
3. G CPU BbcyU I AvDUcyyUi Z_ Av`vb c`vbi KiZ cvi bv|
Ajm Aevq mgq cb Ki _vK| 4. Ifvi jvcW cmwms wmg KvRi MwZ evP
4. evP cmwms wmg KvRi MwZ IfvijvcW cmwms cmwms wmgi PvBZ ewk _vK|
wmgi Zzjbvq Kg| 5. Gi eenvwiK myweav AcvKZ ewk|
5. Gi eenvwiK myweav AcvKZ Kg _vK| 6. Ifvi jvcW cmwms AcviwUs wmg Gi
6. evP cmwms AcviwUs wmg eenvi eenvwiK Kvh KvhKvwiZv RwUj weavq ` nvZ Zvi cwiPvjbv
`Zv cLi nq| KiZ nq|

gvw cvMvg Ges gvw cmwms


wewfb cKvii AcviwUs wmgi ga gvw cvMvwgs wmg Ges gvw cmwms AZ iZc~Y| gvw cvMvwgs
wmgi gvag GK m GKvwaK cvMvg cwiPvjbv Kiv nq _vK| Avi gvw cmwms wmgi gvag wfb wfb
cvMvgi wfb wfb cmmi wbw` Ki `qv nq _vK|
gvw cvMvwgst mvaviYZ h AcviwUs wmg wewfb KwDUvi GK m GKvwaK cvMvg cwiPvjbvi cwiek c`vb
Ki ZvK gvw cvMvwgs AcviwUs wmg ejv nq| Gaibi AcviwUs wmg KwDUvii MwZ evwoq `q| gvw
cvMvwgs wmg KwDUvii MwZ evwoq `q| gvw cvMvwgs wmg KwDUvii CPU Gi Aemi AevK KvR
jvwMq GK mvZ GKvwaK cvMvg cwiPvjbvi myhvM mw Ki `q| ZvB gvw cvMvwgs AcviwUs wmgK gvw
UvmwKs AcviwUs wmg bvgI AwfwnZ Kiv nq|
gvw cvMvwgs Gi ewkt
1. gvw cvMvwgs wmgi gvag GK mv_ GKvwaK Kvhvw` mb Kiv hvq|
2. G RAM Gi gvag cvMvg Kvh wbevnx ic cvMvg cwiPvjbv Kiv nq|
3. G CPU Ajm fve em _vKvi Kvb myhvM _vK bv|
4. gvw cvMvwgs Gi gvag KwDUvii Kvh MwZK e Y evwoq `qv me nq|
gvw cmwms wmgt gvw ki A_ nQ `yqi AwaK| KvRB A_MZ w`K w`q KwDUvii GKi AwaK
Z_v `ywU cmmi wewk wmgK gvw cmwms wmg ejv nq| Kvh gvw cmwms wmg `yGi AwaK
cmmi Af~ _vKZ cvi| gvw cmwms wmg `yqi AwaK cmmi mgw^Z cwZZ KvR KiZ cvi|
G AcviwUs wmgi mycvifvBRvi wewfb cvMvgi Rb wZi cwigvY eiv Ki _vK Ges KwDUvi BbcyU
I AvDUcyyU cwqv wbqY I cwiPvjbvi `vwqZ cvjb Ki _vK| KvRB AcviwUs wmg gvw cmwms wmg
AZ iZc~Y|
gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmgi ewkt gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmgi ewkvewj wb Dcvcb Kiv njv
1. gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmg cmmijvi KvR mvgwMKfve wbqY Ki|
2. GZ wfb wfb cvMvgi Rb wfb wfb cmmi wbw` _vK|
3. Gi Kvb cmmi BUvi GKwUf Ges Kvb cmmi evP cmwms Gi Rb mywbw` _vK|
4. gvw cmwms AcviwUs wmgi QvU cmmiwUK ejv nq myL cmmi Avi eo cmmiwUK cavb cmmi
hv`i KvR wfbZi|
5. gvw cmwms wmg BUviwckb cwijwZ nq _vK |
gvw cvMvwgs Ges gvw cmwms Gi cv_Kt
gvw cvMvwgs wmg gvw cmwms wmg
1. gvw cvMvwgs AcviwUs wmg GK mv_ GKvwaK KvR 1. gvw cmwms wmg wfb wfb cvMvgi Rb
mv`b Kiv hvq| wfb wfb cmmi wbw` iqQ|
2. G GKwU cvMvgi ci Avi GKwU cvMvg nvZ w`Z 2. G GKwU cvMvgi ci Avi GKwU cvMvgi Dci
nq bv| KvR KiZ nq|
3. GZ myL Ges cavb cmmi Gi gvag Kvhvw`
3. G RAM cvMvg Kvh wbevnx wnme KvR Ki
my-mb nq _vK|
_vK|
4. GZ Kvb cmmi BUvi GKwUf Ges Kvb
4. GZ Kvb cmmi BUvi GKwUf Ges Kvb cmmi evP
cmmi evP cmwms Gi Rb mywbw` _vK|
cmwms Gi Rb mywbw` _vK bv|

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KwDUvii cwqvKiY Aski MVb KvVvgv t


KwDUvi eenviKvix wb`wkZ Z_ I wb`kbvi gvag mwVK AvDUcyU c`vbi Rb KwDUvi iqQ mUvj
cmwms BDwbU ev K`xq cwqvKiY Ask| G mUvj cmwms BDwbU G AZ iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb Ki
_vK| Gi MVb KvVvgv KqKwU Ask wef|
CPU t KwDUvii Central Processing Unit K msc CPU ejv nq| hvi AvwfavwbK A_ njv K`xq
cwqvKiY Ask| KvRB A_MZfve KwDUvi KvR mb Kivi Rb Gi cavb K`xq cwqvKiY
AskKB CPU bvg AwfwnZ Kiv nq _vK| g~jZt KwDUvi cwiPvjbvi g~j PvwjKv kw nQ CPU.
evwnKfve GwU GKwU z` cmmi| Gi MVbMZ AvKvi z` njI Gi KvhKvwiZv KbvZxZ| KwDUvii
mvgwMK cwqvKiY Kvhvewj CPU Gi gvag mvw`Z nq _vK| ZvB CPU K KwDUvii K`xq
cwqvKiY Ask ev gw ejv nq|
KwDUvii CPU Gi MVb KvVvgvt KwDUvii CPU Gvwc Kkb cvMvgjvi KvR mv`b Kiv QvovI
wZ, BbcyU, AvDUcyU wWfvBRjvi KvR wbqY Ki _vK| eo KwDUvi GK ev GKvwaK mvwKW evW
KqKwU gvBv cmmi Ges Abvb mgw^Z mvwKU Gi mg^q CPU MwVZ nq| Ze mvaviYZ h mKj
Aski mg^q CPU Gi MVb KvVvgv Ges Kvhvewj mvw`Z nq Zv`iK wbv Dcvq kYxwefvM Ki
eYbv Kiv hvq| hgb- K. wbqY Ask (Control Unit)
L. cavb wZ Ask (Main Memory Unit)
M. MvwYwZK/ hyw Ask (Arithmetic Unit)
K. wbqY Askt BbcyU wWfvBm mg~ni gvag c` wb`kbv Z_v cvMvgi avivevwnKZv wbqY KivB
wbqY Aski KvR| GwU KwDUvii cavb cavb mvsMVwbK Dcv`vbi gvag cviwiK hvMhvM
wbqY Ki _vK| MnY gyL hvsk nZ cv me aibi Kvhvewj mv`bi Rb KwDUvii wbqY
Ask eeZ nq| mvaviY Z_ mg~n G Ask cwqvRvZ nq ALU Gi gvag MvwYwZK Kvhvewj mv`b
Ki _vK|
Kvhvewjt wbqY Ask wbv wewfb aibi KvR mv`b Ki _vK| hgb-
1. cavb ggvwi nZ GKvwUi ci GKwU BbvKkb AvniY Ki|
2. ALU K BbvKkb Abyhvqx MvwYwZK KvRi wb`k `q|
3. ALU Gi KvRi djvdj cavb ggvwiZ ciY|
4. cavb ggvwii djvdj AvDU wWfvBm cvVvbv|
L. cavb wZ Askt h ggvwii m ALU Gi cZ AvKmm _vK ZvK cavb wZ Ask ev cavb
ggvwi ejv nq| AZ `Z MwZZ MYbv KiZ mg ALU Gi mv_ cavb wZ Ask mshvM _vKvi
KviY cavb ggvwiI AZ `ZMwZ mb nq _vK| hme WvUv ev wb`k me mgq cqvRb ay
Zv`iKB cavb ggvwiZ ivLv nq|
Kvhvewjt cavb wZi KwZcq Kvhvewj wb Dj L Kiv njv
1. BbcyU AvMZ Z_K BbcyU GjvKvq gIRy` ivL|
2. GLvb WvUv cwqvKiY Kvh mb Ki _vK|
3. cwqvKiYi P~ov djvdj AvDUcyU ciYi AvM ch gIRy` ivL|
4. cavb wZ Aski cvMvg gIRy` GjvKvq cwqvKiY msv wb`k aviY Kiv nq|
M. MvwYZK ev hyw Askt cavb wZ GjvKvi ci MvwYwZK Ask mshy nq| cavb wZi BbcyU gIRy`
GjvKvq WvUv Gm Rgv nIqvi ci Zv cqvRb Abyhvqx MvwYwZK Ask cwiZ nq| MvwYwZK Ask
cwqvKiYi djvdj cavb wZ Ask Rgv Kivi ci Zvi cwqvKiY i nq| MvwYwZK Ask Zv
mb Ki MvwYwZK AvKvi djvdj cKvk Ki _vK|
Kvhvewjt 1. GLvb hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM Kvh mb nq|
2. GLvb hywi wfwZ wbavwiZ `vwqZ eb nq _vK|
3. hyw Ges MvwYwZK wnme wfwZ Z_i cwiPvjbv Ges vbvi Kvh GLvb mb nq|
4. Z_vw`K P~ovic c`kb Ki _vK|
mvaviYZ KwDUvii BbcyU wWfvBm mg~ni gvag cv Z_K wb`k Abyhvqx cwqvKiYi Rb CPU Gi
f~wgKv AZ iZcyY| g~jZt cwqvKZ djvdj mg~n AvDUcyU wWfvBm mg~n ciYi CPU Gi
f~wgKvB mevwaK | KvRB KwDUvi AvDUcyU Ges BbcyU wWfvBm mg~ni ga mg^qK wnme CPU
mK Rvbv GKv AvekK|

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KwDUvi ggvwi, cKvif` Ges KvR


KwDUvii K`xq cwqvKiY Aski ga wZ ev ggvwi AZ iZc~Y| KwDUvi ggvwii cavb
KvR nQ KwDUvi WvUv mg~n mq Ki ivLv| KwDUvii ggvwi j j wZ Kvl wbq MwVZ
nq| hv GKwU z`Zg vb wekl|
KwDUvii wZt KwDUvi WvUv msiYi Rb eeZ gvag ev aviKK KwDUvii wZ ev Memory
ej| A_vr KwDUvii h mKj Dcv BbcyU wWfvBmi mvnvh BbcyU Kiv nq| mjvK Rgv ivLvi Rb
h wbw` Ask _vK ZvKB KwDUvii wZic AvLvwqZ Kiv nq _vK| KwDUvii wZ Ask j
j wZ Cell _vK| Avi wZ Cell Gi AevbjK wZ vb ejv nq| KwDUvii cwZwU wZ vb
GKwU Ki wZ msLv _vK| h msLv viv wZ vbwU mbv Kiv nq m msLvwUK wZ vbi wVKvbv ev
ggvwi GvWm ejv nq| wZ vbi G wVKvbv cwiewZZ nq bv eis wZ msLvwU cwieZb nq _vK|
KwDUvi wZi cKvif`t KwDUvii wZ ev ggvwiK cavbZ `yB fvM wef Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
K. cavb wZ (Main Memory)
L. mnvqK wZ (Auxilary Memory)
K. cavb wZt KwDUvii h wZ mivmwi K`xq cwqvKiY Aski mv_ hy _vK Ges Kvb Z ev
wb`kK MnYgyL hi mvnvh MnY Kivi ci cwqvKiYi Rb msiY Kiv nq _vK ZvKB cavb
wZ (Main Memory) ejv nq| A_vr KwDUvi MvwYwZK Aski cZ mshvMi gvag h wZ
Kvhvewj mv`b Ki _vK ZvK cavb wZ ej| G aibi wZ AwZ `ZZvi mv_ Kvhvewj mv`b
Ki _vK| Z_ msiY I cybt Dvii Dci wfw Ki KwDUvii cavb wZK `yB fvM fvM Kiv
nq _vK| hgb-
i. RAM t BsiwR Random Access Memory K msc RAM ejv nq| BbcyU wWfvBm nZ AvMZ
mKj cKvi Z_ c_g RAM G Rgv nq| Gi gvag bZzb Z_ cov hvq, jLv hvq Ges BQv
Kij gyQv hvq| RAM wPcm AewZ hKvb wZ mivmwi wbevPb Kiv hvq, WvUv gIRy` Kiv hvq
Ges WvUv wb`k cvV Kiv hvq| RAM wPcm Avevi `yB aibi| hgb-
a. WvBbvwgK RAM wPcmt KwDUvi cybtcyb wjLbi gvag cybixweZ Ki Z_vewj cvV
KiZ nq ej G aibi wZK WvBbvwgK wZ ejv nq| mvaviYZ WvBbvwgK RAM wZZ
wbv Dcvqjv cavb wZi Ask wnme KvR Ki _vK| hgb- gBbdg, wgwbdg
BZvw`|
b. vwUK RAM wPc&mt KwDUvi cybtcyb wjLb ewZZ Z_ mg~n cybixweZ Ki cvV Kiv
hvq h wZi gvag ZvKB vwUK RAM wPc&m ejv nq| AvaywbK gvBv KwDUvi
vwUK RAM wPc&m Gi cwieZ WvBbvwgK RAM wPc&m eenvi Kiv nq _vK| G
AbKjv eenvwiK myweavI cvIqv hvq|
ii. ROM t KwDUvi wbqYg~jK KvRi Rb gvBv cmmi wekl aibi wZi eev iqQ
hv`iK ROM ej| BsiwR Read only Memory Gi mswic njv ROM | GwU cwiPvwjZ nq
gvBv cvMvgi gvag| we`yr mshvM wewQb nq MjI Gi wZZ we`gvb wb`kgvjv
AcwiewZZ _vK| KwDUvii wbw` wKQy KvRi wb`k wbqY Ki gvBv cvMvg| G
Gme wb`k hZ evi cqvRb ROM wPc&m _K ZZevi Zv cvV Kiv hvq| wK GZ wb`k
cek Kivbv hvq bv| ROM Gi cvMvg vqx| ROM wewfb cKvii nq _vK| hgb-
a. Programmable Read Only Memory = ROM.
b. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory = EPROM
c. Electrically Alterable Programmable Read Only Memory = EAPROM.
d. Electrically Erasable Programmabel Read Only Memory = EEPROM.
L. mnvqK wZt BbcyUKZ Z_mg~n cwqvKiYi ci cwqvRvZ Z_mg~n msiYi Rb KwDUvii h
wZ eeZ nq _vK mwUKB mnvqK wZ (Auxilary Memory) ejv nq| GwU mKvwi ggvwi
wnmeI AwfwnZ| cavb wZi Zzjbvq mnvqK wZi aviY gZv AbK Y ewk| cqvRb Gi avib

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gZv nvm ew Kiv hZ cvi| Ze cavb wZi Zzjbvq mnvqK wZi Kvh cwZ axi MwZ mb|
KwDUvii Kvhvewj mv`bi mvaviYZ c`vb wZi gvag cqvRbxq Kvhvewj mvw`Z nq
mnvqK wZZ Zv msiwZ nq _vK|

BbcyU Ges AvDUcyU wWfvBm


KwDUvii gwjK DcvqB njv BbcyU Ges AvDUcyyU wWfvBm| KwDUvii Z_ MnYi Rb iqQ
BbcyU Ges Z_ cwqvKiYi kl djvdj c`vbi Rb iqQ AvDUcyU wWfvBm| eve
KwDUvi G `yUvi iZ AbK ewk| G`i DciB Kvh `Zv I gZv wbfi Ki|
BbcyU wWfvBmt mvaviYZ KwDUviK `qv Z_ Ges wb`kbvK ejv nq BbcyU| Avi h hi ev
wWfvBmi gvag KwDUvi Z_ ev wb`kbv BbcyU ev c`vb Kiv mjvKB ejv BbcyU wWfvBm ev MnY
hcvwZ| KwDUvi wewfb aibi BbcyU wWfvBm iqQ| A_vr Avgiv h mKj hcvwZi gvag
KwDUvi Z_ I wb`k ciY Ki _vwK mme BbcyU wWfvBmjv nj wbic| hgb-
1. Kx evW
2. gvDm
3. vbvi
4. I. Gg. Avi
5. I.wm. Avi
6. Gg.AvB. wm
7. jvBU cb
8. MvwdK UejU
9. wWwRUvj Kvgiv
10. vbvi|
AvDUcyU wWfvBmt KwDUvi cv Z_ I wb`kbvi wfwZ cwqvKiYi KvR mb Kivi ci KwDUvi
h djvdj c`vb Ki mB djvdjKB ejv nq AvDUcyU| A_vr h me hcvwZi mvnvh KwDUvi nZ
c` Z_vw`i djvdj cvIqv hvq mjvKB KwDUvii AvDUcyU wWfvBm ejv nq| KwDUvii wewfb
aibi AvDUcyU wWfvBm jv wb ZvwjKve Ki Dj L Kiv njv-
1. gwbUi
2. Uvwgbvj
3. wcUvi
4. B cvU wcUvi
5. WU gwU wcUvi
6. WBwR Bj wcUvi
7. c vUvi|

CPU Ges BbcyU I AvDUcyU wWfvBmi WvUv Av`vb c`vb


KwDUvii CPU Ges BbcyU I AvDUcyU wWfvBmB njv cavb wbfikxj Dcvq| Gme Ajv ev`
w`j KwDUvii iZc~Y Ask ejZ Avi wKQyB _vK bv| G`i mgw^Z Kvh mv`bi gvagB
KwDUvi Z_vw`i MnY wek lY webvm msiY I mieivn Kvh mb nq| CPU Ges BbcyU I AvDUcyU
wWfvBmi gvag KwDUvi WvUv Av`vb c`vb mvaviYZ `yfve mb nq| hgb-
K. mgvivj cwidivj BUvidm|

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L. wmwiqvj mshvM BUvidm|


K. mgvivj cwidivj BUvidmt mvaviYZ CPU Ges cwidivji ga mgvivjfve WvUv PjvPj
Kij ZvK mgvivj ev cvivjvj cwidivj BUvidm ejv nq| GKwU ev Kveji fZi w`q
Z_i 8wU weU cvkvcvwk 8wU c_K jvBbi gvvag Av`vb c`vb Ki cvivjvj KwgwbKkb mb nq|
KwDUvii m cvivjvj KwgwbKkb cwZZ vwcZ mshvMK ejv nq cvivjvj BUvidm| vwR
wWfvBmjv cvivjvj KwgwbKkb cwZZ WvUv Av`vb c`vb Ki _vK| GLvb wcUviI cvivjvj
BUvidm wWfvBm f~ nq KvR Ki _vK|
L. wmwiqvj mshvM BUvidmt CPU Ges BUvidmi ga mgvivjfve wK BUvidm I
cwidwiqvji ga wmwiqvwj WvUv PjvPj Kij Zvnj wmwiqvwj mshvM BUvidm| ZvB wmwiqvwj
KgywbKkb cwZZ vwcZ mshvMK wmwiqvj BUvidm ejv nq _vK| wmwiqvj KgywbKkb G
mshvM Zvi ev eveji gvvag 8 weUi WvUv chvg Av`vb c`vb nq _vK| gWg, gvDm, Ges
Aviv wKQy hcvwZ wmwiqvj KgywbKkb cwZZ WvUv Av`vb c`vb Ki _vK ZvB Gme hcvwZK
wmwiqvj KgywbKkb wWfvBm Ges Zv`i mshvM `qvi cvUK wmwiqvj cvU ejv nq _vK|

nvWwW Ges dwc wW eenvwiK cv_K t


KwDUvi Z_ msMn Ges vvibi Rb nvWwW Ges dwc wW AZxe iZc~Y| G`i gvag
Z_vw` MnY, msiY Ges Av`vb c`vb Kvhvw` mb nq _vK| eZgvb eenvwiK iZ Abyhvqx wewfb
aibi nvWwW Ges dwc wW evRvi cvIqv hvQ|
nvWwWt KwDUvii nvWwW nQ GKwU cvZjv MvjvKvi avZe cvZi mg^q MwVZ GKwU mnvqK
wZ ev ggvwi| avZe cvZi Dfq c Pz^Kxq c`v_i cjc iqQ| GRb G aibi wWK Pz^Kxq wW
ev gvMbwwUK wW bvg AwfwnZ Kiv nq _vK| wWi MvjvKvi avZe cvZjv `LZ AbKUv Mvgv
dvbi iKWi gZv| G cvZjv GKwUi Dci GKwU cvKvi mgvivj web _vK| G avZe cvZi
gvSLvb Avav Bwi gZv duvKv RvqMv _vK|
avZe cvZjvi gvSLvb GKwU ` _vK| G `i mvnvhB cvZjv GKwUi Dci GKwU emvbv _vK|
mejv cvZ GKB m GKB w`K AvewZZ nq _vK| KvRi mgq G avZe cvZ Lye `Z AvewZZ nq|
cwZwU wWi fZii w`K c Dcv, Z_ I cvMvg aviY I msiYi Rb eeZ nq| cwZwU wWi c
`k AmsL e iLv viv wef _vK| eiLv viv wef exq AskjvK ejv nq UvK| Avi cwZwU
wWi mgw^Z webvmK ejv nq wmwjvi|
nvWwWi ewkt nvWwWi mvaviY ewkjv wb Dj L Kiv njv
1. nvWwW MvjvKvi GwU Avjywgwbqvg cvZi Zwi|
2. nvWwWi Dci gvMbwUf AvBWi cjc iqQ|
3. Gi aviY gZv I msiY KvcvwmwU AbK ewk|
4. Gi Gm UvBg AbK ewk|
5. GwU Zzjbvg~jKfve AbK ewk axNvqx|
dwc wWt mvaviYZ GK KwDUvi nZ Ab KwDUvi Z_i Av`vb c`vb Z_v Z_ mg~n GK vb nZ
Ab vb Av`vb c`vbi Rb h wWi eenvi Kiv nq ZvKB dwc wW ev Z_ Av`vb c`vb wW ejv nq|
dwc wW GK KwDUvi nZ Ab KwDUvi Z_ ciYi GKwU AbZg cavb gvag wnme eeZ nq|
GwU AZ nvjKv Ges Gi aviY gZv Kg| mnR Gi Z_vw` b nq hvq| Gi gvagB KwDUvi
fvBivm msgb nZ cvi| ZvB dwc wW eenvi mevP mZKZv Aej^b KiZ nq|
cKvif`t dwc wWK Zvi aviY gZv Ges AvKwZ Abyhvqx `yB fvM fvM Kiv nq _vK| hgb-
K. 3.5 Bw dwc wW|
L. 5.25 Bw dwc wW|
dwc wWi ewkt dwc wWi wbv ewk mvaviYZ cwijwZ nq _vK| hgb-

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1. dwc wW cvZjv Ges bgbxq c vmwUKi Zwi|


2. dwc wWi Dci nvjKv gvMbwUK AvBWi cjc iqQ|
3. Gi aviY gZv Zzjbvg~jKfve Kg|
4. Gi Gm UvBg Kg|
5. G wWi vqxZ Ges wbfihvMZvI AcvKZ Kg|

nvW wW I dwc wWi cv_Kt wbi QKi gvag nvWwW Ges dwc wWi cv_K Dj L Kiv njv
nvWwW dwc wW
1. nvWwW wfZi _vK Ges Gi aviY gZv 1. dwc wW evwni _vK Ges Gi aviY gZv
AbK ewk| nvWwW nZ Kg|
2. GwU Avjywgwbqvg cvZi Zwi 2. GwU c vwKi Zwi|
3. Gi Gm UvBg Kg 3. Gi Gm UvBg ewk|
4. GwU dwc wWi Zzjbvq AbK ewk 4. GwU nvWwWi Zzjbvq Kg wbfihvM|
wbfihvM 5. Gi aviYZ gZv 100 wMMvevBU- 45 GB
5. Gi aviY gZv 720 evBU nZ 1.44 ch|
wMMvevBU ch |

wcUvi : Bv Ges bb-Bv wcUvi


KwDUvii c` Z_vewji djvdj m^wjZ nvWKwc cvIqvi hB njv wcUvi| GwU KwDUvii AvDUcyU
wWfvBmi GKwU Ask| GwU KwDUvi nZ cqvRbi ZvwM` wewQb Ki iLI KwDUvi KvR Kivi
Kvh nvwmj Kiv hZ cvi|
wcUvit KwDUvii AvDUcyU wWfvBmi ga iZc~Y GKwU h njv wcUvi| A_vr KwDUvi c`
Z_vewj CPU Gi cwqvKiYi ci djvdjK h hi gvag wcU Kiv nq ZvKB wcUvi ejv nq|
KwDUvi mvgwMK KvR Kivi ci c` djvdjK wcUvii gvag BQ gZv wcU Ki evBi mieivn Kiv
nq _vK| c` Z_vewj wcU Kivi ci KwDUvii fvlvq ZvK nvWKwc ejv nq| A_vr nvWKwcB njv
KwDUvii wcU Kwc|
wcUvii cKvif`t KwDUvii wcUviK mvaviYZ wbv Dcvq kYxwebvm Kiv hvq| hgb-
K. avv wcUvi (Impact Pinter)
i. jvBb wcUvi (Line Printer)
ii. Ai wcUvi (Serial printer)
L. Aavv wcUvi (Non-Impact Printer)
i. jRvi wcUvi (Leser Printer)
ii. _vgvj wcUvi (Thermal Printer)
iii. Kej RU wcUvi (Ink-Jet Printer)
iv. wwZ e`ywZK wcUvi (Electrostatic Printer)
K. Bv wcUvii Kvhvewjt h wcUvi Qvcvbvi KvR wcUvi nW aviY `Lvi gvag Kvh mb Ki
_vK ZvK avv wcUvi (Impact Printer) ejv nq| A_vr Bv wcUvi gy`Yi KvR Ki
BjKUvgvKvwbKvj cwZ| GZ wcUvinW wiebi Dci AvNvZ Ki| wiebi Kvwj dzwiq Mj bZzb wieb
eenvi KiZ nq| wiebi cwieZ Kveb KvMR w`jI AvcvZ Kvh mgvav nq _vK|

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L. bb-Bv wcUvit bb-Bv wcUvii mvnvh gy`Yi Rb Dvc BjKUvvwUK, ivmvqwbK Ges
BsK RU chyw eenvi Kiv nq _vK| bb Bv wcUvi B wcUvi Bv wcUvi Acv DbZ
gvbi| ZvB bb Bv wcUviK Avevi jRvi wcUviI ejv nq|

OMR, OCR, MICR


OMR Gi eenvit mvaviYZ AcwUKvj gvK wiWvii msw ic nQ I.Gg. Avi| A_vr Optical Mark
Reader = OMR| GwU nQ wekl aibi wP cvVKvix BbcyU h| mvaviYZ bewK cixvi c cwiwPwZ
g~jK weeiY, cYi evRvi Rwic, RbgZ Rwic, Gm Gm wm, GBP Gm wm cixvi bvg ivj, iwR b^i
BZvw`i MvcbxqZv ivi Rb KwDUvi OMR Gi eenvi Kiv nq _vK| OMR G eenvii Rb
KvMRi Dci MvjvKvi Ni m^wjZ QK Zwi Kiv nq _vK| hv cwj w`q fivU KiZ nq|
OCR Gi eenvit mvaviYZ Optical Character Reader K mswic OCR G eenvii Rb c_g
KwDUvii mv_ hy vbvi w`q UU dvBjK vb Kiv nq| Kvb Kvb mgq OCR md&UIqvi w`q
mivmwi vb Kiv nq _vK| OCR viv nvZi jLvKI mbv Kiv nq _vK|
Gi eenvit mvaviYZ Magnatic Ink Character Reader K msc MICR ejv nq| Gi A_ nQ Pz^Kxq
Kvwji mvnvh Ai cov| ZvB ejv nq Pz^Kxq Kvwj w`q jLv Ai cvV Kivi hB njv MICR. mvaviYZ
evsK PK, Rgv --- BZvw`Z G aibi Kvwj eenvi Kiv nq| evsK eevq MICR wekl f~wgKv cvjb
Ki _vK| Gi gvag evsK cwZ wgwbU 2500 GiI ewk PK cvV Kiv hvq|

vbvii KvRt mvaviYZ KvMR gyw`Z Qwe ev Kvgivq Zvjv Qwe vbvii mvnvh KwDUvi ciY Kiv
nq _vK| vbvii mvnvh KwDUvi Qwe MnY Ges KwDUvi Qwe mv`bvi Rb cavbZ dUvkc
bvgi evenvwiK Kgm~wP ev Gvwc Kb cvMvg eenvi Kiv nq _vK| mvaviYZ vbvi AvjvK iwk
mse`bkxj hi gvag Qwe, iLv Ges jLv BZvw` Z_ cvV Ki _vK| G OCR Ges OMR Gi
f~wgKv wekl iZc~Y|

WKzgU Zwi wcU Kivi cwZ t

KwDUvi AcviwUs wmg KZjv cvMvgi mg^q MwVZ| GwU AbKjv cvMvgi mgw| wewfb
AcviwUs wmg I cwiek WKzgU Zwi AbKUvB RwUj Ges `Zvc~Y KvR| KviY WKzgU cmwms
cwqvwU LyeB mZKZv Ges `Zvi mwnZ mymb KiZ nq|
WKzgUt WKzgU (Document) ki mvaviY A_ nQ cgvY `wjj, cgvY c, bw_c BZvw`| wK
KwDUvi wekl Ki IqvW cmwms Gi WKzgU ejZ
dvBj msiwZ jLv-jwLi h Kvb welqKB WKzgU ev Document ejv nq| KwDUvi WKzgU Zwi
g~jZ RwUj I `Zvc~Y cwqvMZ cwZ wekl|
AcviwUs wmg I cwiek WKzgU Zwii cwqvt gwKbUvk KwDUvi Ges IBMPC KvwUej
KwDUvi DfqwUi AcviwUs wmg I cwiek WKzgU Zwi Kiv hvq| wbP Dfq KwDUvii
WKzgU Zwii cwqv eYbv Kiv njv-
(i) gwKbUvk KwDUvii t gwKbUvk KwDUvi myBP Ab Kivi ci gwKbUvk KwDUvii
c`vq nvWwW,Uvk Ges Abvb KvRi AvBKb cvIqv hvq| AvBKb nPQ nvW wW, dwc wW, dvBj
dvv, Uvk BZvw`i cZxK wP| nvW wW AvBKbi Dci gvDm cqUvi w`q Wvej wKK Kij nvW
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wWi WvBiix DBv Lyj hvq| Gi fZi nvW wW we`gvb dvBj, dvvi Ges cvMvg mg~ni
ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv nZ gvBv-md&U IqvW cvMvgi k~b c`v ev k~b WKzgU DBv
Gm hvq|
(ii) IBM gwKbUvk KwDUvii t AvB we Gg PC KvwUej KwDUvii DBvR 95/98
AcviwUs wmg KvR Kivi Rb KwDUvii myBP Ab Kivi ci c`vi DBvR 95/98 WUc
cwiek cvIqv hvq| WUci wbP evg w`K vU evZvg gvDm cqUvi w`q wKK Kij wewfb
cvMvg dvBj, dvvi BZvw`i ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv nZ cvMvg wKK Kij wewfb
cvMvgi bvgi ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv nZ gvBvmd&U IqvW Gi bvgi Dci wKK Kij
gvBvmd&U IqvW cvMvg Pvjy nq hvq ev Lyj hvq|
gwKbUvk, DBvR Ges DBvR 96/98 Gi h Kvb AcviwUs wmg _K gvBvmd&U IqvW
cvMvg Lvjvi ci cv gvBvmd&U IqvW cvMvgi k~b WKzgU DBv `LZ GKB iKgi nq
Ges Zv`i KvRi myhvMI GKB aibi| k~b WKzgU DBvwU njv jLv-jwLi Rb mv`v KvMRi
gZv|| KwDUvii m hy Kx-evW mvnvh evsjv ev BsiwR KvR Ki G WKzgU DBvZ
wPwVc cwZe`b, ce, M, KweZv BZvw` hKvb welqi msw ev bvwZ`xNw welq ei jLv-jwL
Kiv hvq|
jLv-jwL ev KvRi KvR kl Ki msiYi D`vM wbj KwDUvii fvlvq wekl Ki IqvW
cmwms cvMvg WKzgU ejv nq| G Gi welqe GK cv nZ kZvwaK cv ch nZ cvi|
ZLb welqeK dvBji bvg w`q msiY KiZ nq| Zvici cZKwU dvBjB wfb wfb WKzgU
wnme weewPZ nq|
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WKzgU cmwms, WKzgU digwUs WKzgU msiY t

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digwUs ev P~ov mxZ KvRjv ga Dj LhvM njv kxlPiY, cv`Pib, cv`UxKv, gvwRb Ges cv
b^i mshvRb| Zvici GK wbavwiZ wbqg msiY KiZ nq|
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kxlPiY, c`vPiY BZvw`KB h_v_ wbqg mb KivKB evSvbv nq _vK| WKygU digwUs Gi KvR
jv h_v_ wbqg mb KiZ nq| WKzgU digwUs ev mvi P~ov KvRjv njv h_vg kxlPiY,
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AvjvPbv Kiv I c`kb e `qv njvt

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gvwRb

kxlPiY cv bs

gvwRb WKzgU gvwRb

cv`UxKv

gvwRb

wPt WKzgU digwUs

(i) ce RvZxq cwZe`b wKsev Kvb cyKi cvywjwc KvR Kivi mgq Zvi kxlPiY ev kxl
wkivbvg wjL wbZ nq hvK kxl PiY ev nWvi ejv nq| WKzgU nWvi w`j cwZ cvi Dci
Top gvwRb _K wbw` cwigvY nWvi mw ne| mvaviYZ nWvi e cqvRbxq msLv wjL Gviv
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(ii) gvwRb WKzgUi Pviw`K h wbw` cwigvY RvqMv duvK _vK ZvK gvwRb ejv nq| gvwRb KwDUvi
wbavwiZ ic wnme Gm hvq| Ze gvwR Kgvbvi evovbvi gZv eenviKvixi iqQ| wZwb BQ
gZv WKzgUi Pvi w`K gvwRb w`Z cvib|
(iii) cv`PiYt WKzgUi cwZ cvi wbP/Dci cvi b^i Ges dgvi msLv ev Ab Kvb jLv KvR
KiZ nq| G meKB cv`PviY ejv nq| cvi msLv cv`PviY Qvov Ab fveI mshy Kiv hvq| GwU
eenviKvixi BQvi Dci wbfi Ki _vK| cv`PviY KwDUvi KvRi mgq h_ mZKZvi mwnZ
KiZ nq hvZ Ki gvwRb ev dU f bv hvq|
(iv) cv`UxKvt AbK KwDUvi WKzgU jLvi mgq Kvb k ev Z_i msw evLv ev cwiPq
wnme cv`UxKv wjLZ nq| GZ Z_i Drm cwiPq Ges D Z_i jLK ev MelKi cwiPq I
Z_ cI Dj wLZ nq _vK|
WKzgU msiYi cqvRbxqZvt WKzgU Zwii GK chvq Z_ msiY ev mf Ki wbZ nq| WKzgU
Zwii mgq A_vr KvR Kivi mgq we`yr Pj Mj ev Kvb KviY KwDUvi _K we`yr wewQb nq
Mj KvR Kiv welqe nvwiq hvq| we`yr Pj Mj Avqx wZZ we`gvb wKQyB Aewk _vK bv|
Avqx wZ fvvi m~Y k~b nq hvq| wK KvR Kiv welqeK c~eB mf Ki wbj mKj KvR
Kiv welqe mnvqK wZ hgb nvW wW Pj hvq| ZLb nvW wW msiY Kiv welqe we`yr Pj MjI
Avi gyQ hve bv ev AcwiewZZ _vKe| myZivs Kvb welqe KvR Kivi mgq KqK jvBb KvR
KiB Zv msiY Ki wbZ ne| hv ciI KvR ne| hv ciI KvR ne Zv mekl ch we`yr
wevUI msiwZ _vKe|

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AvBKb, DBvR Ges gbyevi wPwZKiY I eenvi t


KwDUvi cwiPvjbvi AvBKb, DBvR Ges gbyevi wPwZKiY Ges G`i eenviKiY AZv
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Zvici G ZvwjKv nZ gvBvmd&U IqvW cvMvgi AvBKb Wvej wKK Kij gvBvmd&U IqvW cvMvg
Lyj hvq| A_vr KwDUvii c`vq gvBvmd&U IqvW cvMvgi k~b c`v Gm hvq ev k~b WKzgU DBvR
Gm hvq|
DBvR (Windows) t DBvR njv Lvjv Rvbvjvi gZv| Lvjv Rvbvjv w`q hgb Nii fZii Ask
wekl Ges wRwblc `Lv hvq Zgwbfve KwDUviI DBvR ev Lvjv Rvbvjv w`q Gi fZii Ask
wekl `Lv hvq| cwZwU DBvZB vi evi, vi Zxi Ges mvBR e _vK| mvBR e Wvej wKK Ki
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QvU KiI Avbv hvq|
gbyevi (Menu Bar)t KwDUvii c`vi GKevi Dci GK mvwiZ File, Edit, View, Label,
Special BZvw` jLv _vK| G mvwiwUK ejv nq gbyevi| File Edit k jv nQ GKKwU gbyi bvg|
cZKwU gbyi Aaxb AbKjv Kgv _vK| gbyZ h_v_ wbqg wKK Kij mswk gbyi wbP D gbyi
Aaxb Kgvjv `Lv hvq| Gme Kgv eenvi Ki WUc ev dvBvi jfj wW eevcbvi KvR
KiZ nq| gbyevii gZvB UvBUj evi nvWwW, dwc wW, dvBj dvvi BZvw` bvg jLv _vK| Avevi
dwc wW Kvb bvg `qv bv _vKj UvBUj evi ay Untitle jLv _vKe|

IqvW cmwms
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cvMvg evRvi cvIqv hvq| hgb- MS IqvW, IqvW cvid, IqvW vi, wWmc ivBUvi, WivBUvi Latex
Ges gvKivBwU BZvw`| ej cPwjZ IqvW cmwms cvMvg|
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KwDUvi eenvii ewPgqZv GmQ| eZgvb AvgwiKvi weLvZ gvBvmd&U Kcvikb KZK
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cvMvg| mviv weki meB IBM Ges Gvcj Dfq KwDUviB Gi cvMvgwU evcKfve eeZ nQ| gby
Ges AvBKb wfwK G cvMvgwU mnRB Pvjbv Ki IqvW cmwms Gi hveZxq KvR Kiv hvq| c_g ceZbi
mgq nZ GLb ch MS IqvWi AbK DbZZi msiY ev fvmb Pvjy nqQ| cieZx fvmb AvMi
fvmbi Zzjbvq DbZZi myhvM myweav iqQ| KvRB KwDUvii evcK wfwK eenvi mywbwZ KiY
IqvW cmmii eenvwiK iZ ev DcvhvwMZv AZ evcK|
IqvW cmmii myweavt KwDUvi IqvW cmmi w`q ewea KvR Kiv hvq| Gi cfve KwDUvii
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1. jLvi gvSLvb bZzb Kvb jLv mwbewkZ Kiv hvq Ges AcqvRbxq Kvb jLv gyQ `qv hvq|

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2. jLvi h Kvb Ask Ab h Kvb Ask Kwc Ki vbvwiZ Kiv hvq|


3. GK dvBji jLv Ab dvBj mshvRb Kiv hvq|
4. Kvb k e`wjq ^qswqfve Ab Kvb k emvbv hvq|
5. evbvb fyj wKsev evKiYMZ fyj wbYq I mskvab Kiv hvq|
6. GKB aibi jLvi KvR evievi Kivi cqvRb nj KvRwUK GKwU gv Kgv w`q msiY Ki
h_vvb eenvi Kiv hvq|
7. wewfbfve jLvK mwZ Ki vqxfve gy`Y hvIqv hvq|
8. jLvK QvU eo Kiv hvq Ges m`h eabi KvR mv`b Kiv hvq|
9. GKB dvBji g~j jLvi mv_ Ab dvBji msiwZ wVKvbv Ges Abvb Z_ mshy Ki dg jUvi
Zwi Kiv hvq|
10. mekl cZKZ wjwcK fwelZi Rb eenvii Dk msiY Kiv hvq|

KqKwU Rbwcq IqvW cmmi


eZgvb wek e aibi IqvW cmmi cPwjZ iqQ| Ze ej eeZ KqKwU IqvW cmmi cvKRi
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1. gvBv md&UIqvi IqvW (Microsoft Word)
2. IqvW cvid (Word Perfect)
3. jvU (Latex)
4. IqvW vi (Word Star)
5. gvK ivBwU (Mac write)
6. Gg.Gm. IqvW (MS- Word)
7. wWmc ivBU (Display Write)
Gg.Gm. IqvWt AvgwiKvi weLvZ gvBvmd&U Kcvikb KZK evRviRvZKZ gvBvmd&U IqvW ev
msc MS IqvW cvMvg LyeB Rbwcq Ges ej eeZ DbZ IqvW cmwms cvcvg| mviv weki meB
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mviv wek KwDUvi eenvii RbwcqZv eY eoQ|
Gg.Gm IqvWi mvnvh WKzgU Zwit
1. Gg.Gm. IqvW KwDUvii DBvR 95/98 AcviwUs wmg KvR Kivi Rb KwDUvii ON myBP
Pvc w`jB wKQyY ci gwbUii c`vq DBvR 95/98 WUc cwiek `Lv hve|
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gvBvmd&U IqvW G wKK Kij gvBvmd&U cvMvg Pvjy nq|
4. DBvR 95/98 Lvjvi ci duvKv WKzgU cvIqv hvq| WKzgU hKvb bvg w`qB Save Ki ZvZ h
Kvb KvR Kiv hvq|
wcU Kivi cwZt Gg.Gm IqvW cmwms Gi gvag IqvW WKzgU Zwi Kivi ci cqvRbxq me iKg
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2. File gbyZ Print Ackb wbevPb Ki|
3. (Ctrl +P) Kx q Pc|

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WUc cvewjwks Gi Rb cqvRbxq nvWIqvi Ges md&UIqvi t

WUct Wi Dci ivLv hvq Ggb gvBv KwDUvi Ges AvbymwK nvWIqvi I md&UIqvii mvnvh
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nq _vK| GZ Ki KvR nq wbLuyZ I SKSK| mvaviYZ Gi mvnvh eB cyK, c cwKv, mvgwqKx,
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KiZ nq|
mvaviY cvewjwks Gi Rb cqvRb Abyhvqx wewfb aibi nvWIqvi Ges md&UIqvi eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
G wbvjv AbZg|
nvWIqvii bvgt cvewjwks KvRi Rb cqvRbxq nvWqvi mg~ni ga wbvjv AbZg
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md&UIqvii bvgt cvewjwks Gi Rb cqvRbxq md&UIqvi mg~ni ga wbvjv AbZg| hgb-
1. MS IqvW (Gcj)
2. gvBvmd&U IqvW (IBM)
3. gvBvmd&U cvIqvi cqU|
4. gvBvmd&U Gj|
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6. KvqvK|
7. iwWmU Mv|
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W cvewjwks chywi m~Pbv Ges cmvit evsjv`k W cvewjwks Gi hvv i nqQ 1987 mvj nZ|
ZLb Rbve gvdv Revi mvw`Z mvvwnK Avb`c cwKv cKvkbvi ga w`q Gi Kvhg i
nqQ| wZwbB mec_g evsjv`k Gvcji gwKbUvk KwDUvi Ges jRvi ivBUvi eenvi Ki Zvi
mvw`Z mvvwnK Avb`c cKvk Kib 1987 mvji 16B g ZvwiL| GKB eQi 12 m^i ZvwiL Ab
Avi GKwU cKvkbvq WBjx wbDR bvg Avi GKwU BsiwR cwKv cKvwkZ nq|
Avb`c Ges WBjx wbDRi ci mvvwnK ZviKvjvK I `wbK AvRv` WUc cvewjwks Gi RMZ cek
Ki| msev`c Ges cKvkbvi RMZ WUc cvewjwks evcK eenvi Zivw^^Z Kivi Rb Rbve gvdv
Revi wbR DbZgvbi dU Zwii Pvq wbqvwRZ nb Ges msev`c I cKvkbvi RMZi m wbqvwRZ
eweMK GZ m nq eemvwqK Kvh Pvwjq bevi Rb Dy Kib|
WUc cvewjwks (DTP) njv g~jZt gvBv KwDUvii mvnvh cvK gy`Y chvqi KvR mb Kivi
GKwU cwqv| Avgv`i `k gy`Yi `yUv cwZ Pvjy wQj| Gi GKwU njv jUvi cm gy`Y cwZ Avi
GKwU njv AcmU gy`Y cwZ| Ze eZgvb AcmU cwZZ gy`Yi Rb WUc cvewjwks cwqvi i
_K c U Zwii c~e ch mejv KvR GKwU gv gvBv KwDUvii mvnvh mb Kiv nq _vK|
Avi KwDUvii IqvU webvm cwqvi KvR Kiv nq IqvW cmwms cvMvgi eenvi Ki| wcwUs G eZgvb
mKj cKvi gy`Yi KvR Kiv nq KwDUvi eenvi Ki|
cwikl ejv hvq Avgv`i `k KwDUvi eenvi Ki gy`Yi Kvhi AMhvv i Ki WUc cvewjwks
gvBv KwDUvi| KvRB Gi eenvwiK iZ AbK Lvwb ewk| Gi cfve AvR Avgv`i gy`Y RMr e
ewPZvq kvwfZ nqQ|

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evsjv IqvW cmwms t

IqvW cmwms KwDUvii GKwU ^qswq cwqvKiY cwqv| G cwZZ k msMwVZ Ki WKzgU Zwi,
dvBj, AbywjwcKiY, WKzgUi Z_ msiY I cwiekb Kiv me nq _vK| IqvW cmwms G IqvW
cmmi eenvi Kiv nq _vK| Avgv`i `k evsjv IqvW cmwms Gi KvR evsjv`k cKkj
wekwe`vjqi AweiYxq Ae`vb iqQ| ,

evsjv IqvW cmwmst KwDUvii mvnvh evsjv fvlvq jLv jwLi KvR KivB nQ evsjv IqvW cmwms|
evsjvq IqvW cmwms Gi eZgvb Avgv`i AbK myweZZ| G `ki mKj Awdm Av`vjZ eemv
cwZvb, `i, wkv cwZvb eeZ KwDUvi evsjv IqvW cmwms Gi ej eenvi iqQ| evsjvq
IqvW cmwms Gi evsjv`k cKkj wekwe`vjq, my`xN cuvP eQi MelYv Ki (1982-1984) c_g
weUm cwKvq 1g Ges 2q msLvq evsjvq IqvW cmwms eenvi Kib| Zvici mvBdzvnv knx`i Zwi
evsjv md&UIqvi evRvi Avm| GfveB chvqg Aviv e jvK Ges Kvvbxi cPvq evsjv IqvW
cmwms Gi Dbqb nq|
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cmwms md&UIqvi iqQ| wb Zvi KqKwUi Dcvcbv Kiv njv-
1. knx` wjwc md&UIqvi|
2. weRq md&UIqvi|
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4. AvBweGg Gi wcwm DBvR md&UIqvi|
5. evsjv w BUvi dR wmg md&UIqvi|
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4. wjwci Kvb ki cwieZb ^qswqfve bZzb k emvbv me nq|
5. evbvb I evKiYMZ fyj wbYq Ges mskvab Kiv me|
6. wewfb AvKi KvMR vqx wjwc cZ me nq|
7. ggvwiZ wjwc msiY Ges cqvRbxqZvi ZvwM` msiwZ wjwc Abywjwc cZ Kiv me|
8. ggvwiZ msiwZ WKzgU KvMR gyw`Z Kiv hvq|
9. ggvwiZ msiwZ WKzgU cqvRb Ab Kvb gvag ciY Kiv me nq|

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10. cqvRbi ZvwM` wjwcK wewfbfve m`h ew Kiv wKsev cvivq mvRvbv me nq|

Avro Keyboard

Avro Keyboard is distributed under Creative Commons


Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. You are free to
share, distribute, copy this product. You CANNOT
alter/modify/decompile any of its parts. Avro as a Unicode
writing system introduced by Omicronlab
Avro Bangla Writing software can be downloaded free from
http://www.omicronlab.com/

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dj m mgvb gvci eMjvi cZKwUB njv GK GKwU wcj| wcj njv Qwe ev cwZwe^
Gi z`Zg Ask ev Dcv`vb| weUgvc dUK Mvwd dUI ejv nq|
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mvnvh| AvDU jvBbi dUi AijvK MvjvKvi Ask ev Kvbjv Ges j^v I mij iLvjv
Zwi nq m~ MvwYwZK gvcRvLi wfwZ| KvRB AvDU jvBbi Aijv hZB QvU eo nvK bv Kb
weKZ nq bv ev f hvq bv| KwDUvi GKwU mUi wfwZB AvDU jvBb dUi Ai h Kvb
AvKvi eo Kiv hvq Ges gy`Y bqv hvq| mvaviYZ Kvb Kvb wcUviI AvDU jvBb dU `qv _vK|
AvDU jvBb dUi AbZg cZKvwi cwZvb njv Adobe System Inc.
3. xb dU I wcUvi dUt xb dU nQ gwbUii c`vq c`kbi Rb Zwi weUgvc dU| gag
iRyjkbi gwbUi G aibi weUgvc dU `L Gi cKZ gyw`Z ic wK ne Zv evSv hvq bv| wekl
Ki AvBweGg wcwm KcvwUej KwDUvi Wm AcviwUs wmg KvR Kivi mgq gwbUi Gaibi dU
`Lv hvh| Ai eo Kiv, gvUv Kiv, BUvwjK Kiv BZvw` bvbv iKg ewk Avivc Kivi ciI c`vq
we`gvb Aii Kvb cwieZb evSv hvq bv| mvaviYZ DP iRyjkbi wcUvi ev jRvi wcUvi Gme
ewk gyw`Z nq _vK|

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4. UvBc-1 Ges Uz-UvBc dU t Adobe cv w dUi `ywU dvBj _vK| Gi GKwUK ejv nq weUgvcW
Ges AbwUK UvBc-1| GK mgq dUi AvaywbK chyw njv Uy-UvBc| G Uy UvBc DBvR Ges
gwbUvk Dfq cKvii KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq| eZgvb Gvcj DvweZ G chywZ GKwU dU
dvBj _vK Ges mB dU dvBjwUB gwbUi Ges wcUvi eenvi Ki|
5. mwid Ges m mwidt AvKwZMZ w`K nZ BsiwR dUK `yfvM fvM Kiv nq| h_v-
K. mwid L. m mwid|
mvaviYZ ejv hvq mwid dUi Aijv kl cv ch evovbv _vK| Abw`K m mwid dUi
kl cvjv _vK mgvb| UvBg ivgvb Mvi dUjv mwid Ges njewUK Mvi dUjv nQ m
mwid dUi D`vniY| Kvh mwid dU Ges m mwid dU AZxe iZc~Y|

dvBj cwqvKiY, WvUv msMVb ivbWg GvKmj gvBj cwqvKiY


GKvwaK iKWi mg^q MwVZ nq GKwU dvBj| Avi KwDUvii ga dvBji AfixY Z_vw`KB ejv nq WvUv
(Data)| dvBji Afi wewfbfve WvUv msMwVZ Kiv hvq| G wmKzqwqvj WvUv msMVb wKsev ivbWg
GvKmj gvBj cwqv weklfve Dj LhvM|
WvUv msMVbt KwDUvi WvUv msMVb AZ iZen| G Zvrchc~Y KvhwU AZ mZKZvi mwnZ KiZ nq|
KwDUvi Kvb dvBji Z_vw`KB WvUv ejv nq| dvBji AfixY I Z_vw`K wekl wbqg mvRvbv ev webvm
Kivi cwqvKB WvUv msMVb ejv nq| dvBj WvUv msVb cavbZ `yB cKvii nq _vK|
K. wmKzqbwmqvj dvBj WvUv msMVb
L. ivbWg ev WvBi dvBj WvUv msMVb|
dvBj WvUv msMVbi mv_ wbv welqmg~n mswk _vK| hgb-
1. wmKzqbwmqvj Gvmmt P^K Uc I P^K wW
2. Random Gmmt P^K wW|
3. wmKzqbwmqvj GvKmm g_W|
4. BbW wmKzqbwmqvj GvKmm g_W|
5. Kx Uvdviikb
6. BbW wjs wj|
7. WvBi GvKmm BZvw`|

ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvKiY

ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvKiY WvBi bbwmKzqbwmqvj wiwjwUf dvBj bvg cwiwPZ| G dvBj iKW mg~n
Kvb gvbymvi mvRvbv _vK bv Ges cwqvKiYi Rb dvBjK mU KiZ nq bv| Ze iKW mbvKiYi Rb
iKW Kx, cqUvi, Ges BbWi cqvRb cqvRb co| G Kvb dvBji mv_ ZvrwYKfve mshvM I
dvBj AvaywbKxKiY Kiv me nq| ivbWg dvBji Rb mivmwi mshvM hvM wZ eenvi Kiv nq Ges Drmi
Abyg Dcv`vbK KwDUvi `qv nq|

ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvKiYi Kx evW I c`kbi gwbUihy WvUv GwU Uvwgbvji gvag
Drm Dcv`vbK mwVKfve wW msiY Kiv nq| G cwqvKiYi mgq gvvi gvBji Drm DcvK mU
KiZ nq bv Ges gvvi gvBjK ZvrwYKfve AvaywbKKxKiY Kiv hvq| G Qvov AvcWU cvMvg eenvi
Dcv cwqvKiYi gvag Drm Dcvi wewfb cKvii cqvRbxq wicvU Zwi Kiv nq| GLvb hnZz I
gvvi dvBj ejZ wKQy _vK bv mnZz cqvRb Abymvi gvS gvS P^K Uc dvBji evK Avc Kwc
ivLv nq| wb ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvKiY wPi gvag `Lvbv njv-

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mvgWKzgU

GwWU I Kx nZ
iKW AvaywbKxKiY I msiY
wW icviY

gvvi dvBj iKW iKW cVb gvvi dvBj


AvaywbKxKiY

jM UvRKkb dvBj

wicvU

wPt ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvRvZKiY


ivbWg GvKmm dvBji myweavt ivbWg GvKmm dvBji myweavewj wb Dcvcb Kiv njv-
1. mivmwi mshvM Uvwgbvji gvag UvRKkb WvUv eenvi Ki ZvrwYKfve gvvi iKW AvaywbKxKiY Kiv
hvq|
2. mswk iKW Abymvb Ki AvaywbKxKiY KvR nq|
3. m~Y dvBj coZ nqbv ej mgq I LiP Kg nq|
4. iKW Abymvb mgq Lye Kg jvM|
5. GKmv_ GKvwaK dvBj AvaywbKxKiY Kiv hvq|
ivbWg GvKmm dvBji Amyweavt ivbWg GvKmm dvBji Amyweavmg~n wb Dcvcb Kiv njv
1. cwqvKiYi dj AvMi iKW wejy nq|
2. GKvwaK eenviKvixi GKB dvBj eenvi Kij Zvi eev _vK bv|
3. RwUj cvMvgi G cwZi evevqb KKi|
ivbWg GvKmm dvBj cwqvKiY AZ Kmva| ZvB h_v_ mZKZv Ges gbvhvM mnKvi KwDUvi AcviUi
Ki G cwqvKiY hZ nq| bZzev mg dvBj Gjvgjv nq hZ cvi| G cwZZ KvR Kivi hgb myweav
AvQ Zgwb AmyweavI GKevi Kg bq| KvRB G mZK c`PviYv AvekK|

- DPii fvlv
fvlv njv hvMvhvMi gvag| fvlvi gvag gvbyl ciii ga gbi fvei Av`vb-c`vb Ki _vK| fvlv
mswZK mRxe ivL| KwDUvi GKwU BjKUwbK h wekl Gi gvag ewea KvR Kiv hvq| Gi wbRi GKwU
fvlv AvQ hvi bvg cvMvgi fvlv| KviY KwDUvi Zvi cvMvwgs fvlvi gvagB KvR Ki _vK| Zvi GgwbB GKwU
cvMvgi fvlv njv DPii fvlv|
DPii fvlvt KwDUvii cvMvgi fvlv jvK cavbZ wbi, gai Ges DPi G wZbwU fvM fvM Kiv
nq _vK| KwDUvii ewmK, wm (C), wm ++ (C++) cvmKvj, dviUvb Ges Kvej BZvw` cvMvwgs Gi fvlvKB
DPii fvlv (High Level Language) ejv nq| A_vr KwDUvii h fvlvq meRb eva evK, eY I msLv
eenvi Ki cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq ZvKB KwDUvii DPii fvlv bvg AwfwnZ Kiv nq| DPii fvlvq msLv
cvq 500wU| Zvi ga BASIC, PASCAAAL, COBOL, APLE, ADA BZvw` AbZg|

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DPii fvlvqcvMvwgs Gi ejvq ewea myweavw`i DcwwZ iqQ| KwDUvii DP ii fvlv


wnme gvbyli gyLi fvlvKB eenvi Kiv nq _vK| A_vr Kvb GKwU welq Avgiv hfve Ges h fvlvq
eenvi Ki _vwK DPii cvMvwgs G GKBfve Ges GKB fvlvi eenvi Kiv nq _vK| KwDUvi
DPii fvlvK hi fvlvq icvwiZ Kivi Rb KvBjvi, ev BUvicUvi bvgi md&U-Iqvi eenvi
Kiv nq _vK| myZivs KvBj ev BUvi cUvi eenvi Ki DP ii fvlvq iwPZ cvMvg mvgvb cwieZb
Ki ev Kvb cKvi cwieZb QvovB hKvb aibi KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq|

DPii fvlvq cvMvwgs Gi myweavt KwDUvi eenvii Rb DPii fvlvq cvMvwgs Gi ewea myweav
iqQ| wb mme myweavewj Dj L Kiv njv
1. G fvlvq wjwLZ cvMvgmg~n hKvb KwDUvi eenvi Kiv hvq|
2. G fvlv mnR Ges meRb eva|
3. G fvlv me mvaviYi eenvi DchvMx|
4. DPii fvlvq ZvovZvwo cvMvg iPbv Kiv hvq|
5. wbii fvlvi cvMvgi Pvi-cuvPwU wb`ki RvqMvq DPii fvlvq gv GKwU wb`k wjLjB Pj|
6. Gfvlv eenvii Rb nvWIqvi Gi Dci fvj `Lj _vKvi cqvRb co bv|
7. GZ wewfb fvM fvM Ki cvMvg mvRvbv _vK|
8. GZ Kvb cKvi fyj _vKj Zv Lye mnRB aiv co|
9. G Lye mnRB cvMvgi mshvRb weqvRb Kiv hvq|
10. DPii fvlvi cvMvg KvR KiZ mgq, kg Ges gavi AcPq Kg nq _vK|

cvMvg iPbvi avc


KwDUvii wbR^ Kvb eyw bB| GwU wbavwiZ cvMvgi wb`k gvZveK KvR Ki _vK| fyj wb`k w`j fyj
fveB KvR Ki _vK| G fyji Rb KwDUvi `vqx bq; eis wb`kZv`v `vqx| KvRB cvMvg iPbvi mgq ev cvMvg
eenviKvixK wbfyjfveB cvMvg iPbv KiZ ne| wbfyjfve KwDUvi cvMvg iPbvi Rb KZjv wekl avci
AbymiY KiZ nq|
KwDUvi cvMvg iPbvi mvaviYZ wbv wewfb avcjvK chvqg AbymiY KiZ nq| hgb
K. mgmv ev cqvRb mbvKiY I wek lY|
L. GjMwi`g I cevnwP cYqb|
M. cvMvg wjLb I KvwWs|
N. cvMvg wKiY I WKzgUkb|
O. cvMvg iYveY|
K. mgmv mbvKiY I wek lYt cvMvg iPbvi c_g avc njv mgmv mbvKiY Ges Zvi h_v_ wek lYKiY|
G mve me w`K nZ mgmvwUi eYbv Kiv nq Zvici Zvi evLv wek lYi gvag Gi h_v_Zv wbaviY
Kiv nq _vK| G mgmvi mgvavb MvwYwZK gWj cZ Ki WvUvi mv_ me wKQy wgwjq wbZ nq|
cqvRb KwDUvi wZi eenvi Kiv|
L. GjMwi`g I cevnwP cYqbt mgmvi mbvKiY Ges evLv wek lY kl Zvi Gjwi`g Ges cevnwPi
cqvM KiZ nq| G mgmvi cqvRbxqZv wbaviY I GKwU iZc~Y welq| cvMvgi GjMwi`g Ges
cevn wP cYqb Ki Zvi KvhKvwiZvi w`K wb`k KiZ nq| G cvMvg iPbvq KqK aibi fwgvi
eenvi Kiv nq _vK|
M. cvMvg wjLb I KvwWst cvMvg cwiKbv Ges cevn wP Zwii ci cKZ cvMvg iPbv Kiv nq _vK| Kvb
fvlvq cvMvg wjLZ ne Zv wbfi Ki cvMvgi aibi Dci| G evwbK KvwWs eenvi Kiv hZ
cvi| cvMvg wjLvi Rb AbK aibi wekl QK KvMR eenvi Kiv hZ cvi| hv KvwWs f~ cgvY|

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N. cvMvg cixY I WKzgUkbt KwDUvi cvMvg iPbvi cvq kl avc cvMvgK cixY Kiv nq _vK|
cvMvgi cixY kl Gi WKzgUkb Kiv nq| GwU GKwU iZc~Y chvq| G cvMvgwU h_v_ wKbv Zv
ciL Ki `Lv nq _vK| KviY WvUv Ges Zvi cqvMKiY, wjLb jewjs gWviUKiY BZvw` Kvhvw` kl
cvMvgK WKzgUkb hZ nq| G nvWwW Ges dwc wW ZwiiI D`vM bqv hZ cvi|
O. cvMvg iYveYt mvaviYZ wewfb aibi cqvRb I cvMvgi DbwZK cvMvg AvaywbKxKiY, cwieZb,
cvMvgi fyj mskvab, BZvw` Kvhvw` cvMvg iYveY KvRi Af~| ZvQvov bZzb I DbZZi
KwDUvii nvWIqvii mv_ mvgm iL cvMvg cwieZb KiZ nq| AvaywbK Dcv cwqvKiY eevq
cvMvg iYveY eqej cwqv hvi Rb eo eo cvwZvb Mo DVQ|

Gjwi`g I dvPvUi ga cv_K


Gjwi`g Ges dvPvUi gawZ cv_K wbi QK Dj L Kiv njv
GjMwi`g dv PvU
1. GKwU cvMvgi wewfb avci my wbevmB njv 1. dvPvU njv cwic~Y GjMwi`gi wPic|
Gjwi`g| 2. GwU njv cqvRb Abyhvqx wbavwiZ mgvavb cuQvi
2. GwU njv cqvRbi wfwZ wbw` mgvavb cuQvi avc mg~ni wPic|
avemg~n 3. GZ GjMwi`gi cwZwU avci h_v_ AbymiY bvI
3. GZ avcjv chvg web _vK| nZ cvi|
4. GjMwi`g Abymvi cvMvg iwPZ nq| 4. dvPvU GjMwi`g Abymvi iwPZ nq|
5. GjMwi`g evLvg~jK nvj evaMgZv Avm| 5. dvPvU `kgvb weavq mnR evaMg|
6. GwU AcvKZ RwUj| 6. dvPvU AcvKZ mnR|

wmg dvPvU Ges cvMvg dvPvU


Kvb wbw` KvR mnR Ges mwVKfve mv`bi j mymsev` ixwZbxwZK mvaviYZ wmg bvg AwfwnZ Kiv nq|
Avi G wmgK wek lYi Rb wmg dvPvU Ges cvMvgi KvRi avcjv wPi mvnvh Dcvcbi Rb
cvMvg dvPvU eenvi Kiv nq _vK|

wmg dvPvUt wmg wek lY Z_v Dcvi MnY, cvwqvKiY, msiY Ges djvdj c`kbi Rb h w`K wP ev
cevn wP eevni Kiv nq ZvKB wmg dvPvU ejv nq| wmg wek lY wmg dvPvU iZc~Y f~wgKv cvjb
Ki _vK| G dvPvU Dcv cwqvKiYi cwZi wewfb Aski ga cwqvKiYi cevn `Lvbv nq| GwU w`q
WvUv MnY, cwqvKiY, msiY Ges djvdj c`kbi cevn Kiv nq|
wb wmg dvPvUi KwZcq cZxK mg~n Dj L Ki njv

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= cwqvKiY| = gvbyqj KvR|

= AdjvBb wZ| = Kx Acvikb|

= mshyw =MnY/ wbMgb BZvw`|

GKwU wmg dvPvUi D`vniYt mvaviY GKwU KviLvbvi GKwU wmg dvPvUi D`vniY wb Dcvcb Kiv njv
hLvb KgPvix`i mvvwnK eZbi wnme Dcvcb Kiv njv
KgPvix`i KvRi gvU mmq

gvbyqj KvR

WvUv BbcyU

mwUsKiY

eZb cwqvKiY gvvi dvBj

eZb iwk` eZb wicvU

wPt KviLvbvi KgPvix`i mvvwnK eZbi wnmei dvPvU|


cvMvg dvPvUt mvaviYZ KwDUvi Kvb cvMvg Gi KvRi avcjv wPi gvag DcvcbKB cvMvg dvPvU
ejv nq _vK| GwU AbKUv wmg dvPvUi gZvB| Ze wmg dvPvU hLvb cvMvgi KvRi wek` weeiYi
wP _vK bv wK cvMvg dvPvU hLvb KvRi wek` weeiY _vK| cvMvgi mnRB cvMvg dvPvUi mnvqZvq
cvMvg wjLZ cvib| wmg dvPvUi gZv cvMvg dvPvUI wewfb aibi cZxK ev Symbol eeZ nq| hgb-

= cwqv| = ewaZ cwqv|

= i ev kl|
= MnY/ wbMgb| = Ab cvi mshvRbx

= wmv| = cevn w`K|

= cwZ|

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GKwU cvMvg dvPvUi D`vniYt gb Kwi GKwU Mvgi gvU RbmsLv 1200| hv`i eqm 18 ev Zvi ewk Zviv
fvUvi| G fvUvii bvg, wcZvi bvg, eqm fvUvi wgK QvcvZ ne| GRb wb GKwU cvMvg dvPvU
Dcvcb Kiv njv
i

bvg, wcZvi bvg


eqm, fvUvi

eqm
bv 18 Gi Kg bv ewk nuv

wcZvi bvg, eqm


fvUvi wgK

cieZx gvU fvM

wPt fvUvi ZvwjKv Qvcvbvi cvMvg dvPvU

WvUv cmwms Ges gvbyqj WvUv cmwms


WvUv cmwms KwDUvii GKwU iZc~Y KvR| msMnxZ WvUvK cwZMZ wek lY, webvm Ges cwqvKiY
AZ ` nvZ mb KiZ nq| bZzev fyj djvdj Pvj AvmZ cvi| GZ Ki mKj KvhB e_Zvq chewmZ
nq _vK|
WvUv cmwmst KwDUvi msMnxZ WvUvK cqvRbxq wek lY I webvm Ki djvdj cvwi c_ myMg Kivi A_c~Y
KvRjvKB Dcv cwqvKiY ev Data Processing ejv nq| WvUv cmwms Gi dj Z_wbfi I A_c~Y djvdj
cvIqv hvq| hgb WvUv cmwms Gi gvag cixvi cv b^ii wfwZ gavg wbevPb Kiv hvq| WvUv cmwms Gi
Rb mvaviYZ wbv KwZcq gwjK wqv mb KiZ nq| hgb-
1. iKwWs| 4. kYx wefvRb 7 KvjKzjwUs
2. Wywc KwUs| 5. mwUs ev mvRvb 8. AvPK Abyaveb|
3. hvPvBKiY 6. mvwRs GKxKiY| 9. wicvUKiY|
cKvif`t KwDUvi mvaviYZ `yBfve WvUv cmwms KiZ nq|
hgbt (K) BjKUwb WvUv cmwms|
(L) gvbyqj WvUv cmwms|
gvbyqj WvUv cmwmst mvaviYZ KwDUviwenxb eevcbvq nvZ Kjg WvUv cmwms Ki nj ZvK gvbyqj cmwms
ev nvZ Kjg WvUv cmwms ejv nq| hgb eenwqK cwZvbi Kg`i eZb wicvU ev c-ivj Zwi KiZ nj
cZK Kg gvU KZ NUv KvR KiQ Zvi wfwZ KvjKzjUi Pc KvMR Kjg wjL hvM, weqvM, Y I fvM
Ki P~ov wicvU Zwi Kiv njv gvbyqj cmwms| GZ mvaviYZ mgq ewk jvM Ges fyj nIqvi ceYZv ewk
_vK| ZvB BjKUwbK WvUv cmwms ewk wbfihvM weavq Zvi eenvi ewk Kiv nq|
KwDUvi w`q WvUv cmwms cwqvt KwDUvi w`q AwZ `Z wbfyjfve WvUv cmwms Kiv nq _vK| G
BbcyU wWfvBR w`q WvUvK KwDUvi XvKvbv nq| KwDUvi Zvi Avqx ggvwiZ WvUv iL cvMvgi wb`k

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cmwms Kiv nq| KwDUvi c` wb`k Abyhvqx WvUvK wewfbfve wePvi wek lY Ki Ges cqvRbxq MvwYwZK
cwqv mb Ki ev hywwbfi wmv MnY Kiv nq| mekl KvwLZ Z_ DcbxZ nq AvDUcyU wWfvBm c`kb
Kiv nq hgb-
BbcyU (Z_) cmwms AvDUcyU (Z_)
wPt WvUv cmwms msMVb|
WvUv cmwms Gi e K WvqvMvgt KwDUvi w`q WvUv cmwms Gi e K WvqvMvgK mvaviYZ wbv Dcvq c`kb Kiv
hZ cvi| hgb-

BbcyU ggvwi msiY

wbqY

MvwYwZK cmwms ev
AMvwYwZK cmwms

djvdj c`vb
wPt KwDUvii gvag WvUv cmwms

cKvif`t mvaviYZ KwDUvii mswk WvUvi Dci wfw Ki Zvi WvUv cmwms cwqvK `yUv fvM fvM Kiv nq
_vK| hgb-
K. MvwYwZK cmwms hvM, weqvM, Y, fvM BZvw`
L. AMvwYwZK cmwms mZ wg_v wbaviY, mwVK webvmKiY BZvw`|

WvUv Ges Z_i ga cv_K


WvUv ev Dcv Ges Z_ ev Bbdigkbi cv_K wb QKi gvag Dj L Kiv njv-
WvUv ev Dcv Z_ ev Bbdigkb
1. Z_i z`Zg GKKK ej WvUv ev Dcv| 1. myksLjfve mvRvbv WvUvK Z_ ev Bbdigkb
2. WvUv njv mvRvbv bq Ggb wKQy weksLj ej hv evaMg|
dv| 2. Z_ njv weklfve mvRvbv Ggb wKQy dvmg~n|
3. WvUv cwqvKiYi Rb KwDUvi BbcyU 3. WvUv cwqvKiYi gvag KwDUvi c` djvdjB
Kiv nq| Z_ ic MnxZ nq|
4. WvUv KwDUvii gvag Z_ icvwiZ 4. Z_ KwDUvii gvag WvUvq icvwiZ nq bv|
nq|

WvUv KvwWs
t
KwDUvii Bbdigkb wmg BbcyU wnme WvUv `qv nq| Avi Zvici AvDUcyU wnme Bbdigkb cvIqv hvq|
mwVK WvUv BbcyU Kij mwVK Bbdigkb cvIqv hvq|| GLvb BbcyU WvUvi YMZ gvbi Dci AvDUcyUi wbfyjZv
wbfi Ki _vK| Bbdigkb wmg mwVK WvUv BbcyU Kivi Rb KvhKi WvUv KvwWs KiZ nq|

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WvUv KvwWst KwDUvi WvUv KvwWs njv Kvb wbw` wbqg mvRvbv Z_K Kvb msc msLv ev Ai viv
evSvbvi KvW| A_vr KwDUvi WvUv ev DcvK mnR I msw AvKvi cKvki KkjKB WvUv KvwWs (Data
coding) ejv nq| AvaywbK KwDUvi WvUv KvwWs Gi eenvi GKwU Dj LhvM w`K|
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myZivs jvjcyii Rb kYx KvW njv = 112
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iii. wmg wWRvBb (System Design)
iv. md&UIqvi Dbqb (Software Development)
v. wmg cixY (System Experiment)
vi. wmg evevqb (System Application)
vii. wmg iYveY (System Storage)
viii. cybtwbixY (Review)

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