IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Ethanolysis of Mahua (Madhuca Indica) Oil through Trans-Esterification
Sunil Dhingra
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
UIET, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India-136118
Abstract— Non-edible oils are best used for the production Accuracy ±1◦C
of biodiesel in India to run the compression ignition engines. Stirring bar's dimensions 30 (L)×Dia.7mm
The current work deals with mahua oil for the production of Power requirements 220 VAC/50Hz
biodiesel. The quality of the produced biodiesel is also Dimensions 230×180×120
checked by measuring of physical and chemical properties. Weight 2.7 kg
It has been found that various properties of mahua biodiesel Table 1: Specifications of magnetic stirrer
are in desired range of ASTM standards of biodiesel. Mahua biodiesel was produced by trans-
Key words: Mahua Biodiesel, Ethanolysis, Trans- esterification process using a magnetic stirrer. Initially
Esterification, ASTM Standards of Biodiesel ethanol and catalyst (KOH) were properly mixed in a
reaction vessel using magnetic stirrer. Karanja oil and
I. INTRODUCTION mixture of ethanol & KOH were charged into another vessel
The alternate energy to run the compression ignition engines and were mixed using the same magnetic stirrer. The time
is best obtained through biodiesel blending with diesel period of mixing of oil-ethanol-KOH solution was noted as
(Valente et al., 2010; Acharya et al., 2011; Berman et al., mixing time. A digital stop watch was used to measure the
2011;). Hence there is a need for the production of biodiesel time. The oil-ethanol-KOH solution was then placed in a
from edible and non-edible oils. The current research deals water bath at a particular temperature till two layers of
with biodiesel production from mahua oil through trans- biodiesel and glycerol were formed. The water bath
esterification process. The quality of mahua biodiesel is also temperature was controlled with the help of a 1500 watt
checked by measuring the physio-chemical properties. electric heater. The condenser space was provided in the
water bath to evaporate ethanol left during the reaction. The
II. METHODOLOGY AND QUALITY OF MAHUA BIODIESEL reaction products i.e mahua biodiesel and glycerol were
finally separated using separating funnel. The time of
A magnetic stirrer as shown in left of figure 1 was used for
separation is called settling time. Settling time added to
the production of mahua biodiesel. The specifications of the
mixing time gives the reaction time.
magnetic stirrer are mentioned in table 1. The magnetic
Table 1 shows the physical and chemical properties
stirrer uses a rotating magnetic field to cause a magnetic
of mahua oil, its biodiesel, high speed diesel and ASTM
capsule (or stir bar) immersed in a solution to spin at high
standards of biodiesel. The standards instruments were used
speed, thus stirring the solution. A digital tachometer was
to measure the above properties. It is observed from table 1
used to measure rpm of the stirrer. The magnetic capsules
that all the properties are within the desired range of ASTM
are usually Teflon coated to prevent contamination of the
solution. The magnetic capsule is also shown in right side of
Mahua Standards
figure 1.
Property HSD ASTM
Oil Biodiesel
(6751- 02)
viscosity 24.45 3.96 2.60 1.9 - 6.0
Calorific value 39000 –
35400 36600 42000
(kJ/kg) 43000
Cetane number 54 46 50 47
Density (kg/m3) 955 878 850 850 – 879
Cloud point (°C) 3.5 8.5 8.5 5-12
Pour point (°C) 14 7 4 3-5
Flash Point (°C) 228 205 68 130
Specific gravity 0.86 0.89 0.90 0.85 - 0.94
Iodine value 66 82 - 85 – 115
Fig. 1: Magnetic stirrer and capsule used for biodiesel
production 190 182 - 180 – 185
No. Specifications Values/Range
Moisture 0.05 %
Maximum stirring volume 0-2000 ml 1.3 0.05 -
content (wt. %) max.
Stirring speed range 0-1250 rpm
Table 1: Comparison chart of mahua oil and it’s produced
Top plate size 135 mm×135 mm
biodiesel with high speed diesel and American standards of
Panel material Steel biodiesel
Temperature Rt. to 100◦ C

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Ethanolysis of Mahua (Madhuca Indica) Oil through Trans-Esterification Process
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/545)

III. CONCLUSION [11] Valente, O. S., da Silva, M. J., Pasa, V. M. D., Belchior,
The mahua biodiesel is successfully obtained through trans- C. R. P., & Sodré, J. R. (2010). Fuel consumption and
esterification process. The various physical and chemical emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled with
properties of the produced biodiesel shows the authenticity castor oil and soybean biodiesel. Fuel, 89(12), 3637-
when compared with high speed diesel and ASTM standards 3642.
of biodiesel.

[1] Acharya, S., Swain, R., & Das, S. N. (2011). The
Optimization of Injection Pressure of a Direct Injection
Diesel Engine Using Karanja Oil (Preheated and
Blended) as a Fuel. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery,
Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 33(13), 1250-
[2] Berman, P., Nizri, S., & Wiesman, Z. (2011). Castor oil
biodiesel and its blends as alternative fuel. Biomass and
Bioenergy, 35(7), 2861-2866.
[3] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2013a).
Development of a combined approach for improvement
and optimization of karanja biodiesel using response
surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Frontiers in
Energy, 7(5), 495–505
[4] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2013b).
Performance and emission parameters optimization of
mahua (madhuca indica) based biodiesel in direct
injection diesel engine using response surface
methodology. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable
Energy, 5, 063117, DOI: 10.1063/1.4840155.
[5] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2014a).
Understanding the interactions and evaluation of
process factors for biodiesel production from waste
cooking cottonseed oil by design of experiments
through statistical approach. Frontiers in Energy (in
[6] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2014b).
Multi-objective optimization of combustion,
performance and emission parameters in a jatropha
biodiesel engine using Non-dominated sorting genetic
algorithm-II. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering,9(1),
[7] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2016a).
Comparative performance analysis of jatropha, karanja,
mahua and polanga based biodiesel engine using hubrid
genetic algorithm. Journal of Renewable and
Sustainable Energy, 8, 013103,
[8] Dhingra, S., Bhushan G., & Dubey, K. K. (2016b).
Validation and enhancement of waste cooking
sunflower oil based biodiesel production by the trans-
esterification process. Energy Sources, part A, 38(10),
[9] Dhingra, S., Dubey, K. K., & Bhushan, G. (2014c). A
Polymath Approach for the Prediction of Optimized
Transesterification Process Variables of Polanga
Biodiesel. Journal of the American oil Chemist’s
Society, 91(4), 641-653
[10] Dhingra, S., Dubey, K. K., & Bhushan, G. (2014d).
Enhancement in Jatropha-based biodiesel yield by
process optimization using design of experiment
approach. International Journal of Sustainable Energy,
33 (4), 842-853.

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