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1Dr.S.Ramakrishnan,Professor,

2M.Sasipriya, Student, 3R.Saranya, Student, 4M.Priyanka, Student

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Abstract - Image-processing techniques involve treating the The two-dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT)

image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard is nowadays established as a key operation in image

signal-processing techniques to it. Images are also processed processing.

as three-dimensional signals where the third-dimension being

time or the z-axis. The two-dimensional Discrete Wavelet The paper is structured as follows. Section II analyzes of

Transform (2D-DWT) is now a key operation in image techniques used. Section III discusses the proposed system

processing. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a wavelet of our project and its module description. Section IV

transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. provides the results and discussions.

Compared with other wavelet transforms, a key advantage is

that it has over Fourier transforms is temporal resolution that 2. TECHNIQUES USED

it captures information of both frequency and location. The

disadvantage of DWT is that it requires more processing A. Logistic map

power. Finally calculate the number of changing pixel rate

(NPCR) and the unified averaged Changed intensity (UACI) In mathematics chaotic map can be defined as a function that

two most common quantities used to evaluate the strength of exhibits chaotic behavior. Both continuous and discrete

image encryption algorithms/ciphers. This technique provides chaotic maps are available. In this work discrete map is used,

high level authentication and security. this kind of maps usually takes the form of iterated functions.

In this work logistic map is used. The logistic map is a simple

Key Words: 1.Wavelet transform,2. NPCR ,3.UACI one dimensional map and is given as,

Image Processing is processing of images using

Logistic map is a polynomial mapping of degree. In

mathematical operations by using any form of signal

above Equation Xn [0, 1] and is known as the phase space

processing for which the input is an image, a series of

of the logistic map, r is the control parameter that controls

images, or a video, such as a photograph or video frame; the

the behavior of the map.

output of image processing may be either an image or a set

of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most

image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a With r between 0 to 1 the map is independent of the

two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal- initial condition.

processing techniques to it. Images are also processed as For r between 1 to 2 the trajectory will quickly reach the

three-dimensional signals where the third-dimension being value, map is independent of the initial condition.

time or the z-axis. Image processing usually refers to digital For r between 2 to 3 the trajectory will reach the value in

image processing, but optical and analog image processing as specific manner that is it will revolve around the value

also are possible. This article is about general techniques for some time to reach the value.

that apply to all of them. The acquisition of images

(producing the input image in the first place) is referred to With r between 3 to 3.45 for almost all the initial

as imaging. conditions the population will oscillate between two

values and these values are depends on the value of b.

Closely related to image processing are computer graphics At r approximately 3.57 is the onset of chaos, at the end

and computer vision. In computer graphics, images are of the period-doubling cascade. From almost all initial

manually made from physical models of objects, conditions we can no longer see any oscillations of finite

environments, and lighting, instead of from natural scenes, period. Slight variations in the initial population yield

as in most animated movies. Computer vision, on the other dramatically different results over time, Frank et al

hand, is often considered high-level image processing out of (2001) stated prime characteristic of chaos.

which a machine/computer/software intends to decipher

the physical contents of an image or a sequence of images

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1156

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan-2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

communications.

3. IMPLEMENTATION

Several techniques were used for image encryption. In the

implementation part we use block image for encryption. A

plain image is taken and made into blocks. The chaotic map

will be generated for the random number generation. In that

Figure 1.1 Bifurcation diagram of logistic map we use Logistic Map that exhibits the chaotic behavior. Along

with the plain image a key image also called cover image is

Beyond r = 4, the values eventually leave the interval [0, taken and the same chaotic function is repeated for it. The

1] and diverge for almost all initial values. sender will encrypt the image and Decrypted by receiver

where the Key has been shared among the users. This

Figure 1.1 summarizes the above points and the process is done to make the secure transmission of data. We

horizontal axis shows the values of the parameter r while the use wavelet because Wavelets can be combined, using a

vertical axis shows the values of x. From Figure 1.1 it is clear "reverse, shift, multiply and integrate" technique

that for the values above r = 3.82 the map exhibits the called convolution, with portions of a known signal to extract

chaotic behavior proposed by Parker et al (1995). The map information from the unknown signal. Along with this

used in this work is a discrete one, it is in the form of iterated implementation we use DWT for the image encryption. The

function. This map is used because of its easy computation tool used is MATLAB R2013a[8].

and greater complexity.

A. original and cover image permutation

B. Wavelet transform

The camera man image is taken as an original image for

A wavelet is a mathematical function used to divide a given our process. Size of the image will be 256*256.A cover

function or continuous time signal into different scale image is taken and is permuted.

components. Usually one can assign a frequency range to

each scale component. Then it can be studied with a

resolution that matches its scale. A wavelet transform is

represented by wavelets function. The wavelets are scaled

and translated copy of a finite length or fast decaying

oscillating waveform (known as the "mother wavelet").

Advantages over traditional Fourier transforms for

representing functions that are discontinuities and sharp

peaks, and for accurately deconstructing and reconstructing

finite, non-periodic or non-stationary signals.

transforms (DWTs) and continuous wavelet transforms

(CWTs). DWTs use a specific subset of scale and translation

values or representation grid. Applications of wavelet

transform are transform data, and then encode the

transformed data, resulting in effective compression and for B. Encryption

communication applications.

In this process the original image is in the form of two

dimensional matrix. The two dimensional matrix is then

C. Discrete wavelet transform converted into one dimensional matrix. Then the chaotic

map will be generated for the random number generation. In

DWT is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are

that we use Logistic Map that exhibits the chaotic behaviour.

discretely sampled. Compared with other wavelet

transforms, a key advantage it has over Fourier transforms is

temporal resolution: that it captures information of both

frequency and location. Applications for discrete wavelet

transform are signal coding, to represent a discrete signal in

a more redundant form, often as a preconditioning for data

compression, Practical applications are also found in signal

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1157

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan-2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

In this implementation of image encryption algorithm is The plain image and changed pixels is taken to calculate the

proposed based on combination of pixel shuffling and NPCR and UACI. C1(i,j) is the encrypted plain image and

chaotic maps. Shuffling is used to expand diffusion in the C2(i.j) is the changed pixel key image.

image and dissipate the high correlation among image pixels.

Due to sensitivity to initial conditions, chaotic maps have a NPCR AND UACI

good potential for designing dynamic permutation map.

Reverse of the process is done in order to obtain the original The number of changing pixel rate (NPCR) and the unified

image. averaged changed intensity (UACI) are two most common

quantities used to evaluate the strength of image encryption

algorithms/ciphers.

and the number of averaged changed intensity between

cipher text images, while the difference between plaintext

images is a single pixel. Then these two tests are easy to

D. Block based image encryption calculate. Example, the upper-bound of the NPCR score is

100%, and it is believed that the NPCR score of a secure

In block based image encryption, the original image is made cipher should be very close to this upper-bound.

into sub blocks i.e. 16*16. The original image is of 256*256

and is made into blocks where these blocks are then shuffled The attacker have a slight change that can modify one pixel

randomly. This random shuffling will provide the confusion of the plain image to find some meaningful relationships

for the attacker. Similarly a cover image for it is also shuffled between the plain image and the encrypted. If a minor

as same as the original image. change in the plain image makes a significant change in the

cipher image, this shows that the encryption scheme resists

differential attacks more efficiently. To test the influence of

only one pixel change in the plain image over the whole

encrypted image, two common measures are used: Number

of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR) and Unified Average Changing

Intensity (UACI),

The original image is first segmented into four sub bands of

(LL, LH, HL, HH) by applying integer wavelet transform

5. CONCLUSIONS

Image encryption based on gray scale images has been

implemented. Applying DWT for the image, the sub bands

are generated and was divided into blocks, which were

rearranged into a transformed image using a transformation

algorithm, and then the transformed image was encrypted

and decrypted.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1158

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 01 | Jan-2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

as number of changing pixel rate (NPCR) and the unified

averaged changed intensity (UACI). These values are

calculated to evaluate the strength of image encryption

algorithms/ciphers. And to compare whether the

performance is good enough. Future enhancement would be

applying this technique in order to improve the high level

security in image transmission on internet and also improve

the computational ability. Hence it gives good

imperceptibility and security.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and

suggestions to improve the quality and paper.

REFERENCES

[1] Z.Liu,M.Gong,Y.Dou,F.Liu,S.Lin,M.AshfaqAhmad,J.Daia,

S.Liu,DoubleimageencryptionbyusingArnoldtransformand

discretefractionalangulartransform,Opt.LasersEng.50(201

2)248255.

[2]Liu, Z., Guo, Q., Xu, L., Muhammad, A.A., Liu, S., Double

image encryption by using iterative random binary

encoding in gyrator domains, Optics Express 18(11),

1203312043, 2010.

[3]P.Moulin,Theroleofinformationtheoryinwate

rmarkinganditsapplicationtoimage

watermarking,SignalProcess.81(6)

(2001)11211139.

[4]ChenGR,MaoYB,ChuiCK.Asymmetricimageencryptionb

asedon3Dchaoticcatmaps.ChaosSolitonsFractals2004;21

(3):74961.

[5]GuanZH,HuangFJ,GuanWJ.Chaosbasedencryptionalgori

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PhysLettA2005;343(6):4329.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1159

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