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Scaling up: from tissue structure to system and Anatomical detail

organism structure
Learning Objectives GROSS MICRO
Explain the division of the body in terms of positional references, sectional planes, cavities, regions Describe surface Describe with the aid
and quadrants shape, orientation of the microscope fine
And relative position structural detail to
Establish a working definition of an organ and identify the major organ systems and their functions cellular level

Appreciate the information exchange requirements needed for organs to work together

Develop an understanding of multiple organ system cooperation

in homeostatic control

The Anatomical Position Anatomical Directional References

Standard illustrations show the human

form in the following position:
-hands at sides
-palms forward
-feet together


If lying down & anterior aspect up

If lying down & posterior aspect up

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 7th Ed.


Sectional Planes Anatomical Regions

Area Region Area Region

Head Cephalic Anterior Pelvis Pubic
Neck Cervical Groin Inguinal
Chest Thoracic Thigh Femoral
Arm Brachial Anterior leg Crucal
Forearm Antebrachial Calf Sural
Wrist Carpal Ankle Tursal
Hand Manual Foot Pedal
Abdomen Abdominal Sole Plantar
Frontal also known as
Loin Lumbar
Buttock Gluteal
Sagittal cut parallel to
Pelvis Pelvic
midline known as

Abdominopelvic Organs are suspended inside chambers termed cavities

Protection and room for expansion
Quadrants and Regions
Dashed lines delineate upper and lower,right and left quadrants

N.B. Although the kidney and pancreas are in the abdominal cavity they lie
behind the peritoneum and are thus described as retroperitoneal


Organs and Organ Systems Some Commonalities in Organs

2 or more tissues, generally combined in a discrete unit specialised to Requirement for perfusion (nutrient in/waste out/blood borne secretions
perform a particular function. out
e.g) the heart Penetration by cardiovascular system
Penetration by lymphatic system
Organ System Integration with digestive and urinary systems
Co-ordinated physical and chemical interactions between discrete
organs/tissues to deliver a systemic function. Requirement for input control and feedback
e.g) the cardiovascular system (heart-blood vessels-blood) Penetration by nervous system
Penetration by cardiovascular system (endocrine communication)
System Integration
Anatomical/functional co-dependency and cross-regulation between Requirement for infection surveillance
organ systems. Key to whole body homeostasis. Penetration by cardiovascular system
e.g.) cardiovascular system & urinary system regulate fluid balance Penetration by lymphatic system

N.B. Perturbation of one organ system can initiate a

cascade of disturbances in other organ systems

The Eleven Organ Systems The Integumentary System

Major Components
Integumentary Skin
Muscular (Skeletal) Hair
Skeletal Sweat glands
Nervous Nails
Dynamic control
Endocrine coordinated
of internal
Circulatory function Functions
Immune Protective barrier
Respiratory Body temperature regulation
Digestive Sensory input
Urinary Synthesis of Vitamin D


The Skeletal System The Muscular (Skeletal) System

Major Components
Bone Major Components
Cartilage Skeletal muscle fibres
Marrow Tendons

Functions Functions
Support Support
Protection Protection
Calcium storage Movement
Synthesis of blood cell precursors Thermoregulation

The Nervous System The Endocrine System

Major Components
Major Components Pituitary gland
Brain Thyroid gland
Spinal cord Parathyroids
Peripheral nerves Pancreas
Sensory organs Adrenal gland
Functions Adipose tissue
Coordination of activity
Consciousness Functions
Long term regulation of function
Control of metabolism
Developmental change


The Circulatory System The Immune System

Major Components
Cardiovascular system Major Components
Heart Spleen
Blood Thymus
Vasculature Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic system Lymph nodes
Lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes Functions
Functions Infection surveillance
Distribution of dissolved and
suspended material
Interstitial fluid recirculation
Immune cell trafficking

The Respiratory System

The Digestive System
Major Components
Nasal cavity Major Components
Sinuses Oral cavity and teeth
Larynx Tongue
Trachea Pharynx Functions
Bronchi Oesophagus Digestion
Lungs Stomach Absorption
Small Intestine Excretion
Functions Large intestine Storage of nutrients
Gas exchange Liver
Generation of sound Gallbladder


The Reproductive System

The Urinary System Major Components Functions
Male Male
Major Components Testes and scrotum Testosterone synthesis
Kidneys Epididymis Spermatazoa production
Ureters Vas deferens Copulation
Bladder Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland Female
Penis Progesterone & oestrogen
Functions synthesis
Excretion Female Oocyte generation
Regulation of blood pH Ovaries Copulation
Regulation of ECF volume Fallopian tubes Gestation of foetus
Uterus Lactation
Regulation of erythropoesis
Vitamin synthesis (Mammary glands)

Plasma Calcium Homeostasis Involves Interaction of all

The Following Systems


Refer to text in red on previous slides and then try to

put together the story from your physiology textbook