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SIZING METHODS—CONSTANT CURRENT

Two methods are used to size stationary batteries, constant current and constant power. Constant current is used for applications such as generating stations, substations, and industrial control. This method is particularly useful when loads are switched on and off at various times during the battery discharge. When using this method, the current of each load at the nominal battery voltage is determined, and it is assumed to remain constant over the period the load is on the battery. All loads on the battery are normally tabulated and a load profile of current vs. time is drawn. A more detailed discussion of constant current along with a sizing worksheet is included in IEEE Standard 485-1997.

SIZING METHODS—CONSTANT POWER

Constant-power sizing is used almost exclusively for UPS system applications. It may also be used for telecommunications applications; however, other methods, including constant current and those involving the number of busy hours of an exchange, may be used for this application. Unlike constant-current loads, the current of a constant-power load (e.g., an inverter or dc motor) increases as the battery terminal voltage decreases during a discharge, so that P 5 E 3 I remains

constant. Load profiles are not normally drawn for constant-power sizing since the load, once applied, remains the same throughout the battery discharge. A more detailed discussion of constant-power sizing is included in IEEE Standard 1184-

1994.

DETERMINING THE CURRENT OF A CONSTANT-POWER LOAD

There are instances where a constant-power load must be included when constant- current sizing is used. This may occur when a constant-power load such as an inverter is one load on a dc system (e.g., at a generating station). When etermining the current to be used for sizing, it is calculated based on the average voltage during the time the constant-power load is on the battery. In each case, the voltage at the start of the discharge is taken to be the open-circuit voltage of the cell (or battery). For lead-acid cells, this may be taken as 2.0 Vdc, or it may be calculated since it varies with cell electrolyte specific gravity. The open-circuit voltage of nickel-cadmium cells is taken as 1.2 Vdc. Determine the current to be used for constant-current sizing for a constant-power load rated 10 kW that will be on a 116-cell, lead-acid battery with a nominal 1215 density electrolyte for the entire duty cycle. The end voltage is 1.81 Vpc.

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Calculation Procedure

1. Determine the Open-Circuit Voltage at the Start of Discharge

The open-circuit voltage of a lead-acid cell can be approximated by the equation Eoc = 5 0.84 1 specific gravity. Thus, Eoc = 0.84 + (1215/1000) = 2.055, or 2.05

Vdc.

2. Determine the Average Voltage per Cell During Discharge

Average voltage over the discharge = (2.05 + 1.81)/2 = 1.93 Vpc.

3. Determine the Average Battery Voltage

Average battery voltage = 1.93 Vpc x 116 cells = 223.9 Vdc.

4. Compute the Current at the Average Voltage

I = 10,000 W/223.9 V = 44.7 Adc

Related Calculations. When making calculations, make certain that the dc input kW is used. For example, an inverter may be rated 100 kVA at 0.8 power factor (pf) and 0.91 efficiency, which is its output rating. The dc input kW required to be used for sizing would be kVA x pf/efficiency, or 87.9 kW. In lieu of calculating the current based on the average voltage, a more conservative approach is sometimes taken:

calculating the current based on the minimum voltage during discharge. For the example above, this would result in a current of 10,000/(1.81 + 116) = 47.6 Adc.

NUMBER OF CELLS FOR A 48-VOLT SYSTEM

Determine the number of lead-acid cells required of a battery for a nominal 48-Vdc system (42-Vdc minimum to 56-Vdc maximum).

Calculation Procedure

1. Compute Number of Cells

The nominal voltage of a lead-acid cell is 2.0 Vdc; therefore, the number of cells = 48/2 = 24 cells.

2. Check the Minimum Voltage Limit

Minimum volts/cell = (min. volts)/(number of cells) = 42 V/24 cells = 1.75 V/cell. This is an accepted end-of-discharge voltage for a lead-acid cell.

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3.

Check Maximum Voltage Limit

Maximum volts/cell = (max. volts)/(number of cells) = 56 V/24 cells = 2.33 V/cell. This is an acceptable maximum voltage for a lead-acid cell. Therefore, select 24

cells of the lead-acid type.

NUMBER OF CELLS FOR 125- AND 250-VOLT SYSTEMS

Determine the number of lead-acid cells required of a battery for a nominal 125- Vdc system (105 = Vdc minimum to 140 = Vdc maximum) and for a nominal 250- Vdc system (210 = Vdc minimum to 280 = Vdc maximum).

Calculation Procedure

1. Compute Number of Cells

If 1.75 V/cell is the minimum voltage of the 125-Vdc system, the number of cells = min. volts/(min. volts/cell) = 105/1.75 = 60 cells.

2. Check Maximum Voltage

Using 2.33 V/cell, the maximum voltage = (number of cells)(max. volts/cell) = (60)(2.33) = 140 Vdc. Therefore, for a 125-Vdc system, select 60 cells of the lead- acid type.

3. Calculate Number of Cells for 250-V System

Number of cells = 210 V/(1.75/cell) = 120 cells.

4. Check Maximum Voltage

Max. voltage = (number of cells)(max. volts/cell) = (120)(2.33) = 280 Vdc. Therefore, for a 250-Vdc system, select 120 cells of the lead-acid type.

Select the number of nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells required for a 125-Vdc system with limits of 105 to 140 Vdc. Assume minimum voltage per cell is 1.14 Vdc for the NiCd cell.

Calculation Procedure

1. Determine Number of Cells

Number of cells = min. volts/(min. V/cell) = 105/1.14 = 92.1 cells (use 92 cells).

2. Check Maximum Voltage per Cell

Max. volts/cell = max. volts/number of cells = 140/92 = 1.52 V/cell. This is an

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acceptable value for a NiCd cell.

1. Determine Load Conditions for Battery

The first step in determining the worst-case load profile is to develop the conditions under which the battery is required to serve the dc system load. These conditions will vary according to the specific design criteria used for the plant. Load profiles will be determined for the following three conditions:

a. Supply of the emergency oil pump for 3 h (with charger supplying

b. Supply of the dc system for 1 h upon charger failure.

c. Supply of the dc system for 1 h following a plant trip concurrent with loss

of the auxiliary system’s ac supply.

2. Develop Load List for Each Condition

A load list for each condition is required to determine the time duration of each load. Once this is done, the load profile may be plotted for each condition.

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Subscribe to our Amazing Battery Course at:

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Subscribe to our Amazing Battery Course at:

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