© All Rights Reserved

26 visualizações

Great-Minds-of-Carbon-Equivalent_1.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

- Strut and Tie Design for Concrete
- Pavement Design Spreadsheet - CCAA Method
- Reference Texts
- UBC+steel
- GEO Whats New v3
- GI_ASTM a 653A_653 M_6a Galvanising
- AISI 1050
- Problemas Resueltos de Resistencia de Materiales II - Método de Las Deformaciones Angulares
- grade stress of timber
- 4 Elastic Modulus and Strength of Hollow Concrete Block Masonry With Refrence to the Effect of Lateral Ties
- IRC 112 2011[1]
- Continuum and Discontinuum Modelling in Tunnel Engineering
- 577 quize 1
- Strengthening Highway Bridges With CFRP Composites
- Six Pile Cap reinforced concrete.docx
- Hawang Et Al 2001
- Question Bank - Unit IV
- Failure Investigation of the Disc Harrow Profiles and Redesingning
- 9783319562261-c2
- 2009 MSHA Coal Refuse Disposal Facilities Manual - Blasting

Você está na página 1de 3

Wesley Wang, Senior Engineer

Materials Group, EWI

Modern steels made using complicated alloying The effect of Si was overlooked in McWilliams

strategies and thermomechanical rolling processes equation because steels at that time only

have exhibited unprecedented weldability since contained minimal amounts. When the carbon

World War II. Using this advantage, steel structure content in steel was increased to 0.5%, the

designers and fabricators have achieved many predicted tensile strengths from equation (1) were

modern marvels from machinery to deep-water oil significantly lower than those measured, hence;

and gas platforms. Through extensive research on McWilliam updated the equation by adding the Si

the integrity of steel structures, rigid qualification term as follows:

welding tests have evolved for various fabrication

UTS (psi) = 38,000 + [800 + 4(C-20)] + 120Si

codes. Weldability testing, for example, is no + [100 + 2(C-20)]Mn + 100P

(2)

longer focused only on producing crack-free welds

as was the case in the early part of the last century.

Testing now emphasizes the robustness of the It is important to note that equation (2) already

weld. As a result qualifying steels and welding includes the effect of the interaction between C

procedures to build important structures, such and Mn.

as oil and gas pipelines, well heads, and offshore

platforms, is significantly more challenging. To In 1918, McWilliam[1] presented a figure clearly

streamline this process, fabricators need a method showing that the strengthening effect of C was

of effectively evaluating the robustness of steel five to eight times greater than that of Mn (Figure

base-materials and welding consumables before 1). Indeed, equation (2) weighed the strengthening

the start of a fabrication project. Carbon equivalent effects of C, Mn and P differently and addressed

(CE) equations are capable of predicting the cold- their contributions in a linear function. This

cracking tendency of steels and have recently equation is significant as it introduced a prototype

been receiving significant attention, leading to this CE equation describing the strengthening effects

retrospective work on their evolution. of alloying elements.

plant in India, Scottish metallurgical inspector

Andrew McWilliam [1] pioneered the idea for an

equation that could predict the tensile strength

of steel using its chemical composition. At that

time, steels were rather simple, and were mainly

strengthened by C, Mn, and P. After McWilliam

arrived in India, he explored his database on steel

strength and chemical composition. He found

that tensile strength had a linear relationship

with concentrations of C, Mn, and P. For steels

with 0.20-0.26% C, he formulated the following

equation:

In 1939, after decades of extensive research on This linear Equation (4) was used as a mathematic

steel strengthening, metallurgist Louis Reeve model to determine the coefficients used in the CE

[2] presented the following conclusions to equation. For example, a steel with a 39.6 tons/

Subcommittee R11 of the Research Committee of in.2 tensile strength was composed of 0.25% C,

the Institute of Welding at a welding conference in 1.50% Mn, 0.14% Si, and 0.036% P. Using the

Cambridge: given coefficients of C, Si, and P in Equation (3),

the following could be calculated:

1. If the heat affected zone (HAZ) hardness

was lower than 350 HV, no cracking would Carbon

occur. Element Calculation

Equivalent %

C 0.250 1 0.250

2. If the HAZ hardness exceeded 400 HV,

cracking was almost certain on a restrained Si 0.140 1/6 0.023

joint; however, no cracking would occur if P 0.030 1/0.8 0.045

the joint was not restrained. Subtotal 0.318

3. Welds with small cross-sectional areas Since Equation (4) gave a 0.590% carbon

were more prone to cracking. equivalent with respect to a 39.6 ton/in.2 tensile

strength, the difference between the above

4. Certain welding consumables could subtotaled carbon equivalent (i.e. 0.318%) and

promote more cracking than others. the 0.590% total carbon equivalent from Equation

(4) was the contribution from Mn. Therefore, the

In brief, the above addressed the importance of coefficient of Mn could be deduced as follows:

carbon content, thermal stress, weld size, cooling

rate, and diffusible hydrogen as it relates to Carbon

welding consumables. Element Calculation

Equivalent %

In October 1940, less than a year after the (0.590-

Mn 5.5

Cambridge conference, Dearden and ONeill [3] 0.318)/1.50

invented the concept of carbon equivalent and

The same process was applied to other steels with

published their equation, stating that CE means

different Mn contents. The mean value was used

the influence of any one element is expressed in

as the coefficient of Mn in Dearden and ONeills

terms of the amount carbon which would have

updated CE equation. This process was applied

the same result. Dearden and ONeill studied

to other elements until the following equation was

Wickhorst [4] and McWilliams results on the

developed based upon the tensile strength data on

strengthening effect of C, Si, Mn, and P on pure

steels with 0.2% C, 0.4-0.8% Mn, 0.4-0.65% Mo,

steels, and used their strengthening coefficients to

<0.08% P, and <0.5% Cu, resulting in the following

formulate the following initial CE equation:

equation, to be used with equation (4) to predict

CE = C + Si/6 + P/0.8 + Mn/5 (3) strength.

C + Si/6 + Mn/8 + Cr/7 + Ni/16 +

Dearden and ONeill then plotted the known tensile CE = (5)

Mo/4 + Co/16 + P/0.8

strengths of 50 steels against their calculated

carbon equivalents per Equation (3) and drew a

best-fit straight line to acquire the following tensile To simplify the testing method, Dearden and

strength equation. ONeill used the Vickers hardness test to replace

tensile and yield strength tests and determine

UTS (tons/in.2) = 16 + 40CE 2 tons/in.2 (4) the coefficient of each element. This yielded the

following classic carbon equivalent equation based Equations (5) through (7) suggest that the

on hardness: steel strength or hardness can be designed by

manipulating contents of alloying elements at a

CE = C + (Mn + Cr)/5.5 + Ni/15 + V/5 (6) low carbon level to prevent HAZ cracking after

+ Mo/4 + Co/150 + P/2

welding. This strategy laid the foundation for the

development of modern steels featuring good

This equation can then be used with the following weldability.

linear equation (7), which is an important

application of the CE equation to predict hardness:

[1] McWilliam, A., The Influence of Some Elements

As long as the predicted hardness was lower than on the Tenacity of Basic Steel, with a New Formula

the maximum weld hardness, cold cracking for Calculating the Maximum Load From the

could be avoided. Based upon their results from Composition, The Journal of the Iron and Steel

Reeves-type tests, Dearden and ONeill confirmed Institute, Vol. XCVIII, pp. 43-58, 1918.

the maximum weld hardness to be 350 HV; the

same value that was announced in 1939 by Louis [2] Reeve, L., Metallurgy of Ferrous Welding, Note

Reeve himself [2]. on Cambridge Welding Conference, Transactions

of the Institute of Welding, Vol. II, pp. 7-18, 1939.

It should be noted that the maximum weld

hardness mentioned by Dearden and ONeill [3] Dearden, J. and ONeill, H., A Guide to the

refers to the hardness adjacent to the fusion line on Selection and Welding of Low Alloy Structural

the parent steel side, as opposed to the hardness Steels, Transactions of the Institute of Welding,

in the weld metal. As such, the term maximum Vol III, pp. 203-214, 1940.

weld hardness is actually referring to maximum

HAZ hardness. The same is true of Dearden and [4] Wickhorst, M.H., Formula for Deflection of

ONeills use of the term weld cracking in Part Rails in Drop Test, American Railway Association,

(6) of their paper [3]. Here they state the area Bulletin 170, 1914.

in which cracking is liable to occur is in the parent

plate and just alongside the weld bead. Here, the

term weld cracking is actually referring to HAZ

cracking.

Wesley Wang is a senior engineer in EWIs Materials group. His expertise includes ferrous and nonferrous welding

materials (selection, development, evaluation/analysis, and qualification), WPS design, welding processes, weldability

evaluation, failure analysis, microstructure and phase transformation, similar/dissimilar alloys welding, corrosion, pipe-

line welding, underwater welding, and hardfacing. He possesses an in-depth understanding of welding metallurgy and

strategies to optimize welding performance and weldment mechanical properties.

1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43221-3585 Phone: 614.688.5000 Fax: 614.688.5001, www.ewi.org

- Strut and Tie Design for ConcreteEnviado porElvin Sandajan
- Pavement Design Spreadsheet - CCAA MethodEnviado porShoyeeb Ahmed
- Reference TextsEnviado porHeru H. Day
- UBC+steelEnviado porDavid DShülz Shülz
- GEO Whats New v3Enviado porRichard Bryan
- GI_ASTM a 653A_653 M_6a GalvanisingEnviado porVicky Kumar
- AISI 1050Enviado porcolinbonnici
- Problemas Resueltos de Resistencia de Materiales II - Método de Las Deformaciones AngularesEnviado porSandro Aywar Landeo Antezana
- grade stress of timberEnviado porhiran peiris
- 4 Elastic Modulus and Strength of Hollow Concrete Block Masonry With Refrence to the Effect of Lateral TiesEnviado porsunil reddy
- IRC 112 2011[1]Enviado porpadeep
- Continuum and Discontinuum Modelling in Tunnel EngineeringEnviado porRajni Sharma
- 577 quize 1Enviado poradel
- Strengthening Highway Bridges With CFRP CompositesEnviado porsipil123
- Six Pile Cap reinforced concrete.docxEnviado porFaheem Khan
- Hawang Et Al 2001Enviado pormosa7489
- Question Bank - Unit IVEnviado porSIVANESAN
- Failure Investigation of the Disc Harrow Profiles and RedesingningEnviado porEmir Abazović
- 9783319562261-c2Enviado porprateekmule
- 2009 MSHA Coal Refuse Disposal Facilities Manual - BlastingEnviado porFernando Andres Mackay
- A 516-01.pdfEnviado porpedro rojas
- Book1.pdfEnviado porabhijitdad
- 18 Vatzkicheva Grigorova 2017Enviado poralvaro
- 321 Data SheetEnviado porAhmad Hasan
- Som 2nd SessionalEnviado porjaigodara
- 4834-5-5PEnviado pormaha
- Mohd Khairil Azirul KhairolazarEnviado porSundar Ji
- Budianto_2018_J._Phys.%3A_Conf._Ser._953_012043Enviado porPraveen Kumar
- PI_DT05.2_DETAN_X3Enviado porPaul
- Pipes of ConcreteEnviado porrahul vaish

- Barton Chart RecorderEnviado pormdjeckel
- Green Building WIth ConcreteEnviado porSiva Subramani
- BS 7671 AMD3] -- Requirements for Electrical Installations. IET Wiring RegulationsEnviado porAyman Al Hasaar
- [H. W. Schomerus, Humphrey Palmer, Mary Law] Saiva(bEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Victaulic I-100 Field Installation Handbook.pdfEnviado porlimin zhang
- Victaulic LubEnviado porSopon Srirattanapiboon
- Lenovo_-_ThinkPad_P1__20MD-2019-07-24Enviado porSiva Subramani
- Steel PuttyEnviado porSiva Subramani
- True DGSEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Beskrivning Av ExpansionsbalgarEnviado porNopparut
- ANSI-Z359.0-2012Enviado porCarlos Fernando Roca Akamine
- ACI SP2 Manual of Concrete Inspection.pdfEnviado porGlaiza
- Blind_Flange_Thickness_Chart.pdfEnviado porSiva Subramani
- InterpretationEnviado porSiva Subramani
- 1178 DataMgmt&Integration 1E Ballot 3935Enviado porSiva Subramani
- Design and Planning Manual for Cost Effective WeldingEnviado porSiva Subramani
- (Nature (Volume 433 Number 7021 Pp1-90) 433 7021) Philip Campbell. 433-Nature Publishing Group (2005)Enviado porSiva Subramani
- [AWS_D1_Structural_Welding_Committee]_Guide_for_St(b-ok.org).pdfEnviado porRosyid
- Failure of pipe joints during hydrostatic testingEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Welding InternationalEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Pengantar Ilmu ValveEnviado porKiagus
- 0117e-guide-preparation_bend_testing_of_specimens.pdfEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Steel Making PracticesEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Steel Cleanliness ReportEnviado porSiva Subramani
- Concrete Construction Article PDF- How a Concrete Pump Works (1)Enviado porSiva Subramani
- SSPC VIS-3Enviado porJorge Soto Vergara
- Garlock_Gasketing_Technical_Manual_GSK_3-1_Jan2016_LR_EN_NA.pdfEnviado porSiva Subramani

- Die Casting Defects - Identification Causes and CuresEnviado porjosuecnc
- ecd 200 observation assignment 3Enviado porapi-314097633
- Burg 13 Quick Starter GuideEnviado porJorg Martínez
- Philippine Units of MeasurementsEnviado porFVPA
- The Challenge of Process Discovery - Laury VernerEnviado porEmerson Leite
- 2016 Kopine Ultralock A4Flyer v1.03Enviado porAndrea Gibson
- 12278Enviado porAnh Nguyen
- Doc16Enviado porCom22
- Math QuestionsEnviado porimbenzene
- LICENSE-droidsans.ttf.txtEnviado porHoHo Windyanto
- lshelpEnviado porPerrito Callejero
- Ant Colony ion Applied to Job Shop Scheduling ProblemEnviado porAldwin Pizarro
- grailzine artificial universe matrixEnviado porapi-351435970
- Andrew Hbxx 3817tb Vtm EndEnviado porghee148
- Bmat Physics Formula SheetEnviado porsrinivas
- Cartwright From Causation to Explanation and BackEnviado porJuan Manuel Cisneros García
- pipe supportEnviado porreza
- Kirchhoff_s_Circuit_Laws.pdfEnviado porAbhishek Tripathi
- 46_2011Enviado porravibelavadi
- rahulc_108me033Enviado porJessie Tipay Granil Jr.
- The Esperanto Teacher: A Simple Course for Non-GrammariansEnviado pornorbulinuks
- Continuous Assessment Level i AgenlaEnviado porLysongo Oru
- PHYFUN1 SyllabusEnviado porBrian Soan
- A Detailed Lesson Plan for DemoEnviado porJhoeven Clark Guillermo
- 21000 ManitowocEnviado porGibbs Per
- GUEST Commentary It is All About Metabolic Fluxes Jens NielsenEnviado porLuis Capuchino Aisha
- HomeSeminar TopicsProject IdeasDownloadsReviews Dofollow Blogs Search EngineCollege DetailsSearchContact USEnviado pormahek19579328
- Indian Statistical Institute M.math Sample Paper 1Enviado porNikhil Katiyar
- Extended Essay Electronic CommEnviado pornoreen dior
- Class12 Economics1 MicroEconomics Unit02 NCERT TextBook EnglishEditionEnviado porGARIMA SINGH